WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind-wave effects effects

  1. A numerical study of the wave shoaling effect on wind-wave momentum flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuanting; Shen, Lian

    2017-11-01

    Momentum transfer between wind and waves is crucial to many physical processes in air-sea interactions. For decades, there has been a number of observational evidence that the surface roughness in the nearshore region is notably higher than in the open sea. In order to explain the mechanism behind this important phenomenon, in particular the wave shoaling effect on surface roughness, we conduct a series of numerical experiments using the wind-wave module of WOW (Wave-Ocean-Wind), a high-fidelity computational framework developed in house. We use prescribed monochromatic waves with linear shoaling effect incorporated, while the wind field is simulated using wall-resolved large-eddy simulation. A comparison between a shallow water wave case and deep water wave cases shows remarkably stronger wave effects on the wind for the former. Detailed analyses show that the increased surface roughness is closely associated with the increased form drag that is mainly due to the reduced wave age in wave shoaling.

  2. Effect of wind waves on air-sea gas exchange: proposal of an overall CO2 transfer velocity formula as a function of breaking-wave parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Komori, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new formula for gas transfer velocity as a function of the breaking-wave parameter is proposed based on correlating gas transfer with whitecap coverage. The new formula for gas transfer across an air-sea interface depends not only on wind speed but also on wind-wave state. At the same wind speed, a higher gas transfer velocity will be obtained for a more developed wind-sea, which is represented by a smaller spectral peak frequency of wind waves. We suggest that the large uncertainties in the traditional relationship of gas transfer velocity with wind speed be ascribed to the neglect of the effect of wind waves. The breaking-wave parameter can be regarded as a Reynolds number that characterizes the intensity of turbulence associated with wind waves in the downward-bursting boundary layer (DBBL). DBBL provides an effective way to exchange gas across the air-sea interface, which might be related to the surface renewal

  3. Effect of water depth on wind-wave frequency spectrum I. Spectral form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sheng-Chang; Guan, Chang-Long; Sun, Shi-Cai; Wu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Da-Cuo

    1996-06-01

    Wen et al's method developed to obtain wind-wave frequency spectrum in deep water was used to derive the spectrum in finite depth water. The spectrum S(ω) (ω being angular frequency) when normalized with the zeroth moment m 0 and peak frequency {ie97-1}, contains in addition to the peakness factor {ie97-2} a depth parameter η=(2π m o)1/2/ d ( d being water depth), so the spectrum behavior can be studied for different wave growth stages and water depths.

  4. Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Some selected wave profiles recorded using a ship borne wave recorder are analysed to study the effect of attenuation correction on the distribution of the surface amplitudes. A new spectral width parameter is defined to account for wide band...

  5. Effects of wind-wave disturbances on adsorption and desorption of tetracycline and sulfadimidine in water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qianjiahua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Shu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yuqing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jingge

    2018-05-28

    Wind-wave disturbances frequently disperse sediment particles into overlying water, which facilitates the adsorption and desorption of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Tetracycline (TC) and sulfadimidine (SM2) are common antibiotics that are frequently found in aquatic environments. This study utilized microcosms, comprising sediment and water from Lake Taihu, China, to examine the adsorption and desorption of TC and SM2 under different wind-wave disturbances in a shallow lake environment. The adsorption experiments were conducted with three different concentrations (1, 5, 10 mg/L) of TC and SM2 in the overlying water, and two different (background and strong) wind-wave conditions for 72 h. Subsequently, four microcosms were employed in a 12-h desorption study. Analysis of adsorption progress showed that TC concentration in the overlying water decreased quickly, while SM2 remained almost constant. In the desorption experiments, SM2 released to the overlying water was an order of magnitude greater than TC. These results indicate that sediment particles strongly adsorb TC but weakly adsorb SM2. Compared to background conditions, the strong wind-wave conditions resulted in higher concentrations of TC and SM2 in sediment and facilitated their migration to deeper sediment during adsorption, correspondingly promoting greater release of TC and SM2 from sediment particles into the overlying water during desorption.

  6. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation and wind waves on salt marsh dynamics in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Grant, William E.; Cairns, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term eustatic sea-level variation has been recognized as a primary factor affecting the hydrological and geomorphic dynamics of salt marshes. However, recent studies suggest that wind waves influenced by atmospheric oscillations also may play an important role in many coastal areas. Although...... this notion has been conceptually introduced for the Wadden Sea, no modeling attempts have been made yet. As a proof of concept, this study developed a simulation model using the commercially available STELLAA (R) software, based on long-term data on water level and sedimentation collected at a back......-barrier marsh on the Skallingen peninsula in Denmark. In the model, the frequency (number year(-1)) of wind-driven extreme high water level (HWL) events (> 130 cm Danish Ordnance Zero) was simulated in terms of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Then, surface accretion (cm year(-1)) and submergence...

  7. Wind-Wave Effects on Vertical Mixing in Chesapeake Bay, USA: comparing observations to second-moment closure predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. W.; Sanford, L. P.; Scully, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    transitions to a turbulent log layer. The influences of fetch-limited wind waves, density stratification, and surface buoyancy fluxes will also be discussed.

  8. A Note on the Effect of Wind Waves on Vertical Mixing in Franks Tract, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional numerical model that simulates the effects of whitecapping waves was used to investigate the importance of whitecapping waves to vertical mixing at a 3-meter-deep site in Franks Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta over an 11-day period. Locally-generated waves of mean period approximately 2 s were generated under strong wind conditions; significant wave heights ranged from 0 to 0.3 m. A surface turbulent kinetic energy flux was used to model whitecapping waves during periods when wind speeds > 5 m s-1 (62% of observations. The surface was modeled as a wind stress log-layer for the remaining 38% of the observations. The model results demonstrated that under moderate wind conditions (5–8 m s-1 at 10 m above water level, and hence moderate wave heights, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy to only the top 10% of the water column. Under stronger wind (> 8 m s-1, and hence larger wave conditions, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over a larger portion of the water column; however, this region extended to the bottom half of the water column for only 7% of the observation period. The model results indicated that phytoplankton concentrations close to the bed were unlikely to be affected by the whitecapping of waves, and that the formation of concentration boundary layers due to benthic grazing was unlikely to be disrupted by whitecapping waves. Furthermore, vertical mixing of suspended sediment was unlikely to be affected by whitecapping waves under the conditions experienced during the 11-day experiment. Instead, the bed stress provided by tidal currents was the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over the bottom half of the water column for the majority of the 11-day period.

  9. Effect of climate change on wind waves generated by anticyclonic cold front intrusions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, Christian M.; Hernández-Lasheras, Jaime; Meza-Padilla, Rafael; Kurczyn, Jorge A.

    2018-01-01

    Anticyclonic cold surges entering the Gulf of Mexico (Nortes) generate ocean waves that disrupt maritime activities. Norte derived waves are less energetic than the devastating waves from tropical cyclones, but more frequent ( 22 events/year) and with larger spatial influence. Despite their importance, few studies characterize Nortes derived waves and assess the effects of climate change on their occurrence. This study presents a method to identify and characterize Nortes with relation to their derived waves in the Gulf of Mexico. We based the identification of Nortes on synoptic measurements of pressure differences between Yucatan and Texas and wind speed at different buoy locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, we identified the events in the CFSR reanalysis (present climate) and the CNRM-M5 model for the present climate and the RCP 8.5 scenario. We then forced a wave model to characterize the wave power generated by each event, followed by a principal component analysis and classification by k-means clustering analysis. Five different Nortes types were identified, each one representing a characteristic intensity and area of influence of the Norte driven waves. Finally, we estimated the occurrence of each Norte type for the present and future climates, where the CNRM-M5 results indicate that the high-intensity events will be less frequent in a warming climate, while mild events will become more frequent. The consequences of such changes may provide relief for maritime and coastal operations because of reduced downtimes. This result is particularly relevant for the operational design of coastal and marine facilities.

  10. Reminiscences on the study of wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MITSUYASU, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The wind blowing over sea surface generates tiny wind waves. They develop with time and space absorbing wind energy, and become huge wind waves usually referred to ocean surface waves. The wind waves cause not only serious sea disasters but also take important roles in the local and global climate changes by affecting the fluxes of momentum, heat and gases (e.g. CO2) through the air-sea boundary. The present paper reviews the selected studies on wind waves conducted by our group in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University. The themes discussed are interactions between water waves and winds, the energy spectrum of wind waves, nonlinear properties of wind waves, and the effects of surfactant on some air-sea interaction phenomena. PMID:25864467

  11. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  12. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2015-08-26

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the centre of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical modeling of wind waves in the Black Sea generated by atmospheric cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the translation speed and intensity of atmospheric cyclones on surface wind waves in the Black Sea is investigated by using tightly-coupled model SWAN+ADCIRC. It is shown that the wave field has a spatial asymmetry, which depends on the velocity and intensity of the cyclone. The region of maximum waves is formed to the right of the direction of the cyclone motion. Speedier cyclones generate wind waves of lower height. The largest waves are generated at cyclonic translation speed of 7-9 m/s. This effect is due to the coincidence of the characteristic values of the group velocity of the dominant wind waves in the deep-water part of the Black Sea with the cyclone translation speed.

  14. Investigations of Wind/WAVES Dust Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Cyr, O. C.; Wilson, L. B., III; Rockcliffe, K.; Mills, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Adrian, M. L.; Malaspina, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Wind spacecraft launched in November 1994 with a primary goal to observe and understand the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. The waveform capture detector, TDS, of the radio and plasma wave investigation, WAVES [Bougeret et al., 1995], onboard Wind incidentally detected micron-sized dust as electric field pulses from the recollection of the impact plasma clouds (an unintended objective). TDS has detected over 100,000 dust impacts spanning almost two solar cycles; a dataset of these impacts has been created and was described in Malaspina & Wilson [2016]. The spacecraft continues to collect data about plasma, energetic particles, and interplanetary dust impacts. Here we report on two investigations recently conducted on the Wind/WAVES TDS database of dust impacts. One possible source of dust particles is the annually-recurring meteor showers. Using the nine major showers defined by the American Meteor Society, we compared dust count rates before, during, and after the peak of the showers using averaging windows of varying duration. However, we found no statistically significant change in the dust count rates due to major meteor showers. This appears to be an expected result since smaller grains, like the micron particles that Wind is sensitive to, are affected by electromagnetic interactions and Poynting-Robertson drag, and so are scattered away from their initial orbits. Larger grains tend to be more gravitationally dominated and stay on the initial trajectory of the parent body so that only the largest dust grains (those that create streaks as they burn up in the atmosphere) are left in the orbit of the parent body. Ragot and Kahler [2003] predicted that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Sun could effectively scatter dust grains of comparable size to those observed by Wind. Thus, we examined the dust count rates immediately before, during, and after the passage of the 350 interplanetary CMEs observed by Wind over its 20+ year

  15. Spatial evolution equation of wind wave growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wei; (王; 伟); SUN; Fu; (孙; 孚); DAI; Dejun; (戴德君)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the dynamic essence of air-sea interactions, a feedback type of spatial evolution equation is suggested to match reasonably the growing process of wind waves. This simple equation involving the dominant factors of wind wave growth is able to explain the transfer of energy from high to low frequencies without introducing the concept of nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and the results agree well with observations. The rate of wave height growth derived in this dissertation is applicable to both laboratory and open sea, which solidifies the physical basis of using laboratory experiments to investigate the generation of wind waves. Thus the proposed spatial evolution equation provides a new approach for the research on dynamic mechanism of air-sea interactions and wind wave prediction.

  16. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  17. Light reflection from a rough liquid surface including wind-wave effects in a scattering atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Liew, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR images of the ocean surface, taken from remote satellites, often contain important information of near-surface or sub-surface processes, which occur on, or over the ocean. Remote measurements of near surface winds, sea surface temperature and salinity, ocean color and underwater bathymetry, all, one way or another, depend on how well we understand sea surface roughness. However, in order to extract useful information from our remote measurements, we need to construct accurate models of the transfer of solar radiation inside the atmosphere as well as, its reflection from the sea surface. To approach this problem, we numerically solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by implementing a model for the atmosphere-ocean system. A one-dimensional atmospheric radiation model is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean body is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. The ocean surface is modeled as a rough liquid surface which includes wind interaction and wave states, such as wave age. The model can have possible applications to the retrieval of wind and wave states, such as wave age, near a Sun glint region

  18. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.

  19. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  20. Evolution of offshore wind waves tracked by surface drifters with a point-positioning GPS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, momentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious disasters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal regions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and direction sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the

  1. The effect of moving waves on neutral marine atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ali Al

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large eddy simulations are performed to study the effects of wind-wave direction misalignment of the neutral marine atmospheric boundary layer over a wavy wall. The results show that the wind-wave misalignment has a significant effect on the velocity profiles and the pressure fluctuation over the wave surface. These effects are not confined to the near wave surface region but extend over the whole atmospheric surface layer.

  2. Characteristics of offshore extreme wind-waves detected by surface drifters with a low-cost GPS wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kosei

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, mo-mentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious dis-asters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal re-gions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and di-rection sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by

  3. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution

  4. Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Annenkov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999. The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness, eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic

  5. Effects of wind waves versus ship waves on tidal marsh plants: A flume study on different life stages of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silinski, A.; Heuner, M.; Schoelynck, J.; Puijalon, S.; Schröder, U.; Fuchs, E.; Troch, P.; Bouma, T.J.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that many ecosystems, including intertidal marshes, follow the alternative stable states theory. This theory implies that thresholds of environmental factors can mark a limit between two opposing stable ecosystem states, e.g. vegetated marshes and bare mudflats. While

  6. Large Eddy Simulations of Surface Winds Above Water Waves: Effects of Wind-Wave Alignment and Wave Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    LLJ Cz tD LL LO Lij LO CO ur LL S, -1 LLA U) LIJ LIJ > CC < \\1 Ln LIJ o4 LL LLJ I 1q LO cr- Lj 0 ca C) w Li U)>) w...0 LL >Cc CCo0g o l Aoebez I- C,0) o 1,1u AplliqeqoJ d A!ilnwno (1)cq P C\\!-0 0 0 0 0 >WIN NUNN Z ,, ....... ,,0 U)) i tD z C) II iii. .i i i...t ~ ~ IL ,u UJ 4- •3:: 0 bb -0 𔃾o 4-4 0 t0 0 CL 4vJ .C E C L ’ 2t 0u bO~I uj U , b. U DO LU > LL 𔄁 0 LLJ w t 1*0 CC -~4-J Iuo a- E "

  7. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  8. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Leykin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  9. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    1995-03-01

    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  10. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Alla; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  11. Wind, Wave, and Tidal Energy Without Power Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Most present wind, wave, and tidal energy systems require expensive power conditioning systems that reduce overall efficiency. This new design eliminates power conditioning all, or nearly all, of the time. Wind, wave, and tidal energy systems can transmit their energy to pumps that send high-pressure fluid to a central power production area. The central power production area can consist of a series of hydraulic generators. The hydraulic generators can be variable displacement generators such that the RPM, and thus the voltage, remains constant, eliminating the need for further power conditioning. A series of wind blades is attached to a series of radial piston pumps, which pump fluid to a series of axial piston motors attached to generators. As the wind is reduced, the amount of energy is reduced, and the number of active hydraulic generators can be reduced to maintain a nearly constant RPM. If the axial piston motors have variable displacement, an exact RPM can be maintained for all, or nearly all, wind speeds. Analyses have been performed that show over 20% performance improvements with this technique over conventional wind turbines

  12. Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.

  13. 76 FR 74776 - Forum-Trends in Extreme Winds, Waves, and Extratropical Storms Along the Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Winds, Waves, and Extratropical Storms Along the Coasts AGENCY: National Environmental Satellite, Data...-extratropical-storms/home . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brooke Stewart, National Climatic Data Center, 151.../noaa.gov/extreme-winds-waves-extratropical-storms/home . Topics To Be Addressed This forum will address...

  14. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  15. Co-located wind-wave farm synergies (Operation and Maintenance): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astariz, S.; Perez-Collazo, C.; Abanades, J.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The shielding effect of WECs located around the wind farm is analysed. • The height wave reductions achieved by 15 different layouts are compared. • The increase in the accessibility to the wind turbines is quantified. • Alpha Ventus offshore wind farm is considered as baseline scenario. • High-resolution numerical modelling (SWAN) and real sea conditions are used. - Abstract: Operation and maintenance can jeopardise the financial viability of an offshore wind energy project due to the cost of downtime, repairs and, above all, the inevitable uncertainties. The variability of wave climate can impede or hinder emergency repairs when a failure occurs, and the resulting delays imply additional costs which ultimately reduce the competitiveness of offshore wind energy as an alternative to fossil fuels. Co-located wind turbines and Wave Energy Converters (WECs) are proposed in this paper as a novel solution: the reduction of the significant wave height brought about by the WECs along the periphery of the wind farm results in a milder wave climate within the farm. This reduction, also called shadow effect, enlarges weather windows for Operation and Maintenance (O and M). The objective of this paper is to investigate the increase in the accessibility time to the turbines and to optimise the layout for the co-located wind-wave farm in order to maximise this time. The investigation is carried out through a case study: Alpha Ventus, an operating offshore wind farm. To maximise the reduction of wave height in the turbine area no fewer than 15 layouts are tested using high-resolution numerical modelling, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted. The results show that, thanks to the wave energy extraction by the WECs, weather windows (access time) can increase very significantly – over 80%. This substantial effect, together with other benefits from the combination of wave and offshore wind power in a co-located farm (common electrical infrastructures

  16. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  17. Wind-waves interactions in the Gulf of Eilat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani-Zerbib, Almog; Liberzon, Dan; T-SAIL Team

    2017-11-01

    The Gulf of Eilat, at the southern tip of Israel, with its elongated rectangular shape and unique diurnal wind pattern is an appealing location for wind-waves interactions research. Results of experimental work will be reported analyzing a continuous, 50 hour long, data. Using a combined array of wind and waves sensing instruments, the wave field statistics and its response to variations of wind forcing were investigated. Correlations between diurnal fluctuations in wind magnitude and direction and the wave field response will be discussed. The directional spread of waves' energy, as estimated by the Wavelet Directional Method, showed a strong response to small variations in wind flow direction attributed to the unique topography of the gulf surroundings and its bathymetry. Influenced by relatively strong winds during the light hours, the wave field was dominated by a significant amount of breakings that are well pronounced in the saturation range of waves spectra. Temporal growth and decay behavior of the waves during the morning and evening wind transition periods was examined. Sea state induced roughness, as experienced by the wind flow turbulent boundary layer, is examined in view of the critical layer theory. Israel Science Foundation Grant # 1521/15.

  18. The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-01-01

    weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet

  19. A study of the radar backscattering from the breaking of wind waves on the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Yurovskij, Yu.Yu.; Malinovskij, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a field study of the relationship between radar backscattering parameters and geometrical characteristics of the wind wave breaking are presented. The radar cross-section of a whitecap is found to be proportional to the breaking crest length. It is shown that the accounting for a change of the non-Bragg scattering in the presence of an oil slick on the sea surface allows one to interpret experimental data correctly.

  20. Quantifying the Role of Atmospheric Forcing in Ice Edge Retreat and Advance Including Wind-Wave Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Low-Level Profiles, Pressure, Temperature, Humidity Rawinsonde (Kite, Tethered Balloon , Unmanned Aerial vehicle) Wave Characteristics, Wind wave and...Thermistor, Ship intake, Manual Bucket Tropospheric Profiles, 4/day – Pressure, Temperature, Humidity, Wind Vector Rawinsonde (Weather Balloon

  1. The energy balance of wind waves and the remote sensing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of wave growth indicate an energy balance of the wave spectrum governed primarily by input from the atmosphere, nonlinear transfer to shorter and longer waves, and advection. The pronounced spectral peak and sharp low frequency cut-off characteristic of fetch-limited spectra are explained as a self-stabilizing feature of the nonlinear wave-wave interactions. The momentum transferred from the atmosphere to the wind waves accounts for a large part of the wind drag. These findings are relevant for remote microwave sensing of the sea surface by backscatter and passive radiometry methods.

  2. The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-12-01

    Wind and waves play a major role in important ocean dynamical processes, such as the exchange of heat, momentum and gases between atmosphere and ocean, that greatly contributes to the earth climate and marine lives. Knowledge on wind and wave weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet to be fully explored. Because of the scarcity of waves data in the Red Sea, numerical models become crucial and provide very powerful tools to extrapolate wind and wave data in space, and backward and forward in time. Unlike open oceans, enclosed basins wave have different characteristics, mainly because of their local generation processes. The complex orography on both sides of the Red Sea makes the local wind, and consequently wave, modeling very challenging. This thesis considers the modeling of wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea, including their climate variability and trends using state-of-the-art numerical models and all available observations. Different approaches are investigated to model and understand the general and unusual wind and wave conditions in the basin using standard global meteorological products and customised regional wind and wave models. After studying and identifying the main characteristics of the wind-wave variability in the Red Sea, we demonstrate the importance of generating accurate atmospheric forcing through data assimilation for reliable wave simulations. In particular, we show that the state-of-the-art physical formulation of wave models is not suitable to model the unique situation of the two opposing wind-waves systems in the Red Sea Convergence Zone, and propose and successfully test a modification to the input and white-capping source functions to address this problem. We further investigate the climate variability and trends of wind

  3. Wind wave analysis in depth limited water using OCEANLYZ, A MATLAB toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin

    2017-09-01

    There are a number of well established methods in the literature describing how to assess and analyze measured wind wave data. However, obtaining reliable results from these methods requires adequate knowledge on their behavior, strengths and weaknesses. A proper implementation of these methods requires a series of procedures including a pretreatment of the raw measurements, and adjustment and refinement of the processed data to provide quality assurance of the outcomes, otherwise it can lead to untrustworthy results. This paper discusses potential issues in these procedures, explains what parameters are influential for the outcomes and suggests practical solutions to avoid and minimize the errors in the wave results. The procedure of converting the water pressure data into the water surface elevation data, treating the high frequency data with a low signal-to-noise ratio, partitioning swell energy from wind sea, and estimating the peak wave frequency from the weighted integral of the wave power spectrum are described. Conversion and recovery of the data acquired by a pressure transducer, particularly in depth-limited water like estuaries and lakes, are explained in detail. To provide researchers with tools for a reliable estimation of wind wave parameters, the Ocean Wave Analyzing toolbox, OCEANLYZ, is introduced. The toolbox contains a number of MATLAB functions for estimation of the wave properties in time and frequency domains. The toolbox has been developed and examined during a number of the field study projects in Louisiana's estuaries.

  4. Wind waves modelling on the water body with coupled WRF and WAVEWATCH III models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Baydakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Papko, Vladislav; Sergeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Simulation of ocean and sea waves is an accepted instrument for the improvement of the weather forecasts. Wave modelling, coupled models modelling is applied to open seas [1] and is less developed for moderate and small inland water reservoirs and lakes, though being of considerable interest for inland navigation. Our goal is to tune the WAVEWATCH III model to the conditions of the inland reservoir and to carry out the simulations of surface wind waves with coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and WAVEWATCH III models. Gorky Reservoir, an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam, was considered as an example of inland reservoir. Comparing to [2] where moderate constant winds (u10 is up to 9 m/s) of different directions blowing steadily all over the surface of the reservoir were considered, here we apply atmospheric model WRF to get wind input to WAVEWATCH III. WRF computations were held on the Yellowstone supercomputer for 4 nested domains with minimum scale of 1 km. WAVEWATCH III model was tuned for the conditions of the Gorky Reservoir. Satellite topographic data on altitudes ranged from 56,6° N to 57,5° N and from 42.9° E to 43.5° E with increments 0,00833 ° in both directions was used. 31 frequencies ranged from 0,2 Hz to 4 Hz and 30 directions were considered. The minimal significant wave height was changed to the lower one. The waves in the model were developing from some initial seeding spectral distribution (Gaussian in frequency and space, cosine in direction). The range of the observed significant wave height in the numerical experiment was from less than 1 cm up to 30 cm. The field experiments were carried out in the south part of the Gorky reservoir from the boat [2, 3]. 1-D spectra of the field experiment were compared with those obtained in the numerical experiments with different parameterizations of flux provided in WAVEWATCH III both with constant wind input and WRF wind input. For all the

  5. XXI century projections of wind-wave conditions and sea-level rise in the Black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, A.; Garmashov, A.; Fomin, V.; Valchev, N.; Trifonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    Projection of regional climate changes for XXI century is one of the priorities of EC environmental programme. Potential worsening of the waves' statistics, sea level rise and extreme surges are the principal negative consequences of the climate change for marine environment. That is why the main purpose of this presentation is to discuss the above issue for the Black sea region (with a strong focus to the south-west subregion because the maximum heights of waves exceeding 10 m occur just here) using output of several global coupled models (GCM) for XXI century, wave simulation, long-term observations of sea level and statistical techniques. First of all we tried to choose the best coupled model (s) simulated the Black sea climate change and variability using the control experiments for 20 century (203). The principal result is as follows. There is not one model which is simulating adequately even one atmospheric parameter for all seasons. Therefore we considered (for the climate projection) different outputs form various models. When it was possible we calculated also the ensemble mean projection for the selected model (s) and emission scenarios. To calculate the wave projection we used the output of SWAN model forced by the GCM wind projection for 2010 to 2100. To estimate the sea level rise in XXI century and future surges statistics we extrapolate the observed sea level rise tendencies, statistical relation between wave heights and sea level and wave scenarios. Results show that in general, the climate change in XXI century doesn't lead to the catastrophic change of the Black sea wind-wave statistics including the extreme waves in the S-W Black sea. The typical atmospheric pattern leading to the intense storm in the S-W Black sea is characterized by the persistent anticyclonic area to the North of the Black sea and cyclonic conditions in the Southern Black sea region. Such pressure pattern causes persistent and strong eastern or north-eastern wind which

  6. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined

  7. Comparison of X-band radar backscatter measurements with area extended wave slope measurements made in a large wind wave tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, D. van; Jaehne, B.; Oost, W.A.; Calkoen, C.J.; Snoeij, P.

    1989-01-01

    Combined measurements of microwave backscatter, wind, waves, and gas exchange have been carried out in the large Delft Hydraulics wind/wave tank. This experiment was the first of a series of experiments in the VIERS-1 project. In this project, a number of Dutch and one German laboratory cooperate to

  8. Measurement and modeling of wind waves at the northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique G. M. Alves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional measurements of wind-wave spectra made during the year of 1996 are used in a preliminary investigation of the wind-wave climate and its transformation at the São Francisco do Sul island, northern coast of the Santa Catarina state. Four major sea states and associated meteorological conditions are identified through analyses of joint distributions of observed wave parameters. Transformations of these main sea-state patterns due to refraction and shoaling are investigated through a numerical modeling approach that allows the reconstruction of the wave field within extensive coastal areas, using single point measurements of the wave spectrum in shallow waters. Cross-validation of measured and reconstructed spectra at the study site yield consistent results, suggesting that the proposed methodology works well for the São Francisco do Sul coast.Medições do espectro direcional de ondas geradas pelo vento realizadas em 1996 são utilizadas em uma investigação preliminar do clima de ondas no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Quatro estados de mar predominantes são identificados, em conjunto com os padrões meteorológicos associados a sua ocorrência, através de análises estatísticas. As transformações desses quatro estados de mar devido a refraçâo e empinamento são investigadas através de modelos numéricos, que permitem obter estimativas do campo de ondas em áreas extensas a partir de medições pontuais feitas em águas rasas. Comparações entre espectros medidos e modelados produzem resultados consistentes, sugerindo que a metodologia proposta é válida para a costa de São Francisco do Sul.

  9. Predicting location-specific extreme coastal floods in the future climate by introducing a probabilistic method to calculate maximum elevation of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of water level variations and wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Havu

    2017-04-01

    Future coastal management continuously strives for more location-exact and precise methods to investigate possible extreme sea level events and to face flooding hazards in the most appropriate way. Evaluating future flooding risks by understanding the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level variations and wind waves is one of the means to make more comprehensive flooding hazard analysis, and may at first seem like a straightforward task to solve. Nevertheless, challenges and limitations such as availability of time series of the sea level and wave height components, the quality of data, significant locational variability of coastal wave height, as well as assumptions to be made depending on the study location, make the task more complicated. In this study, we present a statistical method for combining location-specific probability distributions of water level variations (including local sea level observations and global mean sea level rise) and wave run-up (based on wave buoy measurements). The goal of our method is to obtain a more accurate way to account for the waves when making flooding hazard analysis on the coast compared to the approach of adding a separate fixed wave action height on top of sea level -based flood risk estimates. As a result of our new method, we gain maximum elevation heights with different return periods of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of both phenomena, "the green water". We also introduce a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the properties and functioning of our method. The sensitivity test is based on using theoretical wave distributions representing different alternatives of wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with the sea level distribution, we get information on how the different wave height conditions and shape of the wave height distribution influence the joint results. Our method presented here can be used as an advanced tool to minimize over- and

  10. Wind-wave amplification mechanisms: possible models for steep wave events in finite depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Montalvo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Miles mechanism of wind-wave generation to finite depth. A β-Miles linear growth rate depending on the depth and wind velocity is derived and allows the study of linear growth rates of surface waves from weak to moderate winds in finite depth h. The evolution of β is plotted, for several values of the dispersion parameter kh with k the wave number. For constant depths we find that no matter what the values of wind velocities are, at small enough wave age the β-Miles linear growth rates are in the known deep-water limit. However winds of moderate intensities prevent the waves from growing beyond a critical wave age, which is also constrained by the water depth and is less than the wave age limit of deep water. Depending on wave age and wind velocity, the Jeffreys and Miles mechanisms are compared to determine which of them dominates. A wind-forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived and the Akhmediev, Peregrine and Kuznetsov–Ma breather solutions for weak wind inputs in finite depth h are obtained.

  11. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Inghilesi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid, a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004–2009 were considered.

  12. Wind waves on the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.

    2014-02-01

    In this study we describe the wind waves fields on the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal storm variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 km × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1948 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant storminess are the south-western and the north-eastern corners as expressed in the spatial distribution of wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides that, long-term annual variations of storminess were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the reanalysis period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.

  13. Wind waves in the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we describe the wind wave fields in the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal wave parameter variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1949 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. According to our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant heavy sea are the southwestern and the northeastern parts of the sea as expressed in the spatial distribution of significant wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides, long-term annual variations of wave parameters were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the hindcast period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.

  14. Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Daniil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS, in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1 the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2 the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3 adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4 using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.

  15. Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Bopp, Maximilian; Jaehne, Bernd

    Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1) the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec) with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2) the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3) adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4) using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.

  16. Wind-wave, and turbidity time-series data from Little Holland Tract (station HWC), Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Time series data of water surface elevation, wave height, and turbidity were collected in Little Holland Tract (LHT) beginning in December 2015 as part of “Wind-wave...

  17. Projections of wind-waves in South China Sea for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Aboobacker; Dykyi, Pavlo; Zheleznyak, Mark; Tkalich, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    IPCC-coordinated work has been completed within Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) to project climate and ocean variables for the 21st century using coupled atmospheric-ocean General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCMs are not having a wind-wave variable due to a poor grid resolution; therefore, dynamical downscaling of wind-waves to the regional scale is advisable using well established models, such as Wave Watch III (WWIII) and SWAN. Rectilinear-coordinates WWIII model is adapted for the far field comprising the part of Pacific and Indian Oceans centered at the South China Sea and Sunda Shelf (90 °E-130 °E, 10 °S - 26.83 °N) with a resolution of 10' (about 18 km). Near-field unstructured-mesh SWAN model covers Sunda Shelf and centered on Singapore Strait, while reading lateral boundary values from WWIII model. The unstructured grid has the coarsest resolution in the South China Sea (6 to 10 km), medium resolution in the Malacca Strait (1 to 2 km), and the finest resolution in the Singapore Strait (400 m) and along the Singapore coastline (up to 100 m). Following IPCC methodology, the model chain is validated climatologically for the past period 1961-1990 against Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data; additionally, the models are validated using recent high-resolution satellite data. The calibrated model chain is used to project waves to 21st century using WRF-downscaled wind speed output of CCSM GCM run for A1FI climate change scenario. To comply with IPCC methodology the entire modeling period is split into three 30-years periods for which statistical parameters are computed individually. Time series of significant wave height at key points near Singapore and on ship sea routes in the SCS are statistically analysed to get probability distribution functions (PDFs) of extreme values. Climatological maps of mean and maximum significant wave height (SWH) values, and mean wave period are built for Singapore region for each 30-yrs period. Linear trends of mean SWH values

  18. Organic Matter in the Surface Microlayer: Insights From a Wind Wave Channel Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Engel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface microlayer (SML is the uppermost thin layer of the ocean and influencing interactions between the air and sea, such as gas exchange, atmospheric deposition and aerosol emission. Organic matter (OM plays a key role in air-sea exchange processes, but studying how the accumulation of organic compounds in the SML relates to biological processes is impeded in the field by a changing physical environment, in particular wind speed and wave breaking. Here, we studied OM dynamics in the SML under controlled physical conditions in a large annular wind wave channel, filled with natural seawater, over a period of 26 days. Biology in both SML and bulk water was dominated by bacterioneuston and -plankton, respectively, while autotrophic biomass in the two compartments was very low. In general, SML thickness was related to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC but not to enrichment of DOC or of specific OM components in the SML. Pronounced changes in OM enrichment and molecular composition were observed in the course of the study and correlated significantly to bacterial abundance. Thereby, hydrolysable amino acids, in particular arginine, were more enriched in the SML than combined carbohydrates. Amino acid composition indicated that less degraded OM accumulated preferentially in the SML. A strong correlation was established between the amount of surfactants coverage and γ-aminobutric acid, suggesting that microbial cycling of amino acids can control physiochemical traits of the SML. Our study shows that accumulation and cycling of OM in the SML can occur independently of recent autotrophic production, indicating a widespread biogenic control of process across the air-sea exchange.

  19. System of the Wind Wave Operational Forecast by the Black Sea Marine Forecast Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Ratner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available System of the wind wave operational forecast in the Black Sea based on the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore numerical spectral model is represented. In the course of the system development the SWAN model was adapted to take into account the features of its operation at the Black Sea Marine Forecast Center. The model input-output is agreed with the applied nomenclature and the data representation formats. The user interface for rapid access to simulation results was developed. The model adapted to wave forecast in the Black Sea in a quasi-operational mode, is validated for 2012–2015. Validation of the calculation results was carried out for all five forecasting terms based on the analysis of two-dimensional graphs of the wave height distribution derived from the data of prognostic calculations and remote measurements obtained with the altimeter installed on the Jason-2 satellite. Calculation of the statistical characteristics of the deviations between the wave height prognostic values and the data of their measurements from the Jason-2 satellite, as well as a regression analysis of the relationship between the forecasted and measured wave heights was additionally carried out. A comparison of the results obtained with the similar results reported in the works of other authors published in 2009–2016 showed their satisfactory compliance with each other. The forecasts carried out by the authors for the Black Sea as well as those obtained for the other World Ocean regions show that the current level of numerical methods for sea wave forecasting is in full compliance with the requirements of specialists engaged in studying and modeling the state of the ocean and the atmosphere, as well as the experts using these results for solving applied problems.

  20. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  1. Measurements of Waves in a Wind-wave Tank Under Steady and Time-varying Wind Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadsky, Andrey; Shemer, Lev

    2018-02-13

    This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water waves excited by time-dependent and steady wind forcing. Capacitance-type wave gauge and Laser Slope Gauge (LSG) are used to measure instantaneous water surface elevation and two components of the instantaneous surface slope at a number of locations along the test section of a wind-wave facility. The computer-controlled blower provides airflow over the water in the tank whose rate can vary in time. In the present experiments, the wind speed in the test section initially increases quickly from rest to the set value. It is then kept constant for the prescribed duration; finally, the airflow is shut down. At the beginning of each experimental run, the water surface is calm and there is no wind. Operation of the blower is initiated simultaneously with the acquisition of data provided by all sensors by a computer; data acquisition continues until the waves in the tank fully decay. Multiple independent runs performed under identical forcing conditions allow determining statistically reliable ensemble-averaged characteristic parameters that quantitatively describe wind-waves' variation in time for the initial development stage as a function of fetch. The procedure also allows characterizing the spatial evolution of the wave field under steady wind forcing, as well as decay of waves in time, once the wind is shut down, as a function of fetch.

  2. On the Clouds of Bubbles Formed by Breaking Wind-Waves in Deep Water, and their Role in Air -- Sea Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1982-02-01

    Clouds of small bubbles generated by wind waves breaking and producing whitecaps in deep water have been observed below the surface by using an inverted echo sounder. The bubbles are diffused down to several metres below the surface by turbulence against their natural tendency to rise. Measurements have been made at two sites, one in fresh water at Loch Ness and the other in the sea near Oban, northwest Scotland. Sonagraph records show bubble clouds of two distinct types, `columnar clouds' which appear in unstable or convective conditions when the air temperature is less than the surface water temperature, and `billow clouds' which appear in stable conditions when the air temperature exceeds that of the water. Clouds penetrate deeper as the wind speed increases, and deeper in convective conditions than in stable conditions at the same wind speed. The response to a change in wind speed occurs in a period of only a few minutes. Measurements of the acoustic scattering cross section per unit volume, Mv, of the bubbles have been made at several depths. The distributions of Mv at constant depth are close to logarithmic normal. The time-averaged value of Mv, {M}v, decreases exponentially with depth over scales of 40-85 cm (winds up to 12 m s-1),, the scale increasing as the wind increases. Values of {M}v at the same depth and at the same wind speed are greater in the sea than in the fresh-water loch, even at smaller fetches. Estimates have been made of the least mean vertical speed at which bubbles must be advected for them to reach the observed depths. Several centimetres per second are needed, the speeds increasing with wind. Results depend on the conditions at the surfaces of the bubbles, that is whether they are covered by a surface active-film. The presence of oxygen (or gases other than nitrogen) in the gas composing the bubbles appears not to be important in determining their general behaviour. The presence of turbulence in the water also appears unlikely to affect

  3. Application of FFT methods to wind wave data series by adding zeros

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A method to add zeros (in FFT methods) to a short data sample (< 2m) to make the sample size equal to 2m is illustrated in this paper. It is found that the spectrum could be computed reliably without any undesirable side lobe effects and variance...

  4. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  5. Effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge in the Taiwan Strait: Insights from Typhoon Morakot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Pan, Weiran; Zheng, Xiangjing; Zhou, Shenjie; Tao, Xiaoqin

    2017-08-01

    The effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge are investigated by a two-dimensional wave-current coupling model through simulations of Typhoon Morakot in the Taiwan Strait. The results show that wind wave and slope of sea floor govern wave setup modulations within the nearshore surf zone. Wave setup during Morakot can contribute up to 24% of the total storm surge with a maximum value of 0.28 m. The large wave setup commonly coincides with enhanced radiation stress gradient, which is itself associated with transfer of wave momentum flux. Water levels are to leading order in modulating significant wave height inside the estuary. High water levels due to tidal change and storm surge stabilize the wind wave and decay wave breaking. Outside of the estuary, waves are mainly affected by the current-induced modification of wind energy input to the wave generation. By comparing the observed significant wave height and water level with the results from uncoupled and coupled simulations, the latter shows a better agreement with the observations. It suggests that wave-current interaction plays an important role in determining the extreme storm surge and wave height in the study area and should not be neglected in a typhoon forecast.

  6. Black Sea's wind wave parameters derived from numerical simulations driven by NCEP/NCAR and NCEP CFSR reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippius, Fedor; Myslenkov, Stanislav; Stoliarova, Elena; Arkhipkin, Victor

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on typical features of spatiotemporal distribution of wind wave parameters on the Black Sea. These parameters were calculated during two experiments using the third-generation spectral wind wave model SWAN. During the first run a 5x5 km rectangular grid covering the entire Black Sea was used. Forcing parameters - wind speed and direction - were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the period between 1948 and 2010. During the second run high resolution wind fields form the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis were used as forcing for the period from 1979 till 2010. For the period form 2011 till 2015 the second version of this reanalysis was used. The computations were performed on an unstructured computational grid with cell size depending on the sea depth. The distance between grid points varies from 10—15 km in deep-water regions till 500 m in coastal areas. Calculated values of significant wave heights (SWH) obtained during both runs were validated against instrumental measurements data. In the first case we used satellite altimetry data from the AVISO project. It turned out that calculated SWH values are typically lower than observed ones - the deviation between them was 0.3 m on the average, its maximum was of 1.67 m. Therefore, an empirical formula was applied to correct the modeling results obtained during the first experiment. For the second experiment in situ measurements performed by a Datawell buoy installed 7 km off the city Gelendzhik were used for validation. The comparison of measured and modelled values of SWH shows a good agreement between these parameters in this case. No correction was applied to the results of the second experiment. We applied the results of the NCEP/NCAR experiment to assess various features of the wave climate of the entire Black Sea. Thus, maximal SWH are observed in winter and autumn in two areas in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the sea; SWH values in these areas exceed 9 m. To define areas with most

  7. Migration of two antibiotics during resuspension under simulated wind-wave disturbances in a water-sediment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yu-Qing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jing-Ge; Liao, Qian-Jia-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the migration of antibiotics (norfloxacin, NOR; and sulfamethoxazole, SMX) under simulated resuspension conditions across the sediment-water interface were quantified for two locations in China: point A, located in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, and point B, located in Dapukou of Lake Taihu. The concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the overlying water amounted to 100, 500, and 1000 mg/L during background, moderate, and strong simulated wind-wave disturbances, respectively. At each SS level, the initial concentrations of the two antibiotics were set to 1, 5, and 10 mg/L. The results showed that both resuspended SS and the initial concentration of antibiotics could influence the migration of NOR in the water-sediment system. Specifically, both higher SS and initial antibiotic concentrations were associated with higher rates of migration and accumulation of NOR from water to sediment. In contrast, the migration of SMX in the water-sediment system was not impacted by SS or initial antibiotic concentration. The adsorption capacities of sediments for NOR and SMX were significantly different at both locations, possibly reflecting differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic material (OM) contents. In general, higher CEC and OM values were found in sediments with a higher adsorption capacity for the antibiotics. When CEC and OM values of sediments were higher, the adsorption capacity reached up to 51.73 mg/kg. Large differences in the migration from water to sediment were observed for the two antibiotics, with NOR migration rates higher than those of SMX. The accumulation of NOR in surface sediment during resuspension was about 14 times higher than that of SMX. The main reason for this is that the chemical adsorption of NOR is seldom reversible. Overall, this study demonstrates that resuspension of NOR and SMX attached to sediments under simulated wind-wave disturbances can promote the migration of the antibiotics from water to sediment

  8. High speed video shooting with continuous-wave laser illumination in laboratory modeling of wind - wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from

  9. Mechanistic Drifting Forecast Model for A Small Semi-Submersible Drifter Under Tide-Wind-Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Na; Huang, Hui-ming; Wang, Yi-gang; Chen, Da-ke; Zhang, lin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the drifting motion of a small semi-submersible drifter is of vital importance regarding monitoring surface currents and the floating pollutants in coastal regions. This work addresses this issue by establishing a mechanistic drifting forecast model based on kinetic analysis. Taking tide-wind-wave into consideration, the forecast model is validated against in situ drifting experiment in the Radial Sand Ridges. Model results show good performance with respect to the measured drifting features, characterized by migrating back and forth twice a day with daily downwind displacements. Trajectory models are used to evaluate the influence of the individual hydrodynamic forcing. The tidal current is the fundamental dynamic condition in the Radial Sand Ridges and has the greatest impact on the drifting distance. However, it loses its leading position in the field of the daily displacement of the used drifter. The simulations reveal that different hydrodynamic forces dominate the daily displacement of the used drifter at different wind scales. The wave-induced mass transport has the greatest influence on the daily displacement at Beaufort wind scale 5-6; while wind drag contributes mostly at wind scale 2-4.

  10. A multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea 1949-2014: coastDat2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Weisse, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Long and consistent wave data are important for analysing wave climate variability and change. Moreover, such wave data are also needed in coastal and offshore design and for addressing safety-related issues at sea. Using the third-generation spectral wave model WAM a multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea covering the period 1949-2014 was produced. The hindcast is part of the coastDat database representing a consistent and homogeneous met-ocean data set. It is shown that despite not being perfect, data from the wave hindcast are generally suitable for wave climate analysis. In particular, comparisons of hindcast data with in situ and satellite observations show on average a reasonable agreement, while a tendency towards overestimation of the highest waves could be inferred. Despite these limitations, the wave hindcast still provides useful data for assessing wave climate variability and change as well as for risk analysis, in particular when conservative estimates are needed. Hindcast data are stored at the World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) and can be freely accessed using the doi:10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_WAM-North_Sea Groll and Weisse(2016) or via the coastDat web-page http://www.coastdat.de.

  11. Extreme wind-wave modeling and analysis in the south Atlantic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R. M.; Alves, J. H. G. M.; Guedes Soares, C.; Guimaraes, L. G.; Parente, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    A set of wave hindcasts is constructed using two different types of wind calibration, followed by an additional test retuning the input source term Sin in the wave model. The goal is to improve the simulation in extreme wave events in the South Atlantic Ocean without compromising average conditions. Wind fields are based on Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR/NCEP). The first wind calibration applies a simple linear regression model, with coefficients obtained from the comparison of CFSR against buoy data. The second is a method where deficiencies of the CFSR associated with severe sea state events are remedied, whereby "defective" winds are replaced with satellite data within cyclones. A total of six wind datasets forced WAVEWATCH-III and additional three tests with modified Sin in WAVEWATCH III lead to a total of nine wave hindcasts that are evaluated against satellite and buoy data for ambient and extreme conditions. The target variable considered is the significant wave height (Hs). The increase of sea-state severity shows a progressive increase of the hindcast underestimation which could be calculated as a function of percentiles. The wind calibration using a linear regression function shows similar results to the adjustments to Sin term (increase of βmax parameter) in WAVEWATCH-III - it effectively reduces the average bias of Hs but cannot avoid the increase of errors with percentiles. The use of blended scatterometer winds within cyclones could reduce the increasing wave hindcast errors mainly above the 93rd percentile and leads to a better representation of Hs at the peak of the storms. The combination of linear regression calibration of non-cyclonic winds with scatterometer winds within the cyclones generated a wave hindcast with small errors from calm to extreme conditions. This approach led to a reduction of the percentage error of Hs from 14% to less than 8% for extreme waves, while also improving the RMSE.

  12. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1982-09-15 to 1983-09-15 (NODC Accession 8500148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Gulf of Mexico from September 3, 1982 to September...

  13. Current direction, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 18 October 1977 to 01 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the...

  14. Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-02-01 to 1979-05-03 (NODC Accession 7900247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 1, 1978...

  15. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-01-12 to 1980-06-01 (NODC Accession 8000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and...

  16. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-10-11 to 1980-03-19 (NODC Accession 8000368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and EXCELLENCE in the...

  17. Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1981-02-07 to 1982-11-01 (NODC Accession 8300055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of...

  18. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1979-09-22 to 1980-05-01 (NODC Accession 8000462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 22, 1979 to May 1, 1980....

  19. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1978-06-28 to 1978-12-31 (NODC Accession 7900128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, temperature, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from June 28, 1978 to December 31,...

  20. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-12-22 to 1978-07-01 (NODC Accession 7900123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, temperature, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from December 22, 1977 to October...

  1. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-02-02 to 1979-01-31 (NODC Accession 7900144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, salinity, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from February 2, 1978 to January 31,...

  2. Current direction, wind wave spectra, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1977-09-24 to 1981-05-31 (NODC Accession 8100612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, phytoplankton, temperature, salinity, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  3. Current direction, wind wave spectra, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1977-09-24 to 1981-08-31 (NODC Accession 8100681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in...

  4. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  5. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD The placebo effect Joseph H. Friedman, MD Richard Dubinsky, MD WHAT ... placebo: a “dummy” medication that should have no effect on the condition. Placebos are not only drugs. ...

  6. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  7. "Further Effects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  8. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  9. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  10. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  11. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  12. Effective leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Vávrová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I describe problems of effective leadership in organization in relation with organization's objectives filling. I focus here on main principles of leadership process. I characterize process of leadership and personality of leader, who is active executor of this process in organization. The effective leadership is here evaluated mainly from organization theory point of view and in relation with requirements to management, especially its relation with leadership and its de...

  13. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H; Miyajima, S [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K; Ikoma, T [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1997-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H.; Miyajima, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K.; Ikoma, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  15. [Effective delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2008-12-01

    Ninety-seven percent of middle level managers feel they face work overload. The source of this problem may lie in a failure to delegate tasks effectively. If a manager does not effectively delegate, he/she is more likely to report fatigue, stress and depression. Conversely, effectively delegating tasks will improve overall job quality, professional growth in subordinates and cooperation within the team. While it is necessary for managers to delegate tasks effectively, few can be considered to be good natural 'delegators'. Learning and training is necessary for managers to develop the necessary confidence and maturity. This article describes the definitions, purpose and benefits of delegation; factors related to effective delegation; strategies related to successful delegation and skills related to performing cross-cultural delegations. Such issues have seldom been addressed in previous articles. Moreover, nursing implications and suggested applications in nursing practice, education, management and research are mentioned. This article is intended to provide directions to nursing managers and subordinates to promote delegation knowledge and skills.

  16. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  17. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  18. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-un...

  19. Listening Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshour, Frank W.

    1987-01-01

    Research indicates that people spend roughly 45 to 65 percent of their waking moments listening to other persons. To help administrators improve their listening effectiveness, a format to develop a profile of personal listening styles is provided. The strengths and weaknesses of six different listening styles are explored along with ways to…

  20. Effective Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Mabel

    This module, consisting of materials for use in conducting a consumer education mini-course, deals with effective consumerism. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: being prepared with information (sources of consumer information and subscription forms); evaluating warranties and service contracts; evaluating advertising and…

  1. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  2. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  3. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  4. Modeling and Observing the Role of Wind-Waves in Lake-Climate Interactions on Titan using the T104 Flyby of Kraken Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lorenz, R. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Karatekin, O.; Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Poggiali, V.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanography is no longer just an Earth Science. Standing bodies of liquid that interact with both atmospheric and surface reservoirs are known to exist on Titan, and are thought to have existed on early Mars. The exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum between lakes/seas and the atmosphere are of fundamental importance to the hydrologic systems of all three bodies. The generation and propagation of wind-waves, and their consequent shoreline erosion, are key factors in air-sea-surface exchange. Titan, in particular, offers a laboratory in which to understand these processes at a more fundamental level. Much of the parameterization for wave models on Earth are empirical, despite laboratory studies that have demonstrated wave growth depends on both gravity and fluid properties. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of wave generation will provide valuable data to anchor physical models. Furthermore, in the presence of wind waves, Cassini can be used as an anemometer to measure wind speeds over hydrocarbon liquids. Herein, we will report on the results of the Aug 21st altimetry observation over Titan's largest sea, Kraken Mare, and interpret them in the context of wave activity and composition (from passive radiometry). On Earth, it is rare to observe a body of water whose surface is not disturbed by some form of wave activity. On Titan, Cassini observations through the end of its Equinox Mission in Dec 2010 showed no indication of waves. These observations are intriguing given the predominance of aeolian features at equatorial latitudes and have been attributed to the light winds predicted during the Titan winter. More recently, however, the previous series of upper limits and non-detections are giving way to indications that the expected freshening of winds in northern summer may be causing sporadic ruffling of the sea surfaces. Specifically, apparent sunglints offset from the geometric specular point has been observed by VIMS in

  5. Ventilation effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.

  6. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  8. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  9. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  10. Condom effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, D J

    1998-01-01

    People who choose not to abstain from sexual intercourse can use barrier contraceptive methods, such as condoms, to reduce their risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health care providers who provide safer sex education and counseling should provide information on condoms as a way of reducing the risk of HIV/STD transmission. Since latex condoms are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, FDA regulations govern latex condom manufacturing and testing in accordance with stringent national standards. The FDA randomly tests imported condoms according to the same stringent quality control standards as US-produced condoms. Condom effectiveness, however, depends upon their correct and consistent use during every sexual act. Relevant data and guidelines are presented on the correct use of male latex and female polyurethane condoms. Both male latex and female polyurethane condoms can prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs.

  11. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  12. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  13. Radiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  14. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  15. Abnormal storm waves in the winter East/Japan Sea: generation process and hindcasting using an atmosphere-wind wave modelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal storm waves cause coastal disasters along the coasts of Korean Peninsula and Japan in the East/Japan Sea (EJS in winter, arising due to developed low pressures during the East Asia winter monsoon. The generation of these abnormal storm waves during rough sea states were studied and hindcast using an atmosphere-wave coupled modelling system. Wind waves and swell due to developed low pressures were found to be the main components of abnormal storm waves. The meteorological conditions that generate these waves are classified into three patterns based on past literature that describes historical events as well as on numerical modelling. In hindcasting the abnormal storm waves, a bogussing scheme originally designed to simulate a tropical storm in a mesoscale meteorological model was introduced into the modelling system to enhance the resolution of developed low pressures. The modelling results with a bogussing scheme showed improvements in terms of resolved low pressure, surface wind field, and wave characteristics obtained with the wind field as an input.

  16. Response of water temperature to surface wave effects in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The effects of wind waves on the Baltic Sea water temperature has been studied by coupling the hydrodynamical model NEMO with the wave model WAM. The wave forcing terms that have been taken into consideration are: Stokes-Coriolis force, seastate dependent energy flux and sea-state dependent momentum flux. The combined role of these processes as well as their individual contributions on simulated temperature is analysed. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwellinǵs. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data. The warming is primarily caused by sea-state dependent energy flux. Wave induced cooling is mostly observed in near coastal areas and is mainly due to Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The latter triggers effect of intensifying upwellings near the coasts, depending on the direction of the wind. The effect of sea-state dependent momentum flux is predominantly to warm the surface layer. During the summer the wave induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C.

  17. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-09-15 to 1979-06-30 (NODC Accession 7900295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-12-22 to 1979-09-30 (NODC Accession 7900336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  19. Effects of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Anesthesia 101 Effects of Anesthesia Explore this page: Effects of Anesthesia ... the types of anesthesia and their side effects? Effects of Anesthesia If you’re having surgery, you ...

  20. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the ...

  1. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  2. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ...) to increase competitive advantage, innovation, and mission effectiveness. Network-based effectiveness occurs due to the influence of various factors such as people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  3. Effects of wave-induced forcing on a circulation model of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Alari, Victor; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian

    2017-04-01

    The effect of wind waves on water level and currents during two storms in the North Sea is investigated using a high-resolution NEMO model forced with fluxes and fields from a high-resolution wave model. The additional terms accounting for wave-current interaction that are considered in this study are the Stokes-Coriolis force and the sea-state dependent energy and momentum fluxes. The individual and collective role of these processes is quantified and the results are compared with a control run without wave effects as well as against current and water level measurements from coastal stations. We find a better agreement with observations when the circulation model is forced by sea-state dependent fluxes, especially in extreme events. The two extreme events, the storm Christian (25-27 October 2013), and about a month later, the storm Xaver (5-7 December 2013), induce different wave and surge conditions over the North Sea. Including the wave effects in the circulation model for the storm Xaver raises the modelled surge by more than 40 cm compared with the control run in the German Bight area. For the storm Christian, a difference of 20-30 cm in the surge level between the wave-forced and the stand-alone ocean model is found over the whole southern part of the North Sea. Moreover, the modelled vertical velocity profile fits the observations very well when the wave forcing is accounted for. The contribution of wave-induced forcing has been quantified indicating that this represents an important mechanism for improving water level and current predictions.

  4. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect ...

  6. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  7. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  8. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  9. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  10. Biological effects of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Biological effects of hyperthermia and application of hyperthermia to cancer therapy were outlined. As to independent effects of hyperthermia, heat sensitivity of cancer cells, targets of hyperthermia, thermal tolerance of cancer cells, effects of pH on hyperthermic cell survival, effects of hyperthermia on normal tissues, and possibility of clinical application of hyperthermia were described. Combined effect of hyperthermia and x-irradiation to enhance radiosensitivity of cancer cells, its mechanism, effects of oxygen on cancer cells treated with hyperthermia and irradiation, and therapeutic ratio of combined hyperthermia and irradiation were also described. Finally, sensitizers were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. The Effect of Additional Mooring Chains on the Motion Performance of a Floating Wind Turbine with a Tension Leg Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Ou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two types of floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT systems were proposed: a traditional tension leg platform (TLP type and a new TLP type with additional mooring chains. They were both based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model. Taking the coupled effect of dynamic response of the top wind turbine, tower support structure and lower mooring system into consideration, not only were the 1/60 scale model tests for the two floating wind turbine systems done in HIT’s wind-wave tunnel according to the typical design conditions in IEC61400-3 code, but also the numerical simulations corresponding to the scaled model tests were performed by advanced numerical tools. As a result, the numerical results displayed good agreement with the test data. Moreover, the additional mooring chains could play an active role in reducing the surge displacement, surge acceleration and typical tension leg force responses of the FOWT system, which is very beneficial for ensuring the good operational performance and the safety of the FOWT system.

  12. A numerical study on the effects of wave-current-surge interactions on the height and propagation of sea surface waves in Charleston Harbor during Hurricane Hugo 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian

    2009-06-01

    The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.

  13. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  14. Acoustic Casimir Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homes, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    ...). When the indirect manifestations of the ZPF are interpreted as due to radiation pressure, acoustic noise can provide an excellent analog to investigate the Casimir effect as well as other effects due to the ZPF...

  15. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  16. Characteristics of Effective Argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frana, Adrian W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how the 1988 Presidential Debates provide a resource for effective instruction in public argument. Provides several examples of effective (and ineffective) argumentative speaking taken from the debates. (MM)

  17. Climate Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance and Trainings Webinars Data and Tools Publications Climate Effects on Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... effects has been excerpted from the Third National Climate Assessment’s Health Chapter . Additional information regarding the health ...

  18. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  19. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  20. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  1. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  2. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  4. Effects of teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.......The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....

  5. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  6. Magnetic effects in electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of imposed magnetic fields onto the electrodeposition of magnetic (nickel and non – magnetic (copper metals was analysed. Also, magnetic properties of electrochemically obtained nanocontacts were examined. An effort to establish a possible correlation between the morphologies of the nanocontacts and the effect of the very large ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR effect was made.

  7. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  8. Collecting and Analyzing At-Sea and Coastal Avian Data to Assess Potential Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereksta, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The prospect of renewable energy development off the coasts of the United States has led to a scramble for data needs on potentially affected resources, particularly those related to avian species. The potential effects from renewable energy development to avian species are complex and varied including collision, displacement, barrier effects, and attraction. As the lead Federal agency for renewable energy development on the Federal outer continental shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has initiated, in coordination with other agencies and partners, the collection and synthesizing of existing data, identification of data gaps, development and funding of studies to fill those gaps, and creation of products for assessing risk to birds from structures at sea. Through the Environmental Studies Program, BOEM collects a wide range of environmental information to provide an improved understanding of offshore ecosystems, a baseline for assessing cumulative effects, and the scientific basis for development of regulatory measures to mitigate adverse impacts. With broad-scale assessments of suitable areas for wind, wave, and tidal energy production offshore, the challenge has been to collect and compile information quickly and at as large a scale as possible. Assessing what we know, what we can predict, and how can we assess risk has led BOEM to develop and collaborate on a variety of studies including baseline data assessments, at-sea surveys, predictive modeling of seabird distribution and abundance, vulnerability and risk assessments, and technology testing for efficient ways to inventory birds on the OCS. These are being applied in both the Atlantic and Pacific, including the Main Hawaiian Islands, to provide for assessments of potential effects and data needs early in the planning process at regional and local scales with the goal of designing and implementing projects that will minimize effects to avian species to the greatest extent practicable.

  9. Almost sharp quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Alvaro; Gudder, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Quantum effects are represented by operators on a Hilbert space satisfying 0≤A≤I, and sharp quantum effects are represented by projection operators. We say that an effect A is almost sharp if A=PQP for projections P and Q. We give simple characterizations of almost sharp effects. We also characterize effects that can be written as longer products of projections. For generality we first work in the formalism of von Neumann algebras. We then specialize to the full operator algebra B(H) and to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces

  10. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  11. Spread effects - methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  12. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  13. Knudsen effects in a Scott effect experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C. W.; Wood, L. T.; Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal torque sometimes observed in Scott effect measurements has been studied experimentally and an explanation for the thermal torque proposed. The magnitude of the thermal torque can be comparable to the Scott torque depending on geometrical and thermal anisotropies. The thermal torque is predicted to decrease with application of an axial magnetic field.

  14. The effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the effective action in quantum field theory was introduced into physics by Julian Schwinger in 1954. The effective action summarizes, in a single functional, all the quantum properties of the fields under consideration. The functional derivative of the effective action yields the effective field equations, which replace the classical field equations as descriptors of the dynamical behavior of quantized fields. Solutions of these equations are 'in-out' matrix elements of the field operators and, when substituted back into the effective action itself, yield logarithms of the corresponding 'in-out' amplitudes. The classical field equations are gauge covariant, a fact that derives from the gauge invariance of the classical action. One has learned how to construct effective actions that are similarly gauge invariant (in each order of perturbation theory) and that yield effective field equations having the covariance properties of their classical analogs. Despite this advance, problems remain, stemming from the fact that there is not one but an infinite number of gauge invariant effective actions, one for every background-covariant choice of supplementary conditions and ghost fields. Vilkovisky (1984) has argued persuasively that by requiring additionally that the effective action be invariant under local invertible changes in the choice of basic field variables, one can construct a natural unique gauge invariant effective action. This lecture will examine Vilkovisky's ideas. 3 refs

  15. Directionality Effects of Aligned Wind and Wave Loads on a Y-Shape Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine under Rated Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-shape (triangular semi-submersible foundation has been adopted by most of the built full-scale floating wind turbines, such as Windfloat, Fukushima Mirai and Shimpuu. Considering the non-fully-symmetrical shape and met-ocean condition, the foundation laying angle relative to wind/wave directions will not only influence the downtime and power efficiency of the floating turbine, but also the strength and fatigue safety of the whole structure. However, the dynamic responses induced by various aligned wind and wave load directions have scarcely been investigated comparatively before. In our study, the directionality effects are investigated by means of combined wind and wave tests and coupled multi-body simulations. By comparing the measured data in three load directions, it is found that the differences of platform motions are mainly derived from the wave loads and larger pitch motion can always be observed in one of the directions. To make certain the mechanism underlying the observed phenomena, a coupled multi-body dynamic model of the floating wind turbine is established and validated. The numerical results demonstrate that the second-order hydrodynamic forces contribute greatly to the directionality distinctions for surge and pitch, and the first-order hydrodynamic forces determine the variations of tower base bending moments and nacelle accelerations. These findings indicate the directionality effects should be predetermined comprehensively before installation at sea, which is important for the operation and maintenance of the Y-shape floating wind turbines.

  16. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard...... cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...... through application of the Doctrine of Double Effect because they fail to meet the crucial necessary condition of the Doctrine according to which the bad effect can only be a merely foreseen side- effect and not an intended means....

  17. Effects of the 1986 Bahia Las Minas oil spill on reef flat communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubit, J.D.; Connor, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    On April 27, 1986, about 75,000 to 100,000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil spilled into the Caribbean Sea from a refinery in Bahia Las Minas, Panama. After weathering for 13 days in warm, sunny conditions, the oil reached the intertidal reef flat and biological reserve at Punta Galeta, which had been under study since the early 1970's. The prespill data base consisted of detailed, time-series monitoring of sessile biota on the reef flat in relation to changes in sea and weather conditions. To assess the effects of the oil, this monitoring was expanded to other sites and continued after the oil spill. Within the resolution of our measurements, most detectable mortality of the sessile biota occurred in specific zones of the reef flats where factors such as winds, waves, water levels, and topography caused the oil to accumulate. Where the oil floated over the reef flats without prolonged accumulation, little mortality was recorded. The sessile biota regenerated from fragments surviving in place or washing in from nearby habitats, and the regeneration times ranged from less than one year to more than five years. For the sessile biota, there appeared to be no recolonization via planktonic larvae or spores. The fastest regeneration times were for species that propagated from fragments that survived in place; the slowest were for species that suffered nearly 100 percent mortality and recolonized from fragments washing in from subtidal habitats. Because regeneration of sessile species on tropical reef flats depends on regrowth from local survivors, control and cleanup of oil spills in these environments should be designed to maximize the survival of resident populations

  18. Effective communication with seniors

    OpenAIRE

    PONCAROVÁ, Ester

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is called "The Effective Communication With Seniors". The aim of this thesis is to describe communication, its various kinds and the basic principles of the effective communication. I will also describe the communication with seniors suffering from dementia. Another aim of this thesis is to find out whether workers in the senior houses know and use the principles of the effective communication.

  19. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  20. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troger, C.

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coefficients is introduced and the parameters are calculated via perturbation theory. The method described in this work has been implemented in a software tool that performs a self-consistent solution of Schroedinger- and Poisson-equation for a one-dimensional cut through a MOS structure or heterostructure. The calculation of the carrier densities is performed assuming Fermi-Dirac statistics. In the case of a MOS structure a metal or a polysilicon gate is considered and an arbitrary gate bulk voltage can be applied. This allows investigating quantum mechanical effects in capacity calculations, to compare the simulated data with measured CV curves and to evaluate the results obtained with a quantum mechanical correction for the classical electron density. The behavior of the defined subband parameters is compared to the value of the mass and the non-parabolicity coefficient from the model due to Kane. Finally the presented characterization of the subbands is applied

  1. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect on earth can be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and climate system response within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained are determined. Quantitative examples illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by human activities, in particular if CO2 atmospheric concentration would double in the future. Recent satellite measurements of the greenhouse effect are given. The net cooling effect of clouds and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms are also discussed

  2. Rectenna related atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible meteorological effects arising from the existence and operations of a solar power satellite (SPS) system rectenna are examined. Analysis and model simulations in some chosen site situations and meteorological conditions indicate that the meteorological effects of the construction and operation of a rectenna are small, particularly outside the boundary of the structure. From weather and climate points of view, installation of an SPS rectenna seems likely to have effects comparable with those due to other nonindustrial land use changes covering the same area. The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation in the troposphere would have negligible atmospheric effects.

  3. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  4. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    .... It specifically looks at the current definitions of leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness...

  5. Effective Lagrangian of QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, J.Z.

    1981-01-01

    A renormalization group equation for the effective Lagrangian of QED is obtained. Starting from this equation, perturbation theory for the renormalization group equation (PTRGE) is developed. The results are in full agreement with the standard perturbation theory. Conjecturing that the asymptotic effective coupling constant is finite, the effective Lagrangian for a strong magnetic field is obtained, which is proportional to the Maxwellian Lagrangian. For the asymptotically free theories the situation is diametrically opposed to QED. In these cases the effective Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills system tends to infinity for very strong external Yang-Mills fields. (Auth.)

  6. Impurity effect in the quantum Nernst effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Ryoen; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi

    2005-11-01

    We theoretically study the Nernst effect and the Seebeck effect in a two-dimensional electron ga in a strong magnetic field and a temperature gradient under adiabatic condition. We recently predicted for a pure system in the quantum Hall regime that the Nernst coefficients strongly suppressed and the thermal conductance is quantized due to quantum ballistic transport. Taking account of impurities, we here compute the Nernst coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient when the chemical potential coincides with a Landau level. We adopt the self-consistent Born approximation and consider the linear transport equations of the thermal electric transport induced by the temperature gradient. The thermal conductance and the Nernst coefficient are slightly modified from the pure case and the Seebeck coefficient newly appears because of the impurity scattering of electrons in the bulk states. (author)

  7. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  8. Summary of geonuclear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawson, Donald E.

    1970-01-01

    Geonuclear effects are considered here to include all of the interactions between underground nuclear explosions and the surrounding earth material. They constitute a large spectrum of effects that starts with the complex chemistry of the explosion 'fireball' and continues in space until the teleseismic signals in the earth have attenuated and in time until the radioactive products have decayed. This paper does not treat the total spectrum but is restricted to those effects which are of direct use to possible non excavation engineering projects and the major side effects that could detract from the use of nuclear explosions for such projects. Emphasis is given to possible methods of enhancing the desired geonuclear effects and minimizing the deleterious ones. Those who have directly participated in developing nuclear explosive technology cannot help but be impressed by the terrific potential for useful work associated with this energy source. Those who have viewed this developing technology from the periphery (the potential industrial market, the concerned public, and specialists in many allied fields) are certainly interested in the potential benefits but cannot help but be impressed by the attendant risks. Some of the useful geonuclear effects balanced against the associated side effects are shown schematically. More experience and increased knowledge of these effects will affect both project costs and public opinion. These factors will determine how the balance will tilt in relation to specific nuclear explosion engineering projects

  9. The polarized EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  10. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  11. Summary of geonuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawson, Donald E [Explosives Engineering Services, Gulf General Atomic Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Geonuclear effects are considered here to include all of the interactions between underground nuclear explosions and the surrounding earth material. They constitute a large spectrum of effects that starts with the complex chemistry of the explosion 'fireball' and continues in space until the teleseismic signals in the earth have attenuated and in time until the radioactive products have decayed. This paper does not treat the total spectrum but is restricted to those effects which are of direct use to possible non excavation engineering projects and the major side effects that could detract from the use of nuclear explosions for such projects. Emphasis is given to possible methods of enhancing the desired geonuclear effects and minimizing the deleterious ones. Those who have directly participated in developing nuclear explosive technology cannot help but be impressed by the terrific potential for useful work associated with this energy source. Those who have viewed this developing technology from the periphery (the potential industrial market, the concerned public, and specialists in many allied fields) are certainly interested in the potential benefits but cannot help but be impressed by the attendant risks. Some of the useful geonuclear effects balanced against the associated side effects are shown schematically. More experience and increased knowledge of these effects will affect both project costs and public opinion. These factors will determine how the balance will tilt in relation to specific nuclear explosion engineering projects.

  12. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  13. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  14. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  15. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  16. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. PLEYOTROPIC EFFECTS OF METFORMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ju. Morgunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, traditionally used for the therapy of diabetes mellitus, possesses a number of diverse pleyotropic effects. The drug, in addition to the glucose-lowering actions, has a beneficial effect on components of the metabolic syndrome, significantly reduces body weight.

  18. Genetic effect of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.; Sevan'kaev, A.V.; Fesenko, Eh.V.

    1984-01-01

    Gene mutations resulting from neutron effect are considered, but attention is focused on chromosome mutations. Dose curves for different energy of neutrons obtained at different objects are obtained which makes it possible to consider RBE of neutrons depending on their energy and radiation dose and to get some information on the neutron effect on heredity

  19. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  20. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  1. RBE for deterministic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the present report, data on RBE values for effects in tissues of experimental animals and man are analysed to assess whether for specific tissues the present dose limits or annual limits of intake based on Q values, are adequate to prevent deterministic effects. (author)

  2. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. The overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  4. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  5. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, D.D.; Hulme, B.L.; Daniel, S.L.; Varnado, G.B.; Bennett, H.A.; Chapman, L.D.; Engi, D.

    1976-09-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  6. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  7. A 'Copenhagen Effect'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the Danish company law reform of 2009/2010, this article examines the question of whether the processes of liberalisation and internationalisation of the Danish rules on public and private companies which the reform represents are significant enough to warrant the term...... the ‘Copenhagen effect' in competition with the already established ‘London effect'....

  8. En "Copenhagen effect"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen efterprøver på grundlag af den danske selskabsreform 2009/10, om den liberalisering og internationalisering, der herved har fundet sted af den danske lovgivning om aktie- og anpartsselskaber, er så betydningsfuld, at det fremtidigt giver mening at tale om en "Copenhagen effect" i...... konkurrence med den allerede kendte "London effect". Udgivelsesdato: Juni 2009...

  9. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  10. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  11. Nocebo effect in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Sonthalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocebo effect, originally denoting the negative counterpart of the placebo phenomenon, is now better defined as the occurrence of adverse effects to a therapeutic intervention because the patient expects them to develop. More commonly encountered in patients with a past negative experience, this effect stems from highly active processes in the central nervous system, mediated by specific neurotransmitters and modulated by psychological mechanisms such as expectation and conditioning. The magnitude of nocebo effect in clinical medicine is being increasingly appreciated and its relevance encompasses clinical trials as well as clinical practice. Although there is hardly any reference to the term nocebo in dermatology articles, the phenomenon is encountered routinely by dermatologists. Dermatology patients are more susceptible to nocebo responses owing to the psychological concern from visibility of skin lesions and the chronicity, unpredictable course, lack of ′permanent cure′ and frequent relapses of skin disorders. While finasteride remains the prototypical drug that displays a prominent nocebo effect in dermatologic therapeutics, other drugs such as isotretinoin are also likely inducers. This peculiar phenomenon has recently been appreciated in the modulation of itch perception and in controlled drug provocation tests in patients with a history of adverse drug reactions. Considering the conflict between patients′ right to information about treatment related adverse effects and the likelihood of nocebo effect stemming from information disclosure, the prospect of ethically minimizing nocebo effect remains daunting. In this article, we review the concept of nocebo effect, its postulated mechanism, relevance in clinical dermatology and techniques to prevent it from becoming a barrier to effective patient management.

  12. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  13. Electroplastic effect in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, A.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the effects of single d-c current pulses (1000-6000 A/mm 2 approx.60 μs) on plastically deforming metals. Polycrystalline wire specimens (D 0 approx. 1/2 mm, L 0 approx. 50 mm) representing the three more common crystal structures were employed: Ti from the HCP structures; Fe, Nb, and W from the bcc structure; and Al, Cu, and Ni from the fcc structure. The tests were carried out under uniaxial tension with an applied strain rate of 1.7 x 10 -4 sec -1 at room temperature. Forced air cooling was employed in order to reduce the principal side effect, heating. As a result of applying a current pulse, there were significant drops in the flow stress (1-35%). These drops not only included an electron dislocation interaction but all side effects as well. The main side effect due to the temperature rise was thermal expansion and could account for 60-90% of the drops. In addition to thermal expansion, some thermally induced plastic flow occurred as indicated by computer simulations. The total side effects (thermal expansion and plastic flow) approximately accounted for the stress drops in Ti, W, and Nb. However, a strong electron dislocation (ed) interaction was observed in Cu and Al since plastic flow from thermal effects was negligible. In Ni and Fe the portion of the stress drops due to (ed) was unclear due to some dynamic aging effects present

  14. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  15. Bystander effects and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy.

  16. Effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Kalkreuter, T.; Palma, G.; Speh, M.

    1992-05-01

    Effective field theories encode the predictions of a quantum field theory at low energy. The effective theory has a fairly low utraviolet cutoff. As a result, loop corrections are small, at least if the effective action contains a term which is quadratic in the fields, and physical predictions can be read straight from the effective Lagrangean. Methods will be discussed how to compute an effective low energy action from a given fundamental action, either analytically or numerically, or by a combination of both methods. Basically, the idea is to integrate out the high frequency components of fields. This requires the choice of a 'blockspin', i.e. the specification af a low frequency field as a function of the fundamental fields. These blockspins will be fields of the effective field theory. The blockspin need not be a field of the same type as one of the fundamental fields, and it may be composite. Special features of blockspin in nonabelian gauge theories will be discussed in some detail. In analytical work and in multigrid updating schemes one needs interpolation kernels A from coarse to fine grid in addition to the averaging kernels C which determines the blockspin. A neural net strategy for finding optimal kernels is presented. Numerical methods are applicable to obtain actions of effective theories on lattices of finite volume. The special case of a 'lattice' with a single site (the constraint effective potential) is of particular interest. In a higgs model, the effective action reduces in this case to the free energy, considered as a function of a gauge covariant magnetization. Its shape determines the phase structure of the theory. Its loop expansion with and without gauge fields can be used to determine finite size corrections to numerical data. (orig.)

  17. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  18. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  19. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  20. Effective career ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B; Rabbitts, D; Shover, J; Torres, M; VanDerHeyden, B; Violand-Jones, S

    1992-01-01

    Motivation, quality improvement, productivity enhancement. These are just some of the benefits of an effective career ladder program. The key term here is effective. It is easy for laboratory personnel to stagnate professionally if they do not have a career ladder program, but it is even easier for them to become frustrated--even cynical--over a program that fails to live up to its expectations to encourage, support, and reward professional advancement. If you have been looking form some ideas to get your own career ladder program off the ground, the following responses from your colleagues may help as CLMR asks: What makes your career ladder program effective?

  1. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  2. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  3. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic ... neurotransmittion in the central nervous system and .... Autoinhibition of brain histamine release.

  4. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  5. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  6. Flexo-photovoltaic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Min; Kim, Dong Jik; Alexe, Marin

    2018-04-19

    It is highly desirable to discover photovoltaic mechanisms that enable a higher efficiency of solar cells. Here, we report that the bulk photovoltaic effect, which is free from the thermodynamic Shockley-Queisser limit but usually manifested only in noncentrosymmetric (piezoelectric or ferroelectric) materials, can be realized in any semiconductor, including silicon, by mediation of flexoelectric effect. We introduce strain gradients using either an atomic force microscope or a micron-scale indentation system, creating giant photovoltaic currents from centrosymmetric single crystals of SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , and Si. This strain-gradient-induced bulk photovoltaic effect, which we call the flexo-photovoltaic effect, functions in the absence of a p - n junction. This finding may extend present solar cell technologies by boosting the solar energy conversion efficiency from a wide pool of established semiconductors. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  8. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  9. Antihypertensive Effects of Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Vera, Iñaki; Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Sánchez, Manuel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations. The meta-analysis of the human studies supports that supplementation with probiotics reduces blood pressure. The mechanism of this antihypertensive effect of probiotics and its protective effect on endothelial function has not been fully elucidated. Further investigations are needed to clarify if the effects of probiotic bacteria result from the changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolic by-products; the restoration of the gut barrier function; and the effects on endotoxemia, inflammation, and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  10. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  11. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  12. The effective nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical analyses is made of the mean effective internucleon potential required in the shell-model description of nuclei, allowing for the presence of many-body effects as suggested by current theory. A consistent description is found in which the effective two-body interaction acts almost entirely in even states, and the many-body effects are simulated by a repulsive three-body contact interaction. The strength of the two-body interaction is consistent with that expressed by the free scattering matrix of the two-nucleon system, and that of the three-body interaction with the 'rearrangement energy' calculated in the many-body theory. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Greenhouse effect and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Model calculations with different marginal conditions and different physical processes do, on the basis of realistic assumptions, result in a temperature rise of 3 ± 1.5degC at doubling carbon dioxide concentrations. Temperatures are increasing even more due to the presence of trace gases contributing to the greenhouse effect. They are assumed to be having a share of 100% in the carbon dioxide effect (additive) in 30-40 years from now. According to the model calculations the CO 2 increase from about 280 ppm around 1850 to 345 ppm (1985) is equal to a globally averaged temperature rise of 0.5-0.7degC. As the data obtained before 1900 were incomplete and little representative climatic analyses cannot be considered to have been effective but after that time. However, considering the additional influence of other climatic effects such as vulcanism the temperature rise satisfactorily corresponds to the values obtained since 1900. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  15. Conditions for Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeannette T.

    1988-01-01

    The most effective college presidents are those whose leadership styles are dominant, decisive, and when appropriate, autocratic. The president has to believe profoundly in the intrinsic value of the college. (Author/MSE)

  16. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  17. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  18. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  19. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  20. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  1. the effects of Garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on taste responses and relative organ weights in albino rats. Graded dietary ... Allium sativum commonly known as garlic is a specie in the onion ..... nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

  2. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  3. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  4. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  5. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  6. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  7. The quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Transport phenomena in two dimensional semiconductors have revealed unusual properties. In this thesis these systems are considered and discussed. The theories explain the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first and the second chapters lay down the theory of the IQHE, the third and fourth consider the theory of the FQHE. Chapter five deals with the statistics of particles in two dimension. (author). Refs

  8. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  9. High Burnup Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Synchronization on effective networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Zhao Ming; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  11. Synchronization on effective networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao [Web Sciences Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao Ming [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  12. The Lisse effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Edwin P

    2002-01-01

    The Lisse effect is a rarely noted phenomenon occurring when infiltration caused by intense rain seals the surface soil layer to airflow, trapping air in the unsaturated zone. Compression of air by the advancing front results in a pressure increase that produces a water-level rise in an observation well screened below the water table that is several times as large as the distance penetrated by the wetting front. The effect is triggered by intense rains and results in a very rapid water-level rise, followed by a recession lasting a few days. The Lisse effect was first noted and explained by Thal Larsen in 1932 from water-level observations obtained in a shallow well in the village of Lisse, Holland. The original explanation does not account for the increased air pressure pushing up on the bottom of the wetting front. Analysis of the effect of this upward pressure indicates that a negative pressure head at the base of the wetting front, psi(f), analogous to that postulated by Green and Ampt (1911) to explain initially rapid infiltration rates into unsaturated soils, is involved in producing the Lisse effect. Analysis of recorded observations of the Lisse effect by Larsen and others indicates that the water-level rise, which typically ranges from 0.10 to 0.55 m, should be only slightly larger than psi(f) and that the depth of penetration of the wetting front is no more than several millimeters.

  13. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  14. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  15. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  16. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  17. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  18. Magnetoelectric effects in manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen

    Research on manganites has been conducted for more than half century. Recent discoveries of colossal responses to external fields such as colossal magnetoresistance effects and correlation among spin, orbital, and lattice in phase separated manganites and multiferroic manganites have motivated me to understand these materials. The main purpose of this dissertation is to understand magnetoelectric effects in phase separated (La1-yPr y)1-xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO) thin films and multiferroic BiMnO3 (BMO) thin films. First, high quality phase separated manganite thin films have been successfully grown. To grow the high quality manganite thin films, extensive effort was devoted to fine tuning of oxygen pressure, temperature, and laser fluence during film growth. As-grown films were characterized with various ex-situ techniques: magnetization measurements, transport measurements, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and/or transmission electron microscopy to remove the effects of impurities and unwanted strains except substrate induced strain. Second, three major results were obtained in high quality phase separated LPCMO thin films. These results are based on the dynamic nature of phases in LPCMO. 1) LPCMO thin films showed single domain to multi-domain transition during cooling. This transition can be tuned by substrate stress induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy. 2) Evidence for the origin of colossal electroresistance (CER) effect has been observed. The CER is triggered by dielectrophoresis, or movements of ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) phase, which is manifested in anisotropic transport properties in microfabricated LPCMO cross structures. This fluidic nature of the FMM phase in LPCMO under high electric fields lead to exotic magnetoelectric effects. 3) Electric field effects on magnetotransport properties have been observed. This phenomena can also be tuned by the combined effect of substrate strain and current flow. This combined effect of electric and magnetic

  19. Pharmacological effects of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    In the last few decades, more vitamin-mediated effects have been discovered at the level of gene expression. Increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of these vitamins has opened new perspectives that form a connection between nutritional signals and the development of new therapeutic agents. Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. The vitamin regulates genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism: Biotin has stimulatory effects on genes whose action favors hypoglycemia (insulin, insulin receptor, pancreatic and hepatic glucokinase); on the contrary, biotin decreases the expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key gluconeogenic enzyme that stimulates glucose production by the liver. The findings that biotin regulates the expression of genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism are in agreement with several observations that indicate that biotin supply is involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Biotin deficiency has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased utilization of glucose. On the other hand, the diabetic state appears to be ameliorated by pharmacological doses of biotin. Likewise, pharmacological doses of biotin appear to decrease plasma lipid concentrations and modify lipid metabolism. The effects of biotin on carbohydrate metabolism and the lack of toxic effects of the vitamin at pharmacological doses suggest that biotin could be used in the development of new therapeutics in the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, an area that we are actively investigating.

  20. NEUROTROPHIC EFFECTS OF ETIFOXINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Torshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher anxiety results in the decreased levels of various neurotrophic factors and enkephalins and in impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines. The anxiolytic etifoxine is used to treat anxiety states and adjustment disorders. Etifoxine modulates the GABAergic transmission and metabolism of neurosteroids. The latter determines the unique neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of the drug, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, regeneration of nerve fibers, and preservation and regeneration of myelin sheaths. Other important pharmacological effects of an etifoxine molecule have been also discovered; these are to relieve allodynia related to 3α-steroids and GABA receptors and to effectively treat cerebral edema, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and excessive nervous excitability in the presence of alcohol withdrawal. In addition, the chemoreactome simulation of the molecule of etifoxine has established that its attenuated side effects are due to its lower interaction with serotonin, acetylcholine, adrenergic and other neurotransmitter receptors than is shown by benzodiazepines. Etifoxine has been also found to have anti-inflammatory (due to antihistamine and antileukotriene effects and antitumor activities and an ability to affect hemodynamics and vessel walls.The paper presents a systematic analysis of the results of trials of the neurotrophic properties of etifoxine. It considers how the drug stimulates the expression of neurotrophic factors, accelerates the maturation and regeneration of nerve fibers, and regenerates myelin sheaths.The neurotrophic effects of etifoxine along with its anxiolytic activity will accelerate the recovery of patients with different neurological diseases and enhance the quality of their neurorehabilitation.

  1. Pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasaraju Kavalipati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe.

  2. Heavy particle effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.P.

    1981-01-01

    There are two problems discussed, both of which have to do with dissimilar magnitudes in mass. Theoretically, we can devise the large difference in mass as observed by decreeing some vev, v/sub i/ to be much bigger than the other; or, we can assume that some couplings g/sub i/ are much stronger. These two different assumptions give rise to entirely different patterns of interaction in the resulting theory. The first way to generate a mass hierarchy can be called the soft way, because in the zeroth order, the large mass scale leaves its foot print merely in a few effective parameters of the residual theory. The effective theory is renormalizable, sans anomaly. In this limit, the heavy particles decouple. The second assumption (g/sub j/ much greater than g/sub j'/) to create mass hierarchy does a lot of violence to a theory. Effects of the large mass scale will be felt by the system left behind in many ways. An infinite number of parameters are needed to summarize the effects in this limit. This is called the hard limit. It follows that the resulting effective Lagrangian, if in fact it makes sense to construct one at all, will be non-polynomial and apparently non-renormalizable

  3. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Biophysical radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.

    1982-07-01

    The biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation is based upon the absorption of energy in molecular structures of a cell. Because of the quantum nature of radiation large fluctuations of energy concentration in subcellulare regions has to be considered. In addition both the spatial distribution of a sensitive molecular target and cellulare repair processes has to be taken into consideration for an assessment of radiation action. In radiation protection the difference between the quality factor and the Relative Biological Effectiveness has a fundamental meaning and will be discussed in more detail. The present report includes a short review on some relevant models on radiation action and a short discussion on effects of low dose irradiation. (orig.) [de

  5. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  6. Security effectiveness review (SER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouprianova, I.; Ek, D.; Showalter, R.; Bergman, M.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the on-going DOE/Russian MPC and A activities at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) and in order to provide a basis for planning MPC and A enhancements, an expedient method to review the effectiveness of the MPC and A system has been adopted. These reviews involve the identification of appropriate and cost-effective enhancements of facilities at IPPE. This effort requires a process that is thorough but far less intensive than a traditional vulnerability assessment. The SER results in a quick assessment of current and needed enhancements. The process requires preparation and coordination between US and Russian analysts before, during, and after information gathering at the facilities in order that the analysis is accurate, effective, and mutually agreeable. The goal of this paper is to discuss the SER process, including the objectives, time scale, and lessons learned at IPPE

  7. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  8. Radiomimetic effects of meclofenoxate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.; Mehlhorn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Meclofenoxate, a nootropic, by virtue of its chemical nature is an ester of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and dimethylaminoethanol. On top of its typical indications, particular attention was given to its radiomimetic effect to which evidence had been produced on tissue cultures by Sladek, 1977. Animal experiments were conducted to investigate the effect in the context of a transplantation tumour. One single locally delimited X-ray irradiation with concomitant administration of meclofenoxate was applied to the animals. 14 days after tumour transplantation. The radiomimetic effect of meclofenoxate was confirmed under the conditions chosen for the animal experiments. However, no confirmation was obtained for the assumption of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid being the only active substance. (author)

  9. Quantum Zeno effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, T.; Tasaki, S.; Prigogine, I.

    1991-01-01

    In 1977, Misra and Sudarshan showed, based on the quantum measurement theory, that an unstable particle will never be found to decay when it is continuously observed. They called it the quantum Zeno effect (or paradox). More generally the quantum Zeno effect is associated to the inhibition of transitions by frequent measurements. This possibility has attracted much interest over the last years. Recently, Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland have reported that they succeeded in observing the quantum Zeno effect. This would indeed be an important step towards the understanding of the role of the observer in quantum mechanics. However, in the present paper, we will show that their results can be recovered through conventional quantum mechanics and do not involve a repeated reduction (or collapse) of the wave function. (orig.)

  10. Heavy rain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of the effect of heavy rain on airplane performance. Although the effects of heavy rain on airplane systems and engines are generally known, only recently has the potential aerodynamic effect of heavy rain been recognized. In 1977 the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) conducted a study of 25 aircraft accidents and incidents which occurred between 1964 and 1976 in which low-altitude wind shear could have been a contributing factor. Of the 25 cases (23 approach or landing and 2 take-off) in the study, ten cases had occurred in a rain environment, and in five cases these were classified as intense or heavy rain encounters. These results led to the reconsideration of high-intensity, short-duration rainfall as a potential weather-related aircraft safety hazard, particularly in the take-off and/or approach phases of flight.

  11. Biological effects of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  12. Stereoelectronic Substituent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Jensen, Henrik Helligsø

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried Out on the influence of the stereo-chemistry of substituents, particularly hydroxyl groups, on their electronic effects in piperidines, carbohydrates (pyranosides), and related compounds. Polar groups, such as OH, OR, and F, were found in the 3 and 4 position to be much...... more electron-withdrawing when positioned equatorially rather than axially. In contrast, little difference in electronic effects was observed from apolar groups as a result of epimerization. These observations were believed to be caused by differences in charge-dipole interactions and were used...... to explain why stereoisomeric glycosides hydrolyze with different rates. The conformational changes of hydroxylated piperidines and related compounds as a function of pH were likewise explained from the different substituent effects of axial and equatorial OH groups....

  13. Bystander effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Neethu Fathima; Daniel, Nittu

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells show irradiated effects due to the signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Evidence suggests that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation results in mutation in the nucleus of the hit cells. Cells that are not directly hit by an alpha particle, but are in the vicinity of one that is hit, also contribute to the genotoxic response of the cell population. When cells are irradiated, and the medium is transferred to unirradiated cells, these unirradiated cells show bystander responses when assayed for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation. The demonstration of a bystander effect in human tissues and, more recently, in whole organisms have clear implication of the potential relevance of the non-targeted response to human health. This effect may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. The radiation-induced bystander effect represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation, in that extranuclear and extracellular events may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Multiple pathways are involved in the bystander phenomenon, and different cell types respond differently to bystander signalling. Using cDNA microarrays, a number of cellular signalling genes, including cyclooxygenase-2 (CQX-2), have been shown to be casually linked to the bystander phenomenon. The observation that inhibition of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) suppressed the bystander response further confirmed the important role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in the bystander process. The cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA showed a significantly reduced response to bystander signalling, suggesting a functional role of mitochondria in the signalling process. (author)

  14. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-09

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  15. Greenhouse effects on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Calculations that used Pioneer-Venus measurements of atmosphere composition, temperature profiles, and radiative heating predicted Venus' surface temperature ‘very precisely,’ says the Ames Research Center. The calculations predict not only Venus' surface temperature but agree with temperatures measured at various altitudes above the surface by the four Pioneer Venus atmosphere probe craft.Using Pioneer-Venus spacecraft data, a research team has virtually proved that the searing 482° C surface temperature of Venus is due to an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Until now the Venus greenhouse effect has been largely a theory.

  16. Low doses effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this article is asked the question about a possible carcinogens effect of low dose irradiation. With epidemiological data, knowledge about the carcinogenesis, the professor Tubiana explains that in spite of experiments made on thousand or hundred of thousands animals it has not been possible to bring to the fore a carcinogens effect for low doses and then it is not reasonable to believe and let the population believe that low dose irradiation could lead to an increase of neoplasms and from this point of view any hardening of radiation protection standards could in fact, increase anguish about ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  17. Effective quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The most appropriate description of particle interactions in the language of quantum field theory depends on the energy at which the interactions are studied; the description is in terms of an ''effective field theory'' that contains explicit reference only to those particles that are actually important at the energy being studied. The various themes of the article are: local quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, new physics, dimensional parameters and renormalizability, socio-dynamics of particle theory, spontaneously broken gauge theories, scale dependence, grand unified and effective field theories. 2 figs

  18. Harnessing greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, F.; Rivet, P.; Terrier, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the energy and greenhouse effect questions in a global way. It presents the different methods of fight against the increase of the greenhouse effect (energy saving, carbon sinks, cogeneration,..), describes the main alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (biomass, wind power, solar, nuclear,..), and shows that, even worrying, the future is not so dark as it seems to be and that technical solutions exist which will allow to answer the worldwide growing up energy needs and to slow down the climatic drift. (J.S.)

  19. Nonequilibrium effects in Isoscaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C. O.; Lopez, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we study within a simple model different properties of the system that allow us to understand the properties of the isoscaling observable. We first show that isoscaling is a general property of fragmenting systems. We show this by using a simple generalized percolation model. We show that the usual isoscaling property can be obtained in the case of bond percolation in bichromatic lattices with any regular topology. In this case the probabilities of each color (isospin) are independent. We then explore the effect of introducing 'non-equilibrium' effects

  20. The Lazarus effect

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    Members of the RD39 collaboration stage a demonstration of the Lazarus effect in the CERN cryolab. At the LHC experiments, the front-line inner detectors - trackers - will be traversed by a mammoth thousand million million passing particles per square centimetre over the lifetimes of the experiments. After long exposure to passing particles, defects appear in the silicon and the signal is destroyed. A group of physicists at Bern University have found that at temperatures below 100 K, dead detectors apparently come back to life. They're calling their discovery the Lazarus effect after the Biblical character raised from the dead by Jesus after he had been entombed for four days.

  1. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  2. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  3. The Vampire Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erfgen, Carsten; Zenker, Sebastian; Sattler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although many brand managers favor the use of celebrities in advertisements, others worry that celebrities overshadow the brand and thus impair brand recall. Practitioners refer to this overshadowing as the vampire effect, defined as a decrease in brand recall for an advertising stimulus...... that features a celebrity endorser versus the same stimulus with an unknown but equally attractive endorser. Because there is no agreement about whether this overshadowing really exists, this research analyzes the existence of the vampire effect and its moderators in a series of experiments with a total of 4...

  4. Level width broadening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2003-01-01

    In file-6 for double-differential cross sections, the level width broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg' uncertainty. Besides level width broadening effect, the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in fitting measurement procedure. In general, the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed. However, to do so in this way the energy balance could not be held. For this reason, the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced, with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could be held exactly in the analytical form. (author)

  5. Proactively evaluating training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Harry E.

    2003-01-01

    A common model of the five phase Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) displays the fifth phase, evaluation, feeding back into the previous four phases: analysis, design, development, and implementation. Evaluating training effectiveness in PP and L's Nuclear Department is not simply the fifth phase of the SAT. PP and L has demonstrated a more effective methodology is realized when evaluation is built into each of the other four phases. At PP and L, evaluation is conducted formatively throughout the first four phases of the SAT process and summatively after implementation. (author)

  6. The quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klitzing von, K.

    1989-01-01

    The quantized Hall effect is theoretically explained in detail as are its basic properties. The explanation is completed with the pertinent mathematical relations and illustrative figures. Experimental data are critically assessed obtained by quantum transport measurement in a magnetic field on two-dimensional systems. The results are reported for a MOSFET silicon transistor and for GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The application is discussed of the quantized Hall effect in determining the fine structure constant or in implementing the resistance standard. (M.D.). 27 figs., 57 refs

  7. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  8. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  9. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  10. Training effectiveness evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program

  11. The EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, P R

    2003-01-01

    The status of the EMC effect, the anomalous scattering of leptons on nuclei, is reviewed, together with models which have been formulated to explain it. The implications for other processes are discussed, in particular the relevance to problems in conventional nuclear physics

  12. The service bullwhip effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Voss, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper sets out to explore whether and how the bullwhip effect, as found in product supply chains, might also manifest itself in services, as well as what policies can be successful for mitigating it. Design/methodology/approach A combination of analytic methods was used—inductive case

  13. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  14. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  15. Squeezing the Efimov effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, J. H.; Bellotti, F. F.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    The quantum mechanical three-body problem is a source of continuing interest due to its complexity and not least due to the presence of fascinating solvable cases. The prime example is the Efimov effect where infinitely many bound states of identical bosons can arise at the threshold where the tw...

  16. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  17. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  18. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  19. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  20. Pleiotropic effects of incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia. The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the "glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones" of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-1 7-37 and GLP1 7-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP. GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine, central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health.

  1. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  2. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  3. Radioprotective effect of interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasukhina, G.

    1984-12-18

    A cycle of experiments performed jointly with associations of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute reportedly demonstrated that interferons protect human cells cultivated in a test tube against the action of fast neutrons and gamma radiation. Cells treated in advance with interferon not only survived irradiation but were almost totally protected against harmful effects of fast neutrons on the structure of chromosomes, according to the author. She mentions that the laboratory has also been studying effects produced on cells by compounds of heavy metals and other chemical compounds, including ones which cause breaks in the DNA molecule. Interferon's ability to protect cells against effects of chemical compounds has been studied in this connection. Another direction of the laboratory's work is research on interferon's effects on blood cells of persons suffering from certain hereditary diseases in which restorative processes of cells are impaired. The purpose of this is to develop courses of treatment which will not cause irreversible damages to chromosomes, the author explains. Interferon has been found to stimulate the reparation systems of cells in cases of Marfan's syndrome, for example.

  4. The Hawking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffary, T.

    2001-02-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is the Hawking effect. We study Fredenhagen and Haag's proof of the Hawking radiation in the framework of a semiclassical theory, the quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In particular we give an exact derivation for the short distance behaviour of the two-point function on the Schwarzschild radius

  5. Ensuring effective project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief description is given of the organisation methods employed by the Bechtel Power Corporation, in their contract with Mississippi Power and Light Company for the design, construction and procurement activities for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. The aim is to ensure effective management, and good communications at all stages of construction, between the project team and the client. (U.K.)

  6. Radiation effects in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in the studies of radiation effects in gases are discussed. By means of ionization- excitation- and electron-capture yields various applications are characterized: ionization detectors, X-ray detectors, radionuclide battery, and radiation-induced chemical gas-phase reactions. Some new results of basic research in respect to the SO 2 oxidation are discussed. (author)

  7. Effects of pollutant metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The in vitro cloning efficiency of granulocytic stem cells from mouse bone marrow was completely inhibited or markedly reduced by lead and by materials from shale oil and coal liquefaction processes. Effects of whole body irradiation to syngeneic mice then given DMSO-treated or SRC-injected bone marrow are now being studied

  8. The Kaye effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J M; Landig, A J

    2009-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur.

  9. The Kaye effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, J M; Landig, A J [Student Research Center Suedwuerttemberg, Gutenbergstrasse 18, 88348 Bad Saulgau (Germany)], E-mail: jan.binder@sfz-bw.de, E-mail: andreas.landig@sfz-bw.de

    2009-11-15

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur.

  10. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  11. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  12. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1984-08-01

    After recalling radiation-matter interaction, influence on radiation effects of chemical composition, structure, irradiation atmosphere, dose rate, temperature of organic materials and evolution of electrical, mechanical and physical properties are reviewed. Then behaviour under irradiation of main organic materials: elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, oils and paints are examined. 68 refs [fr

  14. Effects of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  15. Effectivity and Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, Dominik; Peters, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We axiomatically develop a class of power indices for effectivity functions, both for the case where the set of alternatives is finite and where it is infinite. Such power indices make it possible to take the issues under consideration into account, in contrast to power indices defined just for

  16. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  17. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  18. Effects of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The ecological problems that are caused by sulfur pollution in Scandinavia are addressed. Subsequent chemical and physical transformations that the pollutants undergo in the atmosphere are included. The effects of pollutants on soil nutrients, with consequences mainly for forest production, are discussed. Other effects include acidification of lakes and rivers, resulting in decreased fish production. The size of the drop in pH is quite substantial in some of the lakes. The decreased pH has an immediate effect on the change in species composition of fish populations, such as trout and salmon. Efforts to reduce sulfur pollution are discussed. A long term program for the reduction of sulfur in fuel oil has been introduced. At present, there is a ban on the use of oil containing more then 2.5% S (by weight). A further ban on oil containing more than 1% sulfur is in effect in the three major urban areas of Sweden as well as a number of counties. It has been urged by environmental health authorities that in urban pollution control sulfur should be regarded as an indicator of pollutions and not be dealt with as an isolated problem.

  19. Unconscious advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is

  20. Exploring energy rebound effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijs, W.J.M.; Adrians, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the debate on sustainable energy use, one important aspect tends to be systematically overlooked. Sustainability may be increased by developing technological innovations and measures to promote energy conservation, but so-called rebound effects constitute a potential and largely underestimated

  1. Effective magnetic Hamiltonians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1997-2000 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0775 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : effective magnetic Hamiltonian * ab initio * magnetic structure Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  2. Theorising EIA effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Laerhoven, van Frank; Cashmore, Matthew; Runhaar, Hens

    2017-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the 1970s. Relatively few research studies, however, have approached EIA as an instrument of environmental governance, and have explored the mechanisms through which EIA influences the

  3. Effective Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  4. Antihypertensive effects of astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yoshida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hidekatsu Yanai1,2, Kumie Ito1,2, Hiroshi Yoshida2,3, Norio Tada1,21Department of Internal Medicine; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine and Research; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Chiba, JapanAbstract: Astaxanthin is a biological antioxidant naturally found in a wide variety of aquatic living organisms, and has shown various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. A recent study reported that the administration of astaxanthin induced a significant reduction in blood pressure and delayed the incidence of stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, suggesting that astaxanthin also has antihypertensive effect. In a study using aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats, astaxanthin induced a significant reduction of the contractile responses of the aorta to α-adrenergic receptor agonist and angiotensin II, which may contribute to the antihypertensive effect of astaxanthin. In a histopathological study, astaxanthin decreased coronary artery wall thickness compared with the control, indicating the possibility that astaxanthin ameliorates hypertension-induced vascular remodeling. Astaxanthin has anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidative activities; therefore, we should perform further studies to elucidate an antiatherogenic effect of astaxanthin.Keywords: astaxanthin, antioxidant, antihypertensive effect, atherosclerosis

  5. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  6. The weapons effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamin, Arlin James; Bushman, Brad J.

    In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain

  7. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  8. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    annoyances and the objective measurements were analysed. Persons suffering from tinnitus behaved differently than person without tinnitus. The latter group showed significant relations between the measured occlusion effect, hearing loss and the personal of occlusion. The actual sensation level is also...

  9. Using Media Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Recommends that media presentations can be used effectively in the history classroom as images of reality. Suggests films and television programs and documentaries that can be utilized to show how movies play a role in shaping opinion and changing perceptions. (DK)

  10. The Multiplier Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, William L., Jr.; Harris, John B.

    1981-01-01

    The multiplier effect is discussed as it applies to the field of continuing education. The authors' main point is that one grant or contract can, and should, be used as the basis for building organizational competencies and capabilities that will secure other funds. (Author/CT)

  11. Cataloging Efficiency and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Cheryl; Shorten, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to supplement findings of cost studies by providing measures of efficiency and effectiveness for cataloging departments based on reported productivity, number of staff, task distribution, and quality measures including backlogs, authority control, and database maintenance. Identifies…

  12. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    system and change its dynamic behavior and its dynamic characteristics. When predicting structural vibrations it is not common to account for the passive crowd, but the paper will illustrate effects of the presence of a passive croud on structural behavior. Numerical and experimental results...

  13. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Late effects are by definition effects that occur at least one year, and in most cases decades, after the time of exposure. The late effects considered in this chapter are limited to latent cancer incidence and mortality, and benign thyroid disease. A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from the radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. It is assumed that exposure to high-LET radiation would be negligible in such an accident, and thus only risks from low-LET exposure are evaluated. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, bone cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. Because the time of death is also important in assessing the impact of an accident, and because the quality of life after the occurrence of cancer will often be reduced, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated

  14. Problems in photoradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the most interesting photoradiation effects observed in recent years and directs attention to problems whose solution has a bearing on progress in photoradiation chemistry, and which also are significant for divisions of modern physical chemistry such as the kinetics and mechanisms of elementary processes in solid organic materials, the radiation resistance of organic materials, and aging in polymers

  15. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  16. Cognitive Effects and Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Lara; Ahmed, Ebtesam; Shin, Jae; Scharaga, Elyssa; Magun, Maximilian

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive effects and sedation (CES) are prevalent in chronic nonmalignant pain populations receiving long-term opioid therapy and are among the most common reasons patients discontinue opioid use. In this narrative review, we describe the phenomenology, epidemiology, mechanisms, assessment, and management of opioid-related CES. We reviewed the empirical and theoretical literature on CES in opioid-treated populations with chronic pain. Data on long-term opioid therapy (≥ 3 months in duration) in chronic nonmalignant pain patients were sought. The phenomenology of CES includes: inattention, concentration difficulties, memory deficits, psychomotor dysfunction, perceptual distortions, and executive dysfunction and somnolence, sleep disorders, and lethargy. Deficits may be caused by unrelieved pain or opioid therapy alone, or from a combination of these and other factors. Mechanisms include central nervous system effects, for example, direct toxic effects on neurons resulting in decreased consciousness; direct effects on processing and reaction resulting in cognitive or psychomotor impairment, and inhibitory effects on cholinergic activity. Pharmacological management approaches may include opioid dose reduction and rotation or psychostimulant use. Nonpharmacological approaches may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acupuncture, exercise, and yoga. The most prevalent CES include: memory deficits (73-81%), sleep disturbance (35-57%), and fatigue (10%). At its most severe, extreme cognitive dysfunction can result in frank delirium and decreased alertness can result in coma. Emotional distress, sleep disorders, and other comorbidities and treatments can worsen CES, particularly among the elderly. Conclusions about the neuropsychological domains affected by opioids are limited due to the heterogeneity of studies and methodological issues. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Wind-wave induced dynamic response analysis for motions and mooring loads of a spar-type offshore floating wind turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钰; 肖龙飞; 胡志强

    2014-01-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the environmental issues like pollution and global warming, the exploration for renewable and clean energies becomes crucial. The offshore floating wind turbines (OFWTs) draw a great deal of attention recently as a means to exploit the steadier and stronger wind resources available in deep water seas. This paper studies the hydrodynamic characteristics of a spar-type wind turbine known as the OC3-Hywind concept and the dynamic responses of the turbine. Response characteristics of motions and mooring loads of the system under different sea states are evaluated and the effects of the loads induced by the wind and the wave on the system are discussed. The calculations are carried out with the numerical simulation code FAST in the time domain and the frequency analysis is made by using the FFT method. The results and the conclusions from this paper might help better understand the behavior characteristics of the floating wind turbine system under actual ocean environments and provide valuable data in design and engineering practice.

  18. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  19. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  20. Regional Healthcare Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kudelina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of healthcare systems effectiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation (federal districts was conducted using the Minmax method based on the data available at the United Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. Four groups of components (i.e. availability of resources; use of resources; access to resources and medical effectiveness decomposed into 17 items were analyzed. The resource availability was measured by four indicators, including the provision of doctors, nurses, hospital beds; agencies providing health care to the population. Use of resources was measured by seven indicators: the average hospital stay, days; the average bed occupancy, days; the number of operations per 1 physician surgical; the cost per unit volume of medical care: in outpatient clinics, day hospitals, inpatient and emergency care. Access to the resources was measured by three indicators: the satisfaction of the population by medical care; the capacity of outpatient clinics; the average number of visits to health facility. The medical effectiveness was also measured by three indicators: incidence with the "first-ever diagnosis of malignancy"; life expectancy at birth, years; the number of days of temporary disability. The study of the dynamics of the components and indexes for 2008–2012 allows to indicate a multidirectional influence on the regional healthcare system. In some federal districts (e.g. North Caucasian, the effectiveness decreases due to resource availability, in others (South, North Caucasian — due to the use of resources, in others (Far Eastern, Ural — due to access to resources. It is found that the effectiveness of the healthcare systems of the federal districts differs significantly. In addition, the built matrix proves the variability the of effectiveness (comparison of expenditures and results of healthcare systems of the federal districts of the Russian Federation: the high results can be obtained at high costs

  1. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  3. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  4. Renormalization and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1984-01-01

    There is a strong intuitive understanding of renormalization, due to Wilson, in terms of the scaling of effective lagrangians. We show that this can be made the basis for a proof of perturbative renormalization. We first study renormalizability in the language of renormalization group flows for a toy renormalization group equation. We then derive an exact renormalization group equation for a four-dimensional lambda PHI 4 theory with a momentum cutoff. We organize the cutoff dependence of the effective lagrangian into relevant and irrelevant parts, and derive a linear equation for the irrelevant part. A lengthy but straightforward argument establishes that the piece identified as irrelevant actually is so in perturbation theory. This implies renormalizability. The method extends immediately to any system in which a momentum-space cutoff can be used, but the principle is more general and should apply for any physical cutoff. Neither Weinberg's theorem nor arguments based on the topology of graphs are needed. (orig.)

  5. Developing Effective Clinical Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Khamarko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education and training provides a means to improve performance among health care professionals (HCP. Research shows, however, that continuing professional education activities have inconsistent effects on HCP competence, performance, and patient health outcomes. Furthermore, the trainer’s role as a facilitator of knowledge translation (KT has been understudied. To understand how clinical trainers support their trainees in translating what they learned into practice, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with expert trainers. These interviews yielded a variety of KT-enhancing strategies, including tailoring training activities to their trainees’ needs. In addition, participants recommended trainers familiarize themselves with their trainees’ work environments, be able to identify their knowledge deficits, and devote time to provide trainees with post-training support. Creating an effective training, one that leads to transfer, requires active planning, communication, and command of the training topic by skilled trainers.

  6. Transverse spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the role that transverse spin physics can play in providing information on the bound state dynamics in hadronic physics. Care is taken to distinguish between single- and double-spin measurements, each being discussed separately. In the case of single-spin effects it is stressed that as yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided within the framework if perturbative QCD which in fact generally predicts negligible effects. In order to clarify the situation experimental data at yet higher p T are necessary and semi-leptonic data could shed some light on the underlying scattering mechanisms. As regards double-spin correlations, the theoretical picture (although clouded by some ill-informed, often erroneous statements and even recent papers) is rather well understood and what is dearly missing is the experimental study of, for example, g 2 in deep-inelastic scattering. (author). 31 refs

  7. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  8. [Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Gong, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is a new antiepileptic drug. The results of clinical trials suggest that oxcarbazepine is well tolerated and has less drug interactions. It is being used more and more widely in clinical practice, but its adverse effects should not be ignored. The most common adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are usually related to the central nervous system and digestive system, including fatigue, drowsiness, diplopia, dizziness, nausea and vomit. The common skin adverse reaction is rash. Long-term use of oxcarbazepine may also cause hyponatremia. This article reviews the literature from China and overseas about the adverse effets of oxcarbazepine over the last 10 years in order to find information about rational clinical use of oxcarbazepine.

  9. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest that translating a design theory (DT) into practice (e.g. creating an instance design artifact (IDA)) is hardly straight-forward and requires substantial creativity. Specifically the authors suggest that adopting a DT embodies a creativity passdown...... effect in which the creative thinking of a team of design theorist(s) inherent in DT invokes a creative mind of a team of artifact instance designer(s) in creating an IDA. In this study, the authors empirically investigate the creativity passdown effect through an action case in which a DT (DT nexus...... designer team introducing a previously published DT as a basis for creating an IDA. Findings – The experience in the action case suggests that using a DT in creating an IDA may encourage design thinking, and in certain way increase its power and practical relevance by fostering the creative mind...

  10. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  11. Lightning Physics and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  12. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  13. Electricity Distribution Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Szpyra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the basic concepts of cost accounting in the power industry and selected ways of assessing the effectiveness of electricity distribution. The results of effectiveness analysis of MV/LV distribution transformer replacement are presented, and unit costs of energy transmission through various medium-voltage line types are compared. The calculation results confirm the viability of replacing transformers manufactured before 1975. Replacing transformers manufactured after 1975 – only to reduce energy losses – is not economically justified. Increasing use of a PAS type line for energy transmission in local distribution networks is reasonable. Cabling these networks under the current calculation rules of discounts for excessive power outages is not viable, even in areas particularly exposed to catastrophic wire icing.

  14. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  15. Context effects in games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vlaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.

  16. The effects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that the Chernobyl accident will result in an (undetectable) increase of cancer in the U.K. over the next 40-50 years-probably 400-500 cases occurring, less than half of which would be fatal. Preventive measures which could have been instigated would have had doubtful effects in terms of total health detriment in the population. The overall governmental response was marked by confusion. The need for independent monitoring and assessment, and effective public communication was highlighted by the number of unofficial bodies and 'instant experts' approached for advice and information. There is an obvious need for some consensus about intervention or action levels among European countries. (U.K.)

  17. The weapons effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin James; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons effect occurs. This model postulates that exposure to weapons increases aggressive thoughts and hostile appraisals, thus explaining why weapons facilitate aggressive behavior. Data from meta-analytic reviews are consistent with the General Aggression Model. These findings have important practical as well as theoretical implications. They suggest that the link between weapons and aggression is very strong in semantic memory, and that merely seeing a weapon can make people more aggressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  20. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  1. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  2. Effective quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Certain dimensional parameters play a crucial role in the understanding of weak and strong interactions based on SU(2) x U(1) and SU(3) symmetry group theories and of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on SU(5). These parameters are the confinement scale of quantum chromodynamics and the breaking scales of SU(2) x U(1) and SU(5). The concepts of effective quantum field theories and renormalisability are discussed with reference to the economics and ethics of research. (U.K.)

  3. Effects of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  4. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  5. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  6. Effect of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D.Baswaraj; Vasanthi,; Sareddy Deepthi; Mohammad Zainuddin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will put forward the vast effect on nanotechnology in various fields. A basic definition of Nanotechnology is the study manipulation and manufacture of extremely minute machines or devices. The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict. Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases .the technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules and atoms will be a large part of this future, enabling great impr...

  7. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  8. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  9. The Leverage Ratchet Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Anat R. Admati; Peter M. DeMarzo; Martin F. Hellwig; Paul Pfleiderer

    2013-01-01

    Shareholder-creditor conflicts can create leverage ratchet effects, resulting in inefficient capital structures. Once debt is in place, shareholders may inefficiently increase leverage but avoid reducing it no matter how beneficial leverage reduction might be to total firm value. We present conditions for an irrelevance result under which shareholders view asset sales, pure recapitalization and asset expansion with new equity as equally undesirable. We then analyze how seniority, asset hetero...

  10. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  11. [Neuroprotective effects of curcumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Pengwen

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, turmeric has been put to use as a food additive and herbal medicine in Asia. Curcumin is an active principle of the perennial herb curcuma longa (commonly known as turmeric). Recent evidence suggests that curcumin has activities with potential for neuroprotective efficacy, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiprotein-aggregate activities. In the current review, we provide the newly evidence for the potential role of curcumin in the neuroprotective effects of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  12. Delegating effectively across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Chevrier; Michaël Viegas-Pires

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article builds on the contingency approach of global leadership to examine empowerment in a cross-cultural context. Drawing upon an ethnographic research in a French NGO settled in Madagascar, it demonstrates that effective empowerment is not so much a matter of degree -more or less delegation- than a matter of manner. Understanding the cultural representations of role and structure formalization, skill development, collective work and decision-making appeared to ...

  13. Coanda effect in valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coanda effect takes place in flow within valves diffuser for certain conditions. The valve plug in half-closed position forms wall-jet, which could be stable or instable, depending on geometry and other conditions. This phenomenon was subject of experimental study using time-resolved PIV technique. For the acquired data analysis the special spatio-temporal methods have been used.

  14. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  15. Radiation effects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leteurtre Jean.

    1978-01-01

    The current understanding of radiation damage in metals is reviewed, simplifying the actual complexity of the effects by considering some aspects separately. The production of point defects in metals, the primary damage state are first studied. The second part of the lecture is devoted to the evolution of this primary damage state as a function of temperature and dose: the steady state concentration of point defects, the nucleation of secondary defects and their growth are successively considered

  16. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, I.; Janssens, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  17. Separating Gender Composition Effects from Peer Effects in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of controlling for endogenous peer effects in estimating the influence of gender peer effects on educational outcomes. Using Manski's linear-in-means model, this paper illustrates that the estimation of gender peer effects is potentially biased in the presence of endogenous peer effect in education.…

  18. Stringy effects in scrambling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, Stephen H. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford, Douglas [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University Stanford, CA (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-26

    In (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067) we gave a precise holographic calculation of chaos at the scrambling time scale. We studied the influence of a small perturbation, long in the past, on a two-sided correlation function in the thermofield double state. A similar analysis applies to squared commutators and other out-of-time-order one-sided correlators (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)046, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2015)051A). The essential bulk physics is a high energy scattering problem near the horizon of an AdS black hole. The above papers used Einstein gravity to study this problem; in the present paper we consider stringy and Planckian corrections. Elastic stringy corrections play an important role, effectively weakening and smearing out the development of chaos. We discuss their signature in the boundary field theory, commenting on the extension to weak coupling. Inelastic effects, although important for the evolution of the state, leave a parametrically small imprint on the correlators that we study. We briefly discuss ways to diagnose these small corrections, and we propose another correlator where inelastic effects are order one.

  19. Understaning the "funding effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2016-12-01

    There is a long history of industry funding of scientific and engineering research in the USA. Much of this work has been of high quality. Research demonstrates, however, that corporate funding can represent a threat to scientific independence and integrity. Studies show that sponsors' interests can affect research results, particularly when sponsors have a strong interest in a particular research outcome. The effects may occur through the impact of subconscious bias on sampling, study design, data interpretation, and/or reporting of results. Corporate funding can also skew research toward investigating certain questions at the expense of others, downplaying the significance of adverse findings, and/or failing to report adverse results. Gifts can affect behavior, even when they are unrelated to research activities. These impacts that are so substantial that they have a name: "the funding effect."[i] Evidence shows that scientists who strive to be objective and fair-minded may nonetheless fall prey to the funding effect. In many cases, the challenges of corporate gifts and funding can be addressed through education and improved self-awareness, agreements that protect researchers' freedom to publish without sponsor approval, sensible disclosure policies, and reasonable sanctions for failures of disclosure. However, in some cases, it may be appropriate for researchers and scientific societies to decline funding.

  20. Squeezing the Efimov effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, J. H.; Bellotti, F. F.; Yamashita, M. T.; Frederico, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.

    2018-03-01

    The quantum mechanical three-body problem is a source of continuing interest due to its complexity and not least due to the presence of fascinating solvable cases. The prime example is the Efimov effect where infinitely many bound states of identical bosons can arise at the threshold where the two-body problem has zero binding energy. An important aspect of the Efimov effect is the effect of spatial dimensionality; it has been observed in three dimensional systems, yet it is believed to be impossible in two dimensions. Using modern experimental techniques, it is possible to engineer trap geometry and thus address the intricate nature of quantum few-body physics as function of dimensionality. Here we present a framework for studying the three-body problem as one (continuously) changes the dimensionality of the system all the way from three, through two, and down to a single dimension. This is done by considering the Efimov favorable case of a mass-imbalanced system and with an external confinement provided by a typical experimental case with a (deformed) harmonic trap.

  1. Stringy effects in scrambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067) we gave a precise holographic calculation of chaos at the scrambling time scale. We studied the influence of a small perturbation, long in the past, on a two-sided correlation function in the thermofield double state. A similar analysis applies to squared commutators and other out-of-time-order one-sided correlators (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)046, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2015)051A). The essential bulk physics is a high energy scattering problem near the horizon of an AdS black hole. The above papers used Einstein gravity to study this problem; in the present paper we consider stringy and Planckian corrections. Elastic stringy corrections play an important role, effectively weakening and smearing out the development of chaos. We discuss their signature in the boundary field theory, commenting on the extension to weak coupling. Inelastic effects, although important for the evolution of the state, leave a parametrically small imprint on the correlators that we study. We briefly discuss ways to diagnose these small corrections, and we propose another correlator where inelastic effects are order one.

  2. Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).

  3. Nonnutritive effects of glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Erich

    2008-10-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid of the human body. Besides its role as a constituent of proteins and its importance in amino acid transamination, glutamine has regulatory capacity in immune and cell modulation. Glutamine deprivation reduces proliferation of lymphocytes, influences expression of surface activation markers on lymphocytes and monocytes, affects the production of cytokines, and stimulates apoptosis. Moreover, glutamine administration seems to have a positive effect on glucose metabolism in the state of insulin resistance. Glutamine influences a variety of different molecular pathways. Glutamine stimulates the formation of heat shock protein 70 in monocytes by enhancing the stability of mRNA, influences the redox potential of the cell by enhancing the formation of glutathione, induces cellular anabolic effects by increasing the cell volume, activates mitogen-activated protein kinases, and interacts with particular aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases in specific glutamine-sensing metabolism. Glutamine is applied under clinical conditions as an oral, parenteral, or enteral supplement either as the single amino acid or in the form of glutamine-containing dipeptides for preventing mucositis/stomatitis and for preventing glutamine-deficiency in critically ill patients. Because of the high turnover rate of glutamine, even high amounts of glutamine up to a daily administration of 30 g can be given without any important side effects.

  4. The intention interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Kantner, Justin; Dixon, Roger A; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Intentions have been shown to be more accessible (e.g., more quickly and accurately recalled) compared to other sorts of to-be-remembered information; a result termed an intention superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993). In the current study, we demonstrate an intention interference effect (IIE) in which color-naming performance in a Stroop task was slower for words belonging to an intention that participants had to remember to carry out (Do-the-Task condition) versus an intention that did not have to be executed (Ignore-the-Task condition). In previous work (e.g., Cohen et al., 2005), having a prospective intention in mind was confounded with carrying a memory load. In Experiment 1, we added a digit-retention task to control for effects of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the memory confound in a new way, by comparing intention-related and control words within each trial. Results from both Experiments 1 and 2 revealed an IIE suggesting that interference is very specific to the intention, not just to a memory load.

  5. The real butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, T N; Döring, A; Seregin, G

    2014-01-01

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  6. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  7. Effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2006-01-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  8. Estimation of morbidity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, B.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers have related exposure to ambient air pollution to respiratory morbidity. To be included in this review and analysis, however, several criteria had to be met. First, a careful study design and a methodology that generated quantitative dose-response estimates were required. Therefore, there was a focus on time-series regression analyses relating daily incidence of morbidity to air pollution in a single city or metropolitan area. Studies that used weekly or monthly average concentrations or that involved particulate measurements in poorly characterized metropolitan areas (e.g., one monitor representing a large region) were not included in this review. Second, studies that minimized confounding ad omitted variables were included. For example, research that compared two cities or regions and characterized them as 'high' and 'low' pollution area were not included because of potential confounding by other factors in the respective areas. Third, concern for the effects of seasonality and weather had to be demonstrated. This could be accomplished by either stratifying and analyzing the data by season, by examining the independent effects of temperature and humidity, and/or by correcting the model for possible autocorrelation. A fourth criterion for study inclusion was that the study had to include a reasonably complete analysis of the data. Such analysis would include an careful exploration of the primary hypothesis as well as possible examination of te robustness and sensitivity of the results to alternative functional forms, specifications, and influential data points. When studies reported the results of these alternative analyses, the quantitative estimates that were judged as most representative of the overall findings were those that were summarized in this paper. Finally, for inclusion in the review of particulate matter, the study had to provide a measure of particle concentration that could be converted into PM10, particulate matter below 10

  9. Effects of increased biofuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, J.; Blad, B.; Hillring, B.

    1996-01-01

    This report is a compilation of present knowledge regarding the effects of an increased use of biomass fuels. Main areas treated are: Availability of raw materials; Effects on forestry and agriculture; Transportation; Areas of use; Cost and price formation; Emission to the atmosphere, and effect on the climate; and Effect on employment and regional aspects. 29 tabs

  10. Isotope effects on nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This review concentrates upon empirical trends and practical uses of mostly secondary isotope effects, both of the intrinsic and equilibrium types. The text and the tables are arranged in the following fashion. The most 'popular' isotope effect is treated first, deuterium isotope effects on 13 C nuclear shielding, followed by deuterium on 1 H nuclear shieldings, etc. Focus is thus on the isotopes producing the effect rather than on the nuclei suffering the effect. After a brief treatment of each type of isotope effect, general trends are dealt with. Basic trends of intrinsic isotope effects such as additivity, solvent effects, temperature effects, steric effects, substituent effects and hyperconjugation are discussed. Uses of isotope effects for assignment purposes, in stereochemical studies, in hydrogen bonding and in isotopic tracer studies are dealt with. Kinetic studies, especially of phosphates, are frequently performed by utilizing isotope effects. In addition, equilibrium isotope effects are treated in great detail as these are felt to be new and very important and may lead to new uses of isotope effects. Techniques used to obtain isotope effects are briefly surveyed at the end of the chapter. (author)

  11. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  12. Telepsychiatry: effectiveness and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajaria A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amy Gajaria,1 David K Conn,1,2 Robert Madan1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Providing psychiatric services by real-time videoconferencing has been increasingly adopted as a method of reaching hard-to-serve populations since the early 1990s. As the field has expanded, a growing body of research has developed investigating both how telepsychiatry compares to in-person psychiatric care and how effectively telepsychiatry can be implemented in routine clinical care. A narrative review was performed to consider the evidence that telepsychiatry is feasible and effective across a variety of patient populations and clinical settings. There is a growing body of evidence investigating the efficacy of telepsychiatry when used for psychiatric assessment and treatment in the adult, child, and geriatric populations. Though studies vary in quality, they generally demonstrate that telepsychiatry is effective across multiple age groups and clinical settings. Telepsychiatry is generally well accepted by patients and clinicians and is feasible to implement, with the suggestion that some patients may actually prefer telepsychiatry to in-person treatment. Issues to consider in the implementation of telepsychiatry services include funding and reimbursement, medico-legal issues when provision crosses legislative boundaries, incorporation into existing health systems, and crosscultural considerations. Future directions for research and practice include a need for higher-quality efficacy studies, consideration of data security, increased attention to low- and middle-income countries, and the introduction of novel technological approaches. Keywords: efficacy, service delivery, telemental health, videoconferencing 

  13. Effectiveness of peritonaeal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last few years, an increasing number of patients suffering from terminal renal disease of various leading causes was treated with renal replacement therapy. Peritonaeal dialysis involves an exchange of water and solutes between blood in the peritonaeal capillaries and dialysate in the peritonaeal cavum throughout the peritonaeum. Effective dialysis treatment should provide good quality of life, decrease the number of physical complaints, and bring the incidence of morbidity and mortality closer to the incidence of morbidity and mortality in the healthy population. Aim. The aim of this study was the evaluation of peritonaeal transport characteristics and dialysis effectiveness in 58 patients affected by terminal renal disease who underwent peritonaeal dialysis treatment during August 2003 at the Clinic of Nephrology of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Method. We examined 30 male and 28 female patients, with an average age of 52 years (range 26 to 78 years. The average duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment was 20 months (ranging from 2 to 66 months, and the end-stage renal failure was caused by different leading disease in our patients. We applied different dialysis modalities: continuous ambulatory peritonaeal dialysis (CAPD with three to five 2- or 3-litre exchanges daily, cyclic peritonaeal dialysis (CCPD, intermittent peritonaeal dialysis (IPD, or automatic peritonaeal dialysis (APD, according to the transport characteristics of the peritonaeal membrane, the residual renal function (RRF, and the clinical status of the patients, in order to perform adequate depuration as suggested by the new international criteria. A peritonaeal equilibrium test (PET was performed according to the new international advice; urea and creatinine clearances (Kt/V and Ccr as well as RRF were calculated using the internationally suggested formulas. Results. Most of our patients received effective dialysis treatment, thanks to the modulation of

  14. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  15. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  16. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  17. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  18. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of the increase of the temperature of the earth's atmosphere as a consequence of the increase in the CO 2 and other trace gas content has been reviewed. The results of various model studies have been included. There is the frightening prediction that global mean temperature will rise by several degrees with the consequent rise of mean sea level. Model computations also show that in the tropics rainfall will increase whereas in the subtropics and southern mid latitude, rainfall will decrease. If this happens, mankind will be faced with a major disaster in history. Agreement between theory and observations has been discussed. (author). 16 refs, 8 tabs

  19. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the most important findings concerning the genetic effects of radiation have been obtained in the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The paper focuses on some of the major discoveries made in the Biology Division and on a new method of research that assesses damage to the skeletons of mice whose fathers were irradiated. The results discussed have considerable influence upon estimates of genetic risk in humans from radiation, and an attempt is made to put the estimated amount of genetic damage caused by projected nuclear power development into its proper perspective

  20. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  1. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...... the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five social...

  2. Effective Lagrangian from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method to calculate the structure of the effective potential for four-dimensional vacua of the heterotic superstring with the space-time supersymmetry. The authors spell out the properties of the string vertices as defined in terms of the conformal field theory, the structure of the string amplitudes, in particular those that probe the superpotential terms, and present a method to evaluate such string amplitudes. The authors illustrate the approach by presenting certain results for the (blown-up) orbifolds

  3. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  4. Photochemical effects of sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, F

    1972-07-01

    The importance of sunlight in bringing about not only photosynthesis in plants, but also other photochemical effects, is reviewed. More effort should be devoted to photochemical storage of the sun's energy without the living plant. There is no theoretical reason to believe that such reactions are impossible. Ground rules for searching for suitable solar photochemical reactions are given, and a few attempts are described, but nothing successful has yet been found. Future possibilities are suggested. Photogalvanic cells which convert sunlight into electricity deserve further research. Eugene Rabinowitch has been an active pioneer in these fields.

  5. Effective mechanic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdge, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The need for the training of mechanics is discussed, and the increased interest within the utility industry of placing a similar importance on this training as it has traditionally placed on operator training, is expressed. Effective approaches and techniques are described. Fundamental mechanical maintenance concepts and their practical application are discussed, including the use of supporting video programs. The importance of follow-up practical shop exercise which reinforces classroom instruction is stressed, drawing from practical utility experience. Utilizing success in training as a measure of eligibility for advancement is discussed as well as the interface between training and the company bargaining unit

  6. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Hirotsugu; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1975-01-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of 60 Co γ-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed. (auth.)

  7. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc......, and national identity politics in Denmark. Despite the medical doctors’ efforts and intentions, the out- come was framed by 9/11, which has become the major critical event of the decade—one that has supported a developing cleavage between the Danish majority and Denmark’s Muslim immigrant minority....

  8. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  9. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  10. Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, A. V.

    2003-02-01

    These lecture notes present some of the basic ideas of heavy quark effective theory. The topics covered include the classification of states, the derivation of the HQET Lagrangian at tree level, hadron masses, meson form factors, Luke's theorem, reparameterization invariance and inclusive decays. Radiative corrections are discussed in some detail, including an explicit computation of a matching correction for HQET. Borel summability, renormalons, and their connection with the QCD perturbation series is covered, as well as the use of the upsilon expansion to improve the convergence of the perturbation series.

  11. Higgs Effective Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this meeting is to present new theoretical advancements related to effective field theories, evaluate the impact of initial results from the LHC Run2, and discuss proposals for data interpretation/presentation during Run2. A crucial role of the meeting is to bring together theorists from different backgrounds and with different viewpoints and to extend bridges towards the experimental community. To this end, we would like to achieve a good balance between senior and junior speakers, enhancing the visibility of younger scientists while keeping some overview talks.

  12. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1975-06-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed.

  13. Radiation. Doses, effect, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Todorov, P.

    1994-12-01

    This book outlines in a popular form the topic of ionizing radiation impacts on living organisms. It contains data gathered by ICRP for a period of 35 years. The essential dosimetry terms and units are presented. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are described. Possible biological radiation effects and diseases as a consequence of external and internal irradiation at normal and accidental conditions are considered. An assessment of genetic risk for human populations is presented and the concept of 'acceptable risk' is discussed

  14. Minimizing the Pacman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.; Chou, W.

    1997-10-01

    The Pacman bunches will experience two deleterious effects: tune shift and orbit displacement. It is known that the tune shift can be compensated by arranging crossing planes 900 relative to each other at successive interaction points (lPs). This paper gives an analytical estimate of the Pacman orbit displacement for a single as well as for two crossings. For the latter, it can be minimized by using equal phase advances from one IP to another. In the LHC, this displacement is in any event small and can be neglected

  15. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general

  16. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  17. Piezoelectric effects in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.

    1976-03-01

    Precision methods have been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the complex piezoelectric stress constants and the electric conduction and polarization currents. Samples of Collagen, keratin, and chitin are prepared and measured in such a way to optimize the determination of the position and orientation of the electric dipole moments. The temperature and the hydration state of the samples are varied during the measurement of the piezoelectric constants in an effort to understand the role of water in biological material. Above 40 0 C, the inherent piezolectricity is enhanced by the water of hydration, in contrast to the more easily understood reduction observed at lower temperatures. Gelatin, which has no inherent piezoelectricity, displays a piezoelectricity proportional to the currents of conduction and polarization. An analysis of the new effect shows that it is a measure of the variation of the resistivity with deformation (d rho/dS - rho) in the same way that the electric field induced piezoelectricity is a measure of the variation of the dielectric constant with deformation (dk/dS + k). Both are sensitive to electric dipole relaxation effects. (Author) [pt

  18. Acrolein health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator).

  19. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  20. Radiation effects on microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of radiation-hardened microelectronics in nuclear power systems include (a) light water reactor (LWR) containment building, postaccident instrumentation that can operate through the beta and gamma radiation released in a design basis loss-of-coolant accident; (b) advanced LWR instrumentation and control systems employing distributed digital integrated circuit (IC) technology to achieve a high degree of artificial intelligence and thereby reduce the probability of operator error under accident conditions; (c) instrumentation, command, control and communication systems for space nuclear power applications that must operate during the neutron and gamma-ray core leakage environments as well as the background electron, proton, and heavy charged particle environments of space; and (d) robotics systems designed for the described functions. Advanced microelectronics offer advantages in cost and reliability over alternative approaches to instrumentation and control. No semiconductor technology is hard to all classes of radiation effects phenomena. As the effects have become better understood, however, significant progress has been made in hardening IC technology. Application of hardened microelectronics to nuclear power systems has lagged military applications because of the limited market potential of hardened instruments and numerous institutional impediments

  1. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Roehl, W.

    1990-01-01

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Meditation: Process and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has become popular in many Western nations, especially the USA. An increasing body of research shows various health benefits associated with meditation and these findings have sparked interest in the field of medicine. The practice of meditation originated in the ancient Vedic times of India and is described in the ancient Vedic texts. Meditation is one of the modalities used in Ayurveda (Science of Life), the comprehensive, natural health care system that originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. The term "meditation" is now loosely used to refer to a large number of diverse techniques. According to Vedic science, the true purpose of meditation is to connect oneself to one's deep inner Self. Techniques which achieve that goal serve the true purpose of meditation. Neurological and physiological correlates of meditation have been investigated previously. This article describes the process of meditation at a more fundamental level and aims to shed light on the deeper underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects associated with meditation. Research on the effects of meditation is summarized.

  3. Biological effects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the thermal effects on proliferation activity in the intestinal epithelium of the goldfish acclimated at different temperatures (stationary state). The cell division occurs only at certain phases of the circadian cycle when the proliferative activity is synchronized or trained by an environmental factor such as light-dark cycle. Another aspect of the project is the study of the biological effects, non-stochastic, on cell kinetics in animals chronically exposed to low dose rates or tritium and gamma rays from 60 CO, used as a standard radiation. The influence on the accumulated dose per cell and cycle cell in function of the duration of the cell cycle at different acclimation temperatures should be considered. To calculate the risk of tritium contamination from nuclear power plants (radiation exposure), the organic tissue-bond is of decisive importance due to the long turnover of the organic tissue-bond in organisms favouring transport of tritium to other organisms of the ecosystem and to man. (author)

  4. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    Full Text Available Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  5. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  6. Handbook of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book

  7. Stochastic Effects in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicksman M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We are currently studying microstructural responses to diffusion-limited coarsening in two-phase materials. A mathematical solution to late-stage multiparticle diffusion in finite systems is formulated with account taken of particle-particle interactions and their microstructural correlations, or "locales". The transition from finite system behavior to that for an infinite microstructure is established analytically. Large-scale simulations of late-stage phase coarsening dynamics show increased fluctuations with increasing volume fraction, Vv, of the mean flux entering or leaving particles of a given size class. Fluctuations about the mean flux were found to depend on the scaled particle size, R/, where R is the radius of a particle and is the radius of the dispersoid averaged over the population within the microstructure. Specifically, small (shrinking particles tend to display weak fluctuations about their mean flux, whereas particles of average, or above average size, exhibit strong fluctuations. Remarkably, even in cases of microstructures with a relatively small volume fraction (Vv ~ 10-4, the particle size distribution is broader than that for the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov limit predicted at zero volume fraction. The simulation results reported here provide some additional surprising insights into the effect of diffusion interactions and stochastic effects during evolution of a microstructure, as it approaches its thermodynamic end-state.

  8. "Metamagnetoelectric" effect in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouokeng, G. C.; Fodouop, F. Kuate; Tchoffo, M.; Fai, L. C.; Randrianantoandro, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of magnetoelectric properties in a quasi-two dimensional spin chain externally controlled by a static electric field in y-direction and magnetic field in z-direction. Given the diversity of properties in functional materials and their applications in physics, the multiferroic model is investigated. By using the Fermi-Dirac statistics of quantum gases and the Landau theory, we assess the effects of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the electric polarization on the magnetoelectric coupling that induces at low temperature the "metamagnetoelectric" effet, and likewise affects the ferroelectricity induced through symmetry mechanisms and magnetic properties of the multiferroic system. In fact, the variation of the induced polarisation due to spin arrangement through the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction gives rise to a multistep interdependent metamagnetic and metaelectric transitions which are settled up by the corresponding Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya parameter and the system then exhibits a spin gap that results from an electric and a magnetic demagnetization field range. This metamagnetoelectric effect observed in these multiferroic materials model is seem to be highly tunable via the external electric and magnetic fields and thus can be crucial in the design of new mechanisms for the processing and storage of data and other spintronic applications.

  9. Modification of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the tissue distribution of 239 Pu and 241 Am in mice and beagle dogs and the effectiveness of various therapeutic treatments for decorporation. In dogs injected with monomeric Pu the value of a regimen of early and prolonged treatment with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) for minimizing the Pu burden in the soft tissues and skeleton was demonstrated. These results have immediate implication for DTPA treatment in man. New studies in mice verified the action of pyran copolymer antiviral agents in enhancing the effectiveness of DTPA for removal of polymeric Pu from the liver. Recent application of autoradiographic procedures for quantitatively comparing short- and long-term localization of monomeric and polymeric 239 Pu in dog liver showed that there is no net translocation of monomeric Pu within the liver between 6 and 90 days following injection. One of the molecular studies presently underway aims at synthesis of a variety of DTPA esters. The diethyl ester has already been prepared and tested for toxicity in mice. These compounds are designed to bring DTPA into contact with plutonium deposits unavailable to the action of ionic DTPA. (U.S.)

  10. Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1988-06-01

    Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite clay are usually taken to have the form of conversion of this clay mineral to other species, such as illite, disregarding microstructural alteration and cementation caused by precipitation of silica and other compounds. The report is focussed on identification of the primary processes that are involved in such alteration, the release of silica and the microstructural changes associated with heating being of major interest. In the first test phase, Na montmorillonite in distilled water was investigated by XRD, rheology tests and electron microscopy after heating to 60-225 0 C for 0.01 to 1 year. The preliminary conclusions are that heating produces contraction of the particle network to form dense 'branches', the effect being most obvious at the highest temperature but of significance even at 60-100 0 C. Release of substantial amounts of silica gas been documented for temperatures exceeding 150 0 and precipitation of silica was observed on cooling after the hydrothermal testing under the closed conditions that prevailed throughout the tests. The precipitates, which appeared to be amorphous and probably consisted of hydrous silica gels, were concluded to have increased the mechanical strength and caused some brittleness, particularly of the dense clays. The nature of the silica release, which is assumed to be associated with beidellitization, may be closely related to an unstable state of a certain fraction of tetrahedral silica at heat-inducted transfer between two different crystal modes of montmorillonite. (orig.)

  11. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  12. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  13. Nanoscale effects in interdiffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdelyi, Z.; Langer, G.A.; Beke, D.L.; Csik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Diffusion on the nano/atomic scales in multilayers, thin films has many challenging features even if the role of structural defects can be neglected and 'only' the effects related to the nano/atomic scale raise. The most basic equations to describe the diffusion are Fick's equations. It is important to emphasize that the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equations is in general composition independent and Fick's classical equations do not include the stress effects, which can have important influence onto the diffusion especially on the nano/atomic scale. We illustrate that the continuum descriptions of the diffusion cannot be applied automatically on such short distances, the classical continuum approximations (Fick's laws) cannot describe correctly the atomic movements. They predict faster kinetics than the atomistic models and the interface shift is always proportional to the square root of the time. However, the kinetics can be even linear on the nano/atomic scale. We have shown from computer simulations that Fick's laws violate on the nanoscale either in completely or restricted miscible systems. This is strongly related to the discrete character of the system on the nanoscale and to the highly neglected fact in the literature that the diffusion coefficients depend on the composition. As will be seen the composition dependence of D is very important and has very significant influence on the diffusion kinetics on the nano/atomic scales. It originates from the fact that usually the diffusion coefficients are different in an A and in a B matrix. Consequently in case of a real interface, which is not atomically sharp, i.e. there is a more or less intermixed region between the pure A and B matrixes, the diffusion coefficient changes continuously while e.g. an A atom diffuses from the pure A matrix into the pure B. This feature can be also called diffusion asymmetry. We have also illustrated that in this case not only the

  14. Intentional binding of visual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Miriam; Thomaschke, Roland; Kiesel, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    When an action produces an effect, the effect is perceived earlier in time compared to a stimulus without preceding action. This temporal bias is called intentional binding (IB) and serves as an implicit measure of sense of agency. Typically, IB is investigated by presenting a rotating clock hand while participants execute an action and perceive a resulting tone. Participants are asked to estimate the time point of tone onset by referring to the clock hand position. This time point estimate is compared to a time point estimate of a tone in a condition in which the tone occurs without preceding action. Studies employing this classic clock paradigm employed auditory action effects. We modified this paradigm to investigate potential IB of visual action effects, and, additionally, to investigate how IB differs for visual action effects (Experiment 1) in comparison to auditory action effects (Experiment 2). Our results show that, like the IB of an auditory effect, the time point of a visual action effect is shifted toward the causing action, and that the size of the IB depends on the delay duration of the effect. Comparable to auditory action effects, earlier action effects showed stronger IB compared to later action effects. Yet overall IB of the visual effects was weaker than IB of the auditory effects. As IB is seen as an indicator of sense of agency, this may have important implications for the design of human-machine interfaces.

  15. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  16. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  17. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  18. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  19. About greenhouse effect origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrhenius, S.; Chamberlin, Th.; Croll, J.; Fourier, J.; Pouillet, C.; Tyndall, J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand and decipher the ecological crisis in progress, an historical prospect of its origins and evolution at the worldwide scale is necessary. This book gathers seven founder articles (including 4 original translations), harbingers of the present day climate change. Written during the 19. century by famous scientists like Joseph Fourier, Claude Pouillet, James Croll, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius and Thomas Chamberlin, they relate a century of major progress in the domain of Earth's sciences in praise of these scientists. This book allows to (re)discover these texts: discovery of the greenhouse effect principle (Fourier), determination of solar radiation absorption by the atmosphere (Pouillet), rivalry between the astronomical theory of glacial cycles (Croll) and the carbon dioxide climatic theory (Tyndall), influence of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on the global warming (Arrhenius), and confirmation of the major role of CO 2 in the Earth's temperature regulation (Chamberlin). (J.S.)

  20. Applications of Josephson effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benacka, S.

    Week coupling superconducting systems are described, such as the tunnel system, the bridge-type system, the whisker connection of two superconductors, and the Clark SLUG (Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer). The equivalent diagram is presented. If the power supply resistance is greater than the barrier resistance, the hysteresis occurs of the volt-ampere characteristics as a function of the inherent capacitance and inductance of the system. In the opposite case, hysteresis decays and the negative differential resistance region may be effective. The d.c. and high-='requency SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) systems are described. The whisker and bridge types are mainly used in the high-frequency region. These systems may be used as sources of electromagnetic radiation of up to 10 THz. The generated out.out is in the order of 10 -10 W. (J.B.)

  1. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  2. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team...... consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than...... limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking...

  3. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  4. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    To understand how the practices of Lean affect performance, we tested and validated a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model. We used a cross-sectional survey of 200 Danish companies that indicated that they used Lean. Thus, this study is especially...... relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow...... of decision rights. The paper provides evidence that supports the view that middle managers’ actions further enhance performance in Lean companies. The right Lean behavior by middle managers increases the level of analytical continuous improvement empowerment. In total, high-performing Lean companies...

  5. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr...... into music physiology. We have already seen them working together in 2001 in Berger’s book Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child published by Jessica Kingsley, and this time their collaboration results in a book that is about the attributes of scientific reality (physics) as embedded....... Schneck is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and Dorita S. Berger, MA, is a Board Certified music therapist. They have in common that both play music and perform professionally, and together they integrate various theories from scientific reality and music aesthetic...

  6. The Effective Ambidextrous Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretical rationales in a model that combines elements of integration and experimentation in the strategy making....... Results of structural equation analyses indicate that superior performance in the ambidextrous organizations is associated with efficiencies derived from adherence to centralized strategic planning and effectiveness generated by decentralized innovative behavior through participation and autonomous...... process and thereby extends the evolving literature on the ambidextrous organization. The performance relationships of the ambidextrous integrative strategy making model are investigated on the basis of a cross-sectional sample of 185 business entities operating in different manufacturing industries...

  7. Radioactive effect of ribomunyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ribomunyl is an immunomodulation agent used in prevention of chronic respiratory disease in man. A single s.c. and i.p. Ribomunyl administration in the dose of 50 and 125 g/mouse, resp., resulted for the non-irradiated animals in stimulation of the 125 IUdR incorporation into the spleen and the marrow. On the other hand there occurred erythropoiesis suppression in the marrow, measured by the 59 Fe incorporation. In sublethally irradiated mice Ribomunyl stimulates a faster regeneration of the 125 IUdR incorporation into the spleen. In the irradiated mice we proved a radioprotective effect of Ribomunyl in case of single i.p. and s.c. administration 24 hr before irradiation. The value of the dose reduction factor (DRF) equals to 1.2. (author)

  8. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  9. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  10. Piezotronic and Piezophototronic Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-05-06

    Owing to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has noncentral symmetry, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the material by applying a stress. The creation of piezopotential together with the presence of Schottky contacts are the fundamental physics responsible for a few important nanotechnologies. The nanogenerator is based on the piezopotential-driven transient flow of electrons in the external load. On the basis of nanomaterials in the wurtzite semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, electronics fabricated by using a piezopotential as a gate voltage are called piezotronics, with applications in strain/force/pressure-triggered/controlled electronic devices, sensors, and logic gates. The piezophototronic effect is a result of three-way coupling among piezoelectricity, photonic excitation, and semiconductor transport, which allows tuning and controlling of electro-optical processes by a strain-induced piezopotential. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. The effective bootstrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castedo Echeverri, Alejandro; Harling, Benedict von; Serone, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios z and anti z are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point z= anti z=1/2, we can consistently ''integrate out'' higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this ''effective'' bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and O(n) vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the O(n) vector models, with n=2,3,4, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.

  12. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  13. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  14. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  15. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  16. Haemodynamic effects of eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høost, U; Kelbaek, H; Rasmusen, H

    1996-01-01

    to obtain forearm blood flow and Doppler-ultrasonography for portal vein flow. Plasma levels of catecholamines and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay. 3. Cardiac output increased considerably after each meal, including the control meal (water) with only minor differences in extent and timing. Left......1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fractional meal stimulation on postprandial haemodynamic changes, the possible correlation between these changes and the potential mediating role of circulating catecholamines and insulin. 2. Healthy young subjects were studied before...... and after ingestion of isocaloric, isovolumetric high-protein, carbohydrate or fat meals (80-85% of total energy), 60 kJ per kg of body weight. Multigated radionuclide cardiography with autologous 99mTc-labelled erythrocytes was performed for assessment of cardiac output, venous occlusion plethysmography...

  17. Radiation effects on polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, M.; Ito, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on four kinds of polyethylenes were studied from the viewpoints of mechanical properties, free radicals and free volumes. The samples were irradiated using a cobalt 60 gamma source to give doses up to 3MGy. The degradation of mechanical strength due to gamma-irradiation was evaluated by the elongation at break and its tensile strength. Radiation induced free radicals were measured by ESR. Free volumes observed by the o-Ps component of the positron annihilation spectrum are normally the large ones located in the amorphous regions and after irradiation these are created in crystalline regions, too. The sizes and the relative numbers of free volumes were evaluated by lifetimes and intensities of a long-lived component of positronium, respectively. Using these data, the properties of polyethylenes before and after irradiation are discussed. (author)

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  19. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  20. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    1985-01-01

    A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from low-LET radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, cancers of the bones, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, skin, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. In addition, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated. The model used in the earlier Reactor Safety Study has been modified to reflect additional epidemiological data and these changes are described in detail. 37 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  1. COSYMA: Health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1995-02-01

    As one of the main objectives of the MARIA project (''Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents'') initiated by the Commission of the European Communities the program package COSYMA (''COde SYstem from MARIA'') for assessing the radiological and economic off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere has been jointly developed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), FRG, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), UK. COSYMA includes models and data for assessing a broad spectrum of accident consequences, and they are implemented in independent modules. The subject of this report are those modules, which incorporate models and data for assessing individual and collective risks for deterministic and stochastic health effects. It describes the models implemented, the mathematical algorithms and the required data. Examples are given and explained for the input and output part of the modules. (orig.)

  2. The effective bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo Echeverri, Alejandro [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Harling, Benedict von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Serone, Marco [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios z and anti z are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point z= anti z=1/2, we can consistently ''integrate out'' higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this ''effective'' bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and O(n) vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the O(n) vector models, with n=2,3,4, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.

  3. Basic optics of effect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Effect materials derive their color and effect primarily from thin-film interference. Effect materials have evolved over the decades from simple guanine crystals to the complex multilayer optical structures of today. The development of new complex effect materials requires an understanding of the optics of effect materials. Such an understanding would also benefit the cosmetic formulator as these new effect materials are introduced. The root of this understanding begins with basic optics. This paper covers the nature of light, interference of waves, thin-film interference, color from interference, and color travel.

  4. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  5. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  6. Psychobehavioral Effects of Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Suchorzynska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Meditation is an increasingly popular psychobehavioral therapy. Various meditation techniques in use make it hard to objectively scrutinize the psychological benefits. Therefore, in this study we set out to examine the effects of two fundamentally different meditative techniques, Zazen, 'seated meditation', in which the body and mind are calmed, and Tai Chi, 'meditation in motion', based on energetic martial art performance. The aim was to compare the effects of both techniques on personality structure, emotional intelligence, mood, and coping with stress. The study was conducted in 48 healthy volunteers, aged 39-50, divided into those practicing Zazen, Tai Chi, and the non-meditating controls, each group consisting of 16 persons. The psychometric tools consisted of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL), Emotional Intelligence Inventory (INTE), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that both Zazen and Tai Chi meditations significantly enhanced openness to experience, one of the personality dimensions of the Big Five Model. The enhanced openness was associated with improved strategies for coping with stress. The meditators had less avoidance-oriented approaches to perceived stress. They also had improved mood compared with non-meditating controls. The findings suggest that enhanced openness to experience could shape one's desire to hold onto the meditation regimen. We conclude that both, diametrically different types of meditation, are conducive to mental health by improving the general well-being, counteracting stress, and leading to a better vigor of spirit. Meditation may thus be considered a complimentary, albeit rather modestly acting, adjunct to psychotherapy.

  7. Fluorosis: halo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Madriz, Jose Esteban; Granados Quesada, Maria Pamela; Lopez Chacon, Angelica Maria; Monge Cantillo, Carol Paola; Munoz Aguero, Geiner Andres; Vargas Vargas, Jorge Andres

    2013-01-01

    The halo effect was determined from the consumption of potatoes from Tierra Blanca de Cartago and Palmira de Zarcero. Seminars were held to get to know the topic of fluorosis. A mini health fair was held to explain the effects of fluoride in a population affected by it. Samples of water and forest type potato were collected in the area of Zarcero and San Juan de Chicoa. Measurements of the samples were made in the Chemistry Laboratory of the Universidad de Costa Rica. 20 mg of potato from each zone and 80 ml of distilled water were weighed and then liquefied. Each shake was dispensed in 2 clean test tubes and 7 samples were obtained, of which, 2 test tubes contained the liquefied 1, 2 tubes the liquefied 2, 1 tube with the Rio Reventado water centrifuged. 1 tube with Zarcero irrigation water and 1 tube with distilled water, for the subsequent analysis of fluoride concentration. The samples were taken to the LAMBDA Chemical Laboratory, where the ion chromatography test was performed on each of the samples. A concentration of fluorides of 0.73 ppm was obtained in the water of the Rio Reventado, while a concentration of less than 0.60 ppm was obtained in the water collected in Zarcero. The highest concentration of fluoride was presented in the potato from the area of Palmira de Zarcero with 2.41 ppm compared to that obtained in Cartago, with a lower concentration of 1.34 ppm. The maximum recommended concentration was exceeded in both results. A concentration less than 0.02 ppm was obtained in the analysis of distilled water as a control test [es

  8. Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the treatment of nodular cystic acne and as an inhibitor of proliferation of neoplastic cells, by exerting a regulatory effect on the cell differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the possible oxidative effects of ITN and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in mutant and non-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

  9. Nuclear energy and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power plants against the greenhouse effects is evaluated, not only nuclear energy is unable to fight greenhouse effect increase but long life wastes endanger environment. 8 refs

  10. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  11. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines, talk to your health care provider about possible side effects. Tell your health care provider about your lifestyle and point out any possible side effects that would be especially hard for you to ...

  12. Effects of PTSD on Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PTSD » Public » Effects of PTSD on Family PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here Effects of PTSD on Family Public This section is for Veterans, ...

  13. Antidepressants: Can They Lose Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t seem to be having the same effect. Can antidepressants lose effectiveness? Answers from Daniel K. Hall- ... some people and not in others. There also can be other reasons an antidepressant is no longer ...

  14. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  15. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  16. Transversal Doppler-Fizeau effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subacius, E.

    1981-01-01

    The relativistic calculation of the Doppler-Fizeau effect foresees a second grade redshift due to the proper time dilation of a moving object. The relevance of this relativistic effect on astrophysical observation is discussed, herein. (Auhor) [pt

  17. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  18. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male Sterilization ... 0.5 % Diaphragm 12 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

  19. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  20. Quantum effects in accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinaas, J.M.

    1991-08-01

    Quantum effects for electrons in a storage ring are discussed, in particular the polarization effect due to spin flip synchrotron radiation. The electrons are treated as a simple quantum mechnical two-level system coupled to the orbital motion and the radiation field. The excitations of the spin system are then related to the Unruh effect, i.e. the effect that an accelerated radiation detector is thermally excited by vacuum fluctuations. 24 refs., 2 figs

  1. Anomalous Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  2. DUBNA: Spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Earlier this year, a collaboration of Russian, Ukrainian and French laboratories measured the difference between the polarized neutron and proton total reaction rate (total cross section difference) at slightly higher energies than previous experiments, providing an interesting hint of an effect predicted by theory. This was measured using a beam of longitudinally polarized neutrons and a longitudinally polarized proton target with parallel and antiparallel polarization directions. The polarized neutron beam, from the break-up of polarized deuterons, was accelerated by the Synchrophasotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Laboratory of High Energies, Dubna (Russian Federation). The polarized target, 20 cm long and 3 cm in diameter, provided by DAPNIA (Saclay, France) and Argonne (USA), had also been used in 1989-1990 at Fermilab for the E704 experiment. Equipment from Saclay and Argonne was shipped to Dubna and work started in June 1994. The International Association for the Promotion of Cooperation with Scientists from the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (INTAS) supported the construction and improvement of the target in a suitable transportable form. The target was mounted in the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) by experts from DAPNIA (Saclay), JINR Dubna (LNP, LHE and Laboratory of Particle Physics - LPP), Gatchina (Russia), RASMoscow and the Kharkov (Ukraine) laboratories. The Saturne National Laboratory (Saclay), helped with computer programmes for the NMR target polarization measurements. Apparatus was tested in early February. The beam of 2 x 109 polarized deuterons produced 106 polarized neutrons at 3.6 GeV. The neutron beam polarization was about 52%. The new superconducting Nuclotron accelerator should allow the beam intensity to be increased and beam quality improved after an upgrade of the injection system. Preliminary results for the polarized neutron-proton cross section difference at neutron kinetic

  3. Effects of Security actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  4. Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50

  5. Spiritual Values and Spiritual Practices: Interactive Effects on Leadership Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyulfikri Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between spirituality and leadership effectiveness has been discussed over decades. These relations have been separated in two big perspective—first, an esoteric realm of intangible ideas and emotions; and second, a practical area and scientific inquiry. This research tries to integrate these two different perspectives. Specifically, this research examines the effects of spiritual values and spiritual practices on leadership effectiveness. The findings indicate that spiritual values and spiritual practices have positive effects on leadership effectiveness. This research also shows that spiritual values and spiritual practices have interactive effects on leadership effectiveness. This result implies that organizations should enhance the spiritual values and practices. Discussion, practical, and theoretical implications for further researches are offered. DOI: 10.15408/etk.v17i1.6497

  6. Effective planning for internal audit

    OpenAIRE

    Cirtautas, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find a way to effectively plan for internal audit. Conditions necessary for effective planning are formulated by using analysis of scientific literature. In second part author suggests a model for effective internal audit planning. In third part model is applied and analyzed using a case study.

  7. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator

  8. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the...

  9. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Je-An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  10. Radioprotective effect of fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Chaneva, M.

    1993-01-01

    New fish cans were prepared in the Institute of Fish Industry, Burgas (BG), containing pectin and additives. A biological experimental study was conducted to investigate the decontaminating effect of the new products. The results demonstrated no decontaminating effect in relation to radiocesium and radiostrontium. A pronounced prophylactic effect was observed in case of external irradiation, judged by endogenous spleen colonies. (author)

  11. Microfoundations of strategic decision effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.G.; Van Santen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    How do organizations make effective strategic decisions? In this study we build on research on the microfoundations of strategy and strategic decision-making to study the underpinnings of strategic decision effectiveness. We argue that the process-effectiveness link can be more fully understood if

  12. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  13. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  14. Effects from placental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, S [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    Investigations of the effects on the people who had received placental exposure at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki were discussed. All of the subjects were children who had been born at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki between noon of 31, May, 1946 and the atomic-bomb detornation. Deaths of embryos and neonates were determined by the radiation dosage and the growth phase of embryos. Bifid uvula and a slight decrease of number of lumbar vertebra were observed in 14 males and 3 females at Nagasaki. Mental deficiency occurred in 25% of the children whose mothers had received radiation at Nagasaki, and in 8% at Hiroshima. The occurrence of microcephaly was high at both places in the children who had received placental exposure of more than 150 rad. A significant retardation of growth was observed in those who had had a high radiation dosage. Congenitally abnormal persistence of pupillary membrane was very frequently observed in the group which had received a high dosage of radiation. Concerning progeria, mortality of infants under one year of age was increased in the group which had received a high dosage of radiation, but mortality statistics should continue to be observed.

  15. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  16. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO 2 emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO 2 emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard

  17. Ampicillin radioprotector effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Fernandez-Larrea, O.; Rios, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of ampicillin during irradiation and recovery of the Bacillus licheniformis RI 75-1 stump with a savage genotype of recovery exposed to ionizing radiations and treated with gamma quantums. Previous research enabled to prove that in Bacillus licheniformis spores suspensions, irradiated of vegetative cells in ampicillin at D-1--0- dose, causes significative lethal increases. In this paper, The irradiation of vegetative cells in presence of 5 mcg/ml of ampicillin increases the viability at doses above 1 kGy. the survival rates was raised when vegetative cells of Bacillus lincheniformis were irradiated at 1.2 kGy and recovered in a nutrient environment during 2 hours (LHR) in presence of ampicillin. Twenty-two stumps of Bacillus licheniformis obtained through different mutagenic treatments were studied in relation to the resistance of ampicillim and at 3 Kgy gamma quantums and a direct correlation between these two was stablished. Previous treatment with ampicillin of the vegetative cells from the Bacillus licheniformis increased the number of resistants to gamma quantums. There was no information about this phenomenom in literature consulted

  18. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  19. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  20. Health effects from fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Land, Charles E; Simon, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    This paper primarily discusses health effects that have resulted from exposures received as a result of above-ground nuclear tests, with emphasis on thyroid disease from exposure to 131I and leukemia and solid cancers from low dose rate external and internal exposure. Results of epidemiological studies of fallout exposures in the Marshall Islands and from the Nevada Test Site are summarized, and studies of persons with exposures similar to those from fallout are briefly reviewed (including patients exposed to 131I for medical reasons and workers exposed externally at low doses and low dose rates). Promising new studies of populations exposed in countries of the former Soviet Union are also discussed and include persons living near the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan, persons exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and persons exposed as a result of operations of the Mayak Nuclear Plant in the Russian Federation. Very preliminary estimates of cancer risks from fallout doses received by the United States population are presented.

  1. Radioprotective effect of CURCUMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Curcuma longa is the scientific name of turmeric, which can be found on spice racks worldwide. This herb is responsible for the yellow colouring of many curry dishes. In the present study, female albino rats were treated with oral administration of curcumin for 14 days before gamma irradiation. Gamma radiation was applied in 0.1, 0.75 and 2 Gy, 1 hour after the last dose of curcuma administration. Animals were divided into control and 6 treated groups, all were irradiated with gamma rays, only three were injected with curcumin. Blood was collected 1 and 48 hours after irradiation. Serum total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, triglycerides, SGOT and SGPT were determined. Curcuma was found to elevate the protein profile (total protein, albumin and globulin) and ameliorated the hyperlipidaemic effects of gamma radiation. Curcuma also improved the liver functions affected by gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that curcuma can be used as a radioprotector for occupationally exposed individuals to low doses and low dose rates

  2. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to a complex mix of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different frequencies that permeate our environment. Exposures to these EMF are increasing significantly as technology advances unabated and new applications are found. Technological progress in the broadest sense of the word has always been associated with various hazards and risks, both perceived and real. The industrial, commercial and household application on EMF is no exception. Throughout the world, the general public is concerned that exposure to EMF from such sources as high voltage power lines, broadcasting networks, mobile telephones and their base stations could lead to adverse health consequences, especially in children. As a result, the construction of new power lines and broadcasting and mobile telephone network has met with considerable opposition in many countries. Public exposure to EMF is regulated by a variety of voluntary and legal limits, together with various national safety standards. Guidelines are designed to avoid all identified hazards, from short and long term exposure, recommended limits. The aim of this paper is to report the summary of the actual scientific knowledge about the potential health effects and hazards due to man made EMF and the new tendencies of the social and political choices [it

  3. Effective quality auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    2004-01-01

    The present report focuses on how to improve the effectiveness of quality audits and organization-wide quality management. It discusses several concepts related to internal quality auditing, includes guidelines on how to establish auditing as a key process of the organization, and exemplifies its application in the management of quality, strategy, and change. The report follows a line of research documented previously in the reports 'Continuous Improvement of Software Quality' (HWR-584) and 'ISO 9000 Quality Systems for Software Development' (HWR-629). In particular, the concepts of measurement programmes and process improvement cycles, discussed in HWR-584, form the basis for the approach advocated in the present report to the continual improvement of the internal quality audit process. Internal auditing is an important ingredient in ISO 9000 quality systems, and continual improvement of this process is consistent with the process-oriented view of the 2000 revision of the ISO 9000 family (HWR-629). The overall aim of the research is to provide utilities and their system vendors with better tools for quality management in digital I and C projects. The research results are expected to provide guidance to the choice of software engineering practices to obtain a system fulfilling safety requirements at an acceptable cost. For licensing authorities, the results are intended to make the review process more efficient through the use of appropriate measures (metrics), and to be of help in establishing requirements to software quality assurance in digital I and C projects. (Author)

  4. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Bella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate. The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation. All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases.

  5. The stratified Boycott effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Tom; Blanchette, Francois; Bush, John W. M.

    2005-04-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the flows generated by monodisperse particles settling at low Reynolds number in a stably stratified ambient with an inclined sidewall. In this configuration, upwelling beneath the inclined wall associated with the Boycott effect is opposed by the ambient density stratification. The evolution of the system is determined by the relative magnitudes of the container depth, h, and the neutral buoyancy height, hn = c0(ρp-ρf)/|dρ/dz|, where c0 is the particle concentration, ρp the particle density, ρf the mean fluid density and dρ/dz Boycott layer transports dense fluid from the bottom to the top of the system; subsequently, the upper clear layer of dense saline fluid is mixed by convection. For sufficiently strong stratification, h > hn, layering occurs. The lowermost layer is created by clear fluid transported from the base to its neutral buoyancy height, and has a vertical extent hn; subsequently, smaller overlying layers develop. Within each layer, convection erodes the initially linear density gradient, generating a step-like density profile throughout the system that persists after all the particles have settled. Particles are transported across the discrete density jumps between layers by plumes of particle-laden fluid.

  6. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    maximum 200 words ) Momentum transfer from wind forcing into the ocean is complicated by the presence of surface waves. Wind momentum and energy are...1,520 m from the mouth of the river to the deployment site ). Map created in Google Earth, October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/earth/. 33...Doppler processing electronics for each transducer uses 14 bit analog to digital converter to digitize the 1.2 MHz acoustic frequency from the four

  7. Greenhouse effect: Myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper debates on greenhouse effect controversy. Natural greenhouse effect is beneficent but additional greenhouse effect, in relation with human activities, can present a major risk for humanity. However an international agreement is difficult owing to the enormous costs which could not be endured by South economies. A tax on carbon dioxide emissions would have for consequence a wave of industrial delocalizations without precedent with important unemployment in Europe and no impact on additional greenhouse effect because it is a radiative effect and it is not a classic local chemical pollution. 11 refs., 10 figs

  8. Greenhouse effect: analysis, incertitudes, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, A.

    1991-01-01

    A general presentation of climatic changes due to greenhouse effect with their consequences is analysed. After a schematic description of this effect a simplified atmospheric model (box model) is proposed. This model integrates the main feedback effects and quantifies them. The effects of astronomic and atmospheric factors on climatic changes are analyzed and compared with classical paleoclimatic results. This study shows the need of good global modelization to evaluate long term quantification of climatic greenhouse effects according to the main time lag of the several biospheric boxes. An overview of biologic and agronomic consequences is given to promote new research subjects and to orientate protecting and conservative biospheric actions [fr

  9. Generalized EMV-Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzooei, R. A.; Dvurečenskij, A.; Sharafi, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    Recently in Dvurečenskij and Zahiri (2017), new algebraic structures, called EMV-algebras which generalize both MV-algebras and generalized Boolean algebras, were introduced. We present equivalent conditions for EMV-algebras. In addition, we define a partial algebraic structure, called a generalized EMV-effect algebra, which is close to generalized MV-effect algebras. Finally, we show that every generalized EMV-effect algebra is either an MV-effect algebra or can be embedded into an MV-effect algebra as a maximal ideal.

  10. Moessbauer effect and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Arshad, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts of Moessbauer effect. The provision of extremely high energy resolution, 1 part in 10/sp 12/, is the remarkable feature of this effects. This feature can be used to solve various problems where small changes in energy are involved. This effect has been applied in various disciplines of science like astrophysics, archaeology, biology, corrosion, amorphous alloys, chemistry, metallurgy, solid state physics, magnetism, superconductivity etc. A brief description of Moessbauer effect along with some typical examples are presented to demonstrate the importance and power of this effect in solving problems in these areas. (author)

  11. Interface effects on effective elastic moduli of nanocrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gangfeng; Feng Xiqiao; Yu Shouwen; Nan Cewen

    2003-01-01

    Interfaces often play a significant role in many physical properties and phenomena of nanocrystalline materials (NcMs). In the present paper, the interface effects on the effective elastic property of NcMs are investigated. First, an atomic potential method is suggested for estimating the effective elastic modulus of an interface phase. Then, the Mori-Tanaka effective field method is employed to determine the overall effective elastic moduli of a nanocrystalline material, which is regarded as a binary composite consisting of a crystal or inclusion phase with regular lattice connected by an amorphous-like interface or matrix phase. Finally, the stiffening effects of strain gradients are examined on the effective elastic property by using the strain gradient theory to analyze a representative unit cell. Our analysis shows two physical mechanisms of interfaces that influence the effective stiffness and other mechanical properties of materials. One is the softening effect due to the distorted atomic structures and the increased atomic spacings in interface regions, and another is the baffling effect due to the existence of boundary layers between the interface phase and the crystalline phase

  12. Are carbon credits effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Is it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by assigning a value to CO 2 ? That's the concept behind carbon credits. Their advantage: they set targets but let companies decide how to meet them. Of all the processes that can be used to reduce air pollution, the cap and trade system is the best way to meet global targets on a national or continental scale. The system's efficiency is based on setting a ceiling for emissions: this is the cap. The emissions quotas are negotiable goods that can be traded on a market: this is the 'trade'. No company can exceed its quotas, but it can choose how to meet them: decreasing its emissions by changing its production processes, buying carbon credits sold by companies that have exceeded their targets, or using clean development mechanisms. For a carbon credit system to function correctly on an economic level, it's essential to meet one condition: don't allocate too many emissions quotas to the companies involved. If they receive too many quotas, it's not hard for them to meet their objectives without changing their production processes. The supply of carbon credits currently exceeds demand. The price per ton of CO 2 is collapsing, and companies that have exceeded their targets are not rewarded for their efforts. Efficient though it may be, the cap and trade system cannot be the only way to fight CO 2 emissions. In Europe, it presently covers 40% of the CO 2 emissions by targeting utilities and industries that consume the most fossil fuels. But it cannot be extended to some sectors where pollution is diffuse. In transportation, for example, it's not possible to impose such a requirement. For that sector, as well as for the building sector, a suitable system of taxes might be effective and incentive

  13. Quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joynt, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A general investigation of the electronic structure of two dimensional systems is undertaken with a view towards understanding the quantum Hall effect. The work is limited to the case of a strong perpendicular magnetic field, with a disordered potential and an externally applied electric field. The electrons are treated as noninteracting. First, the scattering theory of the system is worked out. The surprising result is found that a wavepacket will reform after scattering from an isolated potential. Also it will tend to be accelerated in the neighborhood of the scatterer if the potential has bound states. Fredholm theory can then be used to show that the extended states carry an additional current which compensates for the zero current of the bound states. Together, these give the quantized conductance. The complementary case of a smooth random potential is treated by a path-integral approach which exploits the analogies to the classical equations of motion. The Green's function can be calculated approximately, which gives the general character of both the bound and extended states. Also the ratio of these two types of states can be computed for a given potential. The charge density is uniform in first approximation, and the Hall conductance is quantized. Higher-order corrections for more rapidly fluctuating potential are calculated. The most general conditions under which the conductance is quantized are discussed. Because of the peculiar scattering properties of the system, numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation is of interest, both to confirm the analytical results, and for pedagogical reasons. The stability and convergence problems inherent in the computer solution of the problem are analyzed. Results for some model scattering potentials are presented

  14. Review: Airblast effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Jack W [Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Long Range Airblast Propagation On February 2, 1951, the Atomic Energy Commission discovered that airblast from an 8-kt explosion could break many windows in Las Vegas at 60 miles range from Frenchman's Flat. Yet later, on February 6, only minor effects resulted from three times as large a yield. Atmospheric conditions were found to be responsible for this apparent anomaly. A weather watch was initiated under the direction of Everett Cox to help prevent recurrences during further atmospheric nuclear testing. Our atmosphere with its stratifications of temperature and winds acts as an acoustic lens which may trap, duct, or even focus blast waves from explosions. The basic refraction mechanism is described. Sound speed is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature, as shown in Newton's Principia, so as temperature decreases with altitude, so does sound speed. The proper coefficient was found by Laplace, using adiabatic rather than Newton's isothermal compression. Sound or blast waves propagate through moving air with this wind added or subtracted from the sound speed. This affects an initially vertical plane wave to make it increasingly distorted with time. Wave normals, or rays, are bent upward, away from ground, in layers where net sound velocity decreases with altitude and are bent downward where sound velocity increases with altitude. This bending, applied to a point sound source or explosion, gives ray paths typified. Where dueling is caused by a velocity inversion high above the ground, there is a zone of silence beyond the immediate range of the strong explosion wave, and a sound ring at some distance determined by the height and strength of the dueling layer. Calculation of ray paths has evolved with the growth in needs and computer capabilities.

  15. Review: Airblast effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Jack W.

    1970-01-01

    Long Range Airblast Propagation On February 2, 1951, the Atomic Energy Commission discovered that airblast from an 8-kt explosion could break many windows in Las Vegas at 60 miles range from Frenchman's Flat. Yet later, on February 6, only minor effects resulted from three times as large a yield. Atmospheric conditions were found to be responsible for this apparent anomaly. A weather watch was initiated under the direction of Everett Cox to help prevent recurrences during further atmospheric nuclear testing. Our atmosphere with its stratifications of temperature and winds acts as an acoustic lens which may trap, duct, or even focus blast waves from explosions. The basic refraction mechanism is described. Sound speed is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature, as shown in Newton's Principia, so as temperature decreases with altitude, so does sound speed. The proper coefficient was found by Laplace, using adiabatic rather than Newton's isothermal compression. Sound or blast waves propagate through moving air with this wind added or subtracted from the sound speed. This affects an initially vertical plane wave to make it increasingly distorted with time. Wave normals, or rays, are bent upward, away from ground, in layers where net sound velocity decreases with altitude and are bent downward where sound velocity increases with altitude. This bending, applied to a point sound source or explosion, gives ray paths typified. Where dueling is caused by a velocity inversion high above the ground, there is a zone of silence beyond the immediate range of the strong explosion wave, and a sound ring at some distance determined by the height and strength of the dueling layer. Calculation of ray paths has evolved with the growth in needs and computer capabilities

  16. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  17. Pancreatic effects of GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -dependent manner. But perhaps equally importantly, GLP-1’s glucose lowering effects are attributable to a strong inhibition of glucagon secretion, and, thereby, a reduction of hepatic glucose output. The effects of GLP-1 on insulin secretion are mediated by binding of the hormone to the receptor (GLP-1r......) on the pancreatic β-cell, which increases intracellular cAMP levels and sets in motion a plethora of events that lead to secretion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on the α-cell may be indirect, involving paracrine intra-islet regulation by somatostatin and possibly also insulin, although GLP-1 also...... inhibits glucagon secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Besides these acute effects on the endocrine pancreas, GLP-1 also appears to have a positive effect on β-cell mass. In the following we will review GLP-1’s pancreatic effects with particular focus on its effects on pancreatic islets...

  18. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  19. The study of the hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea during the XX-XXI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskaya, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The Caspian Sea - the unique largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth. Significant periodic sea level fluctuations are a typical feature of the sea. In the XIX-XX centuries a number of comprehensive studies of the Caspian Sea was carried out. The results are published in the papers, monographs and climatic atlases. But a number of fundamental questions about the features of the hydrological regime of the Caspian Sea is still open: 1. How does the water circulation change during the level variations? 2. What is the effect of heterogeneity of evaporation from the water surface on the formation of the flow field in the conditions of long-term level changes? 3. How does the water salinity regime change depending on the sea level position, water circulation, river flow and different climatic influences? 4. What is the effect of extreme events (multi-hazards) (ice, storms, destruction of the coasts) on coastal infrastructure? In 2016, the project aims to study hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Within this project all of the above problems will be solved. Geographic information system "Caspian Sea" for the storage and data processing, including a database of primary oceanographic information for the period of instrumental observations (1897-2013), cartographic database (1921-2011) and tools for multidimensional analysis of spatio-temporal information is the basis of the study. The scheme of interconnected hydrodynamic models (Caspian Sea MODel - Ocean Model - Wind wave model) was developed. The important factors are taken into account in the structure of the models: long-term and seasonal dynamics of the sea waves parameters, new long-term values of evaporation from the shallow waters areas of the Caspian Sea, water circulation. Schemes of general seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea and the Northern Caspian at different positions of the sea level in XX-XXI centuries using

  20. An Asymptotic and Stochastic Theory for the Effects of Surface Gravity Waves on Currents and Infragravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J. C.; Lane, E.; Melville, K.; Restrepo, J.; Sullivan, P.

    2004-12-01

    Oceanic surface gravity waves are approximately irrotational, weakly nonlinear, and conservative, and they have a much shorter time scale than oceanic currents and longer waves (e.g., infragravity waves) --- except where the primary surface waves break. This provides a framework for an asymptotic theory, based on separation of time (and space) scales, of wave-averaged effects associated with the conservative primary wave dynamics combined with a stochastic representation of the momentum transfer and induced mixing associated with non-conservative wave breaking. Such a theory requires only modest information about the primary wave field from measurements or operational model forecasts and thus avoids the enormous burden of calculating the waves on their intrinsically small space and time scales. For the conservative effects, the result is a vortex force associated with the primary wave's Stokes drift; a wave-averaged Bernoulli head and sea-level set-up; and an incremental material advection by the Stokes drift. This can be compared to the "radiation stress" formalism of Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, and Hasselmann; it is shown to be a preferable representation since the radiation stress is trivial at its apparent leading order. For the non-conservative breaking effects, a population of stochastic impulses is added to the current and infragravity momentum equations with distribution functions taken from measurements. In offshore wind-wave equilibria, these impulses replace the conventional surface wind stress and cause significant differences in the surface boundary layer currents and entrainment rate, particularly when acting in combination with the conservative vortex force. In the surf zone, where breaking associated with shoaling removes nearly all of the primary wave momentum and energy, the stochastic forcing plays an analogous role as the widely used nearshore radiation stress parameterizations. This talk describes the theoretical framework and presents some