WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind-wave effects effects

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of wind waves: multifractal phase/time effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Mellen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bispectral coherence method, phase/time analysis of analytic signals is another promising avenue for the investigation of phase effects in wind waves. Frequency spectra of phase fluctuations obtained from both sea and laboratory experiments follow an F-β power law over several decades, suggesting that a fractal description is appropriate. However, many similar natural phenomena have been shown to be multifractal. Universal multifractals are quantified by two additional parameters: the Lévy index 0 α 2 for the type of multifractal and the co-dimension 0 C1 1 for intermittence. The three parameters are a full statistical measure the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis of laboratory flume data is reported here and the results indicate that the phase fluctuations are 'hard multifractal' (α > 1. The actual estimate is close to the limiting value α = 2,  which is consistent with Kolmogorov's lognormal model for turbulent fluctuations. Implications for radar and sonar backscattering from the sea surface are briefly considered.

  2. A numerical study of the wave shoaling effect on wind-wave momentum flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuanting; Shen, Lian

    2017-11-01

    Momentum transfer between wind and waves is crucial to many physical processes in air-sea interactions. For decades, there has been a number of observational evidence that the surface roughness in the nearshore region is notably higher than in the open sea. In order to explain the mechanism behind this important phenomenon, in particular the wave shoaling effect on surface roughness, we conduct a series of numerical experiments using the wind-wave module of WOW (Wave-Ocean-Wind), a high-fidelity computational framework developed in house. We use prescribed monochromatic waves with linear shoaling effect incorporated, while the wind field is simulated using wall-resolved large-eddy simulation. A comparison between a shallow water wave case and deep water wave cases shows remarkably stronger wave effects on the wind for the former. Detailed analyses show that the increased surface roughness is closely associated with the increased form drag that is mainly due to the reduced wave age in wave shoaling.

  3. Effect of wind waves on air-sea gas exchange: proposal of an overall CO2 transfer velocity formula as a function of breaking-wave parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Komori, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new formula for gas transfer velocity as a function of the breaking-wave parameter is proposed based on correlating gas transfer with whitecap coverage. The new formula for gas transfer across an air-sea interface depends not only on wind speed but also on wind-wave state. At the same wind speed, a higher gas transfer velocity will be obtained for a more developed wind-sea, which is represented by a smaller spectral peak frequency of wind waves. We suggest that the large uncertainties in the traditional relationship of gas transfer velocity with wind speed be ascribed to the neglect of the effect of wind waves. The breaking-wave parameter can be regarded as a Reynolds number that characterizes the intensity of turbulence associated with wind waves in the downward-bursting boundary layer (DBBL). DBBL provides an effective way to exchange gas across the air-sea interface, which might be related to the surface renewal

  4. Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Some selected wave profiles recorded using a ship borne wave recorder are analysed to study the effect of attenuation correction on the distribution of the surface amplitudes. A new spectral width parameter is defined to account for wide band...

  5. A Note on the Effect of Wind Waves on Vertical Mixing in Franks Tract, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional numerical model that simulates the effects of whitecapping waves was used to investigate the importance of whitecapping waves to vertical mixing at a 3-meter-deep site in Franks Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta over an 11-day period. Locally-generated waves of mean period approximately 2 s were generated under strong wind conditions; significant wave heights ranged from 0 to 0.3 m. A surface turbulent kinetic energy flux was used to model whitecapping waves during periods when wind speeds > 5 m s-1 (62% of observations. The surface was modeled as a wind stress log-layer for the remaining 38% of the observations. The model results demonstrated that under moderate wind conditions (5–8 m s-1 at 10 m above water level, and hence moderate wave heights, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy to only the top 10% of the water column. Under stronger wind (> 8 m s-1, and hence larger wave conditions, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over a larger portion of the water column; however, this region extended to the bottom half of the water column for only 7% of the observation period. The model results indicated that phytoplankton concentrations close to the bed were unlikely to be affected by the whitecapping of waves, and that the formation of concentration boundary layers due to benthic grazing was unlikely to be disrupted by whitecapping waves. Furthermore, vertical mixing of suspended sediment was unlikely to be affected by whitecapping waves under the conditions experienced during the 11-day experiment. Instead, the bed stress provided by tidal currents was the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over the bottom half of the water column for the majority of the 11-day period.

  6. Effect of climate change on wind waves generated by anticyclonic cold front intrusions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, Christian M.; Hernández-Lasheras, Jaime; Meza-Padilla, Rafael; Kurczyn, Jorge A.

    2018-01-01

    Anticyclonic cold surges entering the Gulf of Mexico (Nortes) generate ocean waves that disrupt maritime activities. Norte derived waves are less energetic than the devastating waves from tropical cyclones, but more frequent ( 22 events/year) and with larger spatial influence. Despite their importance, few studies characterize Nortes derived waves and assess the effects of climate change on their occurrence. This study presents a method to identify and characterize Nortes with relation to their derived waves in the Gulf of Mexico. We based the identification of Nortes on synoptic measurements of pressure differences between Yucatan and Texas and wind speed at different buoy locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, we identified the events in the CFSR reanalysis (present climate) and the CNRM-M5 model for the present climate and the RCP 8.5 scenario. We then forced a wave model to characterize the wave power generated by each event, followed by a principal component analysis and classification by k-means clustering analysis. Five different Nortes types were identified, each one representing a characteristic intensity and area of influence of the Norte driven waves. Finally, we estimated the occurrence of each Norte type for the present and future climates, where the CNRM-M5 results indicate that the high-intensity events will be less frequent in a warming climate, while mild events will become more frequent. The consequences of such changes may provide relief for maritime and coastal operations because of reduced downtimes. This result is particularly relevant for the operational design of coastal and marine facilities.

  7. Reminiscences on the study of wind waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuyasu, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The wind blowing over sea surface generates tiny wind waves. They develop with time and space absorbing wind energy, and become huge wind waves usually referred to ocean surface waves. The wind waves cause not only serious sea disasters but also take important roles in the local and global climate changes by affecting the fluxes of momentum, heat and gases (e.g. CO2) through the air-sea boundary. The present paper reviews the selected studies on wind waves conducted by our group in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University. The themes discussed are interactions between water waves and winds, the energy spectrum of wind waves, nonlinear properties of wind waves, and the effects of surfactant on some air-sea interaction phenomena.

  8. Effects of wind waves versus ship waves on tidal marsh plants: a flume study on different life stages of Scirpus maritimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinski, Alexandra; Heuner, Maike; Schoelynck, Jonas; Puijalon, Sara; Schröder, Uwe; Fuchs, Elmar; Troch, Peter; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that many ecosystems, including intertidal marshes, follow the alternative stable states theory. This theory implies that thresholds of environmental factors can mark a limit between two opposing stable ecosystem states, e.g. vegetated marshes and bare mudflats. While elevation relative to mean sea level is considered as the overall threshold condition for colonization of mudflats by vegetation, little is known about the individual driving mechanisms, in particular the impact of waves, and more specifically of wave period. We studied the impact of different wave regimes on plants in a full scale flume experiment. Seedlings and adult shoots of the pioneer Scirpus maritimus were subjected to two wave periods at two water levels. Drag forces acting on, and sediment scouring occurring around the plants were quantified, as these are the two main mechanisms determining plant establishment and survival. Depending on life stage, two distinct survival strategies emerge: seedlings present a stress avoidance strategy by being extremely flexible, thus limiting the drag forces and thereby the risk of breaking. Adult shoots present a stress tolerance strategy by having stiffer stems, which gives them a higher resistance to breaking. These strategies work well under natural, short period wind wave conditions. For long period waves, however, caused e.g. by ships, these survival strategies have a high chance to fail as the flexibility of seedlings and stiffness of adults lead to plant tissue failure and extreme drag forces respectively. This results in both cases in strongly bent plant stems, potentially limiting their survival.

  9. Numerical wind wave model with a dynamic boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Polnikov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern version of a numerical wind wave model of the fourth generation is constructed for a case of deep water. The following specific terms of the model source function are used: (a a new analytic parameterization of the nonlinear evolution term proposed recently in Zakharov and Pushkarev (1999; (b a traditional input term added by the routine for an atmospheric boundary layer fitting to a wind wave state according to Makin and Kudryavtsev (1999; (c a dissipative term of the second power in a wind wave spectrum according to Polnikov (1991. The direct fetch testing results showed an adequate description of the main empirical wave evolution effects. Besides, the model gives a correct description of the boundary layer parameters' evolution, depending on a wind wave stage of development. This permits one to give a physical treatment of the dependence mentioned. These performances of the model allow one to use it both for application and for investigation aims in the task of the joint description of wind and wave fields.

  10. Numerical wind wave model with a dynamic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polnikov, V. G.; Volkov, Y. A.; Pogarskii, F. A.

    A modern version of a numerical wind wave model of the fourth generation is constructed for a case of deep water. The following specific terms of the model source function are used: (a) a new analytic parameterization of the nonlinear evolution term proposed recently in Zakharov and Pushkarev (1999); (b) a traditional input term added by the routine for an atmospheric boundary layer fitting to a wind wave state according to Makin and Kudryavtsev (1999); (c) a dissipative term of the second power in a wind wave spectrum according to Polnikov (1991). The direct fetch testing results showed an adequate description of the main empirical wave evolution effects. Besides, the model gives a correct description of the boundary layer parameters' evolution, depending on a wind wave stage of development. This permits one to give a physical treatment of the dependence mentioned. These performances of the model allow one to use it both for application and for investigation aims in the task of the joint description of wind and wave fields.

  11. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2015-08-26

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the centre of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigations of Wind/WAVES Dust Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Cyr, O. C.; Wilson, L. B., III; Rockcliffe, K.; Mills, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Adrian, M. L.; Malaspina, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Wind spacecraft launched in November 1994 with a primary goal to observe and understand the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. The waveform capture detector, TDS, of the radio and plasma wave investigation, WAVES [Bougeret et al., 1995], onboard Wind incidentally detected micron-sized dust as electric field pulses from the recollection of the impact plasma clouds (an unintended objective). TDS has detected over 100,000 dust impacts spanning almost two solar cycles; a dataset of these impacts has been created and was described in Malaspina & Wilson [2016]. The spacecraft continues to collect data about plasma, energetic particles, and interplanetary dust impacts. Here we report on two investigations recently conducted on the Wind/WAVES TDS database of dust impacts. One possible source of dust particles is the annually-recurring meteor showers. Using the nine major showers defined by the American Meteor Society, we compared dust count rates before, during, and after the peak of the showers using averaging windows of varying duration. However, we found no statistically significant change in the dust count rates due to major meteor showers. This appears to be an expected result since smaller grains, like the micron particles that Wind is sensitive to, are affected by electromagnetic interactions and Poynting-Robertson drag, and so are scattered away from their initial orbits. Larger grains tend to be more gravitationally dominated and stay on the initial trajectory of the parent body so that only the largest dust grains (those that create streaks as they burn up in the atmosphere) are left in the orbit of the parent body. Ragot and Kahler [2003] predicted that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Sun could effectively scatter dust grains of comparable size to those observed by Wind. Thus, we examined the dust count rates immediately before, during, and after the passage of the 350 interplanetary CMEs observed by Wind over its 20+ year

  13. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  14. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.

  15. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  16. Dissipation regimes for short wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulliez, Guillemette

    2013-02-01

    The dissipation processes affecting short wind waves of centimeter and decimeter scales are investigated experimentally in laboratory. The processes include damping due to molecular viscosity, generation of capillary waves, microbreaking, and breaking. The observations were made in a large wind wave tank for a wide range of fetches and winds, using a laser sheet and a high-resolution video camera. The work aims at constructing a comprehensive picture of dissipative processes in the short wind wave field, to find for which scales particular dissipative mechanism may become important. Four distinct regimes have been identified. For capillary-gravity wave fields, i.e., for dominant waves with scales below 4 cm, viscous damping is found to be the main dissipation mechanism. The gravity-capillary wave fields with dominant wavelength less than 10 cm usually exhibit a train of capillary ripples at the crest wavefront, but no wave breaking. For such waves, the main dissipation process is molecular viscosity occurring through nonlinear energy cascade toward high-frequency motions. Microscale breaking takes place for waves longer than 10 cm and manifests itself in a very localized surface disruption on the forward face of the crest. Such events generate turbulent motions in water and thus enhance wave dissipation. Plunging breaking, characterized by formation of a crest bulge, a microjet hitting the water surface and a splash-up, occurs for short gravity waves of wavelength exceeding 20 cm. Macroscale spilling breaking is also observed for longer waves at high winds. In both cases, the direct momentum transfer from breaking waves to the water flow contributes significantly to wave damping.

  17. Slope and curvature of microbreaking wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulliez, G.

    2009-04-01

    Microscale breaking is commonly observed at sea for steep waves less than 30 cm in wavelength. This phenomenon generates high surface slope and curvature roughness at the water surface, which has numerous implications for air-sea exchange and remote-sensing studies. In particular, microbreaking affects momentum transfer from wind to waves, leads to formation of vortices in water, and plays a key role in scattering of electromagnetic and acoustic waves by the air-sea interface. The geometric properties of the parasitic capillaries generated upon steep steady gravity-capillary waves have been well studied over the last decades, both experimentally and numerically. However, owing to their variability, the basic features of naturally occurring wind wave breakers as observed at sea or even in laboratory are far from being identified up to now. To this end, an experimental investigation of microbreaking wind waves was made in a large wind wave tank which combined visualizations of wave breaker profiles with single-point wave elevation and slope measurements. We show that microscale breakers exhibit a characteristic signature in slope and curvature suggesting formation of a bulge on the forward face of the wave crest. Parasitic ripples however are not necessarily generated ahead the bulge. Such breakers are observed for a wide range of wave steepness and wave slope skewness, their structure being only weakly dependent on wavelength and wind forcing. The geometric properties of microbreakers are analysed statistically and compared with the results of the recent numerical simulations by Hung and Tsai (J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2009).

  18. Impact of wind waves on the air-sea fluxes: A coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, V.; Chapron, B.; Makin, V.

    2014-02-01

    A revised wind-over-wave-coupling model is developed to provide a consistent description of the sea surface drag and heat/moister transfer coefficients, and associated wind velocity and temperature profiles. The spectral distribution of short wind waves in the decimeter to a few millimeters range of wavelengths is introduced based on the wave action balance equation constrained using the Yurovskaya et al. (2013) optical field wave measurements. The model is capable to reproduce fundamental statistical properties of the sea surface, such as the mean square slope and the spectral distribution of breaking crests length. The surface stress accounts for the effect of airflow separation due to wave breaking, which enables a better fit of simulated form drag to observations. The wave breaking controls the overall energy losses for the gravity waves, but also the generation of shorter waves including the parasitic capillaries, thus enhancing the form drag. Breaking wave contribution to the form drag increases rapidly at winds above 15 m/s where it exceeds the nonbreaking wave contribution. The overall impact of wind waves (breaking and nonbreaking) leads to a sheltering of the near-surface layer where the turbulent mixing is suppressed. Accordingly, the air temperature gradient in this sheltered layer increases to maintain the heat flux constant. The resulting deformation of the air temperature profile tends to lower the roughness scale for temperature compared to its value over the smooth surface.

  19. Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind, Waves, Surface Flow and Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinke, Jochen

    2001-01-01

    This work is an extension of the early works on measuring short wind waves that have been funded by ONR for seven years, During this seven-year period, we have collected the only available systematic...

  20. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  1. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation and wind waves on salt marsh dynamics in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Grant, William E.; Cairns, David M.

    2013-01-01

    this notion has been conceptually introduced for the Wadden Sea, no modeling attempts have been made yet. As a proof of concept, this study developed a simulation model using the commercially available STELLAA (R) software, based on long-term data on water level and sedimentation collected at a back....... Despite continuous increases in surface elevation, increases in simulated submergence duration were apparently due to wind-driven HWL events, which generally increased in frequency after 1980. These findings for the Danish Wadden Sea add to the growing body of evidence that the role of atmospheric...

  2. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Leykin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  3. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    1995-03-01

    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  4. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Alla; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  5. Wind, Wave, and Tidal Energy Without Power Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Most present wind, wave, and tidal energy systems require expensive power conditioning systems that reduce overall efficiency. This new design eliminates power conditioning all, or nearly all, of the time. Wind, wave, and tidal energy systems can transmit their energy to pumps that send high-pressure fluid to a central power production area. The central power production area can consist of a series of hydraulic generators. The hydraulic generators can be variable displacement generators such that the RPM, and thus the voltage, remains constant, eliminating the need for further power conditioning. A series of wind blades is attached to a series of radial piston pumps, which pump fluid to a series of axial piston motors attached to generators. As the wind is reduced, the amount of energy is reduced, and the number of active hydraulic generators can be reduced to maintain a nearly constant RPM. If the axial piston motors have variable displacement, an exact RPM can be maintained for all, or nearly all, wind speeds. Analyses have been performed that show over 20% performance improvements with this technique over conventional wind turbines

  6. Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.

  7. Three-wave interactions in a gravity-capillary range of wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik, M.; Dulov, V.; Kudryavtsev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of three-wave interactions on forming of short wind waves spectrum are investigated. Wavenumber spectrum in gravity-capillary and capillary range is found as a result of evolution of initial arbitrary spectrum under the influence of assigned sources of kinetic equation. Three-wave interactions are taken into account using exact collision integral without any additional assumptions simplifying a problem. Model validity is proved by reproducing Zaharov & Filonenko (1967) theoretical spectra describing the "energy equipartition" and "inertial interval" cases. Numerical calculations show that the main role of three-wave interactions consists in energy transfer from short gravity waves to waves of smaller lengths. The prominent feature of most of resulting spectra is a dip on curvature spectrum in the vicinity of phase speed minimum. Wind forcing, viscous dissipation and mechanism of generation of parasitic capillaries are considered in a number of calculations using parameterization for corresponding sources by Kudryavtsev, Makin, Chapron, 1999. The necessity of additional nonlinear dissipation terms in kinetic equation for short gravity and capillary waves is revealed. The results of calculation with this realistic parameterization of kinetic equation sources show that, when accounted, nonlinear dissipation and parasitic capillaries terms play much more significant part in capillary range than wave-wave interactions. The latter are important only in phase speed minimum area where the typical dip remains at the same wavenumber in all numerical experiments. This work was supported by the EU under the projects INTAS 05-1000008-8014, INTAS/ESA 06-1000025-9264 and Contract # SST5 CT 2006 031001 (MONRUK) of FP6.

  8. Air-sea fluxes of momentum and mass in the presence of wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zülicke, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    An air-sea interaction model (ASIM) is developed including the effect of wind waves on momentum and mass transfer. This includes the derivation of profiles of dissipation rate, flow speed and concentration from a certain height to a certain depth. Simplified assumptions on the turbulent closure, skin - bulk matching and the spectral wave model allow for an analytic treatment. Particular emphasis was put on the inclusion of primary (gravity) waves and secondary (capillary-gravity) waves. The model was tuned to match wall-flow theory and data on wave height and slope. Growing waves reduce the air-side turbulent stress and lead to an increasing drag coefficient. In the sea, breaking waves inject turbulent kinetic energy and accelerate the transfer. Cross-reference with data on wave-related momentum and energy flux, dissipation rate and transfer velocity was sufficient. The evaluation of ASIM allowed for the analytical calculation of bulk formulae for the wind-dependent gas transfer velocity including information on the air-side momentum transfer (drag coefficient) and the sea-side gas transfer (Dalton number). The following regimes have been identified: the smooth waveless regime with a transfer velocity proportional to (wind) × (diffusion)2-3, the primary wave regime with a wind speed dependence proportional to (wind)1-4 × (diffusion)1-2-(waveage)1-4 and the secondary wave regime including a more-than-linear wind speed dependence like (wind)15-8 × (diffusion)1-2 × (waveage)5-8. These findings complete the current understanding of air-sea interaction for medium winds between 2 and 20 m s^-1.

  9. On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wind waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, H.K.; Højstrup, J.; Vested, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of wind waves on the momentum transfer (wind stress) between the atmosphere and sea surface was studied using new measured data from the RASEX experiment and other datasets compiled by Donelan et al. Results of the data analysis indicate that errors in wind friction velocity u...... that calculations of the wind friction velocities using the wave-spectra-dependent expression of Hansen and Larsen agrees quite well with measured values during RASEX. It also gives a trend in Charnock parameter consistent with that found by combining the field data. Last, calculations using a constant Charnock...... parameter (0.018) also give very good results for the wind friction velocities at the RASEX site....

  10. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  11. Co-located wind-wave farm synergies (Operation and Maintenance): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astariz, S.; Perez-Collazo, C.; Abanades, J.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The shielding effect of WECs located around the wind farm is analysed. • The height wave reductions achieved by 15 different layouts are compared. • The increase in the accessibility to the wind turbines is quantified. • Alpha Ventus offshore wind farm is considered as baseline scenario. • High-resolution numerical modelling (SWAN) and real sea conditions are used. - Abstract: Operation and maintenance can jeopardise the financial viability of an offshore wind energy project due to the cost of downtime, repairs and, above all, the inevitable uncertainties. The variability of wave climate can impede or hinder emergency repairs when a failure occurs, and the resulting delays imply additional costs which ultimately reduce the competitiveness of offshore wind energy as an alternative to fossil fuels. Co-located wind turbines and Wave Energy Converters (WECs) are proposed in this paper as a novel solution: the reduction of the significant wave height brought about by the WECs along the periphery of the wind farm results in a milder wave climate within the farm. This reduction, also called shadow effect, enlarges weather windows for Operation and Maintenance (O and M). The objective of this paper is to investigate the increase in the accessibility time to the turbines and to optimise the layout for the co-located wind-wave farm in order to maximise this time. The investigation is carried out through a case study: Alpha Ventus, an operating offshore wind farm. To maximise the reduction of wave height in the turbine area no fewer than 15 layouts are tested using high-resolution numerical modelling, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted. The results show that, thanks to the wave energy extraction by the WECs, weather windows (access time) can increase very significantly – over 80%. This substantial effect, together with other benefits from the combination of wave and offshore wind power in a co-located farm (common electrical infrastructures

  12. The sensitivity and stability of bacterioplankton community structure to wind-wave turbulence in a large, shallow, eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Qin, Boqiang; Han, Xiaoxia; Jin, Decai; Wang, Zhiping

    2017-12-04

    Lakes are strongly influenced by wind-driven wave turbulence. The direct physical effects of turbulence on bacterioplankton community structure however, have not yet been addressed and remains poorly understood. To examine the stability of bacterioplankton communities under turbulent conditions, we simulated conditions in the field to evaluate the responses of the bacterioplankton community to physical forcing in Lake Taihu, using high-throughput sequencing and flow cytometry. A total of 4,520,231 high quality sequence reads and 74,842 OTUs were obtained in all samples with α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being the most dominant taxa. The diversity and structure of bacterioplankton communities varied during the experiment, but were highly similar based on the same time of sampling, suggesting that bacterioplankton communities are insensitive to wind wave turbulence in the lake. This stability could be associated with the traits associated with bacteria. In particular, turbulence favored the growth of bacterioplankton, which enhanced biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the lake. This study provides a better understanding of bacterioplankton communities in lake ecosystems exposed to natural mixing/disturbances.

  13. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  14. 76 FR 74776 - Forum-Trends in Extreme Winds, Waves, and Extratropical Storms Along the Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... information, please check the forum Web site at https://sites.google.com/a/noaa.gov/extreme-winds-waves... process. As materials for this forum become available, they may be found at https://sites.google.com/a...

  15. Long term numerical simulation of wind waves in the Greek sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenov, I.; Athanassoulis, G.; Dymov, V.

    2003-04-01

    A continues ten-year numerical simulation of wind wave is carried out for the Greek sea with the help of mathematical model developed in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. A numerical grid covers eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea with resolution 10 km. Comparison of numerical results with buoy wave observations shows their good correlation. Numerical results give an opportunity to obtain a reliable estimation of regime and statistics for wind waves at the Geek sea. The investigations are supported by the Grants RFBR-01-05-64846, INTAS-99-666, INTAS-01-234, INTAS-01-2156.

  16. Combining Probability Distributions of Wind Waves and Sea Level Variations to Assess Return Periods of Coastal Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, U.; Bjorkqvist, J. V.; Pellikka, H.; Johansson, M. M.; Kahma, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level and wind waves is of great significance due to the major impact of flooding events in densely populated coastal regions. As mean sea level rises, the effect of sea level variations accompanied by the waves will be even more harmful in the future. The main challenge when evaluating the effect of waves and sea level variations is that long time series of both variables rarely exist. Wave statistics are also highly location-dependent, thus requiring wave buoy measurements and/or high-resolution wave modelling. As an initial approximation of the joint effect, the variables may be treated as independent random variables, to achieve the probability distribution of their sum. We present results of a case study based on three probability distributions: 1) wave run-up constructed from individual wave buoy measurements, 2) short-term sea level variability based on tide gauge data, and 3) mean sea level projections based on up-to-date regional scenarios. The wave measurements were conducted during 2012-2014 on the coast of city of Helsinki located in the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. The short-term sea level distribution contains the last 30 years (1986-2015) of hourly data from Helsinki tide gauge, and the mean sea level projections are scenarios adjusted for the Gulf of Finland. Additionally, we present a sensitivity test based on six different theoretical wave height distributions representing different wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with one common sea level distribution, we can study how the different shapes of the wave height distribution affect the distribution of the sum, and which one of the components is dominating under different wave conditions. As an outcome of the method, we obtain a probability distribution of the maximum elevation of the continuous water mass, which enables a flexible tool for evaluating different risk levels in the

  17. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  18. Millimeter-wave radar scattering from the water surface : a wind-wave tank study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Charles-Antoine; Boisot, Olivier; Pioch, Sébastien; Caulliez, Guillemette; Lalaurie, Jean-Claude; Fatras, Christophe; Borderies, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    We report on a recent experiment conducted in the large wind-wave tank of Marseille-Luminy aimed at characterizing the small-scale statistics of ocean- and river-like surfaces as well as their radar return at millimeter waves (Ka-band). Simultaneous measurements of waves elevations and slopes from gravity to capillarity-gravity scale as well as the corresponding Ka-band Normalised Radar Cross Section (NRCS) have been performed for various wind speeds and scattering configurations. For each wind speed, the incidence angle of the radar beam has been varied between 0 and 15 degrees away from nadir and several azimuthal directions with respect to wind have been investigated by step of 45 degrees. Based on this data set we have developed an original technique to estimate the directional wave number spectrum of the water surface from decimeter to millimeter scales. We show that the inclusion of surface current is crucial in the correct derivation of the omnidirectional spectrum and that a non-trivial angular spreading function can be obtained from the measurements of the up-wind and down-wind slope spectra, providing some additional reasonable assumptions. The resulting spectrum is compared with the high-frequency part of the classical oceanic models such as Elfouhaily unified spectrum and Kudryavtsev et al. spectrum. Some consistency tests are proposed to validate the surface model, which is then incorporated in classical analytical scattering models. The main qualitative features of the observed NRCS are a minimum of sensibility to wind speed around 7-8 degrees incidence, non-monotonic variations with incidence at small wind speeds and a marked up/cross wind asymetry. We show that the Physical Optics approximation provides a very satisfactory estimation of the NRCS as compared the experimental values at all wind speeds and azimuths, contrarily to the Geometrical Optics model which is found inaccurate even at the larger wind speeds. The unconventional behavior of the

  19. The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-12-01

    Wind and waves play a major role in important ocean dynamical processes, such as the exchange of heat, momentum and gases between atmosphere and ocean, that greatly contributes to the earth climate and marine lives. Knowledge on wind and wave weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet to be fully explored. Because of the scarcity of waves data in the Red Sea, numerical models become crucial and provide very powerful tools to extrapolate wind and wave data in space, and backward and forward in time. Unlike open oceans, enclosed basins wave have different characteristics, mainly because of their local generation processes. The complex orography on both sides of the Red Sea makes the local wind, and consequently wave, modeling very challenging. This thesis considers the modeling of wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea, including their climate variability and trends using state-of-the-art numerical models and all available observations. Different approaches are investigated to model and understand the general and unusual wind and wave conditions in the basin using standard global meteorological products and customised regional wind and wave models. After studying and identifying the main characteristics of the wind-wave variability in the Red Sea, we demonstrate the importance of generating accurate atmospheric forcing through data assimilation for reliable wave simulations. In particular, we show that the state-of-the-art physical formulation of wave models is not suitable to model the unique situation of the two opposing wind-waves systems in the Red Sea Convergence Zone, and propose and successfully test a modification to the input and white-capping source functions to address this problem. We further investigate the climate variability and trends of wind

  20. Wind wave analysis in depth limited water using OCEANLYZ, A MATLAB toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin

    2017-09-01

    There are a number of well established methods in the literature describing how to assess and analyze measured wind wave data. However, obtaining reliable results from these methods requires adequate knowledge on their behavior, strengths and weaknesses. A proper implementation of these methods requires a series of procedures including a pretreatment of the raw measurements, and adjustment and refinement of the processed data to provide quality assurance of the outcomes, otherwise it can lead to untrustworthy results. This paper discusses potential issues in these procedures, explains what parameters are influential for the outcomes and suggests practical solutions to avoid and minimize the errors in the wave results. The procedure of converting the water pressure data into the water surface elevation data, treating the high frequency data with a low signal-to-noise ratio, partitioning swell energy from wind sea, and estimating the peak wave frequency from the weighted integral of the wave power spectrum are described. Conversion and recovery of the data acquired by a pressure transducer, particularly in depth-limited water like estuaries and lakes, are explained in detail. To provide researchers with tools for a reliable estimation of wind wave parameters, the Ocean Wave Analyzing toolbox, OCEANLYZ, is introduced. The toolbox contains a number of MATLAB functions for estimation of the wave properties in time and frequency domains. The toolbox has been developed and examined during a number of the field study projects in Louisiana's estuaries.

  1. Directional short wind wave spectra derived from the sea surface photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulov, Vladimir; Yurovskaya, Maria; Chapron, Bertrand; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    New field measurements of 2-D wave number short wind wave spectra in the wavelength range from few millimeters to few decimeters are reported and discussed. The measurement method proposed by [Kosnik and Dulov, 2011] is based on stereophotography and image brightness contrast processing. The method strongly builds on the brightness cross-spectral analysis to reduce the noise within this short wave gravity and capillary range. Field measurements of wind wave spectra are still rare, and the reported data thus provide valuable information to bring new evidences on the 2-D spectral distribution of short wind waves in the wavelength range from decimeters to millimeters. As found, the folded spectra of decimeter waves are very weakly dependent on the wind speed and its direction. Wind speed and direction sensitivity only starts to appear in the short wavelength range, more precisely in the vicinity of the wave number 100 rad/m, where the wind exponent grows from 0.5 to 1.5-2.5 at 800 rad/m, and angular anisotropy parameter introduced by [Elfouhaily et al., 1997] amounts the value of 0.5. These aspects are consistent with other previously reported optical and radar data. For the latter, we solely extracted the polarization sensitivity to best isolate the contribution associated to the wave saturation spectrum around the Bragg resonant wave number. For the former, mean-squared slope statistics were used to assess the integrated shortscale directional spectral properties. As revealed, observed direction spectral distributions are significantly different from those previously suggested [Elfouhaily et al., 1997; Kudryavtsev et al., 2003, 2005]. On the basis of these new in situ measurements, we then propose to revise the semiempirical analytical model of short wind wave spectra developed by [Kudryavtsev et al., 2003, 2005]. In this model the key parameter is exponent n governing the nonlinear dissipation rate as D ~ Bn+1, where B is saturation spectrum. Accordingly, new

  2. Short-term fatigue analysis for tower base of a spar-type wind turbine under stochastic wind-wave loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to integrated stochastic wind and wave loads, the supporting platform of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT has to bear six Degrees of Freedom (DOF motion, which makes the random cyclic loads acting on the structural components, for instance the tower base, more complicated than those on bottom-fixed or land-based wind turbines. These cyclic loads may cause unexpected fatigue damages on a FOWT. This paper presents a study on short-term fatigue damage at the tower base of a 5 MW FOWT with a spar-type platform. Fully coupled time-domain simulations code FAST is used and realistic environment conditions are considered to obtain the loads and structural stresses at the tower base. Then the cumulative fatigue damage is calculated based on rainflow counting method and Miner's rule. Moreover, the effects of the simulation length, the wind-wave misalignment, the wind-only condition and the wave-only condition on the fatigue damage are investigated. It is found that the wind and wave induced loads affect the tower base's axial stress separately and in a decoupled way, and the wave-induced fatigue damage is greater than that induced by the wind loads. Under the environment conditions with rated wind speed, the tower base experiences the highest fatigue damage when the joint probability of the wind and wave is included in the calculation. Moreover, it is also found that 1 h simulation length is sufficient to give an appropriate fatigue damage estimated life for FOWT.

  3. Interplanetary and Interstellar Dust Observed by the Wind/WAVES Electric Field Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David; Horanyi, M.; Zaslavsky, A.; Goetz, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Kersten, K.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of hypervelocity dust particles impacting the Wind spacecraft are reported here for the first time using data from the WindWAVES electric field instrument. A unique combination of rotating spacecraft, amplitude-triggered high-cadence waveform collection, and electric field antenna configuration allow the first direct determination of dust impact direction by any spacecraft using electric field data. Dust flux and impact direction data indicate that the observed dust is approximately micron-sized with both interplanetary and interstellar populations. Nanometer radius dust is not detected by Wind during times when nanometer dust is observed on the STEREO spacecraft and both spacecraft are in close proximity. Determined impact directions suggest that interplanetary dust detected by electric field instruments at 1 AU is dominated by particles on bound trajectories crossing Earths orbit, rather than dust with hyperbolic orbits.

  4. Measurement and modeling of wind waves at the northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique G. M. Alves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional measurements of wind-wave spectra made during the year of 1996 are used in a preliminary investigation of the wind-wave climate and its transformation at the São Francisco do Sul island, northern coast of the Santa Catarina state. Four major sea states and associated meteorological conditions are identified through analyses of joint distributions of observed wave parameters. Transformations of these main sea-state patterns due to refraction and shoaling are investigated through a numerical modeling approach that allows the reconstruction of the wave field within extensive coastal areas, using single point measurements of the wave spectrum in shallow waters. Cross-validation of measured and reconstructed spectra at the study site yield consistent results, suggesting that the proposed methodology works well for the São Francisco do Sul coast.Medições do espectro direcional de ondas geradas pelo vento realizadas em 1996 são utilizadas em uma investigação preliminar do clima de ondas no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Quatro estados de mar predominantes são identificados, em conjunto com os padrões meteorológicos associados a sua ocorrência, através de análises estatísticas. As transformações desses quatro estados de mar devido a refraçâo e empinamento são investigadas através de modelos numéricos, que permitem obter estimativas do campo de ondas em áreas extensas a partir de medições pontuais feitas em águas rasas. Comparações entre espectros medidos e modelados produzem resultados consistentes, sugerindo que a metodologia proposta é válida para a costa de São Francisco do Sul.

  5. Predicting location-specific extreme coastal floods in the future climate by introducing a probabilistic method to calculate maximum elevation of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of water level variations and wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Havu

    2017-04-01

    Future coastal management continuously strives for more location-exact and precise methods to investigate possible extreme sea level events and to face flooding hazards in the most appropriate way. Evaluating future flooding risks by understanding the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level variations and wind waves is one of the means to make more comprehensive flooding hazard analysis, and may at first seem like a straightforward task to solve. Nevertheless, challenges and limitations such as availability of time series of the sea level and wave height components, the quality of data, significant locational variability of coastal wave height, as well as assumptions to be made depending on the study location, make the task more complicated. In this study, we present a statistical method for combining location-specific probability distributions of water level variations (including local sea level observations and global mean sea level rise) and wave run-up (based on wave buoy measurements). The goal of our method is to obtain a more accurate way to account for the waves when making flooding hazard analysis on the coast compared to the approach of adding a separate fixed wave action height on top of sea level -based flood risk estimates. As a result of our new method, we gain maximum elevation heights with different return periods of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of both phenomena, "the green water". We also introduce a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the properties and functioning of our method. The sensitivity test is based on using theoretical wave distributions representing different alternatives of wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with the sea level distribution, we get information on how the different wave height conditions and shape of the wave height distribution influence the joint results. Our method presented here can be used as an advanced tool to minimize over- and

  6. On the early stages of wind wave under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    Most efforts in the study of the generation and evolution of wind waves have been conducted under constant wind. The balance of the transfer of different properties has been studied mainly for situations where the wave has already reached the equilibrium with the constant wind conditions. The purpose of these experiments is to study the early stages of the generation of waves under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine a balance in the exchange at the air-water interface for non-equilibrium wind conditions. A total of 16 experiments with a characteristic acceleration and deceleration rate of wind speed were conducted in a large wind-wave facility of Institut Pythéas (Marseille-France). The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. The momentum fluxes were estimated from hot wire anemometry at station 7. Also, the free surface displacement was measured along the channel tank at 11 stations where resistance wires were installed, except at stations 1, 2, and 7 where capacitance wires were installed. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. During experiments the wind intensity was abruptly increased with a constant acceleration rate over time, reaching a constant maximum intensity of 13 m/s. This constant velocity remains some time until the intensity is again reduced suddenly. We observed that wind drag coefficient values are higher for the experiments that present the lower acceleration rate; some field data from previous studies is presented for reference (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2011; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). The empirical grow curves show that in the experiments with lower acceleration, the wave field is more developed, showing higher dimensional energy and lower dimensional peak frequency. In the evolution of the spectral wave energy, there is first high frequency energy saturation, followed by a downshift of

  7. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Inghilesi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid, a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004–2009 were considered.

  8. Wind-wave amplification mechanisms: possible models for steep wave events in finite depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Montalvo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Miles mechanism of wind-wave generation to finite depth. A β-Miles linear growth rate depending on the depth and wind velocity is derived and allows the study of linear growth rates of surface waves from weak to moderate winds in finite depth h. The evolution of β is plotted, for several values of the dispersion parameter kh with k the wave number. For constant depths we find that no matter what the values of wind velocities are, at small enough wave age the β-Miles linear growth rates are in the known deep-water limit. However winds of moderate intensities prevent the waves from growing beyond a critical wave age, which is also constrained by the water depth and is less than the wave age limit of deep water. Depending on wave age and wind velocity, the Jeffreys and Miles mechanisms are compared to determine which of them dominates. A wind-forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived and the Akhmediev, Peregrine and Kuznetsov–Ma breather solutions for weak wind inputs in finite depth h are obtained.

  9. Holistic genetic optimization of a Generalized Multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation for wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Hendrik L.; Grumbine, Robert W.

    2013-10-01

    A key element of wind wave models is the parameterization of the resonant nonlinear interactions between spectral wave components. In a companion paper a new Generalized Multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation (GMD) has been developed. The present paper addresses the optimization of the free parameters of the GMD. A holistic optimization approach is used where full model integration results are optimized. Fifteen objective metrics are used, defined to measure the accuracy of a model using the GMD relative to a model using the full (exact) interactions. Due to the large number of free parameters to be optimized, and due to the existence of many local error minima in parameter space, traditional error mapping or steepest descent search algorithms are not suitable to optimize the GMD. The focus of the present study is on establishing genetic optimization techniques as a feasible and economical way to optimize the free parameters in the GMD. The behavior of the GMD with optimized parameters is outside the scope of this study, and is discussed in detail in the companion paper.

  10. Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Daniil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS, in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1 the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2 the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3 adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4 using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.

  11. Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Bopp, Maximilian; Jaehne, Bernd

    Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1) the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec) with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2) the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3) adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4) using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.

  12. Wind-wave, and turbidity time-series data from Little Holland Tract (station HWC), Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Time series data of water surface elevation, wave height, and turbidity were collected in Little Holland Tract (LHT) beginning in December 2015 as part of “Wind-wave...

  13. Space-time extreme wind waves: Analysis and prediction of shape and height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvise, Benetazzo; Francesco, Barbariol; Filippo, Bergamasco; Sandro, Carniel; Mauro, Sclavo

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present the analysis of the temporal profile and height of space-time (ST) extreme wind waves. Wave data were gathered from an observational ST sample of sea surface elevations collected during an active sea state, and they were examined to detect the highest waves (exceeding the rogue wave threshold) of specific 3D wave groups close to the apex of their development. Two different investigations are conducted. Firstly, local maximum elevations of the groups are examined within the framework of statistical models for ST extreme waves, and compared with observations and predictions of maxima derived by one-point time series of sea surface elevations. Secondly, the temporal profile near the maximum wave crests is analyzed and compared with the expectations of the linear and second-order nonlinear extension of the Quasi-Determinism (QD) theory. Our goal is to verify, with real sea data, to what extent, one can estimate the shape and the crest-to-trough height of near-focusing large 3D wave groups using the QD and ST extreme model results. From this study, it emerges that the elevations close to the crest apex are narrowly distributed around a mean profile, whilst a larger dispersion is observed away from the maximum elevation. Yet the QD model furnishes, on average, a fair prediction of the maximum wave heights, especially when nonlinearities are taken into account. Moreover, we discuss how the combination of ST extreme and QD model predictions allows establishing, for a given sea condition, the portrait of waves with very large crest height. Our results show that these theories have the potential to be implemented in a numerical spectral model for wave extreme prediction.

  14. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  15. Modeling and Observing the Role of Wind-Waves in Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Soderblom, J. M.; Donelan, M. A.; Barnes, J. W.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Oceanography is no longer just an Earth Science. Standing bodies of liquid that interact with both atmospheric and surface reservoirs are known to exist on Titan and are thought to have existed on early Mars. The exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum between lakes/seas and the atmosphere are of fundamental importance to the hydrologic systems of all three bodies. On Earth, surface liquids are almost always disturbed by some form of wave activity. On Titan, however, Cassini observations through the end of the Equinox Mission (12/2010) showed no indication of surface waves. This was intriguing given the predominance of aeolian features at equatorial latitudes and has been attributed to the light winds predicted during the Titan winter. More recently, the previous series of upper limits and non-detections have given way to indications that the expected freshening of winds in northern summer is causing sporadic ruffling of sea surfaces. Specifically, apparent sunglints offset from the geometric specular point have become a common observation by VIMS and transient radar signatures have been observed over the surfaces of both Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare. SAR images also reveal morphologies consistent with secondary coastlines, most notably Ontario Lacus and Ligeia Mare. This presentation will review Cassini observations of transient surface activity on Titan's Mare and quantitatively describe the implied constraints on sea surface roughness. Assuming that the transient activity is due to wind waves, we can turn the Cassini spacecraft into an anemometer by coupling roughness constraints to a physics-based model of wave generation and propagation in the Titan environment. By determining the fraction of the lake surface that is oriented in a specific geometry, which can be obtained from either nadir RADAR backscatter or VIMS specular reflection measurements, we can determine the driving wind speeds that best match the observations by matching the fraction of the

  16. Extreme bottom velocities induced by wind wave and currents in the Gulf of Gdańsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gic-Grusza, Gabriela; Jędrasik, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The principal goal of this study is to get some preliminary insights about the intensity of water movement generated by wind waves, and due to the currents in the bottom waters of Gulf of Gdańsk, during severe storms. The Gulf of Gdańsk is located in the southern Baltic Sea. This paper presents the results of analysis of wave and current-induced velocities during extreme wind conditions, which are determined based on long-term historical records. The bottom velocity fields originated from wind wave and wind currents, during analysed extreme wind events, are computed independently of each other. The long-term wind wave parameters for the Baltic Sea region are derived from the 44-year hindcast wave database generated in the framework of the project HIPOCAS funded by the European Union. The output from the numerical wave model WAM provides the boundary conditions for the model SWAN operating in high-resolution grid covering the area of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Wind current velocities are calculated with the M3D hydrodynamic model developed in the Institute of Oceanography of the University of Gdańsk based on the POM model. The three dimensional current fields together with trajectories of particle tracers spreading out of bottom boundary layer are modelled, and the calculated fields of bottom velocities are presented in the form of 2D maps. During northerly winds, causing in the Gulf of Gdańsk extreme waves and most significant wind-driven circulation, the wave-induced bottom velocities are greater than velocities due to currents. The current velocities in the bottom layer appeared to be smaller by an order of magnitude than the wave-induced bottom orbital velocities. Namely, during most severe northerly storms analysed, current bottom velocities ranged about 0.1-0.15 m/s, while the root mean square of wave-induced near-seabed velocities reached maximum values of up to 1.4 m/s in the southern part of Gulf of Gdańsk.

  17. Migration of two antibiotics during resuspension under simulated wind-wave disturbances in a water-sediment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yu-Qing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jing-Ge; Liao, Qian-Jia-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the migration of antibiotics (norfloxacin, NOR; and sulfamethoxazole, SMX) under simulated resuspension conditions across the sediment-water interface were quantified for two locations in China: point A, located in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, and point B, located in Dapukou of Lake Taihu. The concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the overlying water amounted to 100, 500, and 1000 mg/L during background, moderate, and strong simulated wind-wave disturbances, respectively. At each SS level, the initial concentrations of the two antibiotics were set to 1, 5, and 10 mg/L. The results showed that both resuspended SS and the initial concentration of antibiotics could influence the migration of NOR in the water-sediment system. Specifically, both higher SS and initial antibiotic concentrations were associated with higher rates of migration and accumulation of NOR from water to sediment. In contrast, the migration of SMX in the water-sediment system was not impacted by SS or initial antibiotic concentration. The adsorption capacities of sediments for NOR and SMX were significantly different at both locations, possibly reflecting differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic material (OM) contents. In general, higher CEC and OM values were found in sediments with a higher adsorption capacity for the antibiotics. When CEC and OM values of sediments were higher, the adsorption capacity reached up to 51.73 mg/kg. Large differences in the migration from water to sediment were observed for the two antibiotics, with NOR migration rates higher than those of SMX. The accumulation of NOR in surface sediment during resuspension was about 14 times higher than that of SMX. The main reason for this is that the chemical adsorption of NOR is seldom reversible. Overall, this study demonstrates that resuspension of NOR and SMX attached to sediments under simulated wind-wave disturbances can promote the migration of the antibiotics from water to sediment

  18. Effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge in the Taiwan Strait: Insights from Typhoon Morakot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Pan, Weiran; Zheng, Xiangjing; Zhou, Shenjie; Tao, Xiaoqin

    2017-08-01

    The effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge are investigated by a two-dimensional wave-current coupling model through simulations of Typhoon Morakot in the Taiwan Strait. The results show that wind wave and slope of sea floor govern wave setup modulations within the nearshore surf zone. Wave setup during Morakot can contribute up to 24% of the total storm surge with a maximum value of 0.28 m. The large wave setup commonly coincides with enhanced radiation stress gradient, which is itself associated with transfer of wave momentum flux. Water levels are to leading order in modulating significant wave height inside the estuary. High water levels due to tidal change and storm surge stabilize the wind wave and decay wave breaking. Outside of the estuary, waves are mainly affected by the current-induced modification of wind energy input to the wave generation. By comparing the observed significant wave height and water level with the results from uncoupled and coupled simulations, the latter shows a better agreement with the observations. It suggests that wave-current interaction plays an important role in determining the extreme storm surge and wave height in the study area and should not be neglected in a typhoon forecast.

  19. High speed video shooting with continuous-wave laser illumination in laboratory modeling of wind - wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from

  20. Mechanistic Drifting Forecast Model for A Small Semi-Submersible Drifter Under Tide-Wind-Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Na; Huang, Hui-ming; Wang, Yi-gang; Chen, Da-ke; Zhang, lin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the drifting motion of a small semi-submersible drifter is of vital importance regarding monitoring surface currents and the floating pollutants in coastal regions. This work addresses this issue by establishing a mechanistic drifting forecast model based on kinetic analysis. Taking tide-wind-wave into consideration, the forecast model is validated against in situ drifting experiment in the Radial Sand Ridges. Model results show good performance with respect to the measured drifting features, characterized by migrating back and forth twice a day with daily downwind displacements. Trajectory models are used to evaluate the influence of the individual hydrodynamic forcing. The tidal current is the fundamental dynamic condition in the Radial Sand Ridges and has the greatest impact on the drifting distance. However, it loses its leading position in the field of the daily displacement of the used drifter. The simulations reveal that different hydrodynamic forces dominate the daily displacement of the used drifter at different wind scales. The wave-induced mass transport has the greatest influence on the daily displacement at Beaufort wind scale 5-6; while wind drag contributes mostly at wind scale 2-4.

  1. A multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea 1949-2014: coastDat2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Weisse, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Long and consistent wave data are important for analysing wave climate variability and change. Moreover, such wave data are also needed in coastal and offshore design and for addressing safety-related issues at sea. Using the third-generation spectral wave model WAM a multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea covering the period 1949-2014 was produced. The hindcast is part of the coastDat database representing a consistent and homogeneous met-ocean data set. It is shown that despite not being perfect, data from the wave hindcast are generally suitable for wave climate analysis. In particular, comparisons of hindcast data with in situ and satellite observations show on average a reasonable agreement, while a tendency towards overestimation of the highest waves could be inferred. Despite these limitations, the wave hindcast still provides useful data for assessing wave climate variability and change as well as for risk analysis, in particular when conservative estimates are needed. Hindcast data are stored at the World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) and can be freely accessed using the doi:10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_WAM-North_Sea Groll and Weisse(2016) or via the coastDat web-page http://www.coastdat.de.

  2. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  3. Wind, waves, and wing loading: Morphological specialization may limit range expansion of endangered albatrosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryan, R.M.; Anderson, D.J.; Shaffer, S.A.; Roby, D.D.; Tremblay, Y.; Costa, D.P.; Sievert, P.R.; Sato, F.; Ozaki, K.; Balogh, G.R.; Nakamura, N.

    2008-01-01

    potentially predicting future distributional limits of albatrosses globally, particularly with respect to climate change effects on basin-scale and regional wind fields.

  4. Extreme wind-wave modeling and analysis in the south Atlantic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R. M.; Alves, J. H. G. M.; Guedes Soares, C.; Guimaraes, L. G.; Parente, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    A set of wave hindcasts is constructed using two different types of wind calibration, followed by an additional test retuning the input source term Sin in the wave model. The goal is to improve the simulation in extreme wave events in the South Atlantic Ocean without compromising average conditions. Wind fields are based on Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR/NCEP). The first wind calibration applies a simple linear regression model, with coefficients obtained from the comparison of CFSR against buoy data. The second is a method where deficiencies of the CFSR associated with severe sea state events are remedied, whereby "defective" winds are replaced with satellite data within cyclones. A total of six wind datasets forced WAVEWATCH-III and additional three tests with modified Sin in WAVEWATCH III lead to a total of nine wave hindcasts that are evaluated against satellite and buoy data for ambient and extreme conditions. The target variable considered is the significant wave height (Hs). The increase of sea-state severity shows a progressive increase of the hindcast underestimation which could be calculated as a function of percentiles. The wind calibration using a linear regression function shows similar results to the adjustments to Sin term (increase of βmax parameter) in WAVEWATCH-III - it effectively reduces the average bias of Hs but cannot avoid the increase of errors with percentiles. The use of blended scatterometer winds within cyclones could reduce the increasing wave hindcast errors mainly above the 93rd percentile and leads to a better representation of Hs at the peak of the storms. The combination of linear regression calibration of non-cyclonic winds with scatterometer winds within the cyclones generated a wave hindcast with small errors from calm to extreme conditions. This approach led to a reduction of the percentage error of Hs from 14% to less than 8% for extreme waves, while also improving the RMSE.

  5. Wind, waves, and wing loading: morphological specialization may limit range expansion of endangered albatrosses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Suryan

    understanding past and potentially predicting future distributional limits of albatrosses globally, particularly with respect to climate change effects on basin-scale and regional wind fields.

  6. Importance of air-sea interaction on wind waves, storm surge and hurricane simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2017-04-01

    It was reported from field observations that wind stress coefficient levels off and even decreases when the wind speed exceeds 30-40 m/s. We propose a wave boundary layer model (WBLM) based on the momentum and energy conservation equations. Taking into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process as well as the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, this model successfully predicts the decreasing tendency of wind stress coefficient. Then WBLM is embedded in the current-wave coupled model FVCOM-SWAVE to simulate surface waves and storm surge under the forcing of hurricane Katrina. Numerical results based on WBLM agree well with the observed data of NDBC buoys and tide gauges. Sensitivity analysis of different wind stress evaluation methods also shows that large anomalies of significant wave height and surge elevation are captured along the passage of hurricane core. The differences of the local wave height are up to 13 m, which is in accordance with the general knowledge that the ocean dynamic processes under storm conditions are very sensitive to the amount of momentum exchange at the air-sea interface. In the final part of the research, the reduced wind stress coefficient is tested in the numerical forecast of hurricane Katrina. A parabolic formula fitted to WBLM is employed in the atmosphere-ocean coupled model COAWST. Considering the joint effects of ocean cooling and reduced wind drag, the intensity metrics - the minimum sea level pressure and the maximum 10 m wind speed - are in good inconsistency with the best track result. Those methods, which predict the wind stress coefficient that increase or saturate in extreme wind condition, underestimate the hurricane intensity. As a whole, we unify the evaluation methods of wind stress in different numerical models and yield reasonable results. Although it is too early to conclude that WBLM is totally applicable or the drag coefficient does decrease for high wind speed, our current

  7. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-10-11 to 1980-03-19 (NODC Accession 8000368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and EXCELLENCE in the...

  8. Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1981-02-07 to 1982-11-01 (NODC Accession 8300055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of...

  9. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 01 November 1980 - 01 November 1980 (NODC Accession 8100222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from November 1, 1980 to November 1, 1980. Data...

  10. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-02-02 to 1979-01-31 (NODC Accession 7900144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, salinity, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from February 2, 1978 to January 31,...

  11. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 25 March 1977 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8000320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from March 25, 1977 to...

  12. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-12-22 to 1978-10-31 (NODC Accession 7900023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, temperature, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from December 22, 1977 to October...

  13. Current direction and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-12-22 to 1978-07-01 (NODC Accession 7900123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, temperature, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from December 22, 1977 to October...

  14. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1979-09-22 to 1980-05-01 (NODC Accession 8000462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 22, 1979 to May 1, 1980....

  15. Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-02-01 to 1979-05-03 (NODC Accession 7900247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 1, 1978...

  16. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1982-09-15 to 1983-09-15 (NODC Accession 8500148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Gulf of Mexico from September 3, 1982 to September...

  17. Current direction, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 18 October 1977 to 01 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the...

  18. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-01-12 to 1980-06-01 (NODC Accession 8000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and...

  19. Current direction, wind wave spectra, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1977-09-24 to 1981-08-31 (NODC Accession 8100681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in...

  20. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  1. "Further Effects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  2. Thermal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H.; Miyajima, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K.; Ikoma, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Effect of Coupled Non linear Wave Kinematics and Soil Flexibility on the Design Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Natarajan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    in the presence of flexible soil conditions. The impact of moving to 35m water depths on monopile sub structure loads is quantified using irregular non linear wave kinematics interactions with the reduced natural frequencies of the sub structure resulting from soil flexibility. The wave kinematics is modeled...... without the need for geometric stretching methods. The effect of the nonlinear wave interaction sum frequencies on the support structure is investigated when the structural natural frequencies are reduced due to soil flexibility. The impact of the wave sum frequencies during the occurrence of extreme...... in soil properties and adequate damping in the support structure during wind/wave misalignment, without which monopile sub structural loading is highly amplified at 35m water depths compared to the design conditions at 20 m depths....

  5. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the placebo. Some people wonder whether it is fair or ethical to give a placebo treatment to ... carefully done using a placebo, so that the true effect of the treatment can be fully understood. ...

  6. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...

  7. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  8. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  9. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  10. Modeling and Observing the Role of Wind-Waves in Lake-Climate Interactions on Titan using the T104 Flyby of Kraken Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lorenz, R. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Karatekin, O.; Mastrogiuseppe, M., Sr.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Poggiali, V.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanography is no longer just an Earth Science. Standing bodies of liquid that interact with both atmospheric and surface reservoirs are known to exist on Titan, and are thought to have existed on early Mars. The exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum between lakes/seas and the atmosphere are of fundamental importance to the hydrologic systems of all three bodies. The generation and propagation of wind-waves, and their consequent shoreline erosion, are key factors in air-sea-surface exchange. Titan, in particular, offers a laboratory in which to understand these processes at a more fundamental level. Much of the parameterization for wave models on Earth are empirical, despite laboratory studies that have demonstrated wave growth depends on both gravity and fluid properties. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of wave generation will provide valuable data to anchor physical models. Furthermore, in the presence of wind waves, Cassini can be used as an anemometer to measure wind speeds over hydrocarbon liquids. Herein, we will report on the results of the Aug 21st altimetry observation over Titan's largest sea, Kraken Mare, and interpret them in the context of wave activity and composition (from passive radiometry). On Earth, it is rare to observe a body of water whose surface is not disturbed by some form of wave activity. On Titan, Cassini observations through the end of its Equinox Mission in Dec 2010 showed no indication of waves. These observations are intriguing given the predominance of aeolian features at equatorial latitudes and have been attributed to the light winds predicted during the Titan winter. More recently, however, the previous series of upper limits and non-detections are giving way to indications that the expected freshening of winds in northern summer may be causing sporadic ruffling of the sea surfaces. Specifically, apparent sunglints offset from the geometric specular point has been observed by VIMS in

  11. Dossier North Sea Network. Exploitation from wind, waves, gas and water; Het Dossier Noordzeenet. Winning uit wind, golven, gas en water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Velzen, T.

    2012-02-24

    The North Sea is on the verge of an energy revolution: wind, waves and seaweeds can provide a considerable contribution to the demand for energy in the surrounding countries. Also, many small offshore natural gas fields contain still a lot of methane to feed offshore electric power plants. However, it is essential for the success of this revolution to construct an offshore grid. [Dutch] De Noordzee staat aan de vooravond van een energierevolutie: wind, golven en wieren kunnen in een groot deel van de energievraag van de omringende landen voorzien en daarnaast bevatten kleine gasvelden nog veel methaan om offshore elektriciteitscentrales op te laten draaien. Essentieel voor het slagen van deze revolutie is de aanleg van een offshore elektriciteitsnet.

  12. Temporal variability in wind-wave climate and its validation with ESSO-NIOT wave atlas for the head Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Anindita; Bhaskaran, Prasad K.

    2017-08-01

    The head Bay region bordering the northern Bay of Bengal is a densely populated area with a complex geomorphologic setting, and highly vulnerable to extreme water levels along with other factors like sea level rise and impact of tropical cyclones. The influence of climate change on wind-wave regime from this region of Bay of Bengal is not known well and that requires special attention, and there is a need to perform its long-term assessment for societal benefits. This study provides a comprehensive analysis on the temporal variability in domain averaged wind speed, significant wave height (SWH) utilizing satellite altimeter data (1992-2012) and mean wave period using ECMWF reanalysis products ERA-Interim (1992-2012) and ERA-20C (1992-2010) over this region. The SWH derived from WAVEWATCH III (WW3) model along with the ERA-Interim reanalysis supplements the observed variability in satellite altimeter observations. Further, the study performs an extensive error estimation of SWH and mean wave period with ESSO-NIOT wave atlas that shows a high degree of under-estimation in the wave atlas mean wave period. Annual mean and wind speed maxima from altimeter show an increasing trend, and to a lesser extent in the SWH. Interestingly, the estimated trend is higher for maxima compared to the mean conditions. Analysis of decadal variability exhibits an increased frequency of higher waves in the present decade compared to the past. Linear trend analysis show significant upswing in spatially averaged ERA-20C mean wave period, whereas the noticed variations are marginal in the ERA-Interim data. A separate trend analysis for the wind-seas, swell wave heights and period from ERA-20C decipher the fact that distant swells governs the local wind-wave climatology over the head Bay region, and over time the swell activity have increased in this region.

  13. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  14. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v...... easily be applied....

  15. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-un...

  16. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  17. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  18. The sensitivity and stability of bacterioplankton community structure to wind-wave turbulence in a large, shallow, eutrophic lake

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian; Qin, Boqiang; Han, Xiaoxia; Jin, Decai; Wang, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are strongly influenced by wind-driven wave turbulence. The direct physical effects of turbulence on bacterioplankton community structure however, have not yet been addressed and remains poorly understood. To examine the stability of bacterioplankton communities under turbulent conditions, we simulated conditions in the field to evaluate the responses of the bacterioplankton community to physical forcing in Lake Taihu, using high-throughput sequencing and flow cytometry. A total of 4,52...

  19. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  20. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  1. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  2. Effective Protection or Effective Combat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    and multilocal character of European border control. This is then elaborated via a critical gaze at several attempts to defi ne how European states have attempted to externalize migration control to other countries in terms of supranational policy drives, ripple and mimicry effects. This then facilitates a more...... nuanced understanding of externalization. Since border control reterritorializes geographic spaces according to the mobility of the people through them, it follows that the EU’s border control, and with it also aspects of the union’s asylum policy, have both biopolitical and geopolitical implications...

  3. Condom effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, D J

    1998-01-01

    People who choose not to abstain from sexual intercourse can use barrier contraceptive methods, such as condoms, to reduce their risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health care providers who provide safer sex education and counseling should provide information on condoms as a way of reducing the risk of HIV/STD transmission. Since latex condoms are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, FDA regulations govern latex condom manufacturing and testing in accordance with stringent national standards. The FDA randomly tests imported condoms according to the same stringent quality control standards as US-produced condoms. Condom effectiveness, however, depends upon their correct and consistent use during every sexual act. Relevant data and guidelines are presented on the correct use of male latex and female polyurethane condoms. Both male latex and female polyurethane condoms can prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs.

  4. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  5. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  6. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  7. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-09-15 to 1979-06-30 (NODC Accession 7900295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  8. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-12-22 to 1979-09-30 (NODC Accession 7900336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  9. Effects of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media ASA Member Toolkit Anesthesia 101 Effects of Anesthesia Explore this page: Effects of Anesthesia How can ... of anesthesia and their side effects? Effects of Anesthesia If you’re having surgery, you most likely ...

  10. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the ...

  11. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    .... Currently, however, there is no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and practical view...

  12. Effects of wave-induced forcing on a circulation model of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Alari, Victor; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The effect of wind waves on water level and currents during two storms in the North Sea is investigated using a high-resolution Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model forced with fluxes and fields from a high-resolution wave model. The additional terms accounting for wave-current interaction that are considered in this study are the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state-dependent energy and momentum fluxes. The individual and collective role of these processes is quantified and the results are compared with a control run without wave effects as well as against current and water-level measurements from coastal stations. We find a better agreement with observations when the circulation model is forced by sea-state-dependent fluxes, especially in extreme events. The two extreme events, the storm Christian (25-27 October 2013), and about a month later, the storm Xaver (5-7 December 2013), induce different wave and surge conditions over the North Sea. Including the wave effects in the circulation model for the storm Xaver raises the modelled surge by more than 40 cm compared with the control run in the German Bight area. For the storm Christian, a difference of 20-30 cm in the surge level between the wave-forced and the stand-alone ocean model is found over the whole southern part of the North Sea. Moreover, the modelled vertical velocity profile fits the observations very well when the wave forcing is accounted for. The contribution of wave-induced forcing has been quantified indicating that this represents an important mechanism for improving water-level and current predictions.

  13. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1984-05-01

    A sound evaluation of the consequences of releases of radioactivity into the environment, especially of those large amounts, and of the effectiveness of different protective measures, requires thorough concern of the various aspects of the radiological effects. The effects of ionizing radiation were reviewed according to the following characterization: Affected subject (somatic, genetic and psychological effects); Duration of irradiation (acute and chronic irradiation); Latent period (early and late effects); Dose-effect relationship (stochastic and non-stochastic effects); Population affected (e.g. children, pregnant women). In addition to the lethal effects which are generally considered extensively in all the evaluations of the consequences of radioactivity releases, such effects as early symptoms and morbidity are emphasized in this review. The dependence of the effects on dose rates, repair mechanism and medical treatment is discussed, and the uncertainties involved with their evaluation is highlighted. The differences between QF (quality factor) and RBE (relative biological effectiveness) of different radiation sources are interpreted. Synergystic effects and the effectiveness of various means of medication are discussed. It is suggested that all radiological effects, including those resulting from relatively low radiation doses, e.g. foetus deformations, fertility impairment, prodomal - leading to psychological effects, should be considered within the evaluation of the consequences of radioactivity releases and of the effectiveness of protective measures. Limits of the repair factors to be considered within the evaluation of the effects of chronic exposures are proposed

  15. On Effect Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  16. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  17. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect ...

  18. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Composite materials; electrical properties; magnetodielectric effect; magnetoelectric effect. 1. Introduction. Recently, multiferroic materials have attracted much interest for their coexistence of ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and ferroelasticity (Kimura et al 2003; Wang et al 2003; Hur et al. 2004; Spaldin and Fiebig ...

  19. The Effect of Additional Mooring Chains on the Motion Performance of a Floating Wind Turbine with a Tension Leg Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Ou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two types of floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT systems were proposed: a traditional tension leg platform (TLP type and a new TLP type with additional mooring chains. They were both based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model. Taking the coupled effect of dynamic response of the top wind turbine, tower support structure and lower mooring system into consideration, not only were the 1/60 scale model tests for the two floating wind turbine systems done in HIT’s wind-wave tunnel according to the typical design conditions in IEC61400-3 code, but also the numerical simulations corresponding to the scaled model tests were performed by advanced numerical tools. As a result, the numerical results displayed good agreement with the test data. Moreover, the additional mooring chains could play an active role in reducing the surge displacement, surge acceleration and typical tension leg force responses of the FOWT system, which is very beneficial for ensuring the good operational performance and the safety of the FOWT system.

  20. Effective Prime Uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Cholak, Peter; McCoy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the obvious definitions (see paper) we show the a decidable model that is effectively prime is also effectively atomic. This implies that two effectively prime (decidable) models are computably isomorphic. This is in contrast to the theorem that there are two atomic decidable models which are not computably isomorphic. The implications of this work in reverse mathematics is that "effectively prime implies effectively atomic" holds in topped models. But due to an observation of David ...

  1. How effective is the effective potential?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Gradwohl, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Motivated by bubble nucleation in first order phase transitions, we question the validity of the effective potential for inhomogeneous configurations. In an attempt to get some insight into the importance of derivative terms, we analyze a simple model, a kink in 1+1 dimensions and zero temperature. We evaluate the energy shift from the quantum fluctuations about the non-uniform background (i.e. the effective action) and compare it to the energy from the effective potential. Our results clearly show that for inhomogeneous configurations it may be inadequate to omit derivative terms and confine oneself to the effective potential. We then couple the kink field to an additional scalar field and perform the same comparison. The addition of the second field allows us to vary the mass of the fluctuations and their coupling to the underlying kink. If the mass of the second field is large, it does not feel the inhomogeneities in the kink field and consequently does not give rise to important derivative corrections in the effective action. In contrast, if the mass is small, derivative terms are significant and the effective potential fails. In the latter regime we can, however, rely on the Born approximation to calculate the effective action. (orig.)

  2. Collecting and Analyzing At-Sea and Coastal Avian Data to Assess Potential Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereksta, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The prospect of renewable energy development off the coasts of the United States has led to a scramble for data needs on potentially affected resources, particularly those related to avian species. The potential effects from renewable energy development to avian species are complex and varied including collision, displacement, barrier effects, and attraction. As the lead Federal agency for renewable energy development on the Federal outer continental shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has initiated, in coordination with other agencies and partners, the collection and synthesizing of existing data, identification of data gaps, development and funding of studies to fill those gaps, and creation of products for assessing risk to birds from structures at sea. Through the Environmental Studies Program, BOEM collects a wide range of environmental information to provide an improved understanding of offshore ecosystems, a baseline for assessing cumulative effects, and the scientific basis for development of regulatory measures to mitigate adverse impacts. With broad-scale assessments of suitable areas for wind, wave, and tidal energy production offshore, the challenge has been to collect and compile information quickly and at as large a scale as possible. Assessing what we know, what we can predict, and how can we assess risk has led BOEM to develop and collaborate on a variety of studies including baseline data assessments, at-sea surveys, predictive modeling of seabird distribution and abundance, vulnerability and risk assessments, and technology testing for efficient ways to inventory birds on the OCS. These are being applied in both the Atlantic and Pacific, including the Main Hawaiian Islands, to provide for assessments of potential effects and data needs early in the planning process at regional and local scales with the goal of designing and implementing projects that will minimize effects to avian species to the greatest extent practicable.

  3. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  4. Biological effects of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Biological effects of hyperthermia and application of hyperthermia to cancer therapy were outlined. As to independent effects of hyperthermia, heat sensitivity of cancer cells, targets of hyperthermia, thermal tolerance of cancer cells, effects of pH on hyperthermic cell survival, effects of hyperthermia on normal tissues, and possibility of clinical application of hyperthermia were described. Combined effect of hyperthermia and x-irradiation to enhance radiosensitivity of cancer cells, its mechanism, effects of oxygen on cancer cells treated with hyperthermia and irradiation, and therapeutic ratio of combined hyperthermia and irradiation were also described. Finally, sensitizers were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Troger, C

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coeffi...

  6. Climate Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance and Trainings Webinars Data and Tools Publications Climate Effects on Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... effects has been excerpted from the Third National Climate Assessment’s Health Chapter . Additional information regarding the health ...

  7. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  8. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  9. Characteristics of Effective Argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frana, Adrian W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how the 1988 Presidential Debates provide a resource for effective instruction in public argument. Provides several examples of effective (and ineffective) argumentative speaking taken from the debates. (MM)

  10. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  11. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  12. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  13. Effects of teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.......The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....

  14. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  15. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  16. Magnetic effects in electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of imposed magnetic fields onto the electrodeposition of magnetic (nickel and non – magnetic (copper metals was analysed. Also, magnetic properties of electrochemically obtained nanocontacts were examined. An effort to establish a possible correlation between the morphologies of the nanocontacts and the effect of the very large ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR effect was made.

  17. Directionality Effects of Aligned Wind and Wave Loads on a Y-Shape Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine under Rated Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-shape (triangular semi-submersible foundation has been adopted by most of the built full-scale floating wind turbines, such as Windfloat, Fukushima Mirai and Shimpuu. Considering the non-fully-symmetrical shape and met-ocean condition, the foundation laying angle relative to wind/wave directions will not only influence the downtime and power efficiency of the floating turbine, but also the strength and fatigue safety of the whole structure. However, the dynamic responses induced by various aligned wind and wave load directions have scarcely been investigated comparatively before. In our study, the directionality effects are investigated by means of combined wind and wave tests and coupled multi-body simulations. By comparing the measured data in three load directions, it is found that the differences of platform motions are mainly derived from the wave loads and larger pitch motion can always be observed in one of the directions. To make certain the mechanism underlying the observed phenomena, a coupled multi-body dynamic model of the floating wind turbine is established and validated. The numerical results demonstrate that the second-order hydrodynamic forces contribute greatly to the directionality distinctions for surge and pitch, and the first-order hydrodynamic forces determine the variations of tower base bending moments and nacelle accelerations. These findings indicate the directionality effects should be predetermined comprehensively before installation at sea, which is important for the operation and maintenance of the Y-shape floating wind turbines.

  18. Phylogenetic effective sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-10-21

    In this paper I address the question-how large is a phylogenetic sample? I propose a definition of a phylogenetic effective sample size for Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes-the regression effective sample size. I discuss how mutual information can be used to define an effective sample size in the non-normal process case and compare these two definitions to an already present concept of effective sample size (the mean effective sample size). Through a simulation study I find that the AICc is robust if one corrects for the number of species or effective number of species. Lastly I discuss how the concept of the phylogenetic effective sample size can be useful for biodiversity quantification, identification of interesting clades and deciding on the importance of phylogenetic correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....... each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected......Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross/overtake...

  20. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  1. EFFECTS OF EFFECTS OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Bioremediation has been proven to be the most effective method of cleaning up oil contaminated soils through the application of nutrients and microor the application of nutrients and microorganism. Hence, this ganism. Hence, this ganism. Hence, this research presents the research presents the research presents the ...

  2. The effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the effective action in quantum field theory was introduced into physics by Julian Schwinger in 1954. The effective action summarizes, in a single functional, all the quantum properties of the fields under consideration. The functional derivative of the effective action yields the effective field equations, which replace the classical field equations as descriptors of the dynamical behavior of quantized fields. Solutions of these equations are 'in-out' matrix elements of the field operators and, when substituted back into the effective action itself, yield logarithms of the corresponding 'in-out' amplitudes. The classical field equations are gauge covariant, a fact that derives from the gauge invariance of the classical action. One has learned how to construct effective actions that are similarly gauge invariant (in each order of perturbation theory) and that yield effective field equations having the covariance properties of their classical analogs. Despite this advance, problems remain, stemming from the fact that there is not one but an infinite number of gauge invariant effective actions, one for every background-covariant choice of supplementary conditions and ghost fields. Vilkovisky (1984) has argued persuasively that by requiring additionally that the effective action be invariant under local invertible changes in the choice of basic field variables, one can construct a natural unique gauge invariant effective action. This lecture will examine Vilkovisky's ideas. 3 refs

  3. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest...... is crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  4. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  5. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    .... It specifically looks at the current definitions of leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness...

  6. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  7. Secondary hydrogen isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melander, L.; Sonders, U.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary isotope effects can be produced by isotopes of elements heavier than hydrogen, but secondary isotope effects of hydrogen are of greater interest, because they are larger and can be measured easier. Such aspects of the problem as solvolytic reactions (in the case of α-position and β-position in organic compounds), reactions of compounds with deuterium remoted from reaction centre, with deuterium in nonsaturated compounds, participation of neighbouring groups in the reaction, are considered. Besides, steric isotope effects and inductive isotope effects are considered

  8. Effects of Leadership Roles on Team Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ethem Duygulu; Nurcan Ciraklar

    2009-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non profit organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that an empirical ap...

  9. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  10. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  11. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  12. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. The overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  13. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  14. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  16. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  17. RBE for deterministic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the present report, data on RBE values for effects in tissues of experimental animals and man are analysed to assess whether for specific tissues the present dose limits or annual limits of intake based on Q values, are adequate to prevent deterministic effects. (author)

  18. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...

  19. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  1. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  2. Effective field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    This book is a broad-based text intended to help the growing student body interested in topics such as gravitational effective theories, supersymmetric effective theories, applications of effective theory techniques to problems in condensed matter physics (superconductivity) and quantum chromodynamics (such as soft-collinear effective theory). It begins with a review of the use of symmetries to identify the relevant degrees of freedom in a problem, and then presents a variety of methods that can be used to solve physical problems. A detailed discussion of canonical examples of effective field theories with increasing complexity is then conducted. Special cases such as supersymmetry and lattice EFT are discussed, as well as recently-found applications to problems in gravitation and cosmology. An appendix includes various factoids from group theory and other topics that are used throughout the text, in an attempt to make the book self-contained.

  3. Nocebo effect in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Sonthalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocebo effect, originally denoting the negative counterpart of the placebo phenomenon, is now better defined as the occurrence of adverse effects to a therapeutic intervention because the patient expects them to develop. More commonly encountered in patients with a past negative experience, this effect stems from highly active processes in the central nervous system, mediated by specific neurotransmitters and modulated by psychological mechanisms such as expectation and conditioning. The magnitude of nocebo effect in clinical medicine is being increasingly appreciated and its relevance encompasses clinical trials as well as clinical practice. Although there is hardly any reference to the term nocebo in dermatology articles, the phenomenon is encountered routinely by dermatologists. Dermatology patients are more susceptible to nocebo responses owing to the psychological concern from visibility of skin lesions and the chronicity, unpredictable course, lack of ′permanent cure′ and frequent relapses of skin disorders. While finasteride remains the prototypical drug that displays a prominent nocebo effect in dermatologic therapeutics, other drugs such as isotretinoin are also likely inducers. This peculiar phenomenon has recently been appreciated in the modulation of itch perception and in controlled drug provocation tests in patients with a history of adverse drug reactions. Considering the conflict between patients′ right to information about treatment related adverse effects and the likelihood of nocebo effect stemming from information disclosure, the prospect of ethically minimizing nocebo effect remains daunting. In this article, we review the concept of nocebo effect, its postulated mechanism, relevance in clinical dermatology and techniques to prevent it from becoming a barrier to effective patient management.

  4. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  5. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  6. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  7. The effective nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical analyses is made of the mean effective internucleon potential required in the shell-model description of nuclei, allowing for the presence of many-body effects as suggested by current theory. A consistent description is found in which the effective two-body interaction acts almost entirely in even states, and the many-body effects are simulated by a repulsive three-body contact interaction. The strength of the two-body interaction is consistent with that expressed by the free scattering matrix of the two-nucleon system, and that of the three-body interaction with the 'rearrangement energy' calculated in the many-body theory. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  9. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  10. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  11. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  12. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  13. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  14. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  15. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  16. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  17. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  18. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  19. Flexoelectric Effect in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Catalan, Gustau; Tagantsev, Alexander K.

    2013-07-01

    Flexoelectricity-the coupling between polarization and strain gradients-is a universal effect allowed by symmetry in all materials. Following its discovery several decades ago, studies of flexoelectricity in solids have been scarce due to the seemingly small magnitude of this effect in bulk samples. The development of nanoscale technologies, however, has renewed the interest in flexoelectricity, as the large strain gradients often present at the nanoscale can lead to strong flexoelectric effects. Here we review the fundamentals of the flexoelectric effect in solids, discuss its presence in many nanoscale systems, and look at potential applications of this electromechanical phenomenon. The review also emphasizes the many open questions and unresolved issues in this developing field.

  20. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Health Effects of Tsunamis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... environmental hazards. The majority of deaths associated with tsunamis are related to drownings, but traumatic injuries are ...

  1. Reflections on greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortoli, F.X.

    1993-01-01

    After a brief introduction on greenhouse effect phenomenon, the author approaches economic aspects and costs of greenhouse gases emission abatement and describes an energy policy which takes account of economical constraints and environmental impacts

  2. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  3. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  4. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  5. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  6. Occlusion effects, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...... conducted sound from own voice. These aspects are new in the sense that previous studies disregard the earmould mechanics and includes only one sound source placed in the ear canal....

  7. Greenhouse effect and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, J.

    2008-04-01

    In the framework of the climatic change, the author aims to explain the phenomena of greenhouse effect. He details the historical aspects of the scientific knowledge in the domain, the gases produced, some characteristic of the greenhouse effect, the other actors which contribute to the climate, the climate simulation, the different factors of climate change since 1750 and the signs of the global heating. (A.L.B.)

  8. The 'Cheerios effect'

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Dominic; Mahadevan, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objects that float at the interface between a liquid and a gas interact because of interfacial deformation and the effect of gravity. We highlight the crucial role of buoyancy in this interaction, which, for small particles, prevails over the capillary suction that is often assumed to be the dominant effect. We emphasize this point using a simple classroom demonstration, and then derive the physical conditions leading to mutual attraction or repulsion. We also quantify the force of interactio...

  9. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  10. Vaccine herd effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible pop...

  11. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  12. Modeling information technology effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Lotko

    2005-01-01

    Numerous cases of systems not bringing expected results cause that investments in information technology are treated more and more carefully and are not privileged amongst others. This gives rise to the need for applying costs–effect calculations. Modeling IT effectiveness is a procedure which helps to bring system complexity under control. By using proper measures it is possible to perform an objective investment appraisal for projects under consideration. In the paper, a framework of method...

  13. The Lisse effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Edwin P

    2002-01-01

    The Lisse effect is a rarely noted phenomenon occurring when infiltration caused by intense rain seals the surface soil layer to airflow, trapping air in the unsaturated zone. Compression of air by the advancing front results in a pressure increase that produces a water-level rise in an observation well screened below the water table that is several times as large as the distance penetrated by the wetting front. The effect is triggered by intense rains and results in a very rapid water-level rise, followed by a recession lasting a few days. The Lisse effect was first noted and explained by Thal Larsen in 1932 from water-level observations obtained in a shallow well in the village of Lisse, Holland. The original explanation does not account for the increased air pressure pushing up on the bottom of the wetting front. Analysis of the effect of this upward pressure indicates that a negative pressure head at the base of the wetting front, psi(f), analogous to that postulated by Green and Ampt (1911) to explain initially rapid infiltration rates into unsaturated soils, is involved in producing the Lisse effect. Analysis of recorded observations of the Lisse effect by Larsen and others indicates that the water-level rise, which typically ranges from 0.10 to 0.55 m, should be only slightly larger than psi(f) and that the depth of penetration of the wetting front is no more than several millimeters.

  14. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  15. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  16. Magnetoelectric effects in manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen

    Research on manganites has been conducted for more than half century. Recent discoveries of colossal responses to external fields such as colossal magnetoresistance effects and correlation among spin, orbital, and lattice in phase separated manganites and multiferroic manganites have motivated me to understand these materials. The main purpose of this dissertation is to understand magnetoelectric effects in phase separated (La1-yPr y)1-xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO) thin films and multiferroic BiMnO3 (BMO) thin films. First, high quality phase separated manganite thin films have been successfully grown. To grow the high quality manganite thin films, extensive effort was devoted to fine tuning of oxygen pressure, temperature, and laser fluence during film growth. As-grown films were characterized with various ex-situ techniques: magnetization measurements, transport measurements, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and/or transmission electron microscopy to remove the effects of impurities and unwanted strains except substrate induced strain. Second, three major results were obtained in high quality phase separated LPCMO thin films. These results are based on the dynamic nature of phases in LPCMO. 1) LPCMO thin films showed single domain to multi-domain transition during cooling. This transition can be tuned by substrate stress induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy. 2) Evidence for the origin of colossal electroresistance (CER) effect has been observed. The CER is triggered by dielectrophoresis, or movements of ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) phase, which is manifested in anisotropic transport properties in microfabricated LPCMO cross structures. This fluidic nature of the FMM phase in LPCMO under high electric fields lead to exotic magnetoelectric effects. 3) Electric field effects on magnetotransport properties have been observed. This phenomena can also be tuned by the combined effect of substrate strain and current flow. This combined effect of electric and magnetic

  17. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  18. the effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of in-service training on teachers' knowledge of effective ... strategies that teachers believe are effective for classroom management was significantly higher after the training, indicating ... meaningful and effective learning is the ability of the teacher to effectively ...

  19. Pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasaraju Kavalipati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe.

  20. Heavy particle effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.P.

    1981-01-01

    There are two problems discussed, both of which have to do with dissimilar magnitudes in mass. Theoretically, we can devise the large difference in mass as observed by decreeing some vev, v/sub i/ to be much bigger than the other; or, we can assume that some couplings g/sub i/ are much stronger. These two different assumptions give rise to entirely different patterns of interaction in the resulting theory. The first way to generate a mass hierarchy can be called the soft way, because in the zeroth order, the large mass scale leaves its foot print merely in a few effective parameters of the residual theory. The effective theory is renormalizable, sans anomaly. In this limit, the heavy particles decouple. The second assumption (g/sub j/ much greater than g/sub j'/) to create mass hierarchy does a lot of violence to a theory. Effects of the large mass scale will be felt by the system left behind in many ways. An infinite number of parameters are needed to summarize the effects in this limit. This is called the hard limit. It follows that the resulting effective Lagrangian, if in fact it makes sense to construct one at all, will be non-polynomial and apparently non-renormalizable

  1. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Effective Documentation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

  3. Aviation noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  4. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  5. Biophysical radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.

    1982-07-01

    The biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation is based upon the absorption of energy in molecular structures of a cell. Because of the quantum nature of radiation large fluctuations of energy concentration in subcellulare regions has to be considered. In addition both the spatial distribution of a sensitive molecular target and cellulare repair processes has to be taken into consideration for an assessment of radiation action. In radiation protection the difference between the quality factor and the Relative Biological Effectiveness has a fundamental meaning and will be discussed in more detail. The present report includes a short review on some relevant models on radiation action and a short discussion on effects of low dose irradiation. (orig.) [de

  6. Biological effects of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  7. Proactively evaluating training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Harry E.

    2003-01-01

    A common model of the five phase Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) displays the fifth phase, evaluation, feeding back into the previous four phases: analysis, design, development, and implementation. Evaluating training effectiveness in PP and L's Nuclear Department is not simply the fifth phase of the SAT. PP and L has demonstrated a more effective methodology is realized when evaluation is built into each of the other four phases. At PP and L, evaluation is conducted formatively throughout the first four phases of the SAT process and summatively after implementation. (author)

  8. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  9. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  10. Low doses effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this article is asked the question about a possible carcinogens effect of low dose irradiation. With epidemiological data, knowledge about the carcinogenesis, the professor Tubiana explains that in spite of experiments made on thousand or hundred of thousands animals it has not been possible to bring to the fore a carcinogens effect for low doses and then it is not reasonable to believe and let the population believe that low dose irradiation could lead to an increase of neoplasms and from this point of view any hardening of radiation protection standards could in fact, increase anguish about ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  11. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  12. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  13. The Lazarus effect

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    Members of the RD39 collaboration stage a demonstration of the Lazarus effect in the CERN cryolab. At the LHC experiments, the front-line inner detectors - trackers - will be traversed by a mammoth thousand million million passing particles per square centimetre over the lifetimes of the experiments. After long exposure to passing particles, defects appear in the silicon and the signal is destroyed. A group of physicists at Bern University have found that at temperatures below 100 K, dead detectors apparently come back to life. They're calling their discovery the Lazarus effect after the Biblical character raised from the dead by Jesus after he had been entombed for four days.

  14. Training effectiveness evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program

  15. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  16. Effective presentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert

    2017-12-29

    Most PhD's will have a presentation component during the interview process, as well as presenting their work at conferences. This article will provide guidance on how to develop relevant content and effectively deliver it to your audience. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Issali effect.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    To assess the effect of coconut fruit set on the variation expression of the number of nuts yielded at the end of the fructification, a modelling approach was used. Four female parents namely Kar Kar Tall (KKT), Kappadam. Tall (KPD), Sri Lanka Tall (SLT) and Vanuatu Tall (VTT) as well as four male parents known as Panama.

  18. Sunyaev–Zeldovich Effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may encounter matter which might affect their energy and path in ways that will have observable effects. One such case is that of CMBR photons streaming through a region of galaxy clusters. ... change its energy in a dramatic fashion. This is called the `inverse Compton scattering', but to understand it we need to ...

  19. Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles; Dawson, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In response to Kate Brown’s article “Chernobyl’s hidden legacy (Physics World Focus on Nuclear Energy 2017 pp9-11) in which she argues that researchers today should be looking at Soviet-era information on the medical effects of the Chernobyl disaster.

  20. Haemodynamic effects of eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høost, U; Kelbaek, H; Rasmusen, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fractional meal stimulation on postprandial haemodynamic changes, the possible correlation between these changes and the potential mediating role of circulating catecholamines and insulin. 2. Healthy young subjects were studied before...

  1. The Vampire Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erfgen, Carsten; Zenker, Sebastian; Sattler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although many brand managers favor the use of celebrities in advertisements, others worry that celebrities overshadow the brand and thus impair brand recall. Practitioners refer to this overshadowing as the vampire effect, defined as a decrease in brand recall for an advertising stimulus...

  2. Systemic effects in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.F.M.; Creutzberg, E.C.; Schols, A.M.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic effects in COPD. Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands. ewo@ms-azm-3.azm.nl The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of COPD are not restricted to pulmonary inflammation

  3. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  4. Stereoelectronic Substituent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Jensen, Henrik Helligsø

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried Out on the influence of the stereo-chemistry of substituents, particularly hydroxyl groups, on their electronic effects in piperidines, carbohydrates (pyranosides), and related compounds. Polar groups, such as OH, OR, and F, were found in the 3 and 4 position to be mu...

  5. Squeezing the Efimov effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, J. H.; Bellotti, F. F.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    The quantum mechanical three-body problem is a source of continuing interest due to its complexity and not least due to the presence of fascinating solvable cases. The prime example is the Efimov effect where infinitely many bound states of identical bosons can arise at the threshold where the tw...

  6. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  7. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    annoyances and the objective measurements were analysed. Persons suffering from tinnitus behaved differently than person without tinnitus. The latter group showed significant relations between the measured occlusion effect, hearing loss and the personal of occlusion. The actual sensation level is also...

  8. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  9. Pleiotropic effects of incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia. The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the "glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones" of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-1 7-37 and GLP1 7-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP. GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine, central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health.

  10. Radioprotective effect of interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasukhina, G.

    1984-12-18

    A cycle of experiments performed jointly with associations of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute reportedly demonstrated that interferons protect human cells cultivated in a test tube against the action of fast neutrons and gamma radiation. Cells treated in advance with interferon not only survived irradiation but were almost totally protected against harmful effects of fast neutrons on the structure of chromosomes, according to the author. She mentions that the laboratory has also been studying effects produced on cells by compounds of heavy metals and other chemical compounds, including ones which cause breaks in the DNA molecule. Interferon's ability to protect cells against effects of chemical compounds has been studied in this connection. Another direction of the laboratory's work is research on interferon's effects on blood cells of persons suffering from certain hereditary diseases in which restorative processes of cells are impaired. The purpose of this is to develop courses of treatment which will not cause irreversible damages to chromosomes, the author explains. Interferon has been found to stimulate the reparation systems of cells in cases of Marfan's syndrome, for example.

  11. Effective Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  12. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Late effects are by definition effects that occur at least one year, and in most cases decades, after the time of exposure. The late effects considered in this chapter are limited to latent cancer incidence and mortality, and benign thyroid disease. A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from the radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. It is assumed that exposure to high-LET radiation would be negligible in such an accident, and thus only risks from low-LET exposure are evaluated. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, bone cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. Because the time of death is also important in assessing the impact of an accident, and because the quality of life after the occurrence of cancer will often be reduced, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated

  13. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  14. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Historical Conclusions.............................................................................................7 CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORIES ... leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness. It also...delves into some of the more traditional leadership theories as well as some of the more modern day theories and attempts to identify why there is still

  15. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  16. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    system and change its dynamic behavior and its dynamic characteristics. When predicting structural vibrations it is not common to account for the passive crowd, but the paper will illustrate effects of the presence of a passive croud on structural behavior. Numerical and experimental results...

  17. Sunyaev–Zeldovich Effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soon after the discovery of the cosmic back- ground radiation, Zeldovich and Sunyaev pro- posed that hot gas in galaxy clusters should cast a faint shadow because of the interaction be- tween energetic electrons and the radiation pho- tons. Sunayev{Zeldovich effect is now routinely observed, and it has become an ...

  18. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  19. Effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1984-08-01

    After recalling radiation-matter interaction, influence on radiation effects of chemical composition, structure, irradiation atmosphere, dose rate, temperature of organic materials and evolution of electrical, mechanical and physical properties are reviewed. Then behaviour under irradiation of main organic materials: elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, oils and paints are examined. 68 refs [fr

  20. Problems in photoradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the most interesting photoradiation effects observed in recent years and directs attention to problems whose solution has a bearing on progress in photoradiation chemistry, and which also are significant for divisions of modern physical chemistry such as the kinetics and mechanisms of elementary processes in solid organic materials, the radiation resistance of organic materials, and aging in polymers

  1. Physiological Effects of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-25

    glycolysis and ’" 1,20,32 glycogenolysis along with oxidation of carbohydrates. This is associated with increases that have been demonstrated for high energy...The effects of length and stimulus rate on isometric tension in the cat soleus muscle. J Physiol 204:443-460, 1969 113. Sale DG, McDougall JD, Upton

  2. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry: Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar Deepthi Jose Ayan Datta. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 160-174 ...

  3. Drug effects on melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Elsje Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and its incidence among Caucasian populations has increased whereas mortality rates are stabilizing or decreasing. The total burden of melanoma is expected to be increasing. As effective treatment options for advanced melanoma are

  4. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  5. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  6. EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    Before the cognitive shift in educational psychology research on teaching practices that bring about the desired learning outcomes on the part of the students was dominated by the process-product research program. The findings of this confirmative research approach show that an effective lesson may

  7. Qualities of Effective Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors…

  8. The service bullwhip effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Voss, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper sets out to explore whether and how the bullwhip effect, as found in product supply chains, might also manifest itself in services, as well as what policies can be successful for mitigating it. Design/methodology/approach A combination of analytic methods was used—inductive case

  9. Unconscious advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is

  10. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  11. Edge effects in magnetoplasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; Kraeft, W.D.; Schlanges, M.

    1996-01-01

    Edge effects in magnetized charged-particle systems are discussed with the help of a multiple-reflection expansion for the Green function. The profiles of the density and the electric current are determined both for the non-degenerate and the highly degenerate case. The asymptotic form of the

  12. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  13. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  14. Compressible effect algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, Stan

    2004-08-01

    We define a special type of additive map J on an effect algebra E called a compression. We call J(1) the focus of J and if p is the focus of a compression then p is called a projection. The set of projections in E is denoted by P(E). A compression J is direct if J( a) ≤ a for all a ɛ E. We show that direct compressions are equivalent to projections onto components of cartesian products. An effect algebra E is said to be compressible if every compression on E is uniquely determined by its focus and every compression on E has a supplement. We define and characterize the commutant C(p) of a projection p and show that a compression with focus p is direct if and only if C(p) = E. We show that P(E) is an orthomodular poset. It is proved that the cartesian product of effect algebras is compressible if and only if each component is compressible. We then consider compressible sequential effect algebras, Lüders maps and conditional probabilities.

  15. The Multiplier Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, William L., Jr.; Harris, John B.

    1981-01-01

    The multiplier effect is discussed as it applies to the field of continuing education. The authors' main point is that one grant or contract can, and should, be used as the basis for building organizational competencies and capabilities that will secure other funds. (Author/CT)

  16. [Papillomavirus vaccines: adverse effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés, Maria E; Valero, Edith; Valero, Edith Gil; Gutiérrez, Herance; Martín Zafra, Antonia; Valverde Caballero, Inocencia; Aizpurua Galdeano, María Pilar

    2011-11-01

    The Health Department of Catalunya laun- ched the first vaccination campaign against human papillo- mavirus (HPV) in the 2008-09 school year This study des- cribes the side effects of HPV vaccine and compared them with those of the vaccine against Hepatitis. This is a prospective observational study Nurses of our primary health centre went to the area's schools to administer the HPV vaccine and hepatitis vaccine (when necessary). Afterwards, between 24 to 72 hours, they went back to schools in order to control the adverse effects. The frequency of general symptoms (syn- cope, fever, headache, muscle aches, malaise) was less than 5% with the first two doses. With the third, 9.8% of girls referred headache. Pain was the most common local symptom: 28.3% of girls reported pain with the first dose, 53.4% with the second and 53.6% with the third. Local reactions appear more often with HPV than with hepatitis vaccine, especially in the second and third doses (McNemar test p HPV vaccine was generally well tolerated. General side effects were rare. Local symptoms were com- mon and increased with each new dose. The vaccine against hepatitis produced fewer side effects.

  17. Effective magnetic Hamiltonians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1997-2000 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0775 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : effective magnetic Hamiltonian * ab initio * magnetic structure Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  18. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  19. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by finding a way to relax—listening to music, doing yoga or stretching exercises, taking a walk in the woods or on the beach, or watching a movie marathon on television. Effectively relieving stress will help contribute to the ultimate goal of ...

  20. Cost Effective Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  1. The Payne effect revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hentschke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the storage modulus, μ', vs. strain amplitude, u, for highly filled rubbers exhibit a pronounced decrease of μ' with increasing u. Unfilled rubbers do not show this so called Payne effect. Even though the effect is known since the 1940s, it continues to play a significant role in the research community focusing on rubber materials in general and automobile tires in particular. The key problem is the elucidation of the dependence of the Payne effect on the chemical composition of the rubber material. Based on a scaling approach we derive the functional form μ' (u,T – μ'(∞,T ∝ (1 – (D/du–(σ –df + 1g(T, where the parameters D/d and σ – df + 1 are directly related to the filler network structure. In addition, we explain the temperature dependence of the Payne effect, g(T, in terms of a distribution of activation energies corresponding to different types of filler-filler interactions. Finally, the model is extended to describe the attendant amplitude dependence of the loss modulus.

  2. The Placebo Effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 11. The Placebo Effect. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 pp 1003-1008. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/11/1003-1008. Keywords. Placebo ...

  3. Haemodynamic effects of eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høost, U; Kelbaek, H; Rasmusen, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fractional meal stimulation on postprandial haemodynamic changes, the possible correlation between these changes and the potential mediating role of circulating catecholamines and insulin. 2. Healthy young subjects were studied before ...

  4. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry. Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar, Deepthi Jose and Ayan Datta. (left) Sharmistha Karmakar is doing her PhD in the group of. Ayan Datta, IACS,. Kolkata. Her research interests are modelling molecules with strong optical absorbtion and.

  5. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students in universities and colleges commonly use khat, cigarette, coffee and other substances to get mental alertness. The objective of this ... substance use and its effect on academic achievement of students in Jimma University. METHODS: A cross ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these ...

  6. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  7. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...

  8. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Operations Research Society, January 2003. Hill, Raymond , Gregory A. McIntyre, Thomas R. Tighe, and Richard K. Bullock, “Some Experiments with Agent...Measurement, Physica-Verlag, Wurzburg, 1971. Pinker, Aron , Aryeh H. Samuel, and Robert Batcher, “On Measures of Effectiveness,” PHALANX, pp 8-12

  9. Brain effects of melanocortins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Alfio; Tacchi, Raffaella; Vergoni, Anna Valeria

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortins (alpha, beta and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormones: MSHs; adrenocorticotrophic hormone: ACTH), a family of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides having in common the tetrapeptide sequence His-Phe-Arg-Trp, have progressively revealed an incredibly wide range of extra-hormonal effects, so to become one of the most promising source of innovative drugs for many, important and widespread pathological conditions. The discovery of their effects on some brain functions, independently made by William Ferrari and David De Wied about half a century ago, led to the formulation of the term "neuropeptide" at a time when no demonstration of the actual production of peptide molecules by neurons, in the brain, was still available, and there were no receptors characterized for these molecules. In the course of the subsequent decades it came out that melanocortins, besides inducing one of the most complex and bizarre behavioural syndromes (excessive grooming, crises of stretchings and yawnings, repeated episodes of spontaneous penile erection and ejaculation, increased sexual receptivity), play a key role in functions of fundamental physiological importance as well as impressive therapeutic effects in different pathological conditions. If serendipity had been an important determinant in the discovery of the above-mentioned first-noticed extra-hormonal effects of melanocortins, many of the subsequent discoveries in the pharmacology of these peptides (feeding inhibition, shock reversal, role in opiate tolerance/withdrawal, etc.) have been the result of a planned research, aimed at testing the "pro-nociceptive/anti-nociceptive homeostatic system" hypothesis. The discovery of melanocortin receptors, and the ensuing synthesis of selective ligands with agonist or antagonist activity, is generating completely innovative drugs for the treatment of a potentially very long list of important and widespread pathological conditions: sexual impotence, frigidity

  10. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  11. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  12. Cognitive Effects and Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Lara; Ahmed, Ebtesam; Shin, Jae; Scharaga, Elyssa; Magun, Maximilian

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive effects and sedation (CES) are prevalent in chronic nonmalignant pain populations receiving long-term opioid therapy and are among the most common reasons patients discontinue opioid use. In this narrative review, we describe the phenomenology, epidemiology, mechanisms, assessment, and management of opioid-related CES. We reviewed the empirical and theoretical literature on CES in opioid-treated populations with chronic pain. Data on long-term opioid therapy (≥ 3 months in duration) in chronic nonmalignant pain patients were sought. The phenomenology of CES includes: inattention, concentration difficulties, memory deficits, psychomotor dysfunction, perceptual distortions, and executive dysfunction and somnolence, sleep disorders, and lethargy. Deficits may be caused by unrelieved pain or opioid therapy alone, or from a combination of these and other factors. Mechanisms include central nervous system effects, for example, direct toxic effects on neurons resulting in decreased consciousness; direct effects on processing and reaction resulting in cognitive or psychomotor impairment, and inhibitory effects on cholinergic activity. Pharmacological management approaches may include opioid dose reduction and rotation or psychostimulant use. Nonpharmacological approaches may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acupuncture, exercise, and yoga. The most prevalent CES include: memory deficits (73-81%), sleep disturbance (35-57%), and fatigue (10%). At its most severe, extreme cognitive dysfunction can result in frank delirium and decreased alertness can result in coma. Emotional distress, sleep disorders, and other comorbidities and treatments can worsen CES, particularly among the elderly. Conclusions about the neuropsychological domains affected by opioids are limited due to the heterogeneity of studies and methodological issues. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Follow Get Updates Donations Share ...

  14. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  15. Regional Healthcare Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kudelina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of healthcare systems effectiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation (federal districts was conducted using the Minmax method based on the data available at the United Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. Four groups of components (i.e. availability of resources; use of resources; access to resources and medical effectiveness decomposed into 17 items were analyzed. The resource availability was measured by four indicators, including the provision of doctors, nurses, hospital beds; agencies providing health care to the population. Use of resources was measured by seven indicators: the average hospital stay, days; the average bed occupancy, days; the number of operations per 1 physician surgical; the cost per unit volume of medical care: in outpatient clinics, day hospitals, inpatient and emergency care. Access to the resources was measured by three indicators: the satisfaction of the population by medical care; the capacity of outpatient clinics; the average number of visits to health facility. The medical effectiveness was also measured by three indicators: incidence with the "first-ever diagnosis of malignancy"; life expectancy at birth, years; the number of days of temporary disability. The study of the dynamics of the components and indexes for 2008–2012 allows to indicate a multidirectional influence on the regional healthcare system. In some federal districts (e.g. North Caucasian, the effectiveness decreases due to resource availability, in others (South, North Caucasian — due to the use of resources, in others (Far Eastern, Ural — due to access to resources. It is found that the effectiveness of the healthcare systems of the federal districts differs significantly. In addition, the built matrix proves the variability the of effectiveness (comparison of expenditures and results of healthcare systems of the federal districts of the Russian Federation: the high results can be obtained at high costs

  16. The weapons effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin James; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons effect occurs. This model postulates that exposure to weapons increases aggressive thoughts and hostile appraisals, thus explaining why weapons facilitate aggressive behavior. Data from meta-analytic reviews are consistent with the General Aggression Model. These findings have important practical as well as theoretical implications. They suggest that the link between weapons and aggression is very strong in semantic memory, and that merely seeing a weapon can make people more aggressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  18. Developing Effective Clinical Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Khamarko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education and training provides a means to improve performance among health care professionals (HCP. Research shows, however, that continuing professional education activities have inconsistent effects on HCP competence, performance, and patient health outcomes. Furthermore, the trainer’s role as a facilitator of knowledge translation (KT has been understudied. To understand how clinical trainers support their trainees in translating what they learned into practice, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with expert trainers. These interviews yielded a variety of KT-enhancing strategies, including tailoring training activities to their trainees’ needs. In addition, participants recommended trainers familiarize themselves with their trainees’ work environments, be able to identify their knowledge deficits, and devote time to provide trainees with post-training support. Creating an effective training, one that leads to transfer, requires active planning, communication, and command of the training topic by skilled trainers.

  19. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...... studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  20. Renormalization and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1984-01-01

    There is a strong intuitive understanding of renormalization, due to Wilson, in terms of the scaling of effective lagrangians. We show that this can be made the basis for a proof of perturbative renormalization. We first study renormalizability in the language of renormalization group flows for a toy renormalization group equation. We then derive an exact renormalization group equation for a four-dimensional lambda PHI 4 theory with a momentum cutoff. We organize the cutoff dependence of the effective lagrangian into relevant and irrelevant parts, and derive a linear equation for the irrelevant part. A lengthy but straightforward argument establishes that the piece identified as irrelevant actually is so in perturbation theory. This implies renormalizability. The method extends immediately to any system in which a momentum-space cutoff can be used, but the principle is more general and should apply for any physical cutoff. Neither Weinberg's theorem nor arguments based on the topology of graphs are needed. (orig.)

  1. Magnetoviscous effects in ferrofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles or ferrofluids can be effectively controlled by magnetic fields, which opens up a fascinating field for basic research into fluid dynamics as well as a host of applications in engineering and medicine. The introductory chapter provides the reader with basic information on the structure, and magnetic and viscous properties of ferrofluids. The bulk of this monograph is based on the author's own research activity and deals with ferrohydrodynamics, especially with the magnetoviscous effects. In particular, the author studies in detail the interparticle interactions so far often neglected but of great importance in concentrated ferrofluids. The basic theory and the most recent experimental findings are presented, making the book interesting reading for physicists or engineers interested in smart materials.

  2. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  3. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest that translating a design theory (DT) into practice (e.g. creating an instance design artifact (IDA)) is hardly straight-forward and requires substantial creativity. Specifically the authors suggest that adopting a DT embodies a creativity passdown...... effect in which the creative thinking of a team of design theorist(s) inherent in DT invokes a creative mind of a team of artifact instance designer(s) in creating an IDA. In this study, the authors empirically investigate the creativity passdown effect through an action case in which a DT (DT nexus...... designer team introducing a previously published DT as a basis for creating an IDA. Findings – The experience in the action case suggests that using a DT in creating an IDA may encourage design thinking, and in certain way increase its power and practical relevance by fostering the creative mind...

  4. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  5. Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2016-12-01

    When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.

  6. Electricity Distribution Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Szpyra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the basic concepts of cost accounting in the power industry and selected ways of assessing the effectiveness of electricity distribution. The results of effectiveness analysis of MV/LV distribution transformer replacement are presented, and unit costs of energy transmission through various medium-voltage line types are compared. The calculation results confirm the viability of replacing transformers manufactured before 1975. Replacing transformers manufactured after 1975 – only to reduce energy losses – is not economically justified. Increasing use of a PAS type line for energy transmission in local distribution networks is reasonable. Cabling these networks under the current calculation rules of discounts for excessive power outages is not viable, even in areas particularly exposed to catastrophic wire icing.

  7. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  8. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  9. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  10. Context effects in games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vlaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.

  11. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  12. Effectiveness of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Malthus Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and elucidates what it calls the Malthus Effect from two perspectives: a genealogical-theoretical one and an empirical-diagnostic one. The first concerns its implications for Michel Foucault's genealogy and conceptions of modern governmentality. The second suggests that Malt......This paper identifies and elucidates what it calls the Malthus Effect from two perspectives: a genealogical-theoretical one and an empirical-diagnostic one. The first concerns its implications for Michel Foucault's genealogy and conceptions of modern governmentality. The second suggests...... that Malthusian concerns have an enduring presence in recent and contemporary politics. In them we find a government of life that tethers the question of poverty to that of population, as both a national and international concern, links biopolitics to questions of national security and is a key source...

  14. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, I.; Janssens, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  15. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  16. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  17. Effects of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  18. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  19. The Kaye effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

  20. Planar Hall Effect MRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J. -B.; Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest a new type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) that is based on the phenomenon of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in magnetic films, and we demonstrate this idea with manganite films. The PHE-MRAM is structurally simpler than currently developed MRAM that is based on magnetoresistance tunnel junctions (MTJ), with the tunnel junction structure being replaced by a single layer film.

  1. Spin Hall effect devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Wunderlich, Joerg; Olejník, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2012), s. 382-390 ISSN 1476-1122 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 35.749, year: 2012

  2. Spin Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, O.V.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Back, C.H.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2015), s. 1213-1259 ISSN 0034-6861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 33.177, year: 2015

  3. [Neuroprotective effects of curcumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Pengwen

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, turmeric has been put to use as a food additive and herbal medicine in Asia. Curcumin is an active principle of the perennial herb curcuma longa (commonly known as turmeric). Recent evidence suggests that curcumin has activities with potential for neuroprotective efficacy, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiprotein-aggregate activities. In the current review, we provide the newly evidence for the potential role of curcumin in the neuroprotective effects of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  4. Matthew Effects for Whom?

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Which children are most at risk of experiencing a Matthew effect in reading? We investigated this question using population-based methodology. First, we identified children entering kindergarten on socio-demographic factors (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) well known to index the relative risks and resources available to them as beginning readers. Second, we fitted growth curve models to the kindergarten—3rd grade reading scores of these children as they participated i...

  5. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  6. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  7. Effective Vaccination Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    effective” vaccine can stop the virus spread by causing herd immunity and the disease will die out. Vaccines that have this capability are in the vaccine ...Effective Vaccination Policies L. Shawa, W. Spears∗,b, L. Billingsc, P. Maximd aDepartment of Computer Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY...this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation

  8. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    policy of recruiting units on a national basis, with the old Germanic nations of Württemberg, Bavaria, Saxony , and especially Prussia all sending their...the landed nobility or the recent relevant tactical experience of the combat officer. From a synthesis of the two approaches emerges a picture of...complete picture of overall military effectiveness. One must address the interrelationship between the four levels of war. Without this aspect, one can

  9. Total aerosol effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Rotstayn, Leon; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andrew; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto A.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of precipitation formation. In former assessments of aerosol radiative forcings, these effects have not been quantified. Also, with global aerosol-climate models simulating interactively aerosols and cloud microphysical prope...

  10. Coanda effect in valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coanda effect takes place in flow within valves diffuser for certain conditions. The valve plug in half-closed position forms wall-jet, which could be stable or instable, depending on geometry and other conditions. This phenomenon was subject of experimental study using time-resolved PIV technique. For the acquired data analysis the special spatio-temporal methods have been used.

  11. Squeezing the Efimov effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, J. H.; Bellotti, F. F.; Yamashita, M. T.; Frederico, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.

    2018-03-01

    The quantum mechanical three-body problem is a source of continuing interest due to its complexity and not least due to the presence of fascinating solvable cases. The prime example is the Efimov effect where infinitely many bound states of identical bosons can arise at the threshold where the two-body problem has zero binding energy. An important aspect of the Efimov effect is the effect of spatial dimensionality; it has been observed in three dimensional systems, yet it is believed to be impossible in two dimensions. Using modern experimental techniques, it is possible to engineer trap geometry and thus address the intricate nature of quantum few-body physics as function of dimensionality. Here we present a framework for studying the three-body problem as one (continuously) changes the dimensionality of the system all the way from three, through two, and down to a single dimension. This is done by considering the Efimov favorable case of a mass-imbalanced system and with an external confinement provided by a typical experimental case with a (deformed) harmonic trap.

  12. The real butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, T N; Döring, A; Seregin, G

    2014-01-01

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  13. Stringy effects in scrambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067) we gave a precise holographic calculation of chaos at the scrambling time scale. We studied the influence of a small perturbation, long in the past, on a two-sided correlation function in the thermofield double state. A similar analysis applies to squared commutators and other out-of-time-order one-sided correlators (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)046, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2015)051A). The essential bulk physics is a high energy scattering problem near the horizon of an AdS black hole. The above papers used Einstein gravity to study this problem; in the present paper we consider stringy and Planckian corrections. Elastic stringy corrections play an important role, effectively weakening and smearing out the development of chaos. We discuss their signature in the boundary field theory, commenting on the extension to weak coupling. Inelastic effects, although important for the evolution of the state, leave a parametrically small imprint on the correlators that we study. We briefly discuss ways to diagnose these small corrections, and we propose another correlator where inelastic effects are order one.

  14. Respiratory effects of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Despreaux, Thomas; Perros, Frédéric; Lau, Edmund; Andujar, Pascal; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Descatha, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated solvent that has been used widely around the world in the twentieth century for metal degreasing and dry cleaning. Although TCE displays general toxicity and is classified as a human carcinogen, the association between TCE exposure and respiratory disorders are conflicting. In this review we aimed to systematically evaluate the current evidence for the respiratory effects of TCE exposure and the implications for the practicing clinician. There is limited evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with TCE exposure based on animal and human data. However, the effect of other chlorinated solvents and mixed solvent exposure should be further investigated. Limited data are available to support an association between TCE exposure and respiratory tract disorders such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or rhinitis. The most consistent data is the association of TCE with autoimmune and vascular diseases such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Although recent data are reassuring regarding the absence of an increased lung cancer risk with TCE exposure, clinicians should be aware of other potential respiratory effects of TCE. In particular, occupational exposure to TCE has been linked to less common conditions such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Paradoxical Effect of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Doutremepuich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin is an important therapeutic option in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke, basedon its unique cost-effectiveness and widespread availability. In addition, based on the results of a number of large studies, aspirin is also widely used in the primary prevention of MI. This paper provides an update of the available data to offer greater clarity regarding the risks of aspirin with respect to hemorrhagic stroke. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ischemic events, the evidence supports that the benefits of aspirin treatment significantly outweigh the risk of a major hemorrhage. When considering whether aspirin is appropriate, the absolute therapeutic cardiovascular benefits of aspirin must be balanced with the possible risks associated with its use, being hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding these clinical facts, normal, COX 1 −/−, and COX 2 −/− mice were treated with a wide range of doses of aspirin and studied by induced hemorrhagic time. The results outlined three major conclusions: high doses of aspirin induce hemorrhage, while low doses of aspirin do not. In the absence of COX 1, ultra low doses of aspirin produce an antihemorrhagic effect not observed with intermediate doses. The absence of COX 2 induced a hemorrhagic effect that needs further research, probably originated in compensatory phenomena.

  16. Effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, D.

    1986-02-01

    One of the main sources of noise is road traffic. In 1984 there were over 25 million cars, 1.2 million lorries, 1.3 million motor cycles and 1.6 million mopeds using our roads. Opinion polls showed that 21% of the population felt that they were affected by traffic noise as a nuisance factor. An outline of the effects of this noise on the affected population is given, illustrated by diagrams. Details about noise emissions (drive-past level) of the different types of vehicles in city traffic are stated and the effects of noise described. The author goes into the nuisance effect (noise is not a physical factor, but a psychosocial one), changes in behaviour (ways of speaking, reduction of stress on households in proportion to rising income and higher educational levels) and the consequences for health (the reaction of the body to noise is primarily a consequence of the psychosomatic organisation of ow bodies). In conclusion, the author deals with the subjective efficiency of noise protection measures. (HWJ).

  17. Effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2006-01-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  18. Estimation of morbidity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, B.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers have related exposure to ambient air pollution to respiratory morbidity. To be included in this review and analysis, however, several criteria had to be met. First, a careful study design and a methodology that generated quantitative dose-response estimates were required. Therefore, there was a focus on time-series regression analyses relating daily incidence of morbidity to air pollution in a single city or metropolitan area. Studies that used weekly or monthly average concentrations or that involved particulate measurements in poorly characterized metropolitan areas (e.g., one monitor representing a large region) were not included in this review. Second, studies that minimized confounding ad omitted variables were included. For example, research that compared two cities or regions and characterized them as 'high' and 'low' pollution area were not included because of potential confounding by other factors in the respective areas. Third, concern for the effects of seasonality and weather had to be demonstrated. This could be accomplished by either stratifying and analyzing the data by season, by examining the independent effects of temperature and humidity, and/or by correcting the model for possible autocorrelation. A fourth criterion for study inclusion was that the study had to include a reasonably complete analysis of the data. Such analysis would include an careful exploration of the primary hypothesis as well as possible examination of te robustness and sensitivity of the results to alternative functional forms, specifications, and influential data points. When studies reported the results of these alternative analyses, the quantitative estimates that were judged as most representative of the overall findings were those that were summarized in this paper. Finally, for inclusion in the review of particulate matter, the study had to provide a measure of particle concentration that could be converted into PM10, particulate matter below 10

  19. Isotope effects on nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This review concentrates upon empirical trends and practical uses of mostly secondary isotope effects, both of the intrinsic and equilibrium types. The text and the tables are arranged in the following fashion. The most 'popular' isotope effect is treated first, deuterium isotope effects on 13 C nuclear shielding, followed by deuterium on 1 H nuclear shieldings, etc. Focus is thus on the isotopes producing the effect rather than on the nuclei suffering the effect. After a brief treatment of each type of isotope effect, general trends are dealt with. Basic trends of intrinsic isotope effects such as additivity, solvent effects, temperature effects, steric effects, substituent effects and hyperconjugation are discussed. Uses of isotope effects for assignment purposes, in stereochemical studies, in hydrogen bonding and in isotopic tracer studies are dealt with. Kinetic studies, especially of phosphates, are frequently performed by utilizing isotope effects. In addition, equilibrium isotope effects are treated in great detail as these are felt to be new and very important and may lead to new uses of isotope effects. Techniques used to obtain isotope effects are briefly surveyed at the end of the chapter. (author)

  20. Effects of increased biofuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, J.; Blad, B.; Hillring, B.

    1996-01-01

    This report is a compilation of present knowledge regarding the effects of an increased use of biomass fuels. Main areas treated are: Availability of raw materials; Effects on forestry and agriculture; Transportation; Areas of use; Cost and price formation; Emission to the atmosphere, and effect on the climate; and Effect on employment and regional aspects. 29 tabs

  1. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  2. The flash grab effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick; Anstis, Stuart

    2013-10-18

    When an object moves back and forth, its trajectory appears significantly shorter than it actually is. The object appears to stop and reverse well before its actual reversal point, as if there is some averaging of location within a window of about 100 ms (Sinico et al., 2009). Surprisingly, if a bar is flashed at the physical end point of the trajectory, right on top of the object, just as it reverses direction, the flash is also shifted - grabbed by the object - and is seen at the perceived endpoint of the trajectory rather than the physical endpoint. This can shift the perceived location of the flash by as much as 2 or 3 times its physical size and by up to several degrees of visual angle. We first show that the position shift of the flash is generated by the trajectory shortening, as the same shift is seen with or without the flash. The flash itself is only grabbed if it is presented within a small spatiotemporal attraction zone around the physical end point of the trajectory. Any flash falling in that zone is pulled toward the perceived endpoint. The effect scales linearly with speed, up to a maximum, and is independent of the contrast of the moving stimulus once it is above 5%. Finally, we demonstrate that this position shift requires attention. These results reveal a new "flash grab" effect in the family of motion-induced position shifts. Although it most resembles the flash drag effect, it differs from this in the following ways: (1) it has a different temporal profile, (2) it requires attention, (3) it is about 10 times larger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  4. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  5. Domestic and international border effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...

  6. Photochemical effects of sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, F

    1972-07-01

    The importance of sunlight in bringing about not only photosynthesis in plants, but also other photochemical effects, is reviewed. More effort should be devoted to photochemical storage of the sun's energy without the living plant. There is no theoretical reason to believe that such reactions are impossible. Ground rules for searching for suitable solar photochemical reactions are given, and a few attempts are described, but nothing successful has yet been found. Future possibilities are suggested. Photogalvanic cells which convert sunlight into electricity deserve further research. Eugene Rabinowitch has been an active pioneer in these fields.

  7. Radiation effects on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.; Shalaby, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers polymer radiation effects to be available in more than a decade. This volume reviews the fundamental chemistry and physics of polymer-radiation interaction and examines recent progress in most major areas of the field. Its 38 chapters, cover: fundamentals of polymer radiation chemistry; technological applications of radiation to polymers (including radiation processing; radiation curing; sterilization; cross-linking, polymerization, grafting, x-ray resists, and others); and degradation of stabilization of irradiated polymers (including nuclear plants, scintillation detectors for particle physics, and others)

  8. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  9. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr...... into music physiology. We have already seen them working together in 2001 in Berger’s book Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child published by Jessica Kingsley, and this time their collaboration results in a book that is about the attributes of scientific reality (physics) as embedded...

  10. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  11. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  12. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of the increase of the temperature of the earth's atmosphere as a consequence of the increase in the CO 2 and other trace gas content has been reviewed. The results of various model studies have been included. There is the frightening prediction that global mean temperature will rise by several degrees with the consequent rise of mean sea level. Model computations also show that in the tropics rainfall will increase whereas in the subtropics and southern mid latitude, rainfall will decrease. If this happens, mankind will be faced with a major disaster in history. Agreement between theory and observations has been discussed. (author). 16 refs, 8 tabs

  13. Effective gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    The global iso-spin invariance of the hadronic interaction, which is a reflection of the SU(2) x U(1) QFD and QCD, as well as the U(1) invariance related to the charge of the hadrons, is formulated as an effective gauge theory. The pseudo-gauge fields in this theory are the vector mesons, and these composite fields become massive when the Higgs field at the quark-lepton level and the anti qq pair states acquire the vacuum expectation value. The formulation gives a theoretical basis for the vector dominance model and gives some insights to the possible composite structure of quarks and leptons. (author)

  14. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  15. Higgs Effective Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this meeting is to present new theoretical advancements related to effective field theories, evaluate the impact of initial results from the LHC Run2, and discuss proposals for data interpretation/presentation during Run2. A crucial role of the meeting is to bring together theorists from different backgrounds and with different viewpoints and to extend bridges towards the experimental community. To this end, we would like to achieve a good balance between senior and junior speakers, enhancing the visibility of younger scientists while keeping some overview talks.

  16. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  17. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general

  18. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  19. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc......, and national identity politics in Denmark. Despite the medical doctors’ efforts and intentions, the out- come was framed by 9/11, which has become the major critical event of the decade—one that has supported a developing cleavage between the Danish majority and Denmark’s Muslim immigrant minority....

  20. Handbook of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book

  1. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Vukićević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is one of the heavy metals, it is often used in industry, and exerts toxic effects on human health. Cadmium is classified as a carcinogenic substance for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and is in a group I carcinogen. Cadmium affects the development of cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, replication and apoptosis, as well as promotion of cancer in tissues. Intoxication with cadmium in people usually occurs by inhalation of cigarette smoke, but it is also possible via water, food and air. Cadmium exerts toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, cardiovascular system, immune system and reproductive system. Metallothionein protects tissues from the toxicity of cadmium. Cadmium-metallothionein complex is distributed in various tissues. There is no way for natural cadmium elimination from the human body. The main route of cadmium in the body is through binding with metallothionein, low molecular weight protein that participates in the homeostasis of certain metals. Cadmium-metallothionein complex is distributed in various tissues. The role of metallothionein in detoxification of cadmium is primarily in the large binding affinity of metals for metallothionein.

  2. Piezoelectric effects in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.

    1976-03-01

    Precision methods have been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the complex piezoelectric stress constants and the electric conduction and polarization currents. Samples of Collagen, keratin, and chitin are prepared and measured in such a way to optimize the determination of the position and orientation of the electric dipole moments. The temperature and the hydration state of the samples are varied during the measurement of the piezoelectric constants in an effort to understand the role of water in biological material. Above 40 0 C, the inherent piezolectricity is enhanced by the water of hydration, in contrast to the more easily understood reduction observed at lower temperatures. Gelatin, which has no inherent piezoelectricity, displays a piezoelectricity proportional to the currents of conduction and polarization. An analysis of the new effect shows that it is a measure of the variation of the resistivity with deformation (d rho/dS - rho) in the same way that the electric field induced piezoelectricity is a measure of the variation of the dielectric constant with deformation (dk/dS + k). Both are sensitive to electric dipole relaxation effects. (Author) [pt

  3. Evaluating Cartogram Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusrat, Sabrina; Alam, Md Jawaherul; Kobourov, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Cartograms are maps in which areas of geographic regions, such as countries and states, appear in proportion to some variable of interest, such as population or income. Cartograms are popular visualizations for geo-referenced data that have been used for over a century to illustrate patterns and trends in the world around us. Despite the popularity of cartograms, and the large number of cartogram types, there are few studies evaluating the effectiveness of cartograms in conveying information. Based on a recent task taxonomy for cartograms, we evaluate four major types of cartograms: contiguous, non-contiguous, rectangular, and Dorling cartograms. We first evaluate the effectiveness of these cartogram types by quantitative performance analysis (time and error). Second, we collect qualitative data with an attitude study and by analyzing subjective preferences. Third, we compare the quantitative and qualitative results with the results of a metrics-based cartogram evaluation. Fourth, we analyze the results of our study in the context of cartography, geography, visual perception, and demography. Finally, we consider implications for design and possible improvements.

  4. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  5. Acrolein health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator).

  6. Modification of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the tissue distribution of 239 Pu and 241 Am in mice and beagle dogs and the effectiveness of various therapeutic treatments for decorporation. In dogs injected with monomeric Pu the value of a regimen of early and prolonged treatment with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) for minimizing the Pu burden in the soft tissues and skeleton was demonstrated. These results have immediate implication for DTPA treatment in man. New studies in mice verified the action of pyran copolymer antiviral agents in enhancing the effectiveness of DTPA for removal of polymeric Pu from the liver. Recent application of autoradiographic procedures for quantitatively comparing short- and long-term localization of monomeric and polymeric 239 Pu in dog liver showed that there is no net translocation of monomeric Pu within the liver between 6 and 90 days following injection. One of the molecular studies presently underway aims at synthesis of a variety of DTPA esters. The diethyl ester has already been prepared and tested for toxicity in mice. These compounds are designed to bring DTPA into contact with plutonium deposits unavailable to the action of ionic DTPA. (U.S.)

  7. Photoprotective effects of nicotinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2010-04-01

    Sun protective measures can reduce numbers of both precancerous actinic keratoses and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas within relatively short periods of time even in high-risk populations. Sunscreens, which tend to provide greater protection against shortwave UVB than against longer wavelength UVA radiation, can however provide only partial protection from the mutagenic and immune suppressive effects of sunlight. In large part, this reflects poor compliance with proper sunscreen application and reapplication. Skin cancer is by far the most common malignancy in Caucasian populations, and additional strategies to reduce the morbidity and economic burden of this disease are now urgently needed. Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, is an inexpensive agent which is used for a variety of dermatological applications with little or no toxicity even at high doses. Nicotinamide has photoprotective effects against carcinogenesis and immune suppression in mice, and is photoimmunoprotective in humans when used as a lotion or orally. UV irradiation depletes keratinocytes of cellular energy and nicotinamide, which is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, may act at least in part by providing energy repletion to irradiated cells.

  8. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  9. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Roehl, W.

    1990-01-01

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-03

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  11. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  12. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  13. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    Full Text Available Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  14. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  15. Nonlinear Interactions Between Oblique Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    of difference modes when λ = O(1) Equation (87) shows that the amplitudes of the first N − 2 difference modes grow exponentially, Adn = adnexp(κdnt̄...for 1 ≤ n ≤ N−2. (96) Their growth rates, κdn, and initial amplitudes, adn , become κdn = κ ∗ s + nκp, (97) adn = ϕ ∗ dn apad(n−1)I (n) d with ad0 = −a...p, AdN ), (101) AdN = −ϕdNG−N (t̄|Ap, Ad(N−1)), (102) with ad(N−1) defined by (98) and G ± n given by (D-3) in Appendix D. The above equations

  16. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    surface gravity waves. While it assumes a flat bottom, it is valid both inside and outside the surf zone (Guza and Thornton 1980). Early research, such...J., T. Crawford, J. Crescenti, T. Farrar, J. French , et al. 2007: The coupled boundary layers and air-sea transfer experiment in low winds (CBLAST...before reaching the deployment site ( ). Map created in Google Earth , October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/ earth /. 30 Elevations around the

  17. Intentional binding of visual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Miriam; Thomaschke, Roland; Kiesel, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    When an action produces an effect, the effect is perceived earlier in time compared to a stimulus without preceding action. This temporal bias is called intentional binding (IB) and serves as an implicit measure of sense of agency. Typically, IB is investigated by presenting a rotating clock hand while participants execute an action and perceive a resulting tone. Participants are asked to estimate the time point of tone onset by referring to the clock hand position. This time point estimate is compared to a time point estimate of a tone in a condition in which the tone occurs without preceding action. Studies employing this classic clock paradigm employed auditory action effects. We modified this paradigm to investigate potential IB of visual action effects, and, additionally, to investigate how IB differs for visual action effects (Experiment 1) in comparison to auditory action effects (Experiment 2). Our results show that, like the IB of an auditory effect, the time point of a visual action effect is shifted toward the causing action, and that the size of the IB depends on the delay duration of the effect. Comparable to auditory action effects, earlier action effects showed stronger IB compared to later action effects. Yet overall IB of the visual effects was weaker than IB of the auditory effects. As IB is seen as an indicator of sense of agency, this may have important implications for the design of human-machine interfaces.

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  19. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    1985-01-01

    A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from low-LET radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, cancers of the bones, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, skin, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. In addition, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated. The model used in the earlier Reactor Safety Study has been modified to reflect additional epidemiological data and these changes are described in detail. 37 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  20. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    To understand how the practices of Lean affect performance, we tested and validated a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model. We used a cross-sectional survey of 200 Danish companies that indicated that they used Lean. Thus, this study is especially...... relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow...... of decision rights. The paper provides evidence that supports the view that middle managers’ actions further enhance performance in Lean companies. The right Lean behavior by middle managers increases the level of analytical continuous improvement empowerment. In total, high-performing Lean companies...

  1. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team...... consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than...... limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking...

  2. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  3. Confinement effects in sesquioxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, B. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Dujardin, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ledoux, G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: ledoux@pcml.univ-lyon1.fr; Louis, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tillement, O. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Perriat, P. [Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR 5510 du CNRS, INSA de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    When the size of a particle is decreased to nano-scales, confinement effects induce strong changes. The luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been studied as a function of both the temperature and the size of the nanoparticles. Two consequences of the small sizes in Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} are observed. First the linewidth of the Eu{sup 3+} transitions are inhomogeneously broadened at low temperature, and second the population of the ground and the first excited state of Eu{sup 3+} as a function of temperature differs depending on the size: at low temperatures, the smaller the particles, the less populated the first excited state is. The explanation of this second phenomenon could be the absence of very low-energy phonons in small particles.

  4. COSYMA: Health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1995-02-01

    As one of the main objectives of the MARIA project (''Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents'') initiated by the Commission of the European Communities the program package COSYMA (''COde SYstem from MARIA'') for assessing the radiological and economic off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere has been jointly developed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), FRG, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), UK. COSYMA includes models and data for assessing a broad spectrum of accident consequences, and they are implemented in independent modules. The subject of this report are those modules, which incorporate models and data for assessing individual and collective risks for deterministic and stochastic health effects. It describes the models implemented, the mathematical algorithms and the required data. Examples are given and explained for the input and output part of the modules. (orig.)

  5. MEDIA EFFECTS THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MAFTEI-GOLOPENȚIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the world and the various existing points of view play sometimes the role of barriers to understanding the events that take place around us or in which we are directly involved, that we may find overwhelming sometimes. In this context, we have no choice but to find instruments that can help us find a meaning beyond ”raw” information. Frames and other media effects theories can be this instrument, that can help us understand ”the stories” about the surrounding world. Frames are useful to us because our mind can’t simply process each new situation from scratch. This paper aims mainly at analysing frames, their function, their types, their roles and the levels at which they manifest themselves. It also represents the theoretical background of a future case study about the way in which the academic world is symbolically seen by the press.

  6. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  7. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  8. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  9. Piezotronic and Piezophototronic Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-05-06

    Owing to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has noncentral symmetry, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the material by applying a stress. The creation of piezopotential together with the presence of Schottky contacts are the fundamental physics responsible for a few important nanotechnologies. The nanogenerator is based on the piezopotential-driven transient flow of electrons in the external load. On the basis of nanomaterials in the wurtzite semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, electronics fabricated by using a piezopotential as a gate voltage are called piezotronics, with applications in strain/force/pressure-triggered/controlled electronic devices, sensors, and logic gates. The piezophototronic effect is a result of three-way coupling among piezoelectricity, photonic excitation, and semiconductor transport, which allows tuning and controlling of electro-optical processes by a strain-induced piezopotential. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  11. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  12. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  13. Rebound effects for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Harry D.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this Communication, we seek to clarify confusion regarding our 2010 Journal of Physics article on historical rebound effects for lighting, which showed that global energy use for lighting has experienced 100% rebound over 300 years, six continents, and five technologies. We argue that our results have been misunderstood by some to mean lighting efficiency gains are counterproductive, and we instead argue for vigorously promoting improved lighting technologies. - Highlights: ► We clarify confusion about our 2010 Journal of Physics article on lighting. ► Over 3 centuries, increases in lighting energy efficiency have led to 100% rebound. ► Such gains create economic benefits despite the nominal absence of climate benefits. ► We argue that improved lighting technologies should be pursued vigorously.

  14. Radiation effects on polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, M.; Ito, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on four kinds of polyethylenes were studied from the viewpoints of mechanical properties, free radicals and free volumes. The samples were irradiated using a cobalt 60 gamma source to give doses up to 3MGy. The degradation of mechanical strength due to gamma-irradiation was evaluated by the elongation at break and its tensile strength. Radiation induced free radicals were measured by ESR. Free volumes observed by the o-Ps component of the positron annihilation spectrum are normally the large ones located in the amorphous regions and after irradiation these are created in crystalline regions, too. The sizes and the relative numbers of free volumes were evaluated by lifetimes and intensities of a long-lived component of positronium, respectively. Using these data, the properties of polyethylenes before and after irradiation are discussed. (author)

  15. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  16. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  17. The Effective Ambidextrous Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    . Results of structural equation analyses indicate that superior performance in the ambidextrous organizations is associated with efficiencies derived from adherence to centralized strategic planning and effectiveness generated by decentralized innovative behavior through participation and autonomous...... the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretical rationales in a model that combines elements of integration and experimentation in the strategy making...... process and thereby extends the evolving literature on the ambidextrous organization. The performance relationships of the ambidextrous integrative strategy making model are investigated on the basis of a cross-sectional sample of 185 business entities operating in different manufacturing industries...

  18. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  19. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.

  20. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  1. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    measures to get a broader knowledge base. Drawing on our qualitative dataset, the aim of this study was to investigate children’s perceptions of the effect of their renewed schoolyards. METHODS: Drawing on a phenomenological approach data was collected through ten focus groups at five Danish intervention...... have to support the older children’s recess physical activity on an organisational level by encourage them to use the schoolyard and renewing schoolyard areas close to their classrooms. This follow-up study of children’s perception of the renewed schoolyards can aid development of future schoolyard......PURPOSE: There is no consistent evidence to guide schoolyard interventions promoting physical activity. The Activating Schoolyards Study is a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study aimed at investigating the impact of renewed schoolyards on 10-15-year-old children’s recess physical...

  2. Fair and effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Nathan, Iben

    2014-01-01

    70) Pasgaard, M.a and Nathan, I. Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is a proposed mechanism to mitigate global climate change without compromising biodiversity and local livelihoods. REDD+ initiatives are being introduced at a fast pace across the Global South. Many...... this question in the particular context of a REDD+ demonstration project in Oddar Meanchey district in Northern Cambodia. Based on a study of the actual drivers of deforestation in the locality and of the mechanisms presently determining how the participating communities share costs and benefits from forest...... governance, we conclude that the studied approach to reducing emissions from large scale deforestation is not effective in its present form, and is even likely to increase rather than decrease inequalities among rural people in the area. Factors such as high pressure on land, weak land- and forest tenure...

  3. The effective bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo Echeverri, Alejandro [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Harling, Benedict von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Serone, Marco [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios z and anti z are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point z= anti z=1/2, we can consistently ''integrate out'' higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this ''effective'' bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and O(n) vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the O(n) vector models, with n=2,3,4, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.

  4. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  5. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  6. Psychobehavioral Effects of Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Suchorzynska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Meditation is an increasingly popular psychobehavioral therapy. Various meditation techniques in use make it hard to objectively scrutinize the psychological benefits. Therefore, in this study we set out to examine the effects of two fundamentally different meditative techniques, Zazen, 'seated meditation', in which the body and mind are calmed, and Tai Chi, 'meditation in motion', based on energetic martial art performance. The aim was to compare the effects of both techniques on personality structure, emotional intelligence, mood, and coping with stress. The study was conducted in 48 healthy volunteers, aged 39-50, divided into those practicing Zazen, Tai Chi, and the non-meditating controls, each group consisting of 16 persons. The psychometric tools consisted of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL), Emotional Intelligence Inventory (INTE), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that both Zazen and Tai Chi meditations significantly enhanced openness to experience, one of the personality dimensions of the Big Five Model. The enhanced openness was associated with improved strategies for coping with stress. The meditators had less avoidance-oriented approaches to perceived stress. They also had improved mood compared with non-meditating controls. The findings suggest that enhanced openness to experience could shape one's desire to hold onto the meditation regimen. We conclude that both, diametrically different types of meditation, are conducive to mental health by improving the general well-being, counteracting stress, and leading to a better vigor of spirit. Meditation may thus be considered a complimentary, albeit rather modestly acting, adjunct to psychotherapy.

  7. Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the treatment of nodular cystic acne and as an inhibitor of proliferation of neoplastic cells, by exerting a regulatory effect on the cell differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the possible oxidative effects of ITN and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in mutant and non-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

  8. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Testosterone is the primary male ... processes in the body. The list of potential effects of testosterone loss is long: hot flashes, decreased ...

  9. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  10. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be ...

  11. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Sun Safety Contact Us Share Health Effects of UV Radiation Ozone layer depletion decreases our ... against these invaders. Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure to the Sun (PDF) Did You ...

  12. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apps skip to content Side Effects of HIV Medicines Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV Medicines ... p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medicines and Side Effects Last Reviewed: October 9, 2017 ...

  13. Atomistic and orthoatomistic effect algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkadlec, Josef

    2008-05-01

    We characterize atomistic effect algebras, prove that a weakly orthocomplete Archimedean atomic effect algebra is orthoatomistic and present an example of an orthoatomistic orthomodular poset that is not weakly orthocomplete.

  14. Measuring Surface Combatant Fleet Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crary, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...? While Measures of Effectiveness for an individual ship can include its number of missiles, speed, and endurance, it is difficult to find a Measure of Effectiveness credible to experienced warplanners...

  15. Antidepressants: Can They Lose Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be having the same effect. Can antidepressants lose effectiveness? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  16. Agglomeration-effects in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ciccone

    1998-01-01

    The paper estimates agglomeration-effects for France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Estimation takes into account endogeneity of the spatial distribution of employment and spatial fixed-effects. Empirical results suggest that agglomeration-effects in these European countries are only slightly smaller than agglomeration- effects in the US: the estimated elasticity of average- labor-productivity with respect to employment-density is 4.5 percent compared to 5 perc...

  17. Radiation effects in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Herrmann, T.; Doerr, W.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of radiation effects in normal tissues is fundamental for optimal planning of radiotherapy. Therefore, this book presents a review on the following aspects: General pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in normal tissues; general pathogenesis of chronic radiation effects in normal tissues; quantification of acute and chronic radiation effects in normal tissues; pathogenesis, pathology and radiation biology of various organs and organ systems. (MG) [de

  18. DUBNA: Spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Earlier this year, a collaboration of Russian, Ukrainian and French laboratories measured the difference between the polarized neutron and proton total reaction rate (total cross section difference) at slightly higher energies than previous experiments, providing an interesting hint of an effect predicted by theory. This was measured using a beam of longitudinally polarized neutrons and a longitudinally polarized proton target with parallel and antiparallel polarization directions. The polarized neutron beam, from the break-up of polarized deuterons, was accelerated by the Synchrophasotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Laboratory of High Energies, Dubna (Russian Federation). The polarized target, 20 cm long and 3 cm in diameter, provided by DAPNIA (Saclay, France) and Argonne (USA), had also been used in 1989-1990 at Fermilab for the E704 experiment. Equipment from Saclay and Argonne was shipped to Dubna and work started in June 1994. The International Association for the Promotion of Cooperation with Scientists from the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (INTAS) supported the construction and improvement of the target in a suitable transportable form. The target was mounted in the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) by experts from DAPNIA (Saclay), JINR Dubna (LNP, LHE and Laboratory of Particle Physics - LPP), Gatchina (Russia), RASMoscow and the Kharkov (Ukraine) laboratories. The Saturne National Laboratory (Saclay), helped with computer programmes for the NMR target polarization measurements. Apparatus was tested in early February. The beam of 2 x 109 polarized deuterons produced 106 polarized neutrons at 3.6 GeV. The neutron beam polarization was about 52%. The new superconducting Nuclotron accelerator should allow the beam intensity to be increased and beam quality improved after an upgrade of the injection system. Preliminary results for the polarized neutron-proton cross section difference at neutron kinetic

  19. Effects of Security actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  20. Anomalous Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  1. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Je-An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  2. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Je-An; Pyo Kim, Sang; Shen, Che-Min

    2018-01-01

    Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  3. Assimilation: central and peripheral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, C.M.M. de; Kruysbergen, N.A.W.H. van

    1997-01-01

    Assimilation and contrast have opposite effects: Contrast leads to an increase of perceived differences between neighbouring fields, whereas assimilation leads to a reduction. It is relatively easy to demonstrate these effects, but the precise localisation of these effects in the perceptual system

  4. Effects Of Radiation On Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report provides data on effects of radiation on elastomers. Quantifies effects by giving minimum radiation levels to induce changes of 1 percent and 25 percent in given properties. Electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties included in data. Combined effects of heat and radiation briefly considered. Data summarized in graphic form useful to designers.

  5. Attention and the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  6. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects, but in...... of how to design exercise interventions in patients with different side effects....

  7. Improvement of irradiation effects database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guohuo; Xu Xi; Jia Wenhai

    2003-01-01

    The design method of irradiation effects database is related in this paper. The structure of irradiation effects database is perfected by Delphi, query and calculation of the data have completed, and printing and outputting data report form have fulfilled. Therefore, data storage platform for reliability and vulnerability analyzing of harden irradiation effects of the component and system is offered

  8. Observational Effects of Strange Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk, after briefly reviewing some historical remarks concerning strange stars, the achievements in physics and dynamical behavior of strange stars are discussed. Especially, various observational effects in distinguishing strange stars from neutron stars such as mechanical effects, cooling effects, phase transition and related interesting phenomena are stressed.

  9. Effects of the insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESELA YANCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present work is to study the effects of the new neonicotinoid insecticide „Actara 25 WG" on the intensity of expression of glycogen in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by using PAS-reaction on cryosections. Common carp is an economically important fish species, which is widely used as a bioindicator for the health of freshwater basins since it could also survive at very contaminated sites. We have used 6.6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L of the test chemical under laboratory conditions. The results demonstrated that the intensity of staining of the PAS-reaction is directly proportional to the increasing concentration of the insecticide. In addition, this indicates that the amount of glycogen in hepatocytes also increased. Conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes were found at the highest concentration of the insecticide. Therefore, we consider that under the influence of „Actara 25 WG" the process of glyconeogenesis in the liver of the studied fish accelerates.

  10. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Bella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate. The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation. All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases.

  11. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  12. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO 2 emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO 2 emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard

  13. Apparent compensation effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    It is shown that by linear extrapolation of low temperature Arrhenius lines to 1/T = 0 a phenomenon resembling the compensation effect is generated because the absolute position of those lines is raised by the entropy of activation energy distribution so that the lines have an intersection point. An equation first derived by O. K. Rice (Actication et Structures des Molecules, p. 304, Paris (1928); O. K. Rice and Ramsberger, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 50, 617 (1928)) and C. N. Hinshelwood (Kinetics of Chemical Change in Gaseous Systems, 3rd ed., Oxford Clarendon Press (1933)) is used. For a well documented example it is shown graphically that the construction described fits the observations. From the rate equation used an expression is derived which gives for any reaction the number of degrees of freedom contributing to the activation of the critical complex as a function of the limiting activation energies and of the apparent isocatalytic temperature. It is applied to a number of catalyses by alloys, salts, supported and inverse supported catalysts for a variety of reactions. In all cases values around 10 to 20 result for the freedom numbers. The conductivity of several doped semiconductors follows the same rule. The results are briefly discussed. 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  15. Handbook of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments when they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High technology materials, especially semiconductors, optics and organic materials, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Hence the need for a guidebook to that set of radiation effects. As for the radiation environments, first, space has a naturally high radiation level. Secondly, the surface of the Earth is radioactive at a low level. When we go down a uranium mine or explore space, we run into much higher levels. Man makes even higher levels for a multitude of purposes. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, and industrial sterilization. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Finally, there is the huge problem of machining or handling intensely radioactive isotopes such as spent nuclear fuel rods or radiotherapy capsules and dealing with the dispersed radioactivity from a nuclear accident. Having provided an introductory background on the main types of radiation, radiation environments and the interaction of radiation and solids, we go into detail on the more sensitive technologies and discuss in depth the best solutions for spacecraft, terrestrial robots and imagers. (Author)

  16. Ampicillin radioprotector effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Fernandez-Larrea, O.; Rios, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of ampicillin during irradiation and recovery of the Bacillus licheniformis RI 75-1 stump with a savage genotype of recovery exposed to ionizing radiations and treated with gamma quantums. Previous research enabled to prove that in Bacillus licheniformis spores suspensions, irradiated of vegetative cells in ampicillin at D-1--0- dose, causes significative lethal increases. In this paper, The irradiation of vegetative cells in presence of 5 mcg/ml of ampicillin increases the viability at doses above 1 kGy. the survival rates was raised when vegetative cells of Bacillus lincheniformis were irradiated at 1.2 kGy and recovered in a nutrient environment during 2 hours (LHR) in presence of ampicillin. Twenty-two stumps of Bacillus licheniformis obtained through different mutagenic treatments were studied in relation to the resistance of ampicillim and at 3 Kgy gamma quantums and a direct correlation between these two was stablished. Previous treatment with ampicillin of the vegetative cells from the Bacillus licheniformis increased the number of resistants to gamma quantums. There was no information about this phenomenom in literature consulted

  17. [Effects of traumatic stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Gesa; Jaeger, Ulrich; Leichsenring, Falk; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis PTSD does not adequately describe the impact of exposure to childhood trauma of the developing child. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of different interpersonal trauma types and to describe the long-term effects of maltreatment and neglect in a clinical sample of 34 adolescents. The majority (62%) of the sample was exposed to two different types of trauma during childhood. Emotional abuse and emotional neglect have been the most common trauma types (59%; 53%). 71% of the traumatized adolescents did not meet the criteria for PTSD. The most common diagnosis in the sample was Borderline Personality Disorder. All average scores at SCL-90-Symptom-Scale were clinical significant. Half of the sample reported suicide attempts and self destructive behavior. One third reported substance abuse and aggressive behavior against others respectively. None of the traumatized adolescents had a positive Self-concept. Altogether the results show that abused children and adolescents have a range of psychological sequelae that are not captured in the PTSD diagnostic criteria. Therefore the results support the necessity for a new and more precise diagnosis for chronically traumatized children and adolescents.

  18. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  19. Radioprotective effect of CURCUMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Curcuma longa is the scientific name of turmeric, which can be found on spice racks worldwide. This herb is responsible for the yellow colouring of many curry dishes. In the present study, female albino rats were treated with oral administration of curcumin for 14 days before gamma irradiation. Gamma radiation was applied in 0.1, 0.75 and 2 Gy, 1 hour after the last dose of curcuma administration. Animals were divided into control and 6 treated groups, all were irradiated with gamma rays, only three were injected with curcumin. Blood was collected 1 and 48 hours after irradiation. Serum total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, triglycerides, SGOT and SGPT were determined. Curcuma was found to elevate the protein profile (total protein, albumin and globulin) and ameliorated the hyperlipidaemic effects of gamma radiation. Curcuma also improved the liver functions affected by gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that curcuma can be used as a radioprotector for occupationally exposed individuals to low doses and low dose rates

  20. The stratified Boycott effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Tom; Blanchette, Francois; Bush, John W. M.

    2005-04-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the flows generated by monodisperse particles settling at low Reynolds number in a stably stratified ambient with an inclined sidewall. In this configuration, upwelling beneath the inclined wall associated with the Boycott effect is opposed by the ambient density stratification. The evolution of the system is determined by the relative magnitudes of the container depth, h, and the neutral buoyancy height, hn = c0(ρp-ρf)/|dρ/dz|, where c0 is the particle concentration, ρp the particle density, ρf the mean fluid density and dρ/dz Boycott layer transports dense fluid from the bottom to the top of the system; subsequently, the upper clear layer of dense saline fluid is mixed by convection. For sufficiently strong stratification, h > hn, layering occurs. The lowermost layer is created by clear fluid transported from the base to its neutral buoyancy height, and has a vertical extent hn; subsequently, smaller overlying layers develop. Within each layer, convection erodes the initially linear density gradient, generating a step-like density profile throughout the system that persists after all the particles have settled. Particles are transported across the discrete density jumps between layers by plumes of particle-laden fluid.

  1. Cytotoxicity effects of alkoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan M. Khairul

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effort was to design and synthesize five new members of alkoxy substituted thiourea derivatives (3a–3e featuring general formula of A-ArC(ONHC(SNHAr-D in which A represents the methoxy group and D as –OCnH2n+1 (alkoxyl group, where n = 6,7,8,9, and 10 have been successfully designed, prepared, characterized, and evaluated for anti-amoebic activities. They were spectroscopically characterized by 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis spectroscopy analysis. In turn, they were used to investigate the cytotoxicity effect on Acanthamoeba sp. at their IC50 values and membrane permeability. Compounds 3a and 3b revealed to have good activity towards Acanthamoeba sp. compared to other compounds of 3c, 3d, and 3e. The observation under fluorescence microscopy by AOPI (Acridine-orange/Propidium iodide staining indicated that treated amoeba cells by 3a–3e show loss of their membrane permeability.

  2. Greenhouse effect: Myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper debates on greenhouse effect controversy. Natural greenhouse effect is beneficent but additional greenhouse effect, in relation with human activities, can present a major risk for humanity. However an international agreement is difficult owing to the enormous costs which could not be endured by South economies. A tax on carbon dioxide emissions would have for consequence a wave of industrial delocalizations without precedent with important unemployment in Europe and no impact on additional greenhouse effect because it is a radiative effect and it is not a classic local chemical pollution. 11 refs., 10 figs

  3. Moessbauer effect and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Arshad, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts of Moessbauer effect. The provision of extremely high energy resolution, 1 part in 10/sp 12/, is the remarkable feature of this effects. This feature can be used to solve various problems where small changes in energy are involved. This effect has been applied in various disciplines of science like astrophysics, archaeology, biology, corrosion, amorphous alloys, chemistry, metallurgy, solid state physics, magnetism, superconductivity etc. A brief description of Moessbauer effect along with some typical examples are presented to demonstrate the importance and power of this effect in solving problems in these areas. (author)

  4. Pancreatic effects of GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -dependent manner. But perhaps equally importantly, GLP-1’s glucose lowering effects are attributable to a strong inhibition of glucagon secretion, and, thereby, a reduction of hepatic glucose output. The effects of GLP-1 on insulin secretion are mediated by binding of the hormone to the receptor (GLP-1r......) on the pancreatic β-cell, which increases intracellular cAMP levels and sets in motion a plethora of events that lead to secretion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on the α-cell may be indirect, involving paracrine intra-islet regulation by somatostatin and possibly also insulin, although GLP-1 also...... inhibits glucagon secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Besides these acute effects on the endocrine pancreas, GLP-1 also appears to have a positive effect on β-cell mass. In the following we will review GLP-1’s pancreatic effects with particular focus on its effects on pancreatic islets...

  5. Effect sizes in memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter E; Fritz, Catherine O

    2013-01-01

    Effect sizes are omitted from many research articles and are rarely discussed. To help researchers evaluate effect sizes we collected values for the more commonly reported effect size measures (partial eta squared and d) from papers reporting memory research published in 2010. Cohen's small, medium, and large generic guideline values for d mapped neatly onto the observed distributions, but his values for partial eta squared were considerably lower than those observed in current memory research. We recommend interpreting effect sizes in the context of either domain-specific guideline values agreed for an area of research or the distribution of effect size estimates from published research in the domain. We provide cumulative frequency tables for both partial eta squared and d enabling authors to report and consider not only the absolute size of observed effects but also the percentage of reported effects that are larger or smaller than those observed.

  6. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  7. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  8. Models for effective prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Are carbon credits effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Is it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by assigning a value to CO 2 ? That's the concept behind carbon credits. Their advantage: they set targets but let companies decide how to meet them. Of all the processes that can be used to reduce air pollution, the cap and trade system is the best way to meet global targets on a national or continental scale. The system's efficiency is based on setting a ceiling for emissions: this is the cap. The emissions quotas are negotiable goods that can be traded on a market: this is the 'trade'. No company can exceed its quotas, but it can choose how to meet them: decreasing its emissions by changing its production processes, buying carbon credits sold by companies that have exceeded their targets, or using clean development mechanisms. For a carbon credit system to function correctly on an economic level, it's essential to meet one condition: don't allocate too many emissions quotas to the companies involved. If they receive too many quotas, it's not hard for them to meet their objectives without changing their production processes. The supply of carbon credits currently exceeds demand. The price per ton of CO 2 is collapsing, and companies that have exceeded their targets are not rewarded for their efforts. Efficient though it may be, the cap and trade system cannot be the only way to fight CO 2 emissions. In Europe, it presently covers 40% of the CO 2 emissions by targeting utilities and industries that consume the most fossil fuels. But it cannot be extended to some sectors where pollution is diffuse. In transportation, for example, it's not possible to impose such a requirement. For that sector, as well as for the building sector, a suitable system of taxes might be effective and incentive

  10. Health effects of phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant-derived phytochemicals, whose common biological roles are to protect plants from stress or to act as part of a plant's defense mechanism. Although composed of a wide group of nonsteroidal compounds of diverse structure, phytoestrogens have been shown to bind estrogen receptors and to behave as weak agonist/antagonist in both animals and humans. Phytoestrogens include mainly isoflavones (IF), coumestans, and lignans. These compounds are known to be present in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly consumed by humans. IF are found in legumes--mainly soybeans--whereas flaxseed is a major source of lignans, and coumestans are significantly present in clover, alfalfa and soybean sprouts. 8-Prenyl flavonoids are common in vegetables. Bioavailability of IF requires an initial hydrolysis of the sugar moiety by intestinal beta-glucosidases to allow the following uptake by enterocytes and the flow through the peripheral circulation. Following absorption, IF are then reconjugated mainly to glucuronic acid and to a lesser degree to sulphuric acid. Gut metabolism seems key to the determination of the potency of action. Several epidemiological studies correlated high dose consumptions of soy IF with multiple beneficial effects on breast and prostate cancers, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and stroke, and neurodegeneration. For the relief of menopausal symptoms a consumption of 60 mg aglycones/day has been suggested; for cancer prevention a consumption between 50 and 110 mg aglycones/day is considered beneficial to reduce risks of breast, colon and prostate cancer; to decrease cardiovascular risk a minimum intake of 40-60 mg aglycones/day, together with about 25 g of soy protein has been suggested. For improvement in bone mineral density, 60-100 mg aglycones/day for a period of at least 6-12 months could be beneficial.

  11. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death an...

  12. Competencies and leadership effectiveness: Which skills predict effective leadership?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaculík Martin; Procházka Jakub; Smutný Petr

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between leadership effectiveness and generic and stable competencies. Task- related, people-related and self-related competencies were examined as predictors of leadership effectiveness as measured by four different criteria: group performance, leader effectiveness, leadership emergence and leadership self–efficacy. 134 top managers were evaluated by 2,482 subordinates after a four-month management simulation game. Task-related competencies were shown to b...

  13. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-01-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The Pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade processes of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is taken into account accordingly. (author)

  14. Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi-Robot Management Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Joseph E Mercado , Michael A Rupp, Jessie YC Chen, Daniel Barber, Katelyn Procci, and Michael Barnes Approved for public...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi-Robot Management Effectiveness by Joseph E Mercado Oak...Effectiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph E Mercado , Michael A Rupp, Jessie YC Chen, Daniel

  15. Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

    2013-01-01

    Eyal Shahar,1 Doron J Shahar2 1Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, 2Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed t...

  16. The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden; Lukzen, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole–dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair....... Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar...... interaction is responsible for the effect. Our calculations provide support for the proposed mechanism....

  17. Decomposing the emotional Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Christian; Englert, Julia; Wentura, Dirk; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The emotional Stroop effect refers to the phenomenon that participants are faster in responding to the ink colour of neutral than of negative word stimuli, possibly reflecting fast and automatic allocation of attention towards negative stimuli. However, this interpretation was challenged by McKenna and Sharma (2004) who found that the emotional Stroop effect reflected a generic slowdown after negative stimuli. In fact, they even found reversed effects in a design in which neutral stimuli more often followed negative stimuli and vice versa. Yet, besides reversing the emotional Stroop effect this contingency might in fact have counteracted the fast effect, which was usually interpreted as the emotional Stroop effect. To decompose the emotional Stroop effect we used a design in which the foregoing and the current valence were uncorrelated and in which the fast and slow effects could be computed independently from each other. We found evidence for both fast and slow effects and discuss the practical implications for researchers using the emotional Stroop task as a measurement and the theoretical implications for researchers interested in the underlying cognitive mechanisms that contribute to the emotional Stroop effect.

  18. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  19. The wow effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Pagnotta, Paola; Trentini, Gabriella; Cirotti, Tiziana; Parrettini, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Teaching science at elementary school is a hard work for scientists since we usually use to talk to colleagues by using technical and specific words not understandable by general public and school students. Finding plain language for explaining what is the research and for describing scientific topics was the objective of this work. In collaboration with the school teachers, I organized a series of meetings describing the same subject with different approaches and, at the end of the test-period, we did a survey within the 60 students (10-11 years old) for understanding which was the most attractive approach for them. The survey asked to the students the 3 topics (which could be a sentence, an activity or simply a picture) that they remember at most from all the meetings. Later on we asked why they have chosen those topics. The common topic was atmospheric and space science and it was approached by using, books, videos, frontal lectures with the support of pictures and other material, and with direct hands-on lab such as 3D puzzles for building a satellite. Nobody highlights having read a book. The majority of the students (male and female) really appreciated having built their own satellite (wow, I have done it!) and how's the life into the International Space Station (wow, everything flies there and they drink the pee!). Many female students were fascinated by the stars and by the Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti (wow, an Italian woman is there!) while many boys were attracted by the technology evolution (wow, how a mobile phone could be that big?!). Surprisingly 3 students remember a quick (showed for just a few seconds) and blurred picture showing the glory effect by aircraft (wow, a circular rainbow!). The survey shows how the students mostly appreciate the hands-on labs and being active and creative, their attention decreases but it is still active with frontal lectures or videos showing them real examples or something impacting their day-life.

  20. Reversing the similarity effect: The effect of presentation format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Andrea M; Cohen, Andrew L

    2018-06-01

    A context effect is a change in preference that occurs when alternatives are added to a choice set. Models of preferential choice that account for context effects largely assume a within-dimension comparison process. It has been shown, however, that the format in which a choice set is presented can influence comparison strategies. That is, a by-alternative or by-dimension grouping of the dimension values encourage within-alternative or within-dimension comparisons, respectively. For example, one classic context effect, the compromise effect, is strengthened by a by-dimension presentation format. Extrapolation from this result suggests that a second context effect, the similarity effect, will actually reverse when stimuli are presented in a by-dimension format. In the current study, we presented participants with a series of apartment choice sets designed to elicit the similarity effect, with either a by-alternative or by-dimension presentation format. Participants in the by-alternative condition demonstrated a standard similarity effect; however, participants in the by-dimension condition demonstrated a strong reverse similarity effect. The present data can be accounted for by Multialternative Decision Field Theory (MDFT) and the Multiattribute Linear Ballistic Accumulator (MLBA), but not Elimination by Aspects (EBA). Indeed, when some weak assumptions of within-dimension processes are met, MDFT and the MLBA predict the reverse similarity effect. These modeling results suggest that the similarity effect is governed by either forgetting and inhibition (MDFT), or attention to positive or negative differences (MLBA). These results demonstrate that flexibility in the comparison process needs to be incorporated into theories of preferential choice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Political Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    Abstract There are many somewhat competing models for measuring political campaign effects. This paper discusses six types of campaign effects. 1) The civic engagement effect that argues people will learn and become more political engaged due to the campaign. 2) The priming studies argue...... that campaigns affect what issues the voters evaluate the parties and leaders on and sequentially their vote. 3) The minimal effect models argue that campaigns only mobilize existing prepositions and voters only seek to confirm their intermediated vote choice. 4) The memory based models argue that the vote...... to measure campaign effect during the next national election for the Danish parliament. The project began in January 2008. This paper presents the general idea of the project and operationalized various classic models of campaign effects. The draft questionnaire is also included. The online...

  2. The placebo effect and homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus Z; Guedes, Cristina H F F; Barreto, Patrícia V; Martins, Mílton A

    2010-04-01

    Like other forms of medicine, including Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), homeopathy elicits expectations in patients. The physician-patient relationship, personal and comprehensive treatment and lack of adverse effects are elements in creating positive expectations. Other elements may be associated with negative expectations. We conducted a systematic literature review on placebo and nocebo effects in acupuncture and homeopathy using Medline. Findings on the psychophysiological and neuromediating mechanisms of the placebo-nocebo phenomenon are reviewed. Studies of these effects reveal how expectations and unconscious conditioning can be measured by imaging and EEG methods. They result in significant, non-specific therapeutic effects, which may confuse the evaluation of the specific therapeutic effects treatment, hampering selection of the simillimum. Directions for future research on non-specific therapeutic effects of homeopathy to improve clinical practice and clinical research are discussed.

  3. Semiotics and the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G; Colloca, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial progress in elucidating its neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical understanding of the placebo effect is poorly developed. Application of the semiotic theory developed by the American philosopher Charles Peirce offers a promising account of placebo effects as involving the apprehension and response to signs. The semiotic approach dovetails with the various psychological mechanisms invoked to account for placebo effects, such as conditioning and expectation, and bridges the biological and cultural dimensions of this fascinating phenomenon.

  4. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  5. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  6. Matrix Effects in XRF Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Gabr, N.A.; El-Aryan, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research treats the matrix effect on XRF measurements. The problem is treated by preparing general oxide program, which contains many samples that represent all materials in cement factories, then by using T rail Lachance m ethod to correct errors of matrix effect. This work compares the effect of using lithium tetraborate or sodium tetraborate as a fluxing agent in terms of accuracy and economic cost

  7. Preferential sputtering effects of carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taglauer, E.; Varga, P.

    1983-01-01

    Results from sputtering of TaC and TiC by various ions ranging from Xe + to H + are presented. Different effects of preferential sputtering show up in the surface concentration of TaC and TiC due to bombardment with various ions. For TaC mainly mass effects are important whereas binding energy and particularly chemical effects are found in TiC. (G.Q.)

  8. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  9. The placebo effect and nothingness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine

    In this paper I shall discuss the placebo effect from a posthuman angle. The placebo effect is a medical conundrum, as it is a medical effect that is produced by “nothing”. Placebo literally means, ”I please”, and the placebo has, among other things, been defined as an inert substance, often a ca......, the substance becomes active, albeit dependent on other factors, which are non-visible in the experimental setting....

  10. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizatio......We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design...

  11. Effectiveness of energy policy covenants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; De Jong, J.M.; Spijkerman, M.; Tanis, O.

    2009-10-01

    The Netherlands are relying heavily on covenants to realize a trend break in energy use and their related emissions. The question rises how effective these covenants really are, how their effectiveness relates to other instruments (such as taxes, regulation and grants) and if their effectiveness depends on the shaping of these covenants. This study answers all these questions based on an analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature and on own empirical research based on OECD data. The main conclusion of the study is that there is little to no evidence that these covenants are really effective. [nl

  12. Determination of Effective Thoracic Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. Marcus

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective thoracic mass is an important parameter in specifying mathematical and mechanical models (such as crash dummies of humans exposed to impact conditions. A method is developed using a numerical optimizer to determine effective thoracic mass (and mass distribution given a number of acceleration signals and a force signal response. Utilizing previously reported lateral and frontal impact tests with human cadaveric test specimens in a number of different conditions, the effective thoracic mass is computed. The effective thoracic masses are then computed for a variety of crash dummies exposed to identical test conditions.

  13. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems that the empl......This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...

  14. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per 100 women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male Sterilization Female Sterilization (Vasectomy) (Abdominal, Laparoscopic, Hysteroscopic) 0.05 %* ...

  15. The effects of income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candidate Ionuţ Constantin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time have been addressed many possible effects arising from inequalities of income. Criticism for each of these effects were immediate, most of them claiming that the selection of samples used to demonstrate the assumptions made were „carefully” selected in order to achieve the target and that there is not a direct relationship between income inequality (their increment and these effects. Of the many effects that income inequalities have, identified in the literature, this paper will analyze three of them, namely: economic growth, human capital and social cohesion.

  16. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  17. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  18. Assessment of the hepatic effects, heamatological effect and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root of Ximenia americana was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents. A study was also conducted with 20 albino rats (Wistar strain) weighing between 100-130 g to access for hepatic effect and haematological effect. The extracts were administered every day for a ...

  19. The Worked Example Effect, the Generation Effect, and Element Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ouhao; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The worked example effect indicates that examples providing full guidance on how to solve a problem result in better test performance than a problem-solving condition with no guidance. The generation effect occurs when learners generating responses demonstrate better test performance than learners in a presentation condition that provides an…

  20. The effectiveness of communication skills and effective dialogue on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is analyzing the effectiveness of communication skills and effective dialogue on marital satisfaction and commitment of young couples. The research plan was the trueexperiment pre-test, post-test experimental and control groups. The statistical population was consisted of all couples (married less ...

  1. Mitigating cyanobacterial blooms: how effective are 'effective microorganisms'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Tolman, Y.; Euwe, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 'Effective Microorganisms (EM)' on the growth of cyanobacteria, and their ability to terminate cyanobacterial blooms. The EM was tested in the form of 'mudballs' or 'Bokashi-balls', and as a suspension (EM-A) in laboratory experiments. No growth inhibition was

  2. The effect of vitamin supplementation on the toxic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dichlorvos (DDVP) is a widely used pesticide that is toxic to animals and humans but study of its effect on the microanatomy of the brain is scanty. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of vitamin supplementation on DDVP-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. 25 male Wistar rats ...

  3. Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal on serum electrolytes levels of Wistar rats. IS Idoko, IC Ugochukwu, SE Abalaka, AM Adamu, PK Columbus, YA Kwabugge, RE Edeh, S Adamu, B Muhammed ...

  4. Similarities between the irrelevant sound effect and the suffix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Bourgaize, Jake

    2018-03-29

    Although articulatory suppression abolishes the effect of irrelevant sound (ISE) on serial recall when sequences are presented visually, the effect persists with auditory presentation of list items. Two experiments were designed to test the claim that, when articulation is suppressed, the effect of irrelevant sound on the retention of auditory lists resembles a suffix effect. A suffix is a spoken word that immediately follows the final item in a list. Even though participants are told to ignore it, the suffix impairs serial recall of auditory lists. In Experiment 1, the irrelevant sound consisted of instrumental music. The music generated a significant ISE that was abolished by articulatory suppression. It therefore appears that, when articulation is suppressed, irrelevant sound must contain speech for it to have any effect on recall. This is consistent with what is known about the suffix effect. In Experiment 2, the effect of irrelevant sound under articulatory suppression was greater when the irrelevant sound was spoken by the same voice that presented the list items. This outcome is again consistent with the known characteristics of the suffix effect. It therefore appears that, when rehearsal is suppressed, irrelevant sound disrupts the acoustic-perceptual encoding of auditorily presented list items. There is no evidence that the persistence of the ISE under suppression is a result of interference to the representation of list items in a postcategorical phonological store.

  5. The effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom management strategies in Jos metropolis. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... A single group pre-post test design was used, with a one-day training on classroom management techniques as the independent variable and the number of strategies ...

  6. Effect of effective microorganisms on broiler chicken performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...

  7. Ecological effects on effective population size in an annual plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient-limited soil can be a strong selective force on plant populations. In addition, ecological factors such as competitive interactions have been shown to have an effect on effective population size (Ne). Both Ne and selection are indicators of population evolutionary processes: selection can...

  8. Competition between magnetic catalysis effect and chiral rotation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingxiao; Cao, Gaoqing

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we explore the competition between magnetic catalysis effect and chiral rotation effect in a general parallel electromagnetic field within the effective Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. For a given electric field E at zero temperature, the mass gap shows three different features with respect to an increasing magnetic field B : increasing monotonically, decreasing after increasing, and decreasing monotonically. By making use of strong magnetic field approximation, we illuminate that this is due to the competition between catalysis effect and chiral rotation effect induced both by the magnetic field, and a critical electric field √{e Ec }=86.4 MeV is found beyond which the mass gap will eventually decrease at large B . As only large magnetic field is relevant for the derivation, the critical electric field does not depend on the temperature T or chemical potential μ .

  9. Effect of surface topography and wettability on the Leidenfrost effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lieshuang; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-05-18

    When deposited on a superheated surface, a droplet can be levitated by its own vapour layer, a phenomenon that is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. This dynamic effect has attracted interest for many potential applications, such as cooling, drag reduction and drop transport. A lot of effort has been paid to this mechanism over the past two and half centuries. Herein, we not only review the classical theories but also present the most recent theoretical advances in understanding the Leidenfrost effect. We first review the basic theories of the Leidenfrost effect, which mainly focuses on the relationship between the drop shape, vapour layer and lifetime. Then, the shift in the Leidenfrost point realized by fabricating special surface textures is introduced and the mechanisms behind this are analyzed. Furthermore, we present the reasons for the droplet transport in both classical Leidenfrost and pseudo-Leidenfrost regimes. Finally, the promising breakthroughs of the Leidenfrost effect are briefly addressed.

  10. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199......The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  11. A Rapid Global Effects Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Effects Capability within allied countries such as Great Britain and Australia. Other sites recommended for basing included the Ascension Islands in...commercial sectors.23 Figure 2 – Artist depictions of Rapid Global Effects Capability platforms.24 Booster Space Truck...Orbiter) Cargo Bay Booster Space Truck (Orbiter) Cargo Bay Major Gabe S. Arrington 26-1740 10 Figure 3 – Artist depiction of

  12. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  13. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...... of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  14. Eight Arguments against Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    I offer eight arguments against the Doctrine of Double Effect, a normative principle according to which in pursuing the good it is sometimes morally permissible to bring about some evil as a side-effect or merely foreseen consequence: the same evil would not be morally justified as an intended...

  15. The evidence for Allee effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Kramer; Brian Dennis; Andrew M. Liebhold; John M. Drake

    2009-01-01

    Allee effects are an important dynamic phenomenon believed to be manifested in several population processes, notably extinction and invasion. Though widely cited in these contexts, the evidence for their strength and prevalence has not been critically evaluated. We review results from 91 studies on Allee effects in natural animal populations. We focus on empirical...

  16. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  17. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    OpenAIRE

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses.

  18. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  19. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  20. Radiation Effects in Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation on the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube and graphene field-effect transistors. We observe significant differences in the radiation response of devices depending on their irradiation environment, and confirm that, under controlled conditions, standard dielectric hardening approaches are applicable to carbon nanoelectronics devices.

  1. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at https://www.opm.gov/ . Section navigation The environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more ... The environment and your health Air Health effects of air ...

  2. Surface Effects in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorani, Dino

    2005-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles on different approaches to the investigation of surface effects on nanosized magnetic materials, with special emphasis on magnetic nanoparticles. The book aims to provide an overview of progress in the understanding of surface properties and surface driven effects in magnetic nanoparticles through recent results of different modeling, simulation, and experimental investigations.

  3. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  4. Effects of Ritalin on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, Robert B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

  5. Roughness effect on heterojunction photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Koumanakos, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we present an investigation of the junction interface roughness effect on the open circuit voltage, Voc for thin film heterojunction photovoltaics. The roughness effect is studied for self-affine rough interfaces, which are described in Fourier space by the correlation model

  6. Quantum Observables and Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2017-11-01

    We study observables on monotone σ-complete effect algebras. We find conditions when a spectral resolution implies existence of the corresponding observable. We characterize sharp observables of a monotone σ-complete homogeneous effect algebra using its orthoalgebraic skeleton. In addition, we study compatibility in orthoalgebras and we show that every orthoalgebra satisfying RIP is an orthomodular poset.

  7. On the Causes of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, A. Philip; Faigman, David L.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Professor Pearl's comment on our original article, Dawid et al. Our focus there on the distinction between the "Effects of Causes" (EoC) and the "Causes of Effects" (CoE) concerned two fundamental problems, one a theoretical challenge in statistics and the other a practical challenge for trial courts. In this…

  8. Corporate Mobility: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Linda K.; Brett, Jeanne M.

    This study investigated the effect of relocation on 309 children of randomly selected employees of 10 Fortune 500 corporations. Even through U.S. corporations transfer over 400,000 households annually, there is little research on the effects of such moves on employees' children. This study tested hypotheses drawn from child development theory…

  9. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi...

  10. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  11. Phosphorene nanoribbons: Passivation effect on bandgap and effective mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li-Chun, E-mail: xulichun@tyut.edu.cn; Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Ling; Liu, Rui-Ping; Li, Xiu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation and fluorination can passivate the metallic edge states of zPNRs. • The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases duo to the quantum confinement effect. • Two local configurations of passivated atoms can coexist in nanoribbons and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. • New passivation configuration can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons. - Abstract: The edge passivation effect of phosphorene nanoribbons is systematically investigated using density functional theory. Hydrogen and fluorine atoms passivate the metallic edge states of nanoribbons and can open a bandgap up to 2.25 eV. The two configurations of passivated atoms can exist at two edges and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The new configuration, named C{sub b}, can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons, which benefits the future design of phosphorene-based electronic devices.

  12. Isotope effects on chemical equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium constants of three deuterated substituted acetic acids are reported. The calculation of secondary isotope effects of the second kind for the three isotopic acid pairs has been accomplished by the appropriate comparison of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, and by the comparison of isotopic slopes. The effect of substituent variation on the isotope effects reported here disqualifies the simple inductive model as a legitimate description of secondary isotope effects of the second kind. The correlation of diminishing isotope effect per deuterium atom with increasing acidity is also invalidated by the present results. The syntheses of 9-thia-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-9-oxide and thioxanthene-10-oxide are described. These compounds have been partially deuterated at their respective methylene positions. Spectral evidence indicates stereoselectivity of the methylene protons in the exchange reactions of both compounds. (author)

  13. Effective potentials for twisted fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, R.

    1981-01-01

    Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)

  14. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.

  15. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions.

  16. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  17. Pathogenic effects of low dose irradiation: dose-effect relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2002-01-01

    There is no evidence of pathogenic effects in human groups exposed to less than 100 mSv at low dose-rate. The attributed effects are therefore the result of extrapolations from higher doses. The validity of such extrapolations is discussed from the point of view of epidemiology as well as cellular and molecular biology. The Chernobyl accident resulted in large excess of thyroid cancers in children; it also raised the point that some actual sanitary effects among distressed populations might be a direct consequence of low doses. Studies under the control of UN have not confirmed this point identifying no dose-effect relationship and 'severe socio-economic and psychological pressures... poverty, poor diet and living conditions, and lifestyle factors' as the main cause for depressed health. Some hypothesis are considered for explaining the dose-dependence and high prevalence of non-cancer causes of death among human groups exposed to more than 300 mSv. (author)

  18. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  20. Cadmium and Its Neurotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has received considerable concern environmentally and occupationally. Cd has a long biological half-life mainly due to its low rate of excretion from the body. Thus, prolonged exposure to Cd will cause toxic effect due to its accumulation over time in a variety of tissues, including kidneys, liver, central nervous system (CNS, and peripheral neuronal systems. Cd can be uptaken from the nasal mucosa or olfactory pathways into the peripheral and central neurons; for the latter, Cd can increase the blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. However, mechanisms underlying Cd neurotoxicity remain not completely understood. Effect of Cd neurotransmitter, oxidative damage, interaction with other metals such as cobalt and zinc, estrogen-like, effect and epigenetic modification may all be the underlying mechanisms. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotoxic effects of Cd. The available finding indicates the neurotoxic effects of Cd that was associated with both biochemical changes of the cell and functional changes of central nervous system, suggesting that neurotoxic effects may play a role in the systemic toxic effects of the exposure to Cd, particularly the long-term exposure.