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Sample records for wind-stress curl resulting

  1. Scales of North Atlantic wind stress curl determined from the comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Laura L.; O'Brien, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen years of wind data over the North Atlantic are used to calculate a field of wind stress curl. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is performed on this field, resulting in spatial patterns of wind stress curl and associated time series. A Monte Carlo technique is used to establish the statistical significance of each spatial pattern, and the associated time series are spectrally analyzed. The first four statistically significant EOF modes represent more than 50 percent of the curl variance, and the spatial patterns of curl associated with these modes exhibit the major elements of North Atlantic climatology. Most of the time series spectral variance is contained in annual and semiannual frequencies. The features observed include the individual annual variation of the subtropical high and the subpolar low, the annual oscillation of intensity between pressure centers, the influence of localized strong SST gradients and associated cyclogenesis regions, and the constant nature of the trades.

  2. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Curl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  3. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Curl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  4. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  5. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  6. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  7. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  8. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  9. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  10. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  11. Enhancement of wind stress evaluation method under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2016-12-01

    Wind stress is an important driving force for many meteorological and oceanographical processes. However, most of the existing methods for evaluation of the wind stress, including various bulk formulas in terms of the wind speed at a given height and formulas relating the roughness height of the sea surface with wind conditions, predict an ever-increasing tendency of the wind stress coefficient as the wind speed increases, which is inconsistent with the field observations under storm conditions. The wave boundary layer model, which is based on the momentum and energy conservation, has the advantage to take into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process, but is still invalid under storm conditions without a modification. By including the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, which is speculated to be an important aspect of the air-sea interaction under storm conditions, the wave boundary layer model is improved in this study. The improved model is employed to estimate the wind stress caused by an idealized tropical cyclone motion. The computational results show that the wind stress coefficient reaches its maximal value at a wind speed of about 40 m/s and decreases as the wind speed further increases. This is in fairly good agreement with the field data.

  12. Southern Ocean carbon-wind stress feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2018-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean pCO2 and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean pCO2 sensitivity to wind stress. Southern Ocean pCO2 is found to vary as the square root of area-mean wind stress, arising from the dominance of vertical mixing over other processes such as lateral Ekman transport. The expression for pCO2 is validated using idealised coarse-resolution ocean numerical experiments. Additionally, we show that increased (decreased) stratification through surface warming reduces (increases) the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean pCO2 to wind stress. The scaling is then used to estimate the wind-stress induced changes of atmospheric pCO_2 in CMIP5 models using only a handful of parameters. The scaling is further used to model the anthropogenic carbon sink, showing a long-term reversal of the Southern Ocean sink for large wind stress strength.

  13. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress....... The influence varies with wave characteristics for different sea basins. Swell occurs infrequently in the studied area, and one could expect more influence in high-swell-frequency areas (i.e., low-latitude ocean). We conclude that the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress should be considered...

  14. Curls of My Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which students draw ribbons (thin watercolor paper that, when torn, will stand up in a curling fashion). Explains in detail the assignment in which students used pencil rendering or charcoal pencil depending on the type of paper used for the assignment. (CMK)

  15. Impacts of Wind Stress Changes on the Global Heat Transport, Baroclinic Instability, and the Thermohaline Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Prietsch Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind stress is a measure of momentum transfer due to the relative motion between the atmosphere and the ocean. This study aims to investigate the anomalous pattern of atmospheric and oceanic circulations due to 50% increase in the wind stress over the equatorial region and the Southern Ocean. In this paper we use a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity (SPEEDO. The results show that the intensification of equatorial wind stress causes a decrease in sea surface temperature in the tropical region due to increased upwelling and evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the intensification of wind stress over the Southern Ocean induces a regional increase in the air and sea surface temperatures which in turn leads to a reduction in Antarctic sea ice thickness. This occurs in association with changes in the global thermohaline circulation strengthening the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water formation and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Moreover, changes in the Southern Hemisphere thermal gradient lead to modified atmospheric and oceanic heat transports reducing the storm tracks and baroclinic activity.

  16. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  17. Wind Stress Variability Directly Measured at a Tidal Inlet from a Mobile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal inlets are characterized by a dynamic coupling of waves, currents, wind, and topography and to better understand these processes the Riverine and Estuarine Transport (RIVET) experiment was conducted during the month of May 2012 at New River Inlet, North Carolina. As a part of that effort, the Surface Physics Experimental Catamaran (SPEC) was outfitted with a suite of concurrently sampled atmospheric and oceanographic sensors. These included a meteorological mast capable of measuring the air-sea momentum flux, paired subsurface ADV's, a downward looking ADCP, and a bow-mounted wave-staff array. Using a mobile platform enabled capturing the fine-scale dynamical features across this highly sheared zone, without compromising spatial or temporal resolution. The SPEC was deployed, in part, to make direct wind stress measurements and the eddy covariance method was used to calculate the 10 m neutral drag coefficients from the observed wind shear velocities. In general, for any given wind speed, measured drag coefficients were about 2.5 times greater than those derived from bulk relations (e.g. Smith, 1988). Observations of the wind stress angle show significant wind stress steering, up to about 70o off the mean wind direction, within 2 km off-shore of the inlet mouth. The causes for the departure of these observations from conventional open ocean results remains under investigation, although it is highly likely that these findings highlight processes unique to coastal waters that are not regarded in the well-established algorithms (e.g. depth-limited wave breaking and wave-current interactions). Preliminary results from the second installment in the RIVET campaign, which took place at the Mouth of the Columbia River during the spring of 2013, will also be shown.

  18. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars atmosphere has low levels of dust during Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring and summer (the non-dusty season) and increased levels during NH autumn and winter (the dusty season). In the absence of regional or global storms, dust devils and local storms maintain a background minimum dust loading during the non-dusty season. While observational surveys and Global Climate Model (GCM) studies suggest that dust devils are likely to be major contributors to the background haze during NH spring and summer, a complete understanding of the relative contribution of dust devils and local dust storms has not yet been achieved. We present preliminary results from an investigation that focuses on the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on dust lifting processes during these seasons. Water ice clouds are known to affect atmospheric temperatures directly by absorption and emission of thermal infrared radiation and indirectly through dynamical feedbacks. Our goal is to understand how clouds affect the contribution by local (wind stress) dust storms to the background dust haze during NH spring and summer. The primary tool for this work is the NASA Ames Mars GCM, which contains physical parameterizations for a fully interactive dust cycle. Three simulations that included wind stress dust lifting were executed for a period of 5 Martian years: a case that included no cloud formation, a case that included radiatively inert cloud formation and a case that included radiatively active cloud (RAC) formation. Results show that when radiatively active clouds are included, the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt radiatively heat the atmosphere aloft in the tropics (Figure 1). This heating produces a stronger overturning circulation, which in turn produces an enhanced low-level flow in the Hadley cell return branch. The stronger low-level flow drives higher surface stresses and increased dust lifting in those locations. We examine how realistic these simulated results are by

  19. Swept Away: Exploring the Physics of Curling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Studying the Olympic sport of curling is a fun and engaging way to learn about the concepts of friction, forces, momentum, and Newton's laws. Each winter, the author takes her eighth-grade physical science class on a field trip to experience curling firsthand. This field trip has become a favorite of the eighth graders at Capitol Hill Day School…

  20. TropFlux wind stresses over the tropical oceans: Evaluation and comparison with other products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PraveenKumar, B.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Murty, V.S.N.; McPhaden, M.J.; Cronin, M.F.; Pinsard, F.; Reddy, K.G.

    the hourly values. Note that, we neglected surface currents (which are not always available) while computing wind stresses at these moorings. 3. The TropFlux wind stress product In this section, we first present the methodology for computing Trop... onset. Hence, we recommend the use of TropFlux for studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. Key words: TropFlux, tropics, air-sea momentum fluxes, wind stress products validation. 3 1. Introduction The tropics are home to many climatically relevant...

  1. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF, we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1 molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB (88 to 98% nucleotide identity. One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA (89% nucleotide identity, whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity, provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA. Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009 and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765. Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD.

  2. Influence of El Niño Wind Stress Anomalies on South Brazil Bight Ocean Volume Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo de Freitas Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of wind stress variability could represent an important contribution to understand the variability over upper layer ocean volume transports. The South Brazilian Bight (SBB circulation had been studied by numerous researchers who predominantly attempted to estimate its meridional volume transport. The main objective and contribution of this study is to identify and quantify possible interannual variability in the ocean volume transport in the SBB induced by the sea surface wind stress field. A low resolution ocean global circulation model was implemented to investigate the volume transport variability. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of interannual variability in meridional ocean volume transports along three different zonal sections. These results also indicate the influence of a wind driven large-scale atmospheric process that alters locally the SBB and near-offshore region wind stress field and consequently causes interannual variability in the upper layer ocean volume transports. A strengthening of the southward flow in 25°S and 30°S was observed. The deep layer ocean volume transport in the three monitored sections indicates a potential dominance of other remote ocean processes. A small time lag between the integrated meridional volume transports changes in each monitored zonal section was observed.

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  7. Flange Curling in Cold Formed Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Ramonas, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear flange curling phenomenon in cold formed profiles is the tendency of slender flanges to deform towards the neutral axis for increasing flexural curvature. Based on Braziers work, Winter proposed a simple engineering formula for determination of the local flange deformation towards ...

  8. Engineered Disease Resistance in Cotton Using RNA-Interference to Knock down Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala and Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Aftab; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hameed, Usman; Qayyum Rao, Abdul; Ahad, Ammara; Yasmeen, Aneela; Akram, Faheem; Bajwa, Kamran Shahzad; Scheffler, Jodi; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Husnain, Tayyab; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Brown, Judith K.

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is caused by a suite of whitefly-transmitted begomovirus species and strains, resulting in extensive losses annually in India and Pakistan. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a proven technology used for knockdown of gene expression in higher organisms and viruses. In this study, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) construct was designed to target the AC1 gene of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bu) and the βC1 gene and satellite conserved region of ...

  9. EFFECT OF THE SHOULDER POSITION ON THE BICEPS BRACHII EMG IN DIFFERENT DUMBBELL CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M.M. Vieira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Incline Dumbbell Curl (IDC and Dumbbell Preacher Curl (DPC are two variations of the standard Dumbbell Biceps Curl (DBC, generally applied to optimize biceps brachii contribution for elbow flexion by fixing shoulder at a specific angle. The aim of this study is to identify changes in the neuromuscular activity of biceps brachii long head for IDC, DPC and DBC exercises, by taking into account the changes in load moment arm and muscle length elicited by each dumbbell curl protocol. A single cycle (concentric-eccentric of DBC, IDC and DPC, was applied to 22 subjects using a submaximal load of 40% estimated from an isometric MVC test. The neuromuscular activity of biceps brachii long head was compared by further partitioning each contraction into three phases, according to individual elbow joint range of motion. Although all protocols elicited a considerable level of activation of the biceps brachii muscle (at least 50% of maximum RMS, the contribution of this muscle for elbow flexion/extension varied among exercises. The submaximal elbow flexion (concentric elicited neuro muscular activity up to 95% of the maximum RMS value during the final phase of IDC and DBC and 80% for DPC at the beginning of the movement. All exercises showed significant less muscle activity for the elbow extension (eccentric. The Incline Dumbbell Curl and the classical Dumbbell Biceps Curl resulted in similar patterns of biceps brachii activation for the whole range of motion, whereas Dumbbell Preacher Curl elicited high muscle activation only for a short range of elbow joint angle

  10. Preparation of Curled Microfibers by Electrospinning with Tip Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Cheng-Chun; Chen Jun-Chi; Long Yun-Ze; Yin Hong-Xing; Sun Bin; Zhang Hong-Di

    2011-01-01

    We report on curled polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) microfibers fabricated by a modified electrospinning with a small nail as the tip collector. PVP (45 wt%) ethanol solution is electrospun under different working voltages ranging from 10 to 15, 20, 30 and 40 kV. It is found that with the increase of working voltage, the proportion of the curled fibers increases and the uniformity of the curled fibers improves, as well as the repeat distance of the curled structures reducing. Particularly, some curled fibers develop into helical structures under relatively high voltages. Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism for the curled polymer fibers can be ascribed to electrical driven bending instability and/or mechanical jet buckling when hitting the collector surface. This modified electrospinning technique may be a cost-effective approach for the mass production of curled microfibers. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  11. Wind stress and heat fluxes over a Brazilian Coastal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Marcelo; Candella, Rogério

    2017-04-01

    Coastal upwelling zones have been intensively studied in the last decades especially due to their importance to the biological cycle. The coastal upwelling system of the Cabo Frio region (east coast of the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil) keeps the surface water cold during most part of the year, what induces a stable atmospheric boundary layer associated to northeast winds. The main goal of this study is to investigate the wind stress and heat fluxes exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere in that area. For this purpose, a set of hourly data meteorological and oceanographic data collected by a Wavescan metocean buoy anchored at 23o59S; 42oW, were used, as well as solar radiation and relative humidity from a terrestrial meteorological station from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (InMet). COARE 3.0 algorithm was used to calculate the latent and sensible heat fluxes. In this discussion, positive values represent fluxes towards the ocean. The average net heat flux over our study period is 88 W m-2. The reduction of the net heat flux is due to the increase of the ocean latent heat loss, although a reduction in incoming shortwave radiation and an increase in ocean long wave cooling also contributes. The latent heat is 20 times larger than the sensible heat flux, but the mean value of the latent heat flux, 62 W m-2, is half the typical value found in open ocean. The temporal variability of both sensible and latent heat fluxes reflects their dependence on wind speed and air-sea temperature differences. When upwelling events, here periods when diurnal SST is lower than 18oC, are compared with undisturbed (without upwelling) events, it can be noted the sensible heat fluxes are positives and 10 times greater in magnitude. This is related to an increment, during these upwelling events, of the air-sea temperature difference and an increasing of the wind speed. The cold waters of the upwelling increase the air-sea temperature gradient and, also, the horizontal land

  12. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  13. Biology and interactions of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and betasatellites associated with radish leaf curl disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh AK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging whitefly transmitted begomoviruses are major pathogens of vegetable and fibre crops throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mutation, pseudorecombination and recombination are driving forces for the emergence and evolution of new crop-infecting begomoviruses. Leaf curl disease of field grown radish plants was noticed in Varanasi and Pataudi region of northern India. We have identified and characterized two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and associated beta satellite DNA causing leaf curl disease of radish (Raphanus sativus in India. Results We demonstrate that RaLCD is caused by a complex of two Old World begomoviruses and their associated betasatellites. Radish leaf curl virus-Varanasi is identified as a new recombinant species, Radish leaf curl virus (RaLCV sharing maximum nucleotide identity of 87.7% with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus-[Bangladesh:2] (Accession number AF188481 while the virus causing radish leaf curl disease-Pataudi is an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus-[India] (CYVMV-IN (Accession number AJ507777 sharing 95.8% nucleotide identity. Further, RDP analysis revealed that the RaLCV has a hybrid genome, a putative recombinant between Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl virus. Cloned DNA of either RaLCV or CYVMV induced mild leaf curl symptoms in radish plants. However, when these clones (RaLCV or CYVMV were individually co-inoculated with their associated cloned DNA betasatellite, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in radish plants and induced typical RaLCD symptoms. To further extend these studies, we carried out an investigation of the interaction of these radish-infecting begomoviruses and their associated satellite, with two tomato infecting begomoviruses (Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus. Both of the tomato-infecting begomoviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with

  14. Effect of morphological fin curl on the swimming performance and station-holding ability of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, David; Johnston, Ryan; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effect of fin-curl on the swimming and station-holding ability of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (mean fork length = 17 cm; mean weight = 16 g; n = 21) using a critical swimming speed test performed in a small swim chamber (90 L) at 20°C. We quantified fin-curl severity using the pectoral fin index. Results showed a positive relationship between pectoral fin index and critical swimming speed indicative of reduced swimming performance displayed by fish afflicted with a pectoral fin index < 8%. Fin-curl severity, however, did not affect the station-holding ability of individual fish. Rather, fish affected with severe fin-curl were likely unable to use their pectoral fins to position their body adequately in the water column, which led to the early onset of fatigue. Results generated from this study should serve as an important consideration for future stocking practices.

  15. Engineered Disease Resistance in Cotton Using RNA-Interference to Knock down Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala and Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD is caused by a suite of whitefly-transmitted begomovirus species and strains, resulting in extensive losses annually in India and Pakistan. RNA-interference (RNAi is a proven technology used for knockdown of gene expression in higher organisms and viruses. In this study, a small interfering RNA (siRNA construct was designed to target the AC1 gene of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bu and the βC1 gene and satellite conserved region of the Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB. The AC1 gene and CLCuMB coding and non-coding regions function in replication initiation and suppression of the plant host defense pathway, respectively. The construct, Vβ, was transformed into cotton plants using the Agrobacterium-mediated embryo shoot apex cut method. Results from fluorescence in situ hybridization and karyotyping assays indicated that six of the 11 T1 plants harbored a single copy of the Vβ transgene. Transgenic cotton plants and non-transgenic (susceptible test plants included as the positive control were challenge-inoculated using the viruliferous whitefly vector to transmit the CLCuKoV-Bu/CLCuMB complex. Among the test plants, plant Vβ-6 was asymptomatic, had the lowest amount of detectable virus, and harbored a single copy of the transgene on chromosome six. Absence of characteristic leaf curl symptom development in transgenic Vβ-6 cotton plants, and significantly reduced begomoviral-betasatellite accumulation based on real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicated the successful knockdown of CLCuKoV-Bu and CLCuMB expression, resulting in leaf curl resistant plants.

  16. Computed tomography of ball pythons (Python regius) in curled recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Joanna; Eatwell, Kevin; Schwarz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia and tube restraint methods are often required for computed tomography (CT) of snakes due to their natural tendency to curl up. However, these restraint methods may cause animal stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CT appearance of the lungs differs for ball pythons in a curled position vs. tube restraint. Whole body CT was performed on ten clinically healthy ball pythons, first in curled and then in straight positions restrained in a tube. Curved multiplanar reformatted (MPR) lung images from curled position scans were compared with standard MPR lung images from straight position scans. Lung attenuation and thickness were measured at three locations for each scan. Time for positioning and scanning was 12 ± 5 min shorter for curled snakes compared to tube restraint. Lung parenchyma thickness and attenuation declined from cranial to caudal on both straight and curled position images. Mean lung parenchyma thickness was greater in curled images at locations 1 (P = 0.048) and 3 (P = 0.044). Mean lung parenchyma thickness decreased between location 1 and 2 by 86-87% (straight: curled) and between location 1 and 3 by 51-50% (straight: curled). Mean lung attenuation at location 1 was significantly greater on curled position images than tube restraint images (P = 0.043). Findings indicated that CT evaluation of the lungs is feasible for ball pythons positioned in curled recumbency if curved MPR is available. However, lung parenchyma thickness and attenuation in some locations may vary from those acquired using tube restraint. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Monthly mean wind stress along the coast of the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Monthly-mean wind stress and its longshore and offshore components have been computed using the bulk aerodynamic method for each of a string of 36 two-degree-latitude by two-degree-longitude squares along the coast of the north Indian Ocean...

  18. Detection of pepper leaf curl virus through PCR amplification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper leaf curl virus (PepLCV) is the most destructive pathogen of pepper and causes substantial economic losses of chilli production worldwide. Curling and puckering of leaves and stunted growth of the plants are typical symptoms of the viral infection. For a reliable detection of PepLCV, coat protein specific primer pairs ...

  19. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses infecting tomato crop code for five different proteins, ORF AC4, ORF AC2 and ORF AV2 in DNA-A component, ORF BV1 in DNA-B ... In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl ...

  20. Relationship between Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Viruses and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Tomato yellow leaf curl is prevalent in tomato growing districts of Uganda. The disease is known to be spread by a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a persistent manner. Some of its symptoms are leaf curl, marginal leaf yellowing, malformation of fruits, stunting and dieback (in case of primary infection at early seedling ...

  1. Seed storage protein components are associated with curled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local soybean cultivar “Nannong 94-16” was treated with NaN3-60Co ray and EMS separately, and two curled cotyledon mutants were obtained. Local soybean cultivar “TSB” was treated with 60Co ray and one curled cotyledon mutant was obtained. Two-dimension electrophoresis analysis was employed to determine the ...

  2. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite CLCuMB–[IN:Sri:02] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite LuLDB-[IN:Lu:04] were examined. Agroinfiltration of GFP-silenced Nicotiana tabaccum cv.

  3. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  4. Transcript mapping of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fazal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus are major limiting factors for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the warmer regions of the world. In the Old World a small number of begomoviruses have genomes consisting of two components whereas the majority have single-component genomes. Most of the monopartite begomoviruses associate with satellite DNA molecules, the most important of which are the betasatellites. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is one of the major problems for cotton production on the Indian sub-continent. Across Pakistan, CLCuD is currently associated with a single begomovirus (Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus [CLCuBuV] and the cotton-specific betasatellite Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB, both of which have recombinant origins. Surprisingly, CLCuBuV lacks C2, one of the genes present in all previously characterized begomoviruses. Virus-specific transcripts have only been mapped for few begomoviruses, including one monopartite begomovirus that does not associate with betasatellites. Similarly, the transcripts of only two betasatellites have been mapped so far. The study described has investigated whether the recombination/mutation events involved in the evolution of CLCuBuV and its associated CLCuMuB have affected their transcription strategies. Results The major transcripts of CLCuBuV and its associated betasatellite (CLCuMuB from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants have been determined. Two complementary-sense transcripts of ~1.7 and ~0.7 kb were identified for CLCuBuV. The ~1.7 kb transcript appears similar in position and size to that of several begomoviruses and likely directs the translation of C1 and C4 proteins. Both complementary-sense transcripts can potentially direct the translation of C2 and C3 proteins. A single virion-sense transcript of ~1 kb, suitable for translation of the V1 and V2 genes was identified. A predominant

  5. Intercomparison of the Charnock and COARE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere–ocean system. In most modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation, the surface mixed layer, and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress parameterisations widely used in the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities respectively are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model–observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence (ROFI with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE bulk formulae and the standard Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic–baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is set-up, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation, with a constant Charnock coefficient of 0.0185, for surface wind stress during this one month period.

  6. The histology of the pre-natal follicle and hair fibre in four curl types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology of the pre-natal follicle and hair fibre in four curl types of the Karakul sheep. J.H. Dreyer, Ellenor Rossouw and M.G. Steyn. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Irene. Inthe Karakul sheep of Southern Africa four major pelt types can be identified, namely pipe curl, developed shallow curl, shallow curl ...

  7. Analysis of one repetition during biceps curl exercise among age-matched adult volunteers using endurance, curl speed and surface electromyography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Kiran; Maitra Ghosh, Diptasree; Swaminathan, Ramakrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Exercises under isometric and dynamic contractions are influenced by the rate coding and recruitment strategies. The study of muscle strength under dynamic contraction is normally performed using one-repetition maximum (1-RM) method. There are several variants of deriving one repetition method using number of repetitions and load that are useful in physical fitness and clinical rehabilitation program. However, the factors of dynamic contractions such as endurance time, speed of muscle contractions and muscle activity are not considered in 1-RM methods. The muscular activities are analyzed using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. Limited work has been reported on the relationship between the 1-RM method and factors such as endurance time, speed of contraction and sEMG activity. In this work, a modified 1-RM method is proposed, namely, N-RM, using load, number of repetitions, endurance time, speed of contraction and normalized sEMG activity. For this purpose, sEMG signals are recorded from 58 healthy subjects under standard dynamic contraction protocol involving curl exercise. Conventional 1-RM is computed by using Epley's method and compared with proposed method using correlation analysis. The results show that 1-RM increases linearly with number of curls (r=1) but has a poor correlation coefficient with sEMG (r=0.01) and endurance time (r =0.4). The curl speed for lower 1-RM and higher 1-RM did not show any statistical difference (p =0.2). The proposed N-RM is observed to have good correlation with endurance time (r=0.734), curl speed (r=0.893) and sEMG activity (r=0.8851). These results demonstrate that the proposed N-RM is highly correlated to factors influencing the dynamic contractions. This method can be further extended to assess muscles under various clinical disorders and sports training.

  8. Maintenance of Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite by Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus—Analysis by Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae are economically important phytopathogens that are transmitted plant-to-plant by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Most Old World (OW begomoviruses are monopartite and many of these interact with symptoms and host range determining betasatellites. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV is one of only a few OW begomoviruses with a bipartite genome (components known as DNA A and DNA B. Four genes [AV2, coat protein (CP, transcriptional-activator protein (TrAP, and AC4] of ToLCNDV were mutated and the effects of the mutations on infectivity, symptoms and the ability to maintain Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB were investigated. Infectivity and virus/betasatellite DNA titer were assessed by Southern blot hybridization, PCR, and quantitative PCR. The results showed TrAP of ToLCNDV to be essential for maintenance of CLCuMuB and AV2 to be important only in the presence of the DNA B. AC4 was found to be important for the maintenance of CLCuMuB in the presence of, but indispensable in the absence of, the DNA B. Rather than being required for maintenance, the CP was shown to possibly interfere with maintenance of the betasatellite. The findings show that the interaction between a bipartite begomovirus and a betasatellite is more complex than just trans-replication. Clearly, multiple levels of interactions are present and such associations can cause additional significant losses to crops although the interaction may not be stable.

  9. Radiographic inguinal curl may indicate paraspinal misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters: report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, Faris; Abbas, Adil; Morris, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PCVCs) into the paraspinal venous plexus can result in devastating outcomes. Several cases have been reported in the literature together with an explanation of the mechanism. To describe three premature babies with their PCVCs inserted through the left saphenous vein that ended up in the lumbar spinal dural venous plexus. Plain radiographs obtained to check positions showed an unusual 360 curl of the PCVC in the left inguinal area. We believe that misplacement of the catheter into the paraspinal venous plexus could be diagnosed with great accuracy if such a curl is seen. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic inguinal curl may indicate paraspinal misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters: report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chedid, Faris [Al Tawam Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abbas, Adil [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Clinical Haematology/Oncology, Brisbane (Australia); Morris, Lloyd [Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Adelaide (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PCVCs) into the paraspinal venous plexus can result in devastating outcomes. Several cases have been reported in the literature together with an explanation of the mechanism. To describe three premature babies with their PCVCs inserted through the left saphenous vein that ended up in the lumbar spinal dural venous plexus. Plain radiographs obtained to check positions showed an unusual 360 curl of the PCVC in the left inguinal area. We believe that misplacement of the catheter into the paraspinal venous plexus could be diagnosed with great accuracy if such a curl is seen. (orig.)

  11. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-07-24

    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximation. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models are shown to yield accurate results. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  13. Qualitative investigation into students' use of divergence and curl in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; De Cock, Mieke

    2016-12-01

    Many students struggle with the use of mathematics in physics courses. Although typically well trained in rote mathematical calculation, they often lack the ability to apply their acquired skills to physical contexts. Such student difficulties are particularly apparent in undergraduate electrodynamics, which relies heavily on the use of vector calculus. To gain insight into student reasoning when solving problems involving divergence and curl, we conducted eight semistructured individual student interviews. During these interviews, students discussed the divergence and curl of electromagnetic fields using graphical representations, mathematical calculations, and the differential form of Maxwell's equations. We observed that while many students attempt to clarify the problem by making a sketch of the electromagnetic field, they struggle to interpret graphical representations of vector fields in terms of divergence and curl. In addition, some students confuse the characteristics of field line diagrams and field vector plots. By interpreting our results within the conceptual blending framework, we show how a lack of conceptual understanding of the vector operators and difficulties with graphical representations can account for an improper understanding of Maxwell's equations in differential form. Consequently, specific learning materials based on a multiple representation approach are required to clarify Maxwell's equations.

  14. Qualitative investigation into students’ use of divergence and curl in electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many students struggle with the use of mathematics in physics courses. Although typically well trained in rote mathematical calculation, they often lack the ability to apply their acquired skills to physical contexts. Such student difficulties are particularly apparent in undergraduate electrodynamics, which relies heavily on the use of vector calculus. To gain insight into student reasoning when solving problems involving divergence and curl, we conducted eight semistructured individual student interviews. During these interviews, students discussed the divergence and curl of electromagnetic fields using graphical representations, mathematical calculations, and the differential form of Maxwell’s equations. We observed that while many students attempt to clarify the problem by making a sketch of the electromagnetic field, they struggle to interpret graphical representations of vector fields in terms of divergence and curl. In addition, some students confuse the characteristics of field line diagrams and field vector plots. By interpreting our results within the conceptual blending framework, we show how a lack of conceptual understanding of the vector operators and difficulties with graphical representations can account for an improper understanding of Maxwell’s equations in differential form. Consequently, specific learning materials based on a multiple representation approach are required to clarify Maxwell’s equations.

  15. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Slab Curling on IRI for South Carolina Concrete Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Concrete pavements are known to curl due to a temperature gradient within the concrete caused by both daily : and seasonal temperature variations. This research project measured the magnitude of concrete pavement slab : curling of two newly construct...

  17. Fabrication of curled conducting polymer microfibrous arrays via a novel electrospinning method for stretchable strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Long, Yun-Ze; Liu, Shu-Liang; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Di; Shen, Guozhen; Xu, Sheng

    2013-07-01

    Stretchable strain sensors based on aligned microfibrous arrays of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PEDOT:PSS-PVP) with curled architectures have been fabricated by a novel reciprocating-type electrospinning setup with a spinneret in straightforward simple harmonic motion. The incorporation of PEDOT:PSS into PVP is confirmed by Raman spectra, which improves the room-temperature conductivity of the composite fibers (1.6 × 10-5 S cm-1). Owing to the curled architectures of the as-spun fibrous polymer arrays, the sensors can be stretched reversibly with a linear elastic response to strain up to 4%, which is three times higher than that from electrospun nonwoven mats. In addition, the stretchable strain sensor with a high repeatability and durability has a gauge factor of about 360. These results may be helpful for the fabrication of stretchable devices which have potential applications in some fields such as soft robotics, elastic semiconductors, and elastic solar cells.Stretchable strain sensors based on aligned microfibrous arrays of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PEDOT:PSS-PVP) with curled architectures have been fabricated by a novel reciprocating-type electrospinning setup with a spinneret in straightforward simple harmonic motion. The incorporation of PEDOT:PSS into PVP is confirmed by Raman spectra, which improves the room-temperature conductivity of the composite fibers (1.6 × 10-5 S cm-1). Owing to the curled architectures of the as-spun fibrous polymer arrays, the sensors can be stretched reversibly with a linear elastic response to strain up to 4%, which is three times higher than that from electrospun nonwoven mats. In addition, the stretchable strain sensor with a high repeatability and durability has a gauge factor of about 360. These results may be helpful for the fabrication of stretchable devices which have potential applications in some fields such

  18. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  19. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison analysis showed that DNA-A sequence of JS1 isolate was closely related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of 97.0% and DNA-A of Y338 showed highest sequence identity at 97.8% with an isolate of SPLCV from China. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  20. Breeding for cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted geminivirus. It is a major disease of cotton in Africa and South Asia, and has spread to other countries through ornamental plants. It can potentially devastate U.S. cotton where commercial varieties have no resi...

  1. Detection of pepper leaf curl virus through PCR amplification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Harlow E, Lane N (1988). Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Khan MS, Raj SK, Singh R (2006). First report of Tomato leaf curl New. Delhi virus infecting chilli in India. Plant Pathol. 55: p. 289. Kumar S, Rai M (2005). Chile in India. Chile Pepper Institute Newslett.

  2. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  3. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Xie Y, Zhou XP, Li ZH, Zhang ZK, Li GX (2002). Identification of a novel. DNA molecule associated with Tobacco leaf curl virus. Chin. Sci. Bull. 47: 1273-1276. Zhou XP, Xie Y, Peng Y, Zhang ZK (2003). Malvastrum yellow vein virus, a new begomovirus species associated with satellite DNA molecule. Chin.

  4. Identification and distribution of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus TYLCV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... Camino de Vera 14, 46022, Valencia, Spain. Received 22 October, 2013; Accepted 5 March, 2014. Leaf samples of 177 tomato plants were collected during 2006-2007 in tomato yellow leaf curl disease. (TYLCD) infected fields, as well as 100 leaf samples of sweet pepper, common bean, zucchini and the.

  5. Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting cucurbits: Evidence for sap transmission in a host specific manner. ... infected plants from different factors like buffer combinations, source of inoculum, age of inoculum, genotypes of test plants, and species of plants, temperature, seasons and organic materials.

  6. An Exploration of Wind Stress Calculation Techniques in Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra M. Bryant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As hurricanes continue to threaten coastal communities, accurate storm surge forecasting remains a global priority. Achieving a reliable storm surge prediction necessitates accurate hurricane intensity and wind field information. The wind field must be converted to wind stress, which represents the air-sea momentum flux component required in storm surge and other oceanic models. This conversion requires a multiplicative drag coefficient for the air density and wind speed to represent the air-sea momentum exchange at a given location. Air density is a known parameter and wind speed is a forecasted variable, whereas the drag coefficient is calculated using an empirical correlation. The correlation’s accuracy has brewed a controversy of its own for more than half a century. This review paper examines the lineage of drag coefficient correlations and their acceptance among scientists.

  7. On the Contribution of Curl-Free Current Patterns to the Ultimate Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio at Ultra-High Field Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrommer, Andreas; Henning, Anke

    2017-05-01

    The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a coil independent performance measure to compare different receive coil designs. To evaluate this benchmark in a sample, a complete electromagnetic basis set is required. The basis set can be obtained by curl-free and divergence-free surface current distributions, which excite linearly independent solutions to Maxwell's equations. In this work, we quantitatively investigate the contribution of curl-free current patterns to the ultimate intrinsic SNR in a spherical head-sized model at 9.4 T. Therefore, we compare the ultimate intrinsic SNR obtained with having only curl-free or divergence-free current patterns, with the ultimate intrinsic SNR obtained from a combination of curl-free and divergence-free current patterns. The influence of parallel imaging is studied for various acceleration factors. Moreover results for different field strengths (1.5 T up to 11.7 T) are presented at specific voxel positions and acceleration factors. The full-wave electromagnetic problem is analytically solved using dyadic Green's functions. We show, that at ultra-high field strength (B 0 ⩾7T) a combination of curl-free and divergence-free current patterns is required to achieve the best possible SNR at any position in a spherical head-sized model. On 1.5- and 3T platforms, divergence-free current patterns are sufficient to cover more than 90% of the ultimate intrinsic SNR. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus: an Aphid-Transmitted Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Granier, Martine; Bernardo, Pauline; Deshoux, Maëlle; Ferdinand, Romain; Galzi, Serge; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Julian, Charlotte; Abt, Isabelle; Filloux, Denis; Mesléard, François; Varsani, Arvind; Blanc, Stéphane; Martin, Darren P; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises seven genera differentiated by genome organization, sequence similarity, and insect vector. Capulavirus, an eighth genus, has been proposed to accommodate two newly discovered highly divergent geminiviruses that presently have no known vector. Alfalfa leaf curl virus, identified here as a third capulavirus, is shown to be transmitted by Aphis craccivora. This is the first report of an aphid-transmitted geminivirus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The CURL-CoFoR Collaborative Collection Management Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Walker

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available CoFoR originated from an initiative by CURL, the Consortium of Research Libraries in the British Isles. CURL’s Task Force on Resource Management proposed a project, which would develop and test several interrelated aspects of collaborative collection management (CCM, to help in determining the most effective kinds of collaboration between major research collections. The Task Force was concerned that local pressures on libraries were tending to make them take collection management decisions in isolation, and they were looking for a framework within which better informed decisions on libraries’ collections could be taken with greater confidence and a clearer awareness of national provision. CURL was seeking to establish which CCM approaches could be expected to: · offer the most attractive benefits for costs incurred; · be applicable to a wide range of subjects / areas; · and be viable in the longer term. In lat 2002 CURL accepted a proposal from an existing project team to undertake this work.

  10. MicroRNA profiling of tomato leaf curl new delhi virus (tolcndv infected tomato leaves indicates that deregulation of mir159/319 and mir172 might be linked with leaf curl disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Qazi MR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV, a constituent of the genus Begomovirus, infects tomato and other plants with a hallmark disease symptom of upward leaf curling. Since microRNAs (miRs are known to control plants developmental processes, we evaluated the roles of miRNAs in Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV induced leaf curling. Results Microarray analyses of miRNAs, isolated from the leaves of both healthy and ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv Pusa Ruby, revealed that ToLCNDV infection significantly deregulated various miRNAs representing ~13 different conserved families (e.g., miR319, miR172, etc.. The precursors of these miRNAs showed similar deregulated patterns, indicating that the transcription regulation of respective miRNA genes was perhaps the cause of deregulation. The expression levels of the miRNA-targeted genes were antagonistic with respect to the amount of corresponding miRNA. Such deregulation was tissue-specific in nature as no analogous misexpression was found in flowers. The accumulation of miR159/319 and miR172 was observed to increase with the days post inoculation (dpi of ToLCNDV agroinfection in tomato cv Pusa Ruby. Similarly, these miRs were also induced in ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv JK Asha and chilli plants, both exhibiting leaf curl symptoms. Our results indicate that miR159/319 and miR172 might be associated with leaf curl symptoms. This report raises the possibility of using miRNA(s as potential signature molecules for ToLCNDV infection. Conclusions The expression of several host miRNAs is affected in response to viral infection. The levels of the corresponding pre-miRs and the predicted targets were also deregulated. This change in miRNA expression levels was specific to leaf tissues and observed to be associated with disease progression. Thus, certain host miRs are likely indicator of viral infection and could be potentially employed to develop viral resistance strategies.

  11. Barotropic Eulerian residual circulation in the Gulf of California due to the M{sub 2} tide and wind stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote, M. L.; Lavin, M. F.; Amador, A. [Departamento de Oceanografia Fisica, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    A vertically integrated, non-linear numerical model in finite differences is used to analyze two forcing mechanisms of the mean barotropic circulation in the Gulf of California: topographic rectification due to tidal currents (M{sub 2}) and wind stress. Under tidal forcing the nonlinearities of the momentum equations induce unorganized strong tidal induced residual currents (u{sub e} > 5 cm s{sup -}1) in the channels between the islands, and along-isobath anticyclonic circulation in the Northern Gulf, with speeds u{sub 3} < 2.5 cm s{sup -}1 over the edge of Delfin Basin. These numerical results are in agreement with analytical results, which indicate that the tidal-induced currents are mostly due to the advective terms, and that continuity and the Coriolis term (but regulated by bottom friction) are responsible for the along-isobath flow. The quadratic bottom friction plays a role in generating mean currents only in the very shallow area off the Colorado River Delta. The effect of wind stress was modeled by imposing upon the running M{sub 2} model a constant surface stress ( r = 0.016 Pa), from the NW for winter conditions and from the SE for summer conditions. The wind-induced circulation was obtained by averaging over a tidal cycle and then subtracting the tidal residuals. The two wind directions produce almost identical circulation patterns, but with opposite directions. For the NW wind stress, the main features of the predicted circulation are: (a) In the Northern Gulf an anticyclonic circulation pattern, with the strongest currents (up to {approx} 10 cm s-1) following the bathymetry of the rim of Delfin Basin, Wagner Basin and the mainland coast off Bahia Adair and Bahia San Jorge. There is also a southward flow along the peninsula coast, from the Colorado River to Bahia San Luis Gonzaga. (b) In the Southern Gulf, there is a strong flow ({approx} 10 to 15 cm s{sup -}1) to the SE over the continental shelf along the mainland coast. A somewhat less well

  12. Curl-Based Finite Element Reconstruction of the Shear Modulus Without Assuming Local Homogeneity: Time Harmonic Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Mohammad; Sahebjavaher, Ramin; Sinkus, Ralph; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2013-12-01

    In elasticity imaging, the shear modulus is obtained from measured tissue displacement data by solving an inverse problem based on the wave equation describing the tissue motion. In most inversion approaches, the wave equation is simplified using local homogeneity and incompressibility assumptions. This causes a loss of accuracy and therefore imaging artifacts in the resulting elasticity images. In this paper we present a new curl-based finite element method inversion technique that does not rely upon these simplifying assumptions. As done in previous research, we use the curl operator to eliminate the dilatational term in the wave equation, but we do not make the assumption of local homogeneity. We evaluate our approach using simulation data from a virtual tissue phantom assuming time harmonic motion and linear, isotropic, elastic behavior of the tissue. We show that our reconstruction results are superior to those obtained using previous curl-based methods with homogeneity assumption. We also show that with our approach, in the 2-D case, multi-frequency measurements provide better results than single-frequency measurements. Experimental results from magnetic resonance elastography of a CIRS elastography phantom confirm our simulation results and further demonstrate, in a quantitative and repeatable manner, that our method is accurate and robust.

  13. Blended 6-Hourly Sea Surface Wind Vectors and Wind Stress on a Global 0.25 Degree Grid (1987-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Blended Global Sea Surface Winds products contain ocean surface wind vectors and wind stress on a global 0.25 degree grid, in multiple time resolutions of...

  14. Curling Edges: A Problem that Has Plagued Scrolls for Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Han; Shen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hung, Sun-Hsin; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Qi-Wa refers to the up curl on the lengths of hand scrolls and hanging scrolls, which has troubled Chinese artisans and emperors for as long as the art of painting and calligraphy has existed. This warp is unwelcome not only for aesthetic reasons, but its potential damage to the fiber and ink. Although it is generally treated as a part of the cockling and curling due to moisture, consistency of paste, and defects from the mounting procedures, we demonstrate that the spontaneous extrinsic curvature incurred from the storage is in fact more essential to understanding and curing Qi-Wa. In contrast to the former factors whose effects are less predictable, the plastic deformation and strain distribution on a membrane are a well-defined mechanical problem. We study this phenomenon by experiments, theoretical models, and molecular dynamics simulation, and obtain consistent scaling relations for the Qi-Wa height. This knowledge enables us to propose modifications on the traditional mounting techniques that are tested on real mounted paper to be effective at mitigating Qi-Wa. By experimenting on polymer-based films, we demonstrate the possible relevance of our study to the modern development of flexible electronic paper.

  15. Edge curling that has plagued scrolls for millenniums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Han; Shen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hung, Sun-Hsin; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Department of Registration and Conservation, National Palace Museum Collaboration; Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University Team

    2014-03-01

    Qi-Wa refers to the up curl on the lengths of handscrolls and hanging scrolls, which has troubled Chinese artisans and emperors for as long as the art of painting and calligraphy exists. This warp is unwelcome not only for aesthetic reasons, but its potential damage to the fiber and ink. Although it is generally treated as a part of the cockling and curling due to moisture, consistency of paste, and defects from the mounting procedures, we demonstrate that the spontaneous extrinsic curvature incurred from the storage is in fact more essential to understanding and curing Qi-Wa. In contrast to the former factors whose effects are less predictable, the plastic deformation and strain distribution on a membrane are a well-defined mechanical problem. We study this phenomenon by experiments, theoretical models, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation, and obtain consistent scaling relations for the Qi-Wa height. This knowledge enables us to propose modifications on the traditional mounting techniques, that are tested on real mounted paper to be effective at mitigating Qi-Wa. By experimenting on polymer-based films, we demonstrate possible relevance of our study to the modern development of flexible electronic paper.

  16. A new virus in Luteoviridae is associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the etiology of Raspberry Leaf Curl Disease (RLCD), which causes leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf chlorosis, shoot dwarfing, shoot proliferation in raspberries and can kill plants within three years, a next generation sequences approach was applied. Two red raspberry plants collected...

  17. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-08-17

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  18. Isolation and sequence characterization of DNA-A genome of a new begomovirus strain associated with severe leaf curling symptoms of Jatropha curcas L.

    KAUST Repository

    Chauhan, Sushma

    2018-04-22

    Begomoviruses belong to the family Geminiviridae are associated with several disease symptoms, such as mosaic and leaf curling in Jatropha curcas. The molecular characterization of these viral strains will help in developing management strategies to control the disease. In this study, J. curcas that was infected with begomovirus and showed acute leaf curling symptoms were identified. DNA-A segment from pathogenic viral strain was isolated and sequenced. The sequenced genome was assembled and characterized in detail. The full-length DNA-A sequence was covered by primer walking. The genome sequence showed the general organization of DNA-A from begomovirus by the distribution of ORFs in both viral and anti-viral strands. The genome size ranged from 2844 bp–2852 bp. Three strains with minor nucleotide variations were identified, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparing the DNA-A segments from other reported begomovirus isolates. The maximum sequence similarity was observed with Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (FN435995). In the phylogenetic tree, no clustering was observed with previously reported begomovirus strains isolated from J. curcas host. The strains isolated in this study belong to new begomoviral strain that elicits symptoms of leaf curling in J. curcas. The results indicate that the probable origin of the strains is from Jatropha mosaic virus infecting J. gassypifolia. The strains isolated in this study are referred as Jatropha curcas leaf curl India virus (JCLCIV) based on the major symptoms exhibited by host J. curcas.

  19. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  20. Genome characterization of an Argentinean isolate of alfalfa leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the molecular characteristics of an Argentinean isolate of alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV-Arg), a virus of the genus Capulavirus in the family Geminiviridae that was isolated from alfalfa plants showing dwarfism. The genome was found to be 2,750 nucleotides in length. In pairwise comparisons, this ALCV isolate shared 83.2% to 92.6% sequence identity with European ALCV isolates. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that this isolate combines features of strains A and B of ALCV. Recombination analysis showed that ALCV-Arg is a recombinant isolate that was generated by intraspecific recombination between ALCV strains A and B. The results of this study not only show that ALCV-Arg is unique because it combines features of strains A and B but also show that ALCV naturally infects this forage crop on the American continent.

  1. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Cotton Epicuticular Wax in Defense Against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Muzaffar, Adnan; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-12-01

    Gossypium arboreumis resistant to Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate Cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite ( CLCuBuV and CLCuMB ). However, the G. arboreum wax deficient mutant (GaWM3) is susceptible to CLCuV . Therefore, epicuticular wax was characterized both quantitatively and qualitatively for its role as physical barrier against whitefly mediated viral transmission and co-related with the titer of each viral component (DNA-A, alphasatellite and betasatellite) in plants. The hypothesis was the CLCuV titer in cotton is dependent on the amount of wax laid down on plant surface and the wax composition. Analysis of the presence of viral genes, namely alphasatellite, betasatellite and DNA-A, via real-time PCR in cotton species indicated that these genes are detectable in G. hirsutum , G. harknessii and GaWM3, whereas no particle was detected in G. arboreum . Quantitative wax analysis revealed that G. arboreum contained 183 μg.cm -2 as compared to GaWM3 with only 95 μg.cm -2 . G. hirsutum and G. harknessii had 130 μg.cm -2 and 146 μg.cm -2 , respectively. The GCMS results depicted that Lanceol, cis was 45% in G. harknessii . Heptadecanoic acid was dominant in G. arboreum with 25.6%. GaWM3 had 18% 1,2,-Benenedicarboxylic acid. G. hirsutum contained 25% diisooctyl ester. The whitefly feeding assay with Nile Blue dye showed no color in whiteflies gut fed on G. arboreum . In contrast, color was observed in the rest of whiteflies. From results, it was concluded that reduced quantity as well as absence of (1) 3-trifluoroacetoxytetradecane, (2) 2-piperidinone,n-|4-bromo-n-butyl|, (3) 4-heptafluorobutyroxypentadecane, (4) Silane, trichlorodocosyl-, (5) 6- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (6) Heptadecanoicacid,16-methyl-,methyl ester in wax could make plants susceptible to CLCuV , infested by whiteflies.

  2. Within-Host Dynamics of the Emergence of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Recombinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbino, Cica; Gutiérrez, Serafin; Antolik, Anna; Bouazza, Nabila; Doumayrou, Juliette; Granier, Martine; Martin, Darren P.; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a highly damaging begomovirus native to the Middle East. TYLCV has recently spread worldwide, recombining with other begomoviruses. Recent analysis of mixed infections between TYLCV and Tomato leaf curl Comoros begomovirus (ToLCKMV) has shown that, although natural selection preserves certain co-evolved intra-genomic interactions, numerous and diverse recombinants are produced at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi), and recombinant populations from different tomato plants are very divergent. Here, we investigate the population dynamics that lead to such patterns in tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV and ToLCKMV either by agro-inoculation or using the natural whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. We monitored the frequency of parental and recombinant genotypes independently in 35 plants between 18 and 330 dpi and identified 177 recombinants isolated at different times. Recombinants were detected from 18 dpi and their frequency increased over time to reach about 50% at 150 dpi regardless of the inoculation method. The distribution of breakpoints detected on 96 fully sequenced recombinants was consistent with a continuous generation of new recombinants as well as random and deterministic effects in their maintenance. A severe population bottleneck of around 10 genomes was estimated during early systemic infection–a phenomenon that could account partially for the heterogeneity in recombinant patterns observed among plants. The detection of the same recombinant genome in six of the thirteen plants analysed beyond 30 dpi supported the influence of selection on observed recombination patterns. Moreover, a highly virulent recombinant genotype dominating virus populations within one plant has, apparently, the potential to be maintained in the natural population according to its infectivity, within-host accumulation, and transmission efficiency - all of which were similar or intermediate to those of the parent genotypes. Our results

  3. Within-host dynamics of the emergence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus recombinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cica Urbino

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a highly damaging begomovirus native to the Middle East. TYLCV has recently spread worldwide, recombining with other begomoviruses. Recent analysis of mixed infections between TYLCV and Tomato leaf curl Comoros begomovirus (ToLCKMV has shown that, although natural selection preserves certain co-evolved intra-genomic interactions, numerous and diverse recombinants are produced at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi, and recombinant populations from different tomato plants are very divergent. Here, we investigate the population dynamics that lead to such patterns in tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV and ToLCKMV either by agro-inoculation or using the natural whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. We monitored the frequency of parental and recombinant genotypes independently in 35 plants between 18 and 330 dpi and identified 177 recombinants isolated at different times. Recombinants were detected from 18 dpi and their frequency increased over time to reach about 50% at 150 dpi regardless of the inoculation method. The distribution of breakpoints detected on 96 fully sequenced recombinants was consistent with a continuous generation of new recombinants as well as random and deterministic effects in their maintenance. A severe population bottleneck of around 10 genomes was estimated during early systemic infection-a phenomenon that could account partially for the heterogeneity in recombinant patterns observed among plants. The detection of the same recombinant genome in six of the thirteen plants analysed beyond 30 dpi supported the influence of selection on observed recombination patterns. Moreover, a highly virulent recombinant genotype dominating virus populations within one plant has, apparently, the potential to be maintained in the natural population according to its infectivity, within-host accumulation, and transmission efficiency - all of which were similar or intermediate to those of the parent genotypes. Our

  4. Evaluating the effects of concrete pavement curling and warping on ride quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Construction of a jointed concrete pavement on US 34 near Greeley, Colorado in 2012 led to an investigation of slab curling : and warping that appeared to be contributing to undesirable levels of pavement roughness. Specifically, the westbound lanes ...

  5. Senna leaf curl virus: a novel begomovirus identified in Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitesh; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a variety of cultivated (crop) and non-cultivated (weed) plants. The present study identified a novel begomovirus and satellites (alpha- and betasatellite) in Senna occidentalis (syn. Cassia occidentalis) showing leaf curl symptoms. The begomovirus shared a maximum sequence identity of 88.6 % with french bean leaf curl virus (JQ866297), whereas the alphasatellite and the betasatellite shared identities of 98 % and 90 % with ageratum yellow vein India alphasatellite (LK054802) and papaya leaf curl betasatellite (HM143906), respectively. No other begomovirus or satellites were detected in the suspected plants. We propose to name the virus "senna leaf curl virus" (SenLCuV).

  6. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p arm curl strength (β = .23, p Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  7. Impacts of the Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling on the Peru-Chile Ocean Dynamics: The Current-Induced Wind Stress Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, V.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Masson, S.; Lemarié, F.

    2018-02-01

    The ocean dynamical responses to the surface current-wind stress interaction at the oceanic mesoscale are investigated in the South-East Pacific using a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model. Two simulations are compared: one includes the surface current in the wind stress computation while the other does not. In the coastal region, absolute wind velocities are different between the two simulations but the wind stress remains very similar. As a consequence, the mean regional oceanic circulation is almost unchanged. On the contrary, the mesoscale activity is strongly reduced when taking into account the effect of the surface current on the wind stress. This is caused by a weakening of the eddy kinetic energy generation near the coast by the wind work and to intensified offshore eddy damping. We show that, above coherent eddies, the current-stress interaction generates eddy damping through Ekman pumping and eddy kinetic energy dissipation through wind work. This alters significantly the coherent eddy vertical structures compared with the control simulation, weakening the temperature and vorticity anomalies and increasing strongly the vertical velocity anomalies associated to eddies.

  8. Variability of wind stress and currents at selected locations over the north Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.V.

    -77 and MONEX-79. In general, the surface wind stress and near surface current fields are strong during a good monsoon year (1977) as compared to those in a bad monsoon year (1979) under similar synoptic conditions together with the prevalence of high...

  9. Evidence of local evolution of tomato-infecting begomovirus species in West Africa: characterization of tomato leaf curl Mali virus and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y-C; Noussourou, M; Kon, T; Rojas, M R; Jiang, H; Chen, L-F; Gamby, K; Foster, R; Gilbertson, R L

    2008-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) and tomato leaf curl (ToLC) diseases are serious constraints to tomato production in Mali and other countries in West Africa. In 2003 and 2004, samples of tomato showing virus-like symptoms were collected during a survey of tomato virus diseases in Mali. Three predominant symptom phenotypes were observed: (1) TYLC/ToLC (stunted upright growth and upcurled leaves with interveinal yellowing and vein purpling), (2) yellow leaf crumple and (3) broccoli or bonsai (severe stunting and distorted growth). Squash blot (SB) hybridization with a general begomovirus probe and/or SB/PCR analyses revealed begomovirus infection in plants with each of these symptom phenotypes and no evidence of phytoplasma infection. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified begomovirus fragments revealed two putative new begomovirus species associated with the TYLC/ToLC and yellow leaf crumple symptom phenotypes, respectively. Full-length clones of these begomoviruses were obtained using PCR and overlapping primers. When introduced into N. benthamiana and tomato plants, these clones induced upward leaf curling and crumpling (the TYLC/ToLC-associated begomovirus) or downward leaf curl/yellow mottle (yellow leaf crumple-associated begomovirus) symptoms. Thus, these begomoviruses were named tomato leaf curl Mali virus (ToLCMLV) and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus (ToYLCrV). The genome organization of both viruses was similar to those of other monopartite begomoviruses. ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV were most closely related to each other and to tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZV-[ZW]) and tomato curly stunt virus from South Africa (ToCSV-ZA). Thus, these likely represent tomato-infecting begomoviruses that evolved from indigenous begomoviruses on the African continent. Mixed infections of ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV in N. benthamiana and tomato plants resulted in more severe symptoms than in plants infected with either virus alone, suggesting a synergistic interaction. Agroinoculation

  10. Effects of the mutation of selected genes of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus on infectivity, symptoms and the maintenance of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Sattar, M.N.; Kvarnheden, A.; Mansoor, S.; Briddon, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) is a cotton-infecting monopartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae). The effects of mutation of the coat protein (CP), V2, C2 and C4 genes of CLCuKoV on infectivity and symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana were investigated. Each mutation introduced a premature

  11. Replication of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Its Whitefly Vector, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Mahadav, Assaf; Zeidan, Muhammad; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2015-10-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. Replication of TYLCV in its vector remains controversial, and thus far, the virus has been considered to be nonpropagative. Following 8 h of acquisition on TYLCV-infected tomato plants or purified virions and then transfer to non-TYLCV-host cotton plants, the amounts of virus inside whitefly adults significantly increased (>2-fold) during the first few days and then continuously decreased, as measured by the amounts of genes on both virus DNA strands. Reported alterations in insect immune and defense responses upon virus retention led us to hypothesize a role for the immune response in suppressing virus replication. After virus acquisition, stress conditions were imposed on whiteflies, and the levels of three viral gene sequences were measured over time. When whiteflies were exposed to TYLCV and treatment with two different pesticides, the virus levels continuously increased. Upon exposure to heat stress, the virus levels gradually decreased, without any initial accumulation. Switching of whiteflies between pesticide, heat stress, and control treatments caused fluctuating increases and decreases in virus levels. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed these results and showed virus signals inside midgut epithelial cell nuclei. Combining the pesticide and heat treatments with virus acquisition had significant effects on fecundity. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time that a single-stranded DNA plant virus can replicate in its hemipteran vector. Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide. Many of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insects. Persistently transmitted viruses often have a complex association with their vectors; however, most are believed not to replicate within these vectors. Such replication is important, as it contributes to the

  12. Influence of "in series" elastic resistance on muscular performance during a biceps-curl set on the cable machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Herrero, Azael J; González-Calvo, Gustavo; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of elastic resistance (ER) applied "in series" to a pulley-cable (PC) machine on the number of repetitions performed, kinematics parameters, and perceived exertion during a biceps-curl set to failure with a submaximal load (70% of the 1 repetition maximum). Twenty-one undergraduate students (17 men and 4 women) performed, on 2 different days, 1 biceps-curl set on the PC machine. Subjects were randomly assigned to complete 2 experimental conditions in a cross-over fashion: conventional PC mode or ER + PC mode. Results indicate ER applied "in series" to a PC machine significantly reduces (p tension could have been achieved throughout the range of movement, leading to greater fatigue that could explain the lower number of maximal repetitions achieved. The application of force in a smooth, consistent fashion during each repetition of an exercise, while avoiding active deceleration, is expected to enhance the benefits of the resistance exercise, especially for those seeking greater increases in muscular hypertrophy.

  13. Evaluation under diverse conditions of a differential host reaction scale to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PÉREZ-DE-CASTRO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is the most widespread virus species causing Tomato yellow leaf curl disease. Accurate methods for assessment of resistance are requisite in breeding programs. Researchers at the Volcani Center (Israel developed a scale of differential TYLCV reactions in seven non-segregating tomato host lines, with virus responses ranging from susceptible to highly resistant. In the present work, this scale has been evaluated with inoculation and assessment methods routinely used by two different research groups, in Spain and Cuba. Different TYLCV isolates, inoculation methods, plant ages, and environmental conditions were compared. Symptom scores of the tomato lines were generally lower in the conditions assayed in both locations than those originally described. Reaction ranking order of the standard tomato lines was more similar to the original description in the assays carried out in Spain. However, response of the lines to TYLCV obtained in both locations did not correspond to scale grades for most of the conditions. A large difference between symptom scores in the susceptible and the resistant lines was observed, with the range in the resistant lines being narrow. These results indicate that the number of standard lines used could be reduced, selecting the most susceptible and the most resistant lines, and one with intermediate resistance. All the factors evaluated affected symptom development. This highlights the importance of establishing a standard inoculation method, experimental conditions, evaluation period and appropriate resistance evaluation criteria, to ensure precise evaluation of genotype responses.

  14. Insecticidal Effects on the Spatial Progression of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Movement of Its Whitefly Vector in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, M; Riley, D G; Srinivasan, R

    2017-06-01

    Commercial management of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) typically relies on insecticide control of whitefly vectors as a first line of defense. We quantified this effect in crop tunnel studies, with validation in a tomato field setting. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-infected and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)-infested source plants were planted at the beginning of tunneled rows to serve as inoculum source, so that movement of whiteflies and TYLCV symptoms could be tracked down the length of the tunnel over time. Tunnel study results showed that proximity to the source plant was a more important factor than insecticide treatments. Insecticide-treated tomato transplants did tend to suppress whitefly incidence and slowed TYLCV movement in comparison with the untreated check; however, tomato plants planted closer to the source plant had higher incidence of whiteflies and TYLCV infection, regardless of treatment. In a large tomato plot study with a controlled inoculum source, insecticide treatments significantly reduced the spread of TYLCV. When uninhibited by insecticide treatment, 80% of the TYLCV spread was restricted to <15 m from the source plant (<11 m in the validation study), with insecticide treatment generally reducing the distance and magnitude of this spread. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Whitefly-mediated transmission of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite: evidence for betasatellite encapsidation in coat protein of helper begomoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabein, S; Behjatnia, S A Akbar; Anabestani, A; Izadpanah, K

    2013-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease of cotton in the Indian subcontinent. CLCuMB depends on helper virus replication-associated protein for its replication and on viral coat protein (CP) for its encapsidation. However, no direct evidence of encapsidation of CLCuMB in viral CP has been available. In the present study, non-viruliferous whiteflies were placed on tomato plants that had been agroinoculated with infectious clones of an Iranian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]) and CLCuMB for an acquisition access period of 72 h and then transferred to healthy tomato seedlings at the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Typical symptoms of TYLCV-[Ab] appeared on inoculated seedlings 30-45 days post-inoculation. The presence of TYLCV-[Ab] and CLCuMB DNAs in symptomatic test plants and viruliferous whiteflies was confirmed by PCR analysis using specific primers and DIG Southern blotting. Furthermore, the possibility of CLCuMB DNA encapsidation in TYLCV-[Ab] CP within infected plants was examined by immunocapture PCR. The results showed that CLCuMB DNA was encapsidated in TYLCV-[Ab] CP. Whitefly-mediated transmission of CLCuMB in the presence of helper virus is additional evidence for encapsidation of CLCuMB by TYLCV-[Ab] CP.

  16. Root hair curling and Rhizobium infection in Medicago truncatula are mediated by phosphatidylinositide-regulated endocytosis and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Volpin, Hanne; Levine, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The symbiotic relationships between legumes and rhizobacteria involve extensive signalling between the two organisms. Studies using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches have demonstrated the involvement of calcium and reactive oxygen species in the establishment of symbiotic interactions. In the early stage of the interactions rhizobia grow as infection thread within host root hairs and are internalized into the plant cells via endocytosis. It is shown here that inoculation of Medicago truncatula roots with Sinorhizobium meliloti induced a battery of vesicle trafficking genes, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) gene that stimulated plasma membrane endocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of the PI3K suppressed the membrane endocytosis and subsequent oxidative burst and prevented root hair curling and formation of infection threads. Similar effects were produced by inhibition of PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). However, neither inhibition of PI3K nor PI-PLC signalling blocked cytosolic Ca2+ influx or early nodulin (ENOD) gene expression. By contrast, the inhibitors induced ENODs transcription in the absence of Rhizobium, suggesting that the expression of ENODs responds to plasma membrane perturbations. In summary, the results show a major reprogramming of intracellular vesicle trafficking during the early stages of symbiotic interactions that co-ordinate the host responses. Activation of parallel signalling pathways leading to Cacyt2+ influx and ROS production that regulate the root hair curling and ENODs expression are also shown.

  17. Wheat curl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) dispersal and its relationship with kernel red streaking in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Lee, E A; Sears, M K; Schaafsma, A W

    2005-10-01

    Wheat curl mites, Aceria tosichella Keifer, dispersing from wheat (Triticum spp.) to nearby corn (Zea mays L.) fields play a role in the development of kernel red streaking in corn. These studies were undertaken to verify the relationship of wheat curl mite to kernel red streaking, to determine whether wheat is the main source of curl mites dispersing into corn and to determine whether planting corn in temporal or spatial isolation of wheat is a valid management strategy. These studies were conducted on farm fields using sticky traps to monitor mites, followed by sampling mature grain for kernel streaking in southwestern Ontario from 1999 to 2002. The dominant source mites were winter wheat. Mite dispersal occurred during the first 3 wk of winter wheat maturation after the wheat had reached Zadoks stage 87. Mite dispersal corresponded to prevailing winds in the area with the lowest number of mites and the lowest severity of kernel red streaking occurring 60 m from wheat fields planted to the north, south, and east of cornfields and 90 m from wheat fields planted to the west of cornfields. The severity of kernel red streaking was positively correlated with the density of wheat curl mites in corn; however, the correlation was weak and kernel red streaking was still high in many cornfields when few or no mites were present. These findings suggest that wheat curl mite migration into corn is not entirely predictive of the incidence and severity of kernel red streaking.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Roles of wind stress and thermodynamic forcing in recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and Southern Ocean SST: An ocean-sea ice model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Williams, Guy D.; Massom, Robert; Reid, Phillip; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-11-01

    In contrast to a strong decrease in Arctic sea ice extent, overall Antarctic sea ice extent has modestly increased since 1979. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the net Antarctic sea ice expansion, including atmosphere/ocean circulation and temperature changes, sea ice-atmospheric-ocean feedback, increased precipitation, and enhanced basal meltwater from ice shelves. Concomitant with this positive trend in Antarctic sea ice, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Southern Ocean south of approximately 45°S have cooled over this period. However, the mechanisms responsible for the Antarctic sea ice expansion and the SST cooling trend remain poorly defined. Here, we conduct comprehensive sensitivity experiments using a coupled ocean-sea ice model with a steady-state ice shelf component in order to investigate the main drivers of recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and SST over the Southern Ocean. The results suggest that Antarctic sea ice expansion is mostly explained by trends in the thermodynamic surface forcing, notably cooling and drying and a reduction in longwave radiation. Similarly, thermodynamic forcing is found to be the main driver of the zonal SST cooling trend. While apparently less influential on sea ice extent and SST, wind stress plays a key role in sea ice motion, thickening coastal sea ice, and thinning and decreasing the concentration of ice in mid-pack regions of the Amundsen-eastern Ross seas and 65-95°E in winter-spring. Furthermore, the model suggests that ocean-ice shelf interaction does not significantly influence the observed trends in Antarctic sea ice coverage and Southern Ocean SST in recent decades.

  20. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of whitefly guts in response to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liang; Qian, Li-Xin; Shao, Ruo-Xuan; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2018-01-16

    Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide, and over 75% of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insect vectors. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus, which is the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulation of TYLCV in the insect involves complex insect-virus interactions, whereas the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain ambiguous. The insect gut as a barrier for viral entry and dissemination is thought to regulate the vector specificity. However, due to its tiny size, information for the responses of whitefly gut to virus infection is limited. We investigated the transcriptional response of the gut of B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species to TYLCV infection using Illumina sequencing. A total of 5207 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between viruliferous and non-viruliferous whitefly guts were identified. Enrichment analyses showed that cargo receptor and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were enriched in DEGs, and might help the virus to cross gut barrier. TYLCV could perturb cell cycle and DNA repair as a possible result of its replication in the whitefly. Our data also demonstrated that TYLCV can activate whitefly defense responses, such as antimicrobial peptides. Meanwhile, a number of genes involved in intracellular signaling were activated by TYLCV infection. Our results reveal the complex insect-virus relationship in whitefly gut and provide substantial molecular information for the role of insect midguts in virus transmission.

  2. Combining ability estimates for earliness in cotton leaf curl virus resistant inbred parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Baloch, Q.B.

    2005-01-01

    Four female cotton leaf curl virus-resistant resistant (cclv) parents consisting of advance strains and commercial varieties (VH-137, FH-901, CRIS-467 and Cyto-51) and four male parents, all clcv resistant Punjab varieties (FH-945, CIM-707, CIM-473 and FH-1000) were mated in a cross classification Design-II fashion. The results show that genetic variances due to additive genes were higher than the dominant variances, yet both types of variances were substantial, implying that significant improvement could reliably be made from segregating populations. The general combining ability (gca) estimates by and large suggested that for improvement in the appearance of first white flower and 1st sympodial branch node number, parents FH-945 and VH-137 whereas for 1st effective boll setting, parents FH-1000 and FH-901 and for percent of open bolls at 120 days after planting, parents CIM-707 and CRIS-467 may be given preference. However, for hybrid cotton development regarding earliness, hybrids CRIS-467 x CIM-707, VH-137 x FH-945 and Cyto-51 x FH-1000 may be chosen. (author)

  3. An efficient in vitro-inoculation method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbeh Samar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a member of the family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus. To test the infectivity of TYLCV in tomato plants, an improved protocol for inoculation of in vitro-cultured tomato plants was developed. Results A TYLCV isolate was cloned, sequenced and used to construct a 1.8-mer infectious clone. Three weeks old microshoots of TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the infectious clone for the TYLCV isolate. After two weeks, the TYLCV symptoms started to appear on the in vitro-inoculated plants and the symptoms became more severe and pronounced eight weeks post-inoculation. The method was used efficiently to uncover the resistance mechanism against TYLCV in Solanum habrochaites accession LA 1777, a wild tomato known for its high resistance to whitefly and TYLCV. Conclusions The reported in vitro-inoculation method can be used to screen tomato genotypes for their responses to TYLCV under controlled conditions and it will be a useful tool for better understanding of the TYLCV biology in tomato plants.

  4. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  5. Transformer sound level caused by core magnetostriction and winding stress displacement variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Hsu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetostriction caused by the exciting variation of the magnetic core and the current conducted by the winding wired to the core has a significant result impact on a power transformer. This paper presents the sound of a factory transformer before on-site delivery for no-load tests. This paper also discusses the winding characteristics from the transformer full-load tests. The simulation and the measurement for several transformers with capacities ranging from 15 to 60 MVA and high voltage 132kV to low voltage 33 kV are performed. This study compares the sound levels for transformers by no-load test (core/magnetostriction and full-load test (winding/displacement ε. The difference between the simulated and the measured sound levels is about 3dB. The results show that the sound level depends on several parameters, including winding displacement, capacity, mass of the core and windings. Comparative results of magnetic induction of cores and the electromagnetic force of windings for no-load and full-load conditions are examined.

  6. Engineering resistance against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus via the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2017-12-22

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer molecular immunity against phages and conjugative plasmids in prokaryotes. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used to confer interference against eukaryotic viruses. Here, we engineered Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the CRISPR/Cas9 system to confer immunity against the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Targeting the TYLCV genome with Cas9-single guide RNA at the sequences encoding the coat protein (CP) or replicase (Rep) resulted in efficient virus interference, as evidenced by low accumulation of the TYLCV DNA genome in the transgenic plants. The CRISPR/Cas9-based immunity remained active across multiple generations in the N. benthamiana and tomato plants. Together, our results confirmed the efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for stable engineering of TYLCV resistance in N. benthamiana and tomato, and opens the possibilities of engineering virus resistance against single and multiple infectious viruses in other crops.

  7. Curl condition for a four-state Born-Oppenheimer system employing the Mathieu equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Adhikari, Satrajit

    2008-10-09

    When a group of four states forms a subspace of the Hilbert space, i.e., appears to be strongly coupled with each other but very weakly interacts with all other states of the entire space, it is possible to express the nonadiabatic coupling (NAC) elements either in terms of s or in terms of electronic basis function angles, namely, mixing angles presumably representing the same sub-Hilbert space. We demonstrate that those explicit forms of the NAC terms satisfy the curl conditions--the necessary requirements to ensure the adiabatic-diabatic transformation in order to remove the NAC terms (could be often singular also at specific point(s) or along a seam in the configuration space) in the adiabatic representation of nuclear SE and to obtain the diabatic one with smooth functional form of coupling terms among the electronic states. In order to formulate extended Born-Oppenheimer (EBO) equations [J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 074101] for a group of four states, we show that there should exist a coordinate independent ratio of the gradients for each pair of ADT/mixing angles leading to zero curls and, thereafter, provide a brief discussion on its analytical validity. As a numerical justification, we consider the first four eigenfunctions of the Mathieu equation to demonstrate the interesting features of nonadiabatic coupling (NAC) elements, namely, the validity of curl conditions and the nature of curl equations around CIs.

  8. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  9. Observability of the effects of curl-free magnetic vector potential on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accepted conceptual framework which does not admit, as per the Lorentz equa- tion, any effect that a curl-free vector potential could have on the dynamics of a charged particle on the macroscale, and hence its detection. Such an observation has been predicted by a formalism developed by the author in a series of theo-.

  10. The emergence of begomovirus-induced yellow leaf curl disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All tomato samples were negative for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). High incidence (up to 95%) and prevalence of leaf curl disease was observed in fields in the Rift Valley areas (Upper Awash, Merti, Melkasa and fields ...

  11. Quasi-local action of curl-less vector potential on vortex dynamics in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulian, Armen M.; Nikoghosyan, Vahan R.; Gulian, Ellen D.; Melkonyan, Gurgen G.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the Abrikosov vortex motion in superconductors based on time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations reveal an opportunity to detect the values of the Aharonov-Bohm type curl-less vector potentials without closed-loop electron trajectories encompassing the magnetic flux.

  12. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  13. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  14. Role of epicuticular waxes in the susceptibility of cotton leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is the causal agent of the damaging disease of cotton that is caused by number of begomaviruses and vectored by silver leaf whitefly. In the present study, an attempt was made by infecting Gossypium arboreum variety 786, its wax mutant GaWM3 along with Gossypium hirsutum MNH-93 with ...

  15. PCC pavement acceptance criteria for new construction when built-in curling exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Top-down, mid-slab cracking from built-in curling/warping is a major distress type that exists with two Michigan jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) projects (Interstate-94, CS 11017 and Interstate-96, CS 47065) on unbound open-graded drainage cou...

  16. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  17. Observability of the effects of curl-free magnetic vector potential on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss here the prediction, based on a formalism by the author, on the observable effects of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale as against the microscale of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. A new quantum concept – the 'transition amplitude wave' – postulated in the formalism has already been shown to ...

  18. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 protein is a determinant of disease phenotype in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a monopartite begomovirus. Its genome contains six open reading frames, with V1 and V2 in sense, and C1 to C4 in complementary orientation. The functions of V1 and V2 are for coat protein and pre-coat, respectively. C1 is for virus replication, C2 for trans-a...

  19. Management of sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotatoes using insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), which is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), can severely affect yields of commercial sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae). This virus occurs every year at the U.S. Vegetable Laborato...

  20. Whitefly transmission of Sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotato germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is among an extensive number of plant species attacked by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Because this important world food crop is vegetatively propagated, it can conveniently accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ssDNA...

  1. Novel member of the Luteoviridae associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) was first reported in the 1920s, is limited to the genus Rubus and is transmitted in a persistent manner by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. It is only reported from North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and i...

  2. Giardia cyst wall protein 1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Chatterjee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique beta-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWP(LRR and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWP(CRR. Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (approximately 400 nm, easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (approximately 1.2 microm, resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1(LRR. In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1(CRR bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase.

  3. Numerical modeling of the response of Ceará continental shelf waters to wind stress forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyra Soares

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceará shelf waters response to steady and transicnt wind forcing, from Ponta Cajuais (04°42'S, 37°19.5'W to Ponta de Itapagé (02°50.5'S, 40000'W, was studied using a hydrodynamic numerical model. The finitc difference model was based upon the equations for a barotropic ocean in general form: advective and quadratic surface and bottom stress terms were included. Seasonal differences in the shelf waters response were characterized by simulation of summer and winter forcing. Such experiments wcre conducted for both f and equatorial beta plane domains, without significative differences in the results. Transient shelf waters response were investigated using surface winds from the Fortaleza airport , during the period extending from 14/03 to 25/03n9. Model results were compared to current data collected during the same period; modeled currents were able to roughly describe observed current pattem, but not current intensity.A resposta das águas da plataforma continental do Ceará, de Ponta Cajuais (04°42'S, 37° 19,5'W, à forçante do vento estacionária e transiente foi estudada através de um modelo numérico hidrodinâmico. O modelo, na forma de diferenças finitas, utiliza as equações do movimento e da continuidade de massa para um oceano barotr6pico no caso mais geral: estão incluídos os termos advectivos, bem como o atrito com o fundo e a tensão de cisalhamento do vento, ambos parametrizados na forma quadrática. Variações sazonais na resposta estacionária das águas da plataforma continental, da área estudada, foram caracterizadas pela simulação das condições de verão e inverno da região. Os experimentos foram realizados no plano f e no plano p equatorial sem diferenças significativas nos resultados. A resposta transiente das águas da plataforma continental, da região escolhida, foi investigada usando uma série temporal de vento de superfície do Aeroporto de Fortaleza do período de 14 à 25 de março. O per

  4. Remote sensing to detect the movement of wheat curl mites through the spatial spread of virus symptoms, and identification of thrips as predators of wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Abby R.

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits three viruses to winter wheat: wheat streak mosaic virus, High Plains virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. This virus complex causes yellowing of the foliage and stunting of plants. WCMs disperse by wind, and an increased understanding of mite movement and subsequent virus spread is necessary in determining the risk of serious virus infections in winter wheat. These risk parameters will help growers make better decisions regarding WCM management. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capabilities of remote sensing to identify virus infected plants and to establish the potential of using remote sensing to track virus spread and consequently, mite movement. Although the WCM is small and very hard to track, the viruses it vectors produce symptoms that can be detected with remote sensing. Field plots of simulated volunteer wheat were established between 2006 and 2009, infested with WCMs, and spread mites and virus into adjacent winter wheat. The virus gradients created by WCM movement allowed for the measurement of mite movement potential with both proximal and aerial remote sensing instruments. The ability to detect WCM-vectored viruses with remote sensing was investigated by comparing vegetation indices calculated from proximal remote sensing data to ground truth data obtained in the field. Of the ten vegetation indices tested, the red edge position (REP) index had the best relationship with ground truth data. The spatial spread of virus from WCM source plots was modeled with cokriging. Virus symptoms predicted by cokriging occurred in an oval pattern displaced to the southeast. Data from the spatial spread in small plots of this study were used to estimate the potential sphere of influence for volunteer wheat fields. The impact of thrips on WCM populations was investigated by a series of greenhouse, field, and observational studies. WCM populations in winter wheat increased more slowly when

  5. Performance of cotton leaf curl virus resistant intrahirsutum f/sub 1/ hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first and foremost effort to combat the devastating cotton leaf curl virus (clcv) disease would be to utilize those clcv resistant germplasm in a hybridization programme which can enhance the possibilities of selecting desirable progenies from segregating populations. In this connection, 16 clcv intrahirsutum F1 hybrids were developed and evaluated for their performance. The hybrids, on an average gave an increase of 26.02 % in seed cotton yield; 11.52 % in bolls per plant; 14.23 % in boll weight; 4.28 % in lint; 3.89 % in fibre length and 8.21 % in earliness against the average of parents. However, among the hybrids, the top three scoring for yield were, BH.121 x Cyto.9/91, Cyto.9/91 x CRIS-226 and VH-137 x CRIS-226. The number of bolls per plant was found to be a major contributing factor for increased yield because the hybrids which set higher bolls correspondingly gave higher yields. Boll weight was not regarded as an important attribute to increase yield because hybrids with moderate boll sizes were among the top three high yielders. For lint %, the hybrids CRIS-129 x LRA-5166 and FH-901 x VH-137 were first for fibre length, whereas CRIS-121 x Cyto.51 and BH-124 x CIM-448 were among the top two rankers. Regarding earliness, the hybrids CRIS-121 x Cyto. 51 gave the highest boll opening percent and next in order was the hybrid VH-137 x DNH-49. Our results thus generally suggest that although the best three hybrids were desirable for other traits, the choice of the hybrids may be made on the priority for characters to be bred. (author)

  6. Phylogenetic lineage of Tobacco leaf curl virus in Korea and estimation of recombination events implicated in their sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Sunghan; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2011-08-01

    New strains of Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) were isolated from tomato plants in four different local communities of Korea, and hence were designated TbLCV-Kr. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the whole genome and of individual ORFs of these viruses indicated that they are closely related to the Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV) cluster, which includes Honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV), Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), and TbLCJV isolates. Four putative recombination events were recognized within these virus sequences, suggesting that the sequence variations observed in these viruses may be attributable to intraspecific and interspecific recombination events involving some TbLCV-Kr isolates, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), and a local isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AN INSIGHT OF COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS: A DEVASTATING PLANT PATHOGENIC BEGOMOVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood-ur-Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome of plant viruses consists of either RNA or DNA. DNA viruses can be categorized into two types, (1 circular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, these viruses are able to replicate through the process of reverse transcription from RNA (the caulimoviruses and badnaviruses, (2 viruses that have circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, which replicate through a dsDNA intermediate (the Geminivirus and nanoviruses. Begomoviruses are whiteflies transmitted geminiviruses and infect many economically important dicotyledonous crops including cotton, potato, tomato, cassava and chili. Begomoviruses cause leaf curl disease in cotton. In this review article, the Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV has been introduced systematically.

  8. Tomato leaf curl Burkina Faso virus: a novel tomato-infecting monopartite begomovirus from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Claverie, Sohini; Hoareau, Murielle; Traoré, Edgard Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    In this report, we present the first description of the complete genome sequence of a new monopartite begomovirus isolated from tomatoes collected in Burkina Faso and presenting with symptoms of tomato leaf curl disease. We propose the tentative name "tomato leaf curl Burkina Faso virus'' (ToLCBFV). DNA-A-like nucleotide sequence of ToLCBFV shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (85%) with the pepper yellow vein Mali virus (PepYVMLV). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the affiliation of ToLCBFV to Old World monopartite begomoviruses. This discovery of a new species confirms the existence of high genetic diversity in monopartite begomoviruses in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in West Africa.

  9. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercis...

  10. High-order Div- and Quasi Curl-Conforming Basis Functions for Calderón Multiplicative Preconditioning of the EFIE

    KAUST Repository

    Valdes, Felipe

    2011-04-01

    A new high-order Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (HO-CMP) for the electric field integral equation (EFIE) is presented. In contrast to previous CMPs, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of high-order quasi curl-conforming basis functions. Like its predecessors, the HO-CMP can be seamlessly integrated into existing EFIE codes. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed HO-CMP converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of whitefly guts in response to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Liang; Qian, Li-Xin; Shao, Ruo-Xuan; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Background Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide, and over 75% of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insect vectors. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus, which is the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulation of TYLCV in the insect involves complex insect-virus interactions, whereas the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain ambiguou...

  12. Slow expiration reduces sternocleidomastoid activity and increases transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle activity during abdominal curl-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Lim; Kim, Ki-Song; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quiet inspiration versus slow expiration on sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and abdominal muscle activity during abdominal curl-up in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect activity of bilateral SCM, rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) muscles. A paired t-test was used to determine significant differences in the bilateral SCM, RF, EO, and TrA/IO muscles between abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration and slow expiration. There were significantly lower EMG activity of both SCMs and greater EMG activity of both IOs during abdominal curl-up with slow expiration, compared with the EMG activity of both SCMs and IOs during abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration (pabdominal curl-up for reduced SCM activation and selective activation of TrA/IO in healthy subjects compared with those in abdominal curl up with quiet inspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal and hip flexor muscle activity during 2 minutes of sit-ups and curl-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Adrian M; Redmond, Colin G

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have compared muscle activity between different types of sit-ups and curl-ups. However, few have examined the exercises used by the armed forces or investigated the influence of exercise duration on muscle activation. The aim of this study was to compare abdominal and hip flexor muscle activity between the style of sit-up used by the British Army and 4 variations of a curl-up, at the start, middle, and end of a 2-minute exercise period. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external oblique, transversus abdominis and internal oblique, and the rectus femoris (RF) of 23 British Army personnel. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions were used to normalize integrated EMGs to allow them to be compared between exercises. Curl-ups with arms crossed and feet restrained produced the highest integrated EMG in all the abdominal muscles (p activity in the RF than in nonrestrained versions of the curl-up (p muscle activity between the start and the end of the exercises (p activated the muscle the most, that is, sit-ups and curl-ups with feet restrained (p abdominal muscles, rather than hip flexors, then curl-ups without restraint of the feet should be performed instead of exercises in which the feet are restrained.

  14. Molecular characterization and infectivity of a Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus variant associated with newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Sunil K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomoviruses have emerged as serious problem for vegetable and fiber crops in the recent past, frequently in tropical and subtropical region of the world. The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. Results The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that it shared highest 97.6% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:Udaipur:Okra:2007] and lowest 87.9% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:NewDelhi:Papaya:2005], while DNA-B showed highest 94.1% identity with ToLCNDV-IN[IN:UD:Ok:07] and lowest 76.2% identity with ToLCNDV-India[India:Lucknow]. Thus, it appears that this begomovirus is a variant of ubiquitous ToLCNDV and hence, we suggest the name ToLCNDV-India[India:Nagpur:Eggplant:2009] for this variant. The pathogenicity of ToLCNDV-IN[IN:Nag:Egg:09] isolate was confirmed by agroinfiltraion and dimeric clones of DNA-A and DNA-B induced characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms in eggplants and leaf curling in tomato plants. Conclusion This is the first report of a ToLCNDV variant moving to a new agriculturally important host, eggplant and causing yellow mosaic disease. This is also a first experimental demonstration of Koch's postulate for a begomovirus associated with eggplant yellow mosaic disease.

  15. Natural occurrence of begomovirus recombinants associated with tomato yellow leaf curl disease co-existing with parental viruses in tomato crops and weeds in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Mnari-Hattab, M.; Zammouri, S.; Pellegrin, Frédéric; Gauthier, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease (TYLCVD) is the main limiting factor for tomato production in the Mediterranean Basin, and particularly in Tunisia where climatic and crop production conditions, as well as the occurrence of many weeds, provide suitable conditions for the presence and spread of TYLCVD all year round. In Tunisia, epidemics in tomato-growing regions have been associated with two begomoviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus ...

  16. Sequence characterization of tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus and tomato severe leaf curl virus: phylogeny of New World begomoviruses and detection of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A; Kvarnheden, A; Marcenaro, D; Valkonen, J P T

    2005-07-01

    Diseases caused by begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) constitute a serious constraint to tomato production in Nicaragua. In this study, the complete nucleotide (nt) sequences of the DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined for the first time for Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus (ToLCSinV). In addition, the complete nt sequence was determined for the DNA-A component of two isolates of Tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV). The genome organization of ToLCSinV and ToSLCV was identical to the bipartite genomes of other begomoviruses described from the Americas. A phylogenetic analysis of DNA-A including 45 begomovirus species showed that the indigenous begomoviruses of the New World can be divided into three major clades and an intermediate group: AbMV clade, SLCV clade, "Brazil clade", and BGYMV group. Phylogenetic analyses of the DNA-A and DNA-B components and their open reading frames indicated that ToLCSinV and ToSLCV belong to different clades: ToLCSinV to the AbMV clade, and ToSLCV to the SLCV clade. The two Nicaraguan isolates of ToSLCV showed a close relationship with ToSLCV from Guatemala (ToSLCV-[GT96-1]) and Tomato chino La Paz virus (ToChLPV), but differed significantly in the AV1 and AC1 regions, respectively. Computer-based predictions indicated that recombination with another begomovirus had taken place within AV1 of ToSLCV dividing this species into two strains. A high probability was also found that ToChLPV is involved in the evolution of ToSLCV.

  17. Adaptive BDDC Deluxe Methods for H(curl)

    KAUST Repository

    Zampini, Stefano

    2017-03-17

    The work presents numerical results using adaptive BDDC deluxe methods for preconditioning the linear systems arising from finite element discretizations of the time-domain, quasi-static approximation of the Maxwell’s equations. The provided results, obtained using the BDDC implementation of the PETSc library, show that these methods are poly-logarithmic in the polynomial degree of the Nédélec elements of first and second kind, and robust with respect to arbitrary distributions of the magnetic permeability and the conductivity of the medium.

  18. Suppression of cotton leaf curl disease symptoms in Gossypium hirsutum through over expression of host-encoded miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Mohd; Baig, Mirza S; Khan, Jawaid A

    2017-12-10

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major factor resulting in the enormous yield losses in cotton crop, is caused by a distinct monopartite begomovirus in association with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Micro(mi)RNAs are known to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including antiviral defense in plants. In a previous study, we had computationally identified a set of cotton miRNAs, which were shown to have potential targets in the genomes of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and CLCuMB at multiple loci. In the current study, effect of Gossypium arboreum-encoded miRNAs on the genome of CLCuMuV and CLCuMB was investigated in planta. Two computationally predicted cotton-encoded miRNAs (miR398 and miR2950) that showed potential to bind multiple Open Reading Frames (ORFs; C1, C4, V1, and non- coding intergenic region) of CLCuMuV, and (βC1) of CLCuMB were selected. Functional validation of miR398 and miR2950 was done by overexpression approach in G. hirsutum var. HS6. A total of ten in vitro cotton plants were generated from independent events and subjected to biological and molecular analyses. Presence of the respective Precursor (pre)-miRNA was confirmed through PCR and Southern blotting, and their expression level was assessed by semi quantitative RT-PCR, Real Time quantitative PCR and northern hybridization in the PCR-positive lines. Southern hybridization revealed 2-4 copy integration of T-DNA in the genome of the transformed lines. Remarkably, expression of pre-miRNAs was shown up to 5.8-fold higher in the transgenic (T 0 ) lines as revealed by Real Time PCR. The virus resistance was monitored following inoculation of the transgenic cotton lines with viruliferous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) insect vector. After inoculation, four of the transgenic lines remained apparently symptom free. While a very low titre of viral DNA could be detected by Rolling circle amplification, betasatellite responsible for symptom induction could not be detected

  19. Analysis of factors that influence the maximum number of repetitions in two upper-body resistance exercises: curl biceps and bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Eliseo; Boullosa, Daniel A; Dopico, Xurxo; Carballeira, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of exercise type, set configuration, and relative intensity load on relationship between 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximum number of repetitions (MNR). Thirteen male subjects, experienced in resistance training, were tested in bench press and biceps curl for 1RM, MNR at 90% of 1RM with cluster set configuration (rest of 30s between repetitions) and MNR at 70% of 1RM with traditional set configuration (no rest between repetitions). A lineal encoder was used for measuring displacement of load. Analysis of variance analysis revealed a significant effect of load (p0.05). Correlation between 1RM and MNR was significant for medium-intensity in biceps curl (r=-0.574; pstrength levels. From our results, we suggest the employment of MNR rather than % of 1RM for training monitoring. Furthermore, we suggest the introduction of cluster set configuration for upper-body assessment of MNR and for upper-body muscular endurance training at high-intensity loads, as it seems an efficient approach in looking for sessions with greater training volumes. This could be an interesting approach for such sports as wrestling or weightlifting.

  20. Fatal poisoning by Rumex crispus (curled dock): pathological findings and application of scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, R; Sanz, P; Blanche, C; Fontarnau, R; Dominguez, A; Corbella, J

    1990-10-01

    A case of fatal poisoning due to ingestion of the plant Rumex crispus (curled dock) is described. The patient, a 53-year-old male, presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, severe hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis and acute hepatic insufficiency. Despite therapeutic measures, the patient died 72 h after ingestion of the plant material. Noteworthy among the pathological findings were centrolobular hepatic necrosis and birefringent crystals in the liver and kidneys that were identified by histochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. These observations are compared with other reports in the medical literature, with an emphasis on the risk involved in the use of these plants for culinary or medicinal purposes.

  1. Leaf curl diseases of two solanaceous species in Southwest Arabia are caused by a monopartite begomovirus evolutionarily most closely related to a species from the Nile Basin and unique suite of betasatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2012-10-01

    The complete genome of 2780 bases was amplified using rolling circle amplification, and cloned, and sequenced for two distinct strains of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV). The two strains shared 86-91% identity with the previously described ToLCSDV from the Nile Basin, and 90-91% identity with one another. One strain was cloned from symptomatic tomato plants from Tihamah (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih:05]) while the other was cloned from symptomatic tobacco plants collected from Wadi Hadramaut (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Had:89]). A distinct full-length betasatellite molecule (1352 bases) was cloned from the respective field-infected tomato and tobacco plants. Agro-inoculation of tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with cloned partial tandem repeats of ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih11:05]) and the associated betasatellite, Tomato leaf curl Yemen betasatellite (ToLCYEB-[Tih:tom:137:05]), resulted in the reproduction of leaf curl disease symptoms in test plants like those observed in the field-infected plants. The betasatellite contributed to symptom severity in N. benthamiana test plants when it was co-inoculated with ToLCSDV-YE, compared to the milder symptoms that were observed in tobacco plants infected with the helper virus alone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Sinaloa Tomato Leaf Curl Geminivirus: Biological and Molecular Evidence for a New Subgroup III Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A M; Brown, J K

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT The biological and molecular properties of Sinaloa tomato leaf curl virus (STLCV) were investigated in line with the hypothesis that STLCV is a previously uncharacterized, whitefly-transmitted geminivirus from North America. STLCV causes yellow leaf curl symptoms in tomato and yellow-green foliar mottle in pepper. Five species belonging to two plant families were STLCV experimental hosts. STLCV had a persistent relationship with its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci. Polymerase chain reaction fragments of STLCV common region (CR) sequences of the A or B genomic components and the viral coat protein gene (AV1) were molecularly cloned and sequenced. The STLCV A- and B-component CR sequences (174 nucleotides each) shared 97.9% identity and contained identical cis elements putatively involved in transcriptional regulation and an origin of replication (the AC cleavage site within the loop of the hairpin structure and two direct repeat sequences thought to constitute the Rep binding motif), which collectively are diagnostic for subgroup III geminiviruses. The STLCV CR sequence shared 23.1 to 77.6% identity with CR sequences of representative geminiviridae, indicating the STLCV CR sequence is unique. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of CR or AV1 sequences of STLCV and the respective sequences of 31 familial members supported the placement of STLCV as a unique bipartite, subgroup III virus most closely related to other viruses from the Western Hemisphere. STLCV is provisionally described as a new species within the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae.

  3. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A; Akhtar, A; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  4. Genetic diversity/impurity estimation in sources of natural resistance against cotton leaf curl disease in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cotton accounts for more than 60% of Pakistan's export earnings through the export of both raw cotton and cotton products. An epidemic of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan during the 1990s led to the withdrawal of high yielding cotton cultivars. Due of their susceptibility to the disease. The identification of natural resistance in some genotypes provided a means to manage reduce losses due to the disease. But it has been an adversity that almost all these resistant varieties have ultimately 'lost' their resistance. There are also reports that the original sources of resistance, as well as the varieties developed from them, are now susceptible to the disease when grafted with infected scion. For the present studies. Seed of two resistant varieties (LRA-5166 and (CP-152) was obtained from six different research organizations. Plants raised from these seed were grafted with symptomatic scion and used for morphological comparisons. Our results indicated that the genetic pool of these cultivars is not well maintained and that an unacceptable diversity impurity is present within and among the genetic stock of both these lines. There is thus a requirement for screening of these elite lines at the molecular level to ensure the purity of these varieties for future development. The virus causing CLCuD showed change by recombination making the search for new sources of resistance, as well as the maintenance of established sources, indispensable for the sustainable cotton production in Pakistan. (author)

  5. The effects of different sit- and curl-up positions on activation of abdominal and hip flexor musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfrey, Kevin C; Docherty, David; Workman, R Chad; Behm, David G

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate abdominal muscle activation with variations in trunk flexion (sit or curl up) positions, including the protocol currently used by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology (CSEP) Health and Fitness Program. Electromyographic (EMG) data were collected during isometric contractions from the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), external obliques (EO), lower abdominal stabilizers (LAS), rectus femoris (RF), and the biceps femoris (BF) in 14 subjects. Sit-up positions were varied and randomized through 3 variables: the distance the hand traveled along the floor (5, 10, or 15 cm), bent knee or extended knee, and fixed or non-fixed feet. In regard to the distance the hand traveled along the floor, the 10 cm position produced the highest activation of the LRA (p = 0.02), the 5 cm distance produced the lowest RF activation (p = 0.001), and the 15 cm distance produced the lowest activation of the URA (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between bent-knee and extended-leg sit-up positions; however, there was a trend (p = 0.1) showing that the bent-knee sit-up position produced higher levels of LAS activation and lower levels of RF activation. Foot fixation resulted in significantly lower activation levels of all abdominal sites and higher levels for the RF (p activation levels for all abdominal muscle sites.

  6. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Akhtar, A.; Khalid, B.; Shamim, A.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  7. Nod factor-induced root hair curling: continuous polar growth towards the point of nod factor application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.; Lhuissier, F.G.P.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    A critical step in establishing a successful nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between rhizobia and legume plants is the entrapment of the bacteria between root hair cell walls, usually in characteristic 180degrees to 360degrees curls, shepherd's crooks, which are formed by the host's root hairs. Purified

  8. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus can be acquired and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delatte, H.; Dalmon, A.; Rist, D.; Soustrade, I.; Wuster, G.; Lett, J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peterschmitt, M.; Reynaud, B.

    2003-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an insect pest causing worldwide economic losses, especially as a vector of geminiviruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Currently, imported and exported tomato fruit are not monitored for TYLCV infection because they are not considered to represent a

  9. Aphid transmission of Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus, a member of atentative new subgroup within the genus Torradovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus (LNLCV) was described as the first non-tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus. Until today, the virus was found only in The Netherlands in two different areas in open field crops of lettuce. In 2015, LNLCV was accepted by the ICTV as a new member of the

  10. Molecular Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Korea and the Construction of an Infectious Clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several tomato production regions in Korea were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD. Tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected from Tongyeong (To, Geoje (Gi, and Gimhae (Gh cities of the southern part of Korea. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was detected and the full-length genomes of the isolates were sequenced. The TYLCV isolates found in Korea shared high sequence identity (> 99% with TYLCV-IL [JR:Omu:Ng] (AB110217. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that they formed two groups (with little genetic variability, and the To, Gj, and Gh isolates belonged to the TYLCV-IL group. An infectious clone of TYLCV-To (JQ013089 was constructed and agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi, Petunia hybrida, Capsicum annuum, and Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Hausumomotaro. Agroinfection with a dimeric infectious clone of TYLCV-To induced severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants, excluding C. annuum. Tomato plants then developed typical yellow leaf curl symptoms.

  11. Mathematical modeling of cotton leaf curl virus with respect to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Bashir, Zoobia; Ahmad, Aqeel; Tariq, Wajeeha; Yousaf, Anam; Gohar, Madiha

    2015-06-01

    This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl virus naturally infecting Lycopersicon esculentum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.

  13. A Novel Strain of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus Has Spread to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Fortes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV is a whitefly-transmitted bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae that causes damage to multiple cultivated plant species mainly belonging to the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae families. ToLCNDV was limited to Asian countries until 2012, when it was first reported in Spain, causing severe epidemics in cucurbit crops. Here, we show that a genetically-uniform ToLCNDV population is present in Spain, compatible with a recent introduction. Analyses of ToLCNDV isolates reported from other parts of the world indicated that this virus has a highly heterogeneous population genetically with no evident geographical, plant host or year-based phylogenetic groups observed. Isolates emerging in Spain belong to a strain that seems to have evolved by recombination. Isolates of this strain seem adapted to infecting cucurbits, but poorly infect tomatoes.

  14. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus: No evidence for replication in the insect vector Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Rodríguez-Negrete, Edgar A; Cruzado, Lucía; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Begomovirus ssDNA plant virus (family Geminiviridae) replication within the Bemisia tabaci vector is controversial. Transovarial transmission, alteration to whitefly biology, or detection of viral transcripts in the vector are proposed as indirect evidence of replication of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Recently, contrasting direct evidence has been reported regarding the capacity of TYLCV to replicate within individuals of B. tabaci based on quantitave PCR approaches. Time-course experiments to quantify complementary and virion sense viral nucleic acid accumulation within B. tabaci using a recently implemented two step qPCR procedure revealed that viral DNA quantities did not increase for time points up to 96 hours after acquisition of the virus. Our findings do not support a recent report claiming TYLCV replication in individuals of B. tabaci.

  15. Genetic diversity in upland cotton for cotton leaf curl virus disease, earliness and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, F.; Farooq, J.; Mahmood, A.; Hussain, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan during last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups. The genotypes in st cluster 1 only showed reasonable values for days to 1 square and flower, sympodia per plant, ginning out turn, staple length and fiber fineness and the genotypes in cluster 5 showed promising values for the traits like cotton leaf curl virus, ginning out turn and fiber fineness. The genotypes in cluster 1 and 5 may be combined to obtain desirable traits related to earliness and better disease tolerance. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the cotton accessions for various traits and some extent of association between various clusters. It is concluded that diversity among the genotypes could be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed

  16. Rapid spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China is aided differentially by two invasive whiteflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was introduced into China in 2006, approximately 10 years after the introduction of an invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype. Even so the distribution and prevalence of TYLCV remained limited, and the economic damage was minimal. Following the introduction of Q biotype into China in 2003, the prevalence and spread of TYLCV started to accelerate. This has lead to the hypothesis that the two biotypes might not be equally competent vectors of TYLCV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The infection frequency of TYLCV in the field-collected B. tabaci populations was investigated, the acquisition and transmission capability of TYLCV by B and Q biotypes were compared under the laboratory conditions. Analysis of B. tabaci populations from 55 field sites revealed the existence of 12 B and 43 Q biotypes across 18 provinces in China. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both B and Q biotypes can acquire and transmit the virus, however, Q biotype demonstrated superior acquisition and transmission capability than its B counterparts. Specifically, Q biotype acquired significantly more viral DNA than the B biotype, and reached the maximum viral load in a substantially shorter period of time. Although TYLCV was shown to be transmitted horizontally by both biotypes, Q biotype exhibited significantly higher viral transmission frequency than B biotype. Vertical transmission result, on the other hand, indicated that TYLCV DNA can be detected in eggs and nymphs, but not in pupae and adults of the first generation progeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These combined results suggested that the epidemiology of TYLCV was aided differentially by the two invasive whiteflies (B and Q biotypes through horizontal but not vertical transmission of the virus. This is consistent with the concomitant eruption of TYLCV in tomato fields following the recent rapid invasion of Q biotype whitefly in China.

  17. Physical control possibilities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in protected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapisarda, C.; Cascone, G.; Tropea Garzia, G.; Mazzarella, R.; Colombo, A.; Serges, T.

    2005-01-01

    Among alternatives to chemical control for reducing virus epidemics in protected tomato crops, physical management of vectors populations through the application of insect-proof screens to greenhouse openings has been investigated since many years and satisfactory results have been obtained so far, especially regarding the incidence of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), which is the vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). Nevertheless, although effective from the phytosanitary point of view, these insect-proof screens negatively affect the climate inside the greenhouse, by reducing ventilation, increasing air temperature, etc.. Recently, a low incidence of whitefly infestations on crops has been observed inside greenhouses which have been covered with photoselective plastic films absorbing the ultra-violet component (200-380 nm) of solar radiation. The present study, carried out in Sicily by means of three trials during three consecutive years, allowed to evaluate the ability of two different UV-absorbing plastic films to reduce B. tabaci infestations, in comparison to UV-unabsorbing plastic films and insect-proof screens commonly used to cover and protect tomato greenhouses. The results show the good efficiency of both the tested UV-absorbing films to reduce the witefly presence on tomato crops and the consequent TYLCD spreading. Furthermore, it may be observed that UV-absorbing films do not determine sensible variations of greenhouse climate conditions, compared to greenhouses covered with conventional films. These data not only confirm the physical validity of the UV-absorbing films, but also show that they may fit properly within strategies of integrated control of pests and viruses in protected cultivations [it

  18. The typical RB76 recombination breakpoint of the invasive recombinant tomato yellow leaf curl virus of Morocco can be generated experimentally but is not positively selected in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabess, Z; Urbino, C; Granier, M; Tahiri, A; Blenzar, A; Peterschmitt, M

    2018-01-02

    TYLCV-IS76 is an unusual recombinant between the highly recombinogenic tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), two Mediterranean begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). In contrast with the previously reported TYLCV/TYLCSV recombinants, it has a TYLCSV derived fragment of only 76 nucleotides, and has replaced its parental viruses in natural conditions (Morocco, Souss region). The viral population shift coincided with the deployment of the popular Ty-1 resistant tomato cultivars, and according to experimental studies, has been driven by a strong positive selection in such resistant plants. However, although Ty-1 cultivars were extensively used in Mediterranean countries, TYLCV-IS76 was not reported outside Morocco. This, in combination with its unusual recombination pattern suggests that it was generated through a rare and possibly multistep process. The potential generation of a recombination breakpoint (RB) at locus 76 (RB76) was investigated over time in 10 Ty-1 resistant and 10 nearly isogenic susceptible tomato plants co-inoculated with TYLCV and TYLCSV clones. RB76 could not be detected in the recombinant progeny using the standard PCR/sequencing approach that was previously designed to monitor the emergence of TYLCV-IS76 in Morocco. Using a more sensitive PCR test, RB76 was detected in one resistant and five susceptible plants. The results are consistent with a very low intra-plant frequency of RB76 bearing recombinants throughout the test and support the hypothesis of a rare emergence of TYLCV-IS76. More generally, RBs were more scattered in resistant than in susceptible plants and an unusual RB at position 141 (RB141) was positively selected in the resistant cultivar; interestingly, RB141 bearing recombinants were detected in resistant tomato plants from the field. Scenarios of TYLCV-IS76 pre-emergence are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenotypic expression, stability, and inheritance of a recessive resistance to monopartite begomoviruses associated with tomato yellow leaf curl disease in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cano, E; Resende, R O; Boiteux, L S; Giordano, L B; Fernández-Muñoz, R; Moriones, E

    2008-05-01

    Tomato-infecting begomoviruses comprise a complex of monopartite and bipartite virus species that cause severe yield and quality losses worldwide. Therefore, the availability of wide spectrum resistance for begomovirus control is desirable. However, limited sources of resistance are available. In this study, three tomato inbred lines with resistance to bipartite begomoviruses of Brazil were tested for resistance to monopartite begomoviruses associated with the tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). Stable resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus was observed either by inoculation with Bemisia tabaci or with Agrobacterium tumefaciens using an infectious clone. The resistance resulted in a complete absence of TYLCD symptoms and restricted virus accumulation. Further studies performed with the line '468-1-1-12' indicated that the resistance was also effective against three other virus species associated with TYLCD, indicating wide spectrum resistance of this source. Quantitative genetics analyses suggested that a major recessive locus with epistatic interactions is controlling the resistance to TYLCD in '468-1-1-12', which could facilitate introgression of this trait into elite tomato lines. The resistance was stable under field conditions with high TYLCD pressure. Mild symptoms could be observed in these conditions, and recovery from disease and from virus infection suggested an active host antiviral defense mechanism. The differential reaction of '468-1-1-12' against a number of TYLCD-associated viruses and artificial chimeras between them allowed to identify a region of the virus genome that presumably contains a virus determinant for breaking the resistance to infection observed in '468-1-1-12'.

  20. C4 Protein of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Regulates Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway through Interaction with AtBIN2 and Affects Male Fertility in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huiping; Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Sweepoviruses have been identified globally and cause substantial yield losses and cultivar decline in sweet potato. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between sweepovirus and plant host by analyzing the function of the viral protein C4 of Sweet potato leaf curl virus -Jiangsu (SPLCV-JS), a sweepovirus cloned from diseased sweet potato plants in East China. Ectopic expression of the C4 in Arabidopsis altered plant development drastically with phenotypic changes including leaf curling, seedling twisting, deformation of floral tissues and reduction of pollen fertility, and seed number. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis, this study demonstrated that the SPLCV-JS C4 protein interacted with brassinosteroid-insensitive 2 (AtBIN2) in the plasma membrane of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. The C4 AtBIN2 interaction was further confirmed by yeast two-hybrid assays. This interaction led to the re-localization of AtBIN2-interacting proteins AtBES1/AtBZR1 into the nucleus which altered the expression of brassinosteroid (BR)-response genes, resulting in the activation of BR-signaling pathway. The interaction of SPLCV-JS C4 and AtBIN2 also led to the down-regulated expression of key genes involved in anther and pollen development, including SPROROCYTELESS/NOZZLE, DEFECTIVE IN TAPEL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION 1 , and ABORTED MICROSPORES , which caused abnormal tapetal development, followed by defective exine pattern formation of microspores and pollen release. Consequently, male fertility in the C4 transgenic Arabidopsis was reduced. The present study illustrated how the sweepovirus C4 protein functioned in host cells and affected male fertility by interacting with the key components of BR-signaling pathway.

  1. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  2. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  3. Evaluation of two gene-silencing constructs for resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl viruses in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah Chouchane, S; Gorsane, F; Nakhla, M K; Salus, M; Martin, C T; Maxwell, D P; Marrakchi, M; Fakhfakh, H

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into intact plant leaves of N. benthamiana was used to test the efficiency of two virus-based silencing constructs conferring resistance to the closely related begomoviruses. The constructs contained the most conserved sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene and replication-associated protein (Rep) gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Sicily strain) (TYLCSV-[Sic]). Both constructs formed a hairpin structure that enhanced the post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. When agro-infiltrated plants were challenged separately with infectious viruses TYLCSV-[Sic] and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the plants showed resistance to TYLCSV-[Sic], but not to the related TYLCV.

  4. Seasonal controls on surface pCO2 in the central and eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , low-level atmospheric. Findlater Jet (Findlater 1969, 1974) generates strong gradients in the wind stress over the Arabian Sea. To the northwest of the jet axis, a positive wind stress curl drives divergence (open-ocean upwelling) through.

  5. Variability of mixed layer depth in the northern Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.

    Influences of wind stress (tau) and wind stress curl (Grad Gamma) on the short term variability of the mixed layer depth at different locations in the northern Indian Ocean during different phases of summer monsoon activity were examined...

  6. Sequence characterization of cotton leaf curl virus from Rajasthan: phylogenetic relationship with other members of geminiviruses and detection of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Khan, J A

    2010-04-01

    Diseased cotton plants showing typical leaf curl symptoms were collected from experimental plot of Agriculture Research Station-Sriganganagar, Rajasthan. Complete DNA-A component from samples taken from two areas were amplified through rolling circle amplification (RCA) using templiphi kit (GE Healthcare) and characterized. DNA-A of one isolate consists of 2751 nucleotides and second isolate of 2759 nucleotide. Both sequences comprised six ORF's. Genome organization of DNA-A of one isolate shows high sequence similarity with other characterized local begomovirus isolates of Rajasthan, while other isolate shows high sequence similarity with CLCuV reported from Pakistan. The maximum similarity of first isolate, CLCuV-SG01, shows highest sequence identity with Cotton leaf curl Abohar (Rajasthan) virus, and second isolate, CLCuV-SG02, shows highest sequence identity with cotton leaf curl virus from Pakistan. Both isolates showed 85% similarities with each other. The sequence data revealed probable infiltration of some strains of Cotton leaf curl virus from Pakistan to India, or co-existence of different isolates under similar geographical conditions. While CLCuV-SG01 shows highest nt sequence similarity with CLCuV Rajasthan (Abohar), nt identity of V1 ORF (encoding coat protein) of SG01 shows the highest nt identity (100%) with CLCuV Multan (Bhatinda) and Abohar virus while AC1 region also showed difference. Complete nucleotide sequence of SG01 shows only 86% similarity with CLCuV Multan virus. Similarity search revealed significant difference in AV1 and AC1 regions with respect to DNA-A suggesting an evolutionary history of recombination. Computer based analysis, recombination detection Program (RDP) supports the recombination hypothesis, indicated that recombination with other begomoviruses had taken place within V1 ORF and AC1 ORF of CLCuV-SG01 and AC1 ORF of CLCuV-SG02 and also in noncoding intergenic region (IR).

  7. Large-Deformation Curling Actuators Based on Carbon Nanotube Composite: Advanced-Structure Design and Biomimetic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhuo; Weng, Mingcen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-22

    In recent years, electroactive polymers have been developed as actuator materials. As an important branch of electroactive polymers, electrothermal actuators (ETAs) demonstrate potential applications in the fields of artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, robotics, and so on. Large-shape deformation, low-voltage-driven actuation, and ultrafast fabrication are critical to the development of ETA. However, a simultaneous optimization of all of these advantages has not been realized yet. Practical biomimetic applications are also rare. In this work, we introduce an ultrafast approach to fabricate a curling actuator based on a newly designed carbon nanotube and polymer composite, which completely realizes all of the above required advantages. The actuator shows an ultralarge curling actuation with a curvature greater than 1.0 cm(-1) and bending angle larger than 360°, even curling into a tubular structure. The driving voltage is down to a low voltage of 5 V. The remarkable actuation is attributed not only to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion but also to the mechanical property changes of materials during temperature change. We also construct an S-shape actuator to show the possibility of building advanced-structure actuators. A weightlifting walking robot is further designed that exhibits a fast-moving motion while lifting a sample heavier than itself, demonstrating promising biomimetic applications.

  8. FUNCTIONAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR CHANGES IN THE HAMSTRINGS AFTER DROP JUMPS AND LEG CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production, kinaesthesia (active torque tracking and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles

  9. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  10. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  11. An efficient in vitro-inoculation method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abdallat, Ayed M; Al Debei, Hmoud S; Asmar, Heba; Misbeh, Samar; Quraan, Ayat; Kvarnheden, Anders

    2010-04-29

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus. To test the infectivity of TYLCV in tomato plants, an improved protocol for inoculation of in vitro-cultured tomato plants was developed. A TYLCV isolate was cloned, sequenced and used to construct a 1.8-mer infectious clone. Three weeks old microshoots of TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the infectious clone for the TYLCV isolate. After two weeks, the TYLCV symptoms started to appear on the in vitro-inoculated plants and the symptoms became more severe and pronounced eight weeks post-inoculation. The method was used efficiently to uncover the resistance mechanism against TYLCV in Solanum habrochaites accession LA 1777, a wild tomato known for its high resistance to whitefly and TYLCV. The reported in vitro-inoculation method can be used to screen tomato genotypes for their responses to TYLCV under controlled conditions and it will be a useful tool for better understanding of the TYLCV biology in tomato plants.

  12. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. D.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  13. CRISPR/CAS9: A TOOL TO CIRCUMSCRIBE COTTON LEAF CURL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar eIqbal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae associated with cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD pose a major threat to cotton productivity in South-East Asia including Pakistan and India. These viruses have single-stranded, circular DNA genome, of ~2800 nt in size, encapsidated in twinned icosa-hedera, transmitted by ubiquitous whitefly and are associated with satellite molecules referred to as alpha- and betasatellite. To circumvent the proliferation of these viruses numerous techniques, ranging from conventional breeding to molecular approaches have been applied. Such devised strategies worked perfectly well for a short time period and then viruses relapse due to various reasons including multiple infections, where related viruses synergistically interact with each other, virus proliferation and evolution. Another shortcoming is, until now, that all molecular biology approaches are devised to control only helper begomoviruses but not to control associated satellites. Despite the fact that satellites could add various functions to helper begomoviruses, they remain ignored. Such conditions necessitate a very comprehensive technique that can offer best controlling strategy not only against helper begomoviruses but also their associated DNA-satellites. In the current scenario clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (Cas9 has proved to be versatile technique that has very recently been deployed successfully to control different geminiviruses. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been proved to be a comprehensive technique to control different geminiviruses however, like previously used techniques, only a single virus is targeted and hitherto it has not been deployed to control begomovirus complexes associated with DNA-satellites. Here in this article, we proposed an inimitable, unique and broad spectrum controlling method based on multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 system where a cassette of sgRNA is designed to target

  14. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  15. Genetic diversity of sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between sweet potato leaf curl virus and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo Cheng; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, two sweet potato begomoviruses, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus (SPLCGV), were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweet potato begomoviruses have been identified in other parts of the world. In an effort to determine the genetic diversity and distribution of sweet potato begomoviruses in the U.S., we focused our efforts on molecular characterization of field-collected begomovirus isolates in two states: Mississippi and South Carolina. Using rolling-circle amplification, a total of 52 clones of the full genome were obtained. Initial inspection of alignments of the end sequences in these clones revealed a strong genetic diversity. Overall, 10 genotypes could be assigned. A majority of the isolates (50/52) in eight genotypes were shown to be closely related to SPLCV. A representative clone of each genotype was fully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, four genotypes from South Carolina with 91-92% sequence identity to the type member of SPLCV were considered a new strain, whereas four other genotypes from Mississippi with >95% sequence identity to SPLCV were considered variants. In addition, a member of a proposed new begomovirus species was identified after comparative sequence analysis of the isolate [US:SC:646B-9] from South Carolina with less than 89% sequence identity to any known begomovirus. Hence, the provisional name Sweet potato leaf curl South Carolina virus (SPLCSCV) is proposed. Moreover, a natural recombinant consisting of two distinct parental genomic sequences from SPLCV and SPLCGV was identified in the sample [US:MS:1B-3] from Mississippi. Two recombinant breakpoints were identified, one in the origin of replication and the other between C2 and C4. This knowledge about the genetic diversity of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato will likely have a major impact on PCR-based virus detection and on disease management practice through breeding

  16. Geometric classification of scalp hair for valid drug testing, 6 more reliable than 8 hair curl groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mkentane

    Full Text Available Curly hair is reported to contain higher lipid content than straight hair, which may influence incorporation of lipid soluble drugs. The use of race to describe hair curl variation (Asian, Caucasian and African is unscientific yet common in medical literature (including reports of drug levels in hair. This study investigated the reliability of a geometric classification of hair (based on 3 measurements: the curve diameter, curl index and number of waves.After ethical approval and informed consent, proximal virgin (6cm hair sampled from the vertex of scalp in 48 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Three raters each scored hairs from 48 volunteers at two occasions each for the 8 and 6-group classifications. One rater applied the 6-group classification to 80 additional volunteers in order to further confirm the reliability of this system. The Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter rater agreement.Each rater classified 480 hairs on each occasion. No rater classified any volunteer's 10 hairs into the same group; the most frequently occurring group was used for analysis. The inter-rater agreement was poor for the 8-groups (k = 0.418 but improved for the 6-groups (k = 0.671. The intra-rater agreement also improved (k = 0.444 to 0.648 versus 0.599 to 0.836 for 6-groups; that for the one evaluator for all volunteers was good (k = 0.754.Although small, this is the first study to test the reliability of a geometric classification. The 6-group method is more reliable. However, a digital classification system is likely to reduce operator error. A reliable objective classification of human hair curl is long overdue, particularly with the increasing use of hair as a testing substrate for treatment compliance in Medicine.

  17. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  18. Metric of the 2–6 day sea-surface temperature response to wind stress in the Tropical Pacific and its sensitivity to the K-Profile Parameterization of vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Wagman, Benjamin M.

    2014-05-04

    Uncertainty in wind forcing has long hampered direct tests of ocean model output against observations for the purpose of refining the boundary layer K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) of oceanic vertical mixing. Considered here is a short-term metric that could be sensitive to the ways in which the KPP directly affects the adjustment of sea surface temperatures for a given change in wind stress. In particular a metric is developed based on the lagged correlation between the 2–6 day filtered wind stress and sea surface temperature. The metric is normalized by estimated observational and model uncertainties such that the significance of differences may be assessed. For this purpose multiple wind reanalysis products and their blended combinations were used to represent the range of forcing uncertainty, while perturbed KPP parameter model runs explore the sensitivity of the metric to the parameterization of vertical mixing. The correlation metric is sensitive to perturbations to most KPP parameters, in ways that accord with expectations, although only a few parameters show a sensitivity on the same order as the sensitivity to switching between wind products. This suggests that uncertainties in wind forcing continue to be a significant limitation for applying direct observational tests of KPP physics. Moreover, model correlations are biased high, suggesting that the model lacks or does not resolve sources of variability on the 2–6 day time scale.

  19. Spatial and Host-Related Variation in Prevalence and Population Density of Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria tosichella Cryptic Genotypes in Agricultural Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoracka

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host associations and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant species and landscape spatial variation influence WCM presence and population density across the entire area of Poland (>311,000 km2. Three important findings arose from the results of the study. (1 The majority of WCM lineages analyzed exhibited variation in patterns of prevalence and/or population density on both spatial and host-associated scales. (2 Areas of occurrence and local abundance were delineated for specific WCM lineages and it was determined that the most pestiferous lineages are much less widespread than was expected, suggesting relatively recent introductions into Poland and the potential for further spread. (3 The 16 WCM lineages under study assorted within four discrete host assemblages, within which similar host preferences and host infestation patterns were detected. Of these four groups, one consists of lineages associated with cereals. In addition to improving basic ecological knowledge of a widespread arthropod herbivore, the results of this research identify high-risk areas for the presence of the most pestiferous WCM lineages in the study area (viz. the entirety of Poland. They also provide insight into the evolution of pest species of domesticated crops and facilitate testing of fundamental hypotheses about the ecological factors that shape this pest community.

  20. Genome wide identification of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-encoded microRNA targets against Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweta; Akhter, Yusuf; Khan, Jawaid Ahmad

    2018-01-05

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBV, genus Begomovirus) causes devastating cotton leaf curl disease. Among various known virus controlling strategies, RNAi-mediated one has shown potential to protect host crop plants. Micro(mi) RNAs, are the endogenous small RNAs and play a key role in plant development and stress resistance. In the present study we have identified cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-encoded miRNAs targeting the CLCuBV. Based on threshold free energy and maximum complementarity scores of host miRNA-viral mRNA target pairs, a number of potential miRNAs were annotated. Among them, ghr-miR168 was selected as the most potent candidate, capable of targeting several vital genes namely C1, C3, C4, V1 and V2 of CLCuBV genome. In addition, ghr-miR395a and ghr-miR395d were observed to target the overlapping transcripts of C1 and C4 genes. We have verified the efficacy of these miRNA targets against CLCuBV following suppression of RNAi-mediated virus control through translational inhibition or cleavage of viral mRNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome organization of Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus, a new, distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with subgenomic defective DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paximadis, M; Rey, M E

    2001-12-01

    The complete DNA A of the begomovirus Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZWV) was sequenced: it comprises 2767 nucleotides with six major open reading frames encoding proteins with molecular masses greater than 9 kDa. Full-length TbLCZWV DNA A tandem dimers, cloned in binary vectors (pBin19 and pBI121) and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were systemically infectious upon agroinoculation of tobacco and tomato. Efforts to identify a DNA B component were unsuccessful. These findings suggest that TbLCZWV is a new member of the monopartite group of begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis identified TbLCZWV as a distinct begomovirus with its closest relative being Chayote mosaic virus. Abutting primer PCR amplified ca. 1300 bp molecules, and cloning and sequencing of two of these molecules revealed them to be subgenomic defective DNA molecules originating from TbLCZWV DNA A. Variable symptom severity associated with tobacco leaf curl disease and TbLCZWV is discussed.

  2. Is the pull-out force of the Meniscus Arrow in bone affected by the inward curling of the barbs during biodegradation? An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Diederick B; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; de Hosson, Jeff T M; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2009-04-01

    Inward curling of the barbs of Meniscus Arrows during degradation was observed in a previous study, in which swelling, distention, and water uptake by Meniscus Arrows was evaluated. This change of configuration could have consequences with respect to anchorage capacity in bone. Eight non-degraded Meniscus Arrows in the original configuration were pulled out of thawed, fresh-frozen human femoral condyle, and pull-out force was measured and compared with that of 6 Meniscus Arrows after 31 days of degradation under controlled conditions. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to the required pull-out force (t test), the distribution of the data, or the interaction between degradation and location, as evaluated by Mann-Whitney test, and no significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to the degradation state or position in the condyles, as evaluated by 2-way analysis of variance. Our results indicate that the decrease in barb-barb diameter during the first month of degradation of the Meniscus Arrows has no significant effect on the tensile pull-out force required for removal from human femur condyle. Further research should be undertaken to examine whether the same is true for other biodegradable devices with barbs.

  3. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Sparks, Alton; Adkins, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are major threats to tomato production in the southeastern United States. TYLCV was introduced to Florida from the Caribbean islands and has spread to other southern states of the United States. In Georgia, in recent years, the incidence of TYLCV has been steadily increasing. Studies were conducted to monitor population dynamics of whiteflies in the vegetable production belt of Georgia, to evaluate TYLCV-resistant genotypes against whiteflies and TYLCV, and to assess the potential role of resistant genotypes in TYLCV epidemiology. Monitoring studies indicated that the peak incidence of whiteflies varied seasonally from year to year. In general, whitefly populations were not uniformly distributed. Tomato genotypes exhibited minor differences in their ability to support whitefly populations. TYLCV symptoms were visually undetectable in all but one resistant genotype. The infection rates (visually) in susceptible genotypes ranged from 40 to 87%. Greenhouse inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that up to 100% of plants of resistant genotypes were infected, although predominantly symptomless. TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies from TYLCV-infected genotypes was tested by PCR; TYLCV acquisition rates from resistant genotypes were less than from susceptible genotypes. Nevertheless, this difference did not influence TYLCV transmission rates from resistant to susceptible genotypes. Results emphasize that resistant genotypes can serve as TYLCV and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence TYLCV epidemics.

  4. Recruitment of the host plant heat shock protein 70 by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein is required for virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovits, Rena; Moshe, Adi; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories.

  5. Functional characterization of coat protein and V2 involved in cell to cell movement of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Dabawali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C G Poornima Priyadarshini

    Full Text Available The functional attributes of coat protein (CP and V2 of the monopartite begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus- Dabawali were analyzed in vitro and in vivo by their overexpression in E. coli, insect cells and transient expression in the plant system. Purified recombinant V2 and CP proteins were shown to interact with each other using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. Confocal microscopy of Sf21 cells expressing V2 and CP proteins revealed that V2 localized to the cell periphery and CP to the nucleus. Deletion of the N terminal nuclear localization signal of CP restricted its distribution to the cytoplasm. GFP-V2 and YFP-CP transiently expressed in N. benthamiana plants by agroinfiltration substantiated the localization of V2 to the cell periphery and CP predominantly to the nucleus. Interestingly, upon coinfiltration, CP was found both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm along with V2. These results suggest that the interaction of V2 and CP may have important implications in the cell to cell movement.

  6. Field evaluation of yield effects on the U.S.A. heirloom sweet potato cultivars infected by sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a Begomovirus, infection of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) in South Carolina, USA has increased rapidly in recent years. This is likely due to the use of infected propagating materials and the increasing population of it...

  7. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  8. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  9. Is the pull-out force of the Meniscus Arrow in bone affected by the inward curling of the barbs during biodegradation? An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Diederick B.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; de Hosson, Jeff T. M.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.

    Background: Inward curling of the barbs of Meniscus Arrows during degradation was observed in a previous study, in which swelling, distention, and water uptake by Meniscus Arrows was evaluated. This change of configuration could have consequences with respect to anchorage capacity in bone.

  10. Transcriptome profiling to discover defense-related genes associated with resistance line ty-5 against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a whitefly-transmitted begomovirus, has caused serious economic losses to tomato crops in the U.S. and around the world. The most effective management would be the use of a TYLCV-resistant tomato cultivar. Several sources of TYLCV resistance genes have been ide...

  11. Healing the Wounds of War and More: An Integrative Approach to Peace--The Work of Adam Curle and Others with Mir i dobro in Zupanja, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchels, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Examines practical implications of Curle's approach to psychological aspects of conflict and peacemaking as evidenced in the Mir i dobro project in Zupanja, taking into consideration some of the current debates concerning treatment of psychological trauma, including validity of the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and use of so-called…

  12. The Effect of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Virus Infection Status on off-host Survival of the Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosula, E N; McMechan, A J; Hein, G L

    2015-08-01

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, is an eriophyid pest of wheat, although its primary economic impact on wheat is due to the transmission of Wheat streak mosaic (WSMV), Wheat mosaic (also known as High Plains virus), and Triticum mosaic (TriMV) viruses. These viruses cause significant annual losses in winter wheat production throughout the western Great Plains. Temperature and humidity are factors that often influence arthropod survival, especially during dispersal from their hosts, yet the impact of these two factors on off-host survival has not been documented for wheat curl mite. Pathogen-infected host plants often influence the biology and behavior of vectors, yet it is not known if virus-infected wheat affects off-host survival of wheat curl mite. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine if temperature, relative humidity, and mite genotype impact off-host survival of wheat curl mite and 2) determine the effect of WSMV- and TriMV-infected host plants on off-host survival of wheat curl mite. Temperature and relative humidity significantly affected off-host survival of wheat curl mite. Length of survival decreased with increasing temperature (106.2 h at 10°C and 17.0 h at 30°C) and decreasing relative humidity (78.1 h at 95 and 21.3 h at 2%). Mites from TriMV-infected host plants had ∼20% reduction in survival at 20°C compared with those from WSMV-infected plants. The duration of off-host survival of wheat curl mite is influenced by environmental conditions. Management strategies that target a break in host presence will greatly reduce mite densities and virus spread and need to account for these limits. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Dual-Band Operation of a Circularly Polarized Four-Arm Curl Antenna with Asymmetric Arm Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Xuat Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dual-band operation of a single-feed composite cavity-backed four-arm curl antenna. Dual-band operation is achieved with the presence of the asymmetrical arm structure. A pair of vacant-quarter printed rings is used in the feed structure to produce a good circular polarization (CP at both bands. The cavity-backed reflector is employed to improve the CP radiation characteristics in terms of the 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth and broadside gain. The proposed antenna is widely applicable in dual-band communication systems that have a small frequency ratio. Examples of such a system are global positioning systems.

  14. From monsoon to marine productivity in the Arabian Sea: insights from glacial and interglacial climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mézo, Priscilla; Beaufort, Luc; Bopp, Laurent; Braconnot, Pascale; Kageyama, Masa

    2017-07-01

    The current-climate Indian monsoon is known to boost biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. This paradigm has been extensively used to reconstruct past monsoon variability from palaeo-proxies indicative of changes in surface productivity. Here, we test this paradigm by simulating changes in marine primary productivity for eight contrasted climates from the last glacial-interglacial cycle. We show that there is no straightforward correlation between boreal summer productivity of the Arabian Sea and summer monsoon strength across the different simulated climates. Locally, productivity is fuelled by nutrient supply driven by Ekman dynamics. Upward transport of nutrients is modulated by a combination of alongshore wind stress intensity, which drives coastal upwelling, and by a positive wind stress curl to the west of the jet axis resulting in upward Ekman pumping. To the east of the jet axis there is however a strong downward Ekman pumping due to a negative wind stress curl. Consequently, changes in coastal alongshore stress and/or curl depend on both the jet intensity and position. The jet position is constrained by the Indian summer monsoon pattern, which in turn is influenced by the astronomical parameters and the ice sheet cover. The astronomical parameters are indeed shown to impact wind stress intensity in the Arabian Sea through large-scale changes in the meridional gradient of upper-tropospheric temperature. However, both the astronomical parameters and the ice sheets affect the pattern of wind stress curl through the position of the sea level depression barycentre over the monsoon region (20-150° W, 30° S-60° N). The combined changes in monsoon intensity and pattern lead to some higher glacial productivity during the summer season, in agreement with some palaeo-productivity reconstructions.

  15. The single-leg Roman chair hold is more effective than the Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance in Gaelic footballers with previous hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ben; O'Neill, John; Pollock, Noel; Van Hooren, Bas

    2018-03-06

    Poor hamstring strength-endurance is a risk factor for hamstring injuries. This study investigated the effectiveness of the single-leg Roman hold and Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance. Twelve Gaelic footballers (mean ± standard deviation age, height and mass were 25.17 ± 3.46 years, 179.25 ± 5.88 cm, 85.75 ± 4.75 kilo) with a history of hamstring injury were randomized into 2 groups that performed 6 weeks of either Nordic hamstring curl, or single-leg Roman chair hold training. The single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was measured pre- and post- intervention. The Roman chair group showed a very likely moderate magnitude improvement on SLHB performance for both legs (23.7% for the previously injured leg [90% confidence interval 9.6% to 39.6%] and 16.9% for the non-injured leg [6.2% to 28.8%]). The Nordic curl group showed a likely trivial change in SLHB performance for the non-injured leg (-2.1% [-6.7% to 2.6%]) and an unclear, but possibly trivial change for the previously injured leg (0.3% [-5.6% to 6.6%]). The Roman chair group improved very likely more with a moderate magnitude in both the non-injured (19.5% [8.0% to 32.2%]) and the previously injured leg (23.3% [8.5% to 40.0%]) compared to the Nordic curl group. This study demonstrated that 6-weeks single-leg Roman chair training substantially improved SLHB performance, suggesting that it may be an efficacious strategy to mitigate hamstring (re-) injury risk. Conversely, 6-weeks Nordic curl training did not substantially improve SLHB performance, suggesting this may not be the intervention of choice for modifying this risk factor.

  16. Engineering cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease using viral truncated AC1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jamil A; Zafar, Yusuf; Arshad, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Asad, Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Several important biological processes are performed by distinct functional domains found on replication-associated protein (Rep) encoded by AC1 of geminiviruses. Two truncated forms of replicase (tAC1) gene, capable of expressing only the N-terminal 669 bp (5'AC1) and C-terminal 783 bp (3'AC1) nucleotides cloned under transcriptional control of the CaMV35S were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using LBA4404 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to make use of an interference strategy for impairing cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) infection in transgenic cotton. Compared with nontransformed control, we observed that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing either N-terminal (5'AC1) or C-terminal (3'AC1) sequences confer resistance to CLCuV by inhibiting replication of viral genomic and β satellite DNA components. Molecular analysis by Northern blot hybridization revealed high transgene expression in early and late growth stages associated with inhibition of CLCuV replication. Of the eight T(1) transgenic lines tested, six had delayed and minor symptoms as compared to nontransformed control lines which developed disease symptoms after 2-3 weeks of whitefly-mediated viral delivery. Virus biological assay and growth of T(2) plants proved that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing 5'- and 3'AC1 displayed high resistance level up to 72, 81%, respectively, as compared to non-transformed control plants following inoculation with viruliferous whiteflies giving significantly high cotton seed yield. Progeny analysis of these plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting and virus biological assay showed stable transgene, integration, inheritance and cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) resistance in two of the eight transgenic lines having single or two transgene insertions. Transgenic cotton expressing partial AC1 gene of CLCuV can be used as virus resistance source in cotton breeding programs aiming to improve virus resistance in cotton crop.

  17. Landscape, kinetics, paths and statistics of curl flux, coherence, entanglement and energy transfer in non-equilibrium quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We develop a population and flux landscape theory for general non-equilibrium quantum systems. We illustrate our theory by modelling the quantum transport of donor-acceptor energy transfer. We find two driving forces for the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. The symmetric part of the driving force corresponds to the population landscape contribution which mainly governs the equilibrium part of dynamics while the anti-symmetric part of the driving force generates the non-equilibrium curl quantum flux which leads to the detailed-balance-breaking and time-irreversibility. The multi-loop structure of the flux emerges forms the flux-landscape. We study the trend of changes in population and flux-landscape with respect to the voltage (temperature difference induced by environments) and electronic coupling. Improving the voltage and electronic coupling in general facilitates the quantum transport by reducing the population landscape barriers between major states and increasing the mean value of the flux. A limit-cycle mode emerges when the underlying flux-landscape becomes funnelled with a significant gap between the largest flux loop and the rest of them. On the kinetic level, we find that multiple kinetic paths between quantum states emerge and illustrate the interference effects. The degree of interference is determined by the landscape and flux. Furthermore, we quantify kinetic rate which strongly correlates with the population landscape and flux. For quantum transport, we demonstrate that as the coherence or the quantum entanglement is enhanced, the flux and energy transfer efficiency are increased. Finally it is surprising that the non-equilibriumness quantified by voltage has a non-trivial contribution on strengthening the entanglement, which is attributed to the non-local feature of the quantum curl flux. (paper)

  18. In situ hybridization and promoter analysis reveal that cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite localizes in the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, O; Rasheed, M S; Randles, J W

    Begomoviruses (the family Geminiviridae) have either a monopartite or a bipartite (DNA A and DNA B) single-stranded DNA genome. DNA B contains the open reading frame for movement protein and enables some bipartite begomoviruses to invade non-phloem tissues, whereas monopartite begomoviruses are limited to the phloem. Betasatellite DNA replicates in association with some monopartite begomoviruses to produce severe symptoms and enhance replication of helper virus in some hosts. The cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) has been shown to substitute for the DNA B of a bipartite begomovirus by permitting systemic infection, but the tissue tropism and the role of betasatellites in releasing monopartite begomoviruses from the phloem to adjacent tissue has not been described. In this study, the tissue tropism of CLCuMuB and a monopartite helper virus, tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), has been investigated using in situ hybridization, promoter localization and analysis of transgenic 2β plants, which contain a dimer of the CLCuMuB genome. In situ hybridization showed that CLCuMuB and ToLCV were localized into the vascular tissue of infected plants. In addition, CLCuMuB was detected only in the vascular tissue of 2β transgenic plants after infection with ToLCV. β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression under the βC1 promoter was also limited to the phloem tissues. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that CLCuMuB localizes only in the phloem tissues and unlike the DNA B component, CLCuMuB is unable to release the monopartite helper virus out of phloem tissues.

  19. Global analysis of the transcriptional response of whitefly to tomato yellow leaf curl China virus reveals the relationship of coevolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Li, Jun-Min; Varela, Nélia; Wang, Yong-Liang; Li, Fang-Fang; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-04-01

    The begomoviruses are the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative, persistent manner. The circulation of the viruses within the insect vectors involves complex interactions between virus and vector components; however, the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the transcriptional response of the invasive B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species to Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) using Illumina sequencing technology. Results showed that 1,606 genes involved in 157 biochemical pathways were differentially expressed in the viruliferous whiteflies. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that TYLCCNV can perturb the cell cycle and primary metabolism in the whitefly, which explains the negative effect of this virus on the longevity and fecundity of B. tabaci. Our data also demonstrated that TYLCCNV can activate whitefly immune responses, such as autophagy and antimicrobial peptide production, which might lead to a gradual decrease of viral particles within the body of the viruliferous whitefly. Furthermore, PCR results showed that TYLCCNV can invade the ovary and fat body tissues of the whitefly, and Lysotracker and Western blot analyses revealed that the invasion of TYLCCNV induced autophagy in both the ovary and fat body tissues. Surprisingly, TYLCCNV also suppressed the whitefly immune responses by downregulating the expression of genes involved in Toll-like signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, these results reveal the relationship of coevolved adaptations between begomoviruses and whiteflies and will provide a road map for future investigations into the complex interactions between plant viruses and their insect vectors.

  20. The C2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus acts as a pathogenicity determinant and a 16-amino acid domain is responsible for inducing a hypersensitive response in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-04-02

    The role of the C2 protein in the pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) was investigated. Here we report that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of TYLCSV C2 resulted in a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, with induction of plant cell death and production of H2O2. Since HR is not evident in plants infected by TYLCSV, it is expected that TYLCSV encodes a gene (or genes) that counters this response. HR was partially counteracted by co-agroinfiltration of TYLCSV V2 and Rep, leading to chlorotic reaction, with no HR development. Considering that the corresponding C2 protein of the closely related tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) did not induce HR, alignment of the C2 proteins of TYLCSV and TYLCV were carried out and a hypervariable region of 16 amino acids was identified. Its role in the induction of HR was demonstrated using TYLCSV-TYLCV C2 chimeric genes, encoding two TYLCSV C2 variants with a complete (16 aa) or a partial (10 aa only) swap of the corresponding sequence of TYLCV C2. Furthermore, using NahG transgenic N. benthamiana lines compromised in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), a key regulator of HR, only a chlorotic response occurred in TYLCSV C2-infiltrated tissue, indicating that SA participates in such plant defense process. These findings demonstrate that TYLCSV C2 acts as a pathogenicity determinant and induces host defense responses controlled by the SA pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of Cyantraniliprole for Managing Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Interfering with Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus on Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Rafael; Schuster, David J; Peres, Natalia A; Mangandi, Jozer; Hasing, Tomas; Trexler, Fred; Kalb, Steve; Portillo, Héctor E; Marçon, Paula C; Annan, I B

    2015-06-01

    Cyantraniliprole is the second xylem-systemic active ingredient in the new anthranilic diamide class. Greenhouse (2006), growth chamber (2007), and field studies (2009-2010) were conducted to determine the efficacy of cyantraniliprole for managing Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and in interfering with transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by this whitefly. Cyantraniliprole applied as soil treatments (200 SC) or foliar sprays (100 OD) provided excellent adult whitefly control, TYLCV suppression, and reduced oviposition and nymph survival, comparable to current standards. The positive results observed in these greenhouse experiments with a high level of insect pressure (10× the field threshold of one adult per plant) and disease pressure (five adults per plant, with a high level of confidence that TYLCV virulent adults were used), indicate a great potential for cyantraniliprole to be used in a whitefly management program. Field evaluations of soil drench treatments confirmed the suppression of TYLCV transmission demonstrated in the greenhouse studies. Field studies in 2009 and 2010 showed that cyantraniliprole (200 SC) provided TYLCV suppression for 2 wk after a drench application, when using a susceptible (2009) or imidacloprid-tolerant (2010) whitefly population. Cyantraniliprole was demonstrated to be a promising tool for management of TYLCV in tomato production, which is very difficult and expensive, and which has limited options. The integration of cyantraniliprole into a resistance management program will help to ensure the continued sustainability of this and current insecticides used for the management of insect vectors, including whiteflies and the TYLCV they spreads. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Dombrovsky

    Full Text Available We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV. PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV (both poleroviruses. The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs, which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93% and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%. Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP, may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2 were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5 and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3 with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s, resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  3. Eugenol confers resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating the expression of SlPer1 in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Lv, Wen-Jing; Li, Li-Na; Yin, Gan; Hang, Xiaofang; Xue, Yanfeng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-05-25

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most devastating plant diseases, and poses a significant agricultural concern because of the lack of an efficient control method. Eugenol is a plant-derived natural compound that has been widely used as a food additive and in medicine. In the present study, we demonstrated the potential of eugenol to enhance the resistance of tomato plants to TYLCV. The anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol was significantly higher than that of moroxydine hydrochloride (MH), a widely used commercial antiviral agent. Eugenol application stimulated the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) in tomato plants. The full-length cDNA of SlPer1, which has been suggested to be a host R gene specific to TYLCV, was isolated from tomato plants. A sequence analysis suggested that SlPer1 might be a nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) belonging to the permease family. The transcript levels of SlPer1 increased markedly in response to treatment with eugenol or TYLCV inoculation. The results of this study also showed that SlPer1 expression was strongly induced by SA, MeJA (jasmonic acid methyl ester), and NO. Thus, we propose that the increased transcription of SlPer1 contributed to the high anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol, which might involve in the generation of endogenous SA and NO. Such findings provide the basis for the development of eugenol as an environmental-friendly agricultural antiviral agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mehboob-ur-; Khan, Ali Q.; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternat...

  5. DISPOSICIÓN SAGITAL DEL RAQUIS LUMBAR Y TORÁCICO EN EL EJERCICIO DE CURL DE BÍCEPS CON BARRA DE BIPEDESTACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel López Miñarro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La disposición sagital del raquis torácico y lumbar fue valorada mediante un inclinómetro Unilevel (ISOMED en 40 usuarios de salas de musculación privadas (media de edad: 24,6 ± 5,6 años en bipedestación habitual y al realizar el ejercicio del curl de bíceps con barra. En este ejercicio, la lordosis lumbar fue valorada al final de la fase concéntrica de la 6ª repetición, mientras que la cifosis torácica fue valorada al final de la fase excéntrica de la 8ª repetición, en la primera y segunda series. Los valores medios de cifosis dorsal en bipedestación y en el curl de bíceps con barra fueron de 46,00º ± 9,50º y 48,25º ± 9,80º, respectivamente (p>0,05. Respecto a la lordosis lumbar, los valores medios fueron de 30,52º ± 7,93º y 37,52º ± 9,32º, respectivamente (p<0,001. Al clasificar los valores angulares en base a las referencias de normalidad, se observa un mayor porcentaje de posturas hiperlordóticas al realizar el curl de bíceps (45% respecto a la bipedestación habitual (10%. En conclusión, al realizar el ejercicio del curl de bíceps con barra se observa un mayor ángulo de lordosis lumbar, que aumenta la frecuencia de posturas hiperlordóticas al final de la fase concéntrica del ejercicio. Es preciso enseñar a los usuarios a mantener una disposición alineada del raquis lumbar y torácico cuando realicen el ejercicio.

  6. Flupyradifurone effectively manages whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Grispou, Maria; Achimastou, Aikaterini; Van Waetermeulen, Xavier; Nauen, Ralf; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2017-08-01

    The cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is among the most important pests of numerous crops and a vector of more than 100 plant viruses, causing significant crop losses worldwide. Managing this pest as well as inhibiting the transmission of major viruses such as tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are of utmost importance for sustainable yields. The efficacy against both whitefly and virus transmission of the novel systemic butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone was investigated in this study. The inhibition of TYLCV transmission by flupyradifurone was compared to that by thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid insecticide reported to inhibit virus transmission. The experiment was performed under high virus pressure conditions (10 viruliferous insects per plant for 48 h) using a fully characterized field strain of B. tabaci. The insecticides were foliarly applied at recommended label rates under greenhouse conditions. Flupyradifurone suppressed virus transmission by 85% while levels of suppression after thiamethoxam treatments were just 25% and significantly lower. In untreated control plots, 100% of plants were infected by TYLCV. The observed difference in the potential to suppress virus transmission is linked to a strong knockdown effect as well as prolonged feeding inhibition in flupyradifurone treatments. Flupyradifurone is shown to be an extremely useful, fast-acting, new chemical tool in integrated crop management offering simultaneous control of whiteflies and strong suppression of viral infections via its rapid knockdown action and good residual activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparison of transmission of Papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Guo, Qi; Cui, Xi-Yun; Liu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs. PMID:26486606

  8. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on chayote (Sechium edule) in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Mohankumar, S; Mohammed Faisal, P; Bagewadi, B; Karthikeyan, G

    2017-12-01

    During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as ToLCNDV from Pakistan infecting tomato. Thus the present finding confirms expansion of new geographical region and host for ToLCNDV causing mosaic disease on chayote from Tamil Nadu. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report for the occurrence of ToLCNDV on chayote in southern India.

  9. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul A Khan

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV, belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells.

  10. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aleem Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional gene promoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant.

  11. MicroRNA profiling of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Aisa Minor I following the acquisition of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bi; Wang, Lanlan; Chen, Fangyuan; Yang, Xiuling; Ding, Ming; Zhang, Zhongkai; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-02-02

    The begomoviruses are the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses exclusively vectored by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a circulative, persistent manner. During this process, begomoviruses and whitefly vectors have developed close relationships and complex interactions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain largely unknown, and the microRNA profiles for viruliferous and nonviruliferous whiteflies have not been studied. Sequences of Argonaute 1(Ago1) and Dicer 1 (Dcr1) genes were cloned from B. tabaci MEAM1 cDNAs. Subsequently, deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from uninfected and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV)-infected whiteflies was performed. The conserved and novel miRNAs were identified using the release of miRBase Version 19.0 and the prediction software miRDeep2, respectively. The sequencing results of selected deregulated and novel miRNAs were further confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the previously published B. tabaci MEAM1 transcriptome database and the miRNA target prediction algorithm miRanda 3.1 were utilized to predict potential targets for miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was also used to classify the potential enriched functional groups of their putative targets. Ago1 and Dcr1orthologs with conserved domains were identified from B. tabaci MEAM1. BLASTn searches and sequence analysis identified 112 and 136 conserved miRNAs from nonviruliferous and viruliferous whitefly libraries respectively, and a comparison of the conserved miRNAs of viruliferous and nonviruliferous whiteflies revealed 15 up- and 9 down-regulated conserved miRNAs. 7 novel miRNA candidates with secondary pre-miRNA hairpin structures were also identified. Potential targets of conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted using GO analysis, for the targets of up- and down-regulated miRNAs, eight and nine GO terms were significantly enriched. We identified Ago1 and Dcr1 orthologs

  12. Time Course and Association of Functional and Biochemical Markers in Severe Semitendinosus Damage Following Intensive Eccentric Leg Curls: Differences between and within Subjects

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    Gerard Carmona

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the extent and evolution of hamstring muscle damage caused by an intensive bout of eccentric leg curls (ELCs by (1 assessing the time course and association of different indirect markers of muscle damage such as changes in the force-generating capacity (FGC, functional magnetic resonance (fMRI, and serum muscle enzyme levels and (2 analyzing differences in the degree of hamstring muscle damage between and within subjects (limb-to-limb comparison.Methods: Thirteen male participants performed six sets of 10 repetitions of an ELC with each leg. Before and at regular intervals over 7 days after the exercise, FGC was measured with maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC. Serum enzyme levels, fMRI transverse relaxation time (T2 and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed and compared against the FGC.Results: Two groups of subjects were identified according to the extent of hamstring muscle damage based on decreased FGC and increased serum enzyme levels: high responders (n = 10, severe muscle damage and moderate responders (n = 3, moderate muscle damage. In the high responders, fMRI T2 analysis revealed that the semitendinosus (ST muscle suffered severe damage in the three regions measured (proximal, middle, and distal. The biceps femoris short head (BFsh muscle was also damaged and there were significant differences in the FGC within subjects in the high responders.Conclusion: FGC and serum enzyme levels measured in 10 of the subjects from the sample were consistent with severe muscle damage. However, the results showed a wide range of peak MVC reductions, reflecting different degrees of damage between subjects (high and moderate responders. fMRI analysis confirmed that the ST was the hamstring muscle most damaged by ELCs, with uniform T2 changes across all the measured sections of this muscle. During intensive ELCs, the ST muscle could suffer an anomalous recruitment pattern due to fatigue and damage, placing an

  13. Time Course and Association of Functional and Biochemical Markers in Severe Semitendinosus Damage Following Intensive Eccentric Leg Curls: Differences between and within Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Gerard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Alomar, Xavier; Padullés, Josep M.; Serrano, David; Nescolarde, Lexa; Rodas, Gil; Cussó, Roser; Balius, Ramón; Cadefau, Joan A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the extent and evolution of hamstring muscle damage caused by an intensive bout of eccentric leg curls (ELCs) by (1) assessing the time course and association of different indirect markers of muscle damage such as changes in the force-generating capacity (FGC), functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), and serum muscle enzyme levels and (2) analyzing differences in the degree of hamstring muscle damage between and within subjects (limb-to-limb comparison). Methods: Thirteen male participants performed six sets of 10 repetitions of an ELC with each leg. Before and at regular intervals over 7 days after the exercise, FGC was measured with maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC). Serum enzyme levels, fMRI transverse relaxation time (T2) and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed and compared against the FGC. Results: Two groups of subjects were identified according to the extent of hamstring muscle damage based on decreased FGC and increased serum enzyme levels: high responders (n = 10, severe muscle damage) and moderate responders (n = 3, moderate muscle damage). In the high responders, fMRI T2 analysis revealed that the semitendinosus (ST) muscle suffered severe damage in the three regions measured (proximal, middle, and distal). The biceps femoris short head (BFsh) muscle was also damaged and there were significant differences in the FGC within subjects in the high responders. Conclusion: FGC and serum enzyme levels measured in 10 of the subjects from the sample were consistent with severe muscle damage. However, the results showed a wide range of peak MVC reductions, reflecting different degrees of damage between subjects (high and moderate responders). fMRI analysis confirmed that the ST was the hamstring muscle most damaged by ELCs, with uniform T2 changes across all the measured sections of this muscle. During intensive ELCs, the ST muscle could suffer an anomalous recruitment pattern due to fatigue and damage, placing an

  14. Pre-infestation of Tomato Plants by Aphids Modulates Transmission-Acquisition Relationship among Whiteflies, Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV and Plants

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    Xiao L. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivory defense systems in plants are largely regulated by jasmonate-(JA and salicylate-(SA signaling pathways. Such defense mechanisms may impact insect feeding dynamic, may also affect the transmission-acquisition relationship among virus, plants and vectoring insects. In the context of the tomato – whitefly – Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV biological model, we tested the impact of pre-infesting plants with a non-vector insect (aphid Myzus persicae on feeding dynamics of a vector insect (whitefly Bemisia tabaci as well as virus transmission-acquisition. We showed that an aphid herbivory period of 0–48 h led to a transient systemic increase of virus concentration in the host plant (root, stem, and leaf, with the same pattern observed in whiteflies feeding on aphid-infested plants. We used real-time quantitative PCR to study the expression of key genes of the SA- and JA-signaling pathways, as well as electrical penetration graph (EPG to characterize the impact of aphid pre-infestation on whitefly feeding during TYLCV transmission (whitefly to tomato and acquisition (tomato to whitefly. The impact of the duration of aphid pre-infestation (0, 24, or 48 h on phloem feeding by whitefly (E2 during the transmission phase was similar to that of global whitefly feeding behavior (E1, E2 and probing duration during the acquisition phase. In addition, we observed that a longer phase of aphid pre-infestation prior to virus transmission by whitefly led to the up-regulation and down-regulation of SA- and JA-signaling pathway genes, respectively. These results demonstrated a significant impact of aphid pre-infestation on the tomato – whitefly – TYLCV system. Transmission and acquisition of TYLCV was positively correlated with feeding activity of B. tabaci, and both were mediated by the SA- and JA-pathways. TYLCV concentration during the transmission phases was modulated by up- and down-regulation of SA- and JA-pathways, respectively. The two

  15. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Hayat, K.; Ashraf, F.; Sadiq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  16. Genetic identity of the Bemisia tabaci species complex and association with high cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) incidence in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Z; De Barro, Paul J; Greeff, Jaco M; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Naveed, Muhammad; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2011-03-01

    The cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cryptic species complex, and members of the complex have become serious pests in Pakistan because of their feeding and their ability to transmit cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). Here, an analysis was made of the identity of B. tabaci collected from cotton and a range of non-cotton hosts in the cotton-growing zones in Punjab and Sindh, the main cotton-producing provinces of Pakistan, using a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. The geographic distribution of the different members of the complex was then compared with the incidence of CLCuD. Using the Dinsdale nomenclature, the results revealed three putative species, Asia 1, Asia II 1 and Middle East-Asia Minor 1. Asia II 1 (also referred to in the literature as biotypes K, P, PCG-1, PK1, SY and ZHJ2) was only recorded from Punjab cotton plants, whereas Asia 1 (also referred to in the literature as biotypes H, M, NA and PCG-2) was found in both Sindh and Punjab. Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B and B2) was found only in Sindh. Moreover, Asia II 1 was associated with high incidences of CLCuD, whereas regions where Middle East-Asia Minor 1 was present had a lower incidence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 population in Sindh formed a distinct genetic subgroup within the putative species, suggesting that the Sindh province of Pakistan may form part of its home range. So far, no individuals from the putative species Mediterranean (commonly known as biotypes Q, J and L) have been found in Pakistan. The capacity to manage pests and disease effectively relies on knowledge of the identity of the agents causing the damage. In the case of CLCuD in Pakistan, this knowledge has been obscured to some extent because of the inconsistent approach to identifying and distinguishing the different B. tabaci associated with CLCuD. The situation has now been clarified, and a strong association between disease

  17. Aphid transmission of Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus, a member of a tentative new subgroup within the genus Torradovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Martin; Dullemans, Annette M; van der Vlugt, René A A

    2017-09-15

    Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus (LNLCV) was described as the first non-tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus. Until today, the virus was found only in The Netherlands in two different areas in open field crops of lettuce. In 2015, LNLCV was accepted by the ICTV as a new member of the genus Torradovirus. The tomato-infecting (TI) torradoviruses Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) are transmitted by at least three whitefly species in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner. As LNLCV was transmitted in open fields in The Netherlands, where whiteflies are present only in low incidence, transmission studies were set up to identify the natural vector of LNLCV. Whitefly species which survive Dutch open field conditions during summer, as well as lettuce colonizing aphid species, were tested for their ability to transmit LNLCV. Lengths of acquisition and inoculation periods were chosen in accordance with the conditions for TI torradoviruses. Transmission experiments involving whiteflies were never successful. Transmission with aphids was only successful in case of the lettuce-currant aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri. Localization of LNLCV virions in N. ribisnigri with a nested RT-PCR indicated the stylets as possible retention sites. The willow-carrot aphid Cavariella aegopodii did not transmit LNLCV in our transmission experiment but the virus could be detected in the stylets of this aphid, leaving C. aegopodii as a possible vector for LNLCV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Kettlebell swing targets semitendinosus and supine leg curl targets biceps femoris: an EMG study with rehabilitation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Skotte, Jørgen; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Peter; Petersen, Højland H; Viskaer, Tine C; Jensen, Tanja L; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-12-01

    The medial hamstring muscle has the potential to prevent excessive dynamic valgus and external rotation of the knee joint during sports. Thus, specific training targeting the medial hamstring muscle seems important to avoid knee injuries. The aim was to investigate the medial and lateral hamstring muscle activation balance during 14 selected therapeutic exercises. The study design involved single-occasion repeated measures in a randomised manner. Sixteen female elite handball and soccer players with a mean (SD) age of 23 (3) years and no previous history of knee injury participated in the present study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral (biceps femoris - BF) and medial (semitendinosus - ST) hamstring muscle was measured during selected strengthening and balance/coordination exercises, and normalised to EMG during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). A two-way analysis of variance was performed using the mixed procedure to determine whether differences existed in normalised EMG between exercises and muscles. Kettlebell swing and Romanian deadlift targeted specifically ST over BF (Δ17-22%, p<0.05) at very high levels of normalised EMG (73-115% of MVC). In contrast, the supine leg curl and hip extension specifically targeted the BF over the ST (Δ 20-23%, p<0.05) at very high levels of normalised EMG (75-87% of MVC). Specific therapeutic exercises targeting the hamstrings can be divided into ST dominant or BF dominant hamstring exercises. Due to distinct functions of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles, this is an important knowledge in respect to prophylactic training and physical therapist practice.

  19. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite DNA as a Tool to Deliver and Express the Human B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Gene in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Sara; Ataie Kachoie, Elham; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar

    2016-05-01

    The betasatellite DNA associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) contains a single complementary-sense ORF, βC1, which is a pathogenicity determinant. CLCuMB was able to replicate in plants in the presence of diverse helper geminiviruses, including Tomato leaf curl virus-Australia (TLCV-Au), Iranian isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]), and Beet curly top virus (BCTV-Svr), and can be used as a plant gene delivery vector. To test the hypothesis that CLCuMB has the potential to act as an animal gene delivery vector, a specific insertion construct was produced by the introduction of a human B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cDNA into a mutant DNA of CLCuMB in which the βC1 was deleted (β∆C1). The recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 construct was successfully replicated in tomato and tobacco plants in the presence of TLCV-Au, BCTV-Svr and TYLCV-[Ab]. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of plants containing the replicative forms of recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 DNA showed that Bcl-2 gene was expressed in an acceptable level in these plants, indicating that β∆C1 can be used as a tool to deliver and express animal genes in plants. This CLCuMB-based system, having its own promoter activity, offers the possibility of production of animal recombinant proteins in plants.

  20. Short communication. Deterioration of cotton fibre characteristics caused by cotton leaf curl disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Prieto, V. M.; Rascon-Chu, A.; Romo-Chacon, A.; Berlanga-Reyes, D. I.; Orozco-Avitia, J. A.; Gardea-Bejar, A. A.; Parra-Quezada, R.; Sanchez-Chavez, E.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the significant variation in the initial fruit set of apples among seasons and producing regions of Chihuahua, Mexico, it is important to determine the cause(s). Apple fruit yield is strongly determined by the initial fruit set, which is the result of a series of physiological events, such as pollination, pollen tube growth, ovule longevity and fertilisation. During one or two seasons, in the two main apple-producing regions in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, the effective pollination period (EPP) was evaluated in Golden Delicious, Red Chief Delicious and Golden Delicious Tardio, a regional mutant of Golden Delicious. Daily manual pollinations after the full pink stage were made with Snow Drift pollen to determine the EPP. The initial fruit set at 30 days after the last day of hand pollination was evaluated. A daily sampling of flowers was used to measure the pollen tube growth (average growth of 11.70 mm at 96 h) in the pistil and ovule viability in the ovary. The EPP lasted 6 days for RedChief Delicious, 4 days for Golden Delicious, and 10 days for Golden Delicious Tardo. The average ovule longevity of 63% seemed to be a limiting factor for Golden Delicious, leading to a reduced initial fruit set. Additional key words: fruit set, ovule longevity, pollen tube growth. (Author) 13 refs.

  1. 16 The Curl

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Charles G

    2014-01-01

    In §17–§20 we will study the mathematical basics behind the propagation of light waves, radio waves, microwaves, etc. All of these are, of course, examples of electromagnetic waves, that is, they are all the same (electromagnetic) phenomena just differing in their wavelength. The (non-quantum) description of all electromagnetic phenomena is provided by the Maxwell equations. These equations are normally presented as differential equations for the electric field E(r, t) and the magnetic field ...

  2. Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) coat protein genes in plants using cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite-based vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie Kachoie, Elham; Kharazmi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    It has already been demonstrated that a betasatellite associated with cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) can be used as a plant and animal gene delivery vector to plants. To examine the ability of CLCuMB as a tool to transfer coat protein genes of HIV-1 to plants, two recombinant CLCuMB constructs in which the CLCuMB βC1 ORF was replaced with two HIV-1 genes fractions including a 696 bp DNA fragment related to the HIV-1 p24 gene and a 1501 bp DNA fragment related to the HIV-1 gag gene were constructed. Gag is the HIV-1 coat protein gene and p24 is a component of the particle capsid. Gag and p24 are used for vaccine production. Recombinant constructs were inoculated to Nicotiana glutinosa and N. benthamiana plants in the presence of an Iranian isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]) as a helper virus. PCR analysis of inoculated plants indicated that p24 gene was successfully replicated in inoculated plants, but the gag gene was not. Real-time PCR and ELISA analysis of N. glutinosa and N. benthamiana plants containing the replicative forms of recombinant construct of CLCuMB/p24 indicated that p24 was expressed in these plants. This CLCuMB-based expression system offers the possibility of mass production of recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein in plants. PMID:29304063

  3. High genetic homogeneity points to a single introduction event responsible for invasion of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus and its associated betasatellite into China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenguo; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu; She, Xiaoman

    2015-10-07

    Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) is a Whitefly Transmitted Geminivirus (WTG) endemic to the India subcontinent and is notorious as a causal agent of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major constraint to cotton production in south Asia. We found CLCuMuV infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Guangzhou, China in 2006. The spread and evolution of the invading CLCuMuV were monitored in the following nine years. CLCuMuV spread rapidly in the last nine years and became established in Southern China. It infects at least five malvaceous plant species, H. rosa-sinensis, H. esculentus, Malvaiscus arboreus, Gossypium hirsutum and H. cannabinus. Complete nucleotide sequences of 34 geographically and/or temporally distinct CLCuMuV isolates were determined and analyzed together with six other publicly available genomes of CLCuMuV occurring in China. The 40 CLCuMuV isolates were found to share > 99 % nucleotide sequence identity with each other. In all cases tested, the CLCuMuVs were associated with a CLCuMuB. The 36 CLCuMuBs (30 sequenced by us) shared > 98 % nucleotide sequence identity. The high genetic homogeneity of CLCuMuV and CLCuMuB in China suggests the establishment of them from a single founder event.

  4. Dynamical structure of the sea off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ooi, See Hai

    2015-01-01

    The regional ocean modelling system (ROMS), at a resolution of 9 km, is used to investigate the dynamics of the sea off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM). The model is configured with two, one-way nested domains. Two simulations are performed in order to understand the dynamical structure of the sea off ECPM. The first simulation is a control run, using climatological monthly mean wind stress, surface freshwater flux, heat and observational oceanic inflow and outflow at open boundaries. The second simulation is an experiment aimed at presenting the seasonally averaged effect of isolated forcing in the absence of wind stress. This procedure allows understanding of the upwelling mechanism in the absence of wind stress forcing within the region. The model simulated the oceanographic features in the region reasonably well, in particular the circulation and temperature patterns conformed to those of Simple Ocean Data Assimilation and observations. Results show the possibility of upwelling in the summer monsoon along the sea off ECPM. This is due to the strong long-shore wind stress, which coincided with lower sea surface height and high baroclinic instability. The strong positive horizontal transport in accordance with the positive vertical transport within 104.5° E and 105.5° E, at latitude 3° N suggests net offshore transport and the occurrence of upwelling. Moreover, results demonstrate that summer upwelling rate at corresponding latitude induced by the long-shore wind stress is 3 × 10-5 m/s larger than the vertical velocity of 0.5 × 10-5 m/s induced by the wind stress curl. This reflects the importance of the long-shore wind stress for inducing the coastal upwelling. High concentrations of phytoplankton biomass through the proxy of chlorophyll- a concentration and the observed upward motion of denser water at the sea surface are due to the upwelled nutrient-rich water.

  5. Ocean Ekman Response to Wind Forcing in Frontal Regions and Implications for Vertical Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M. F.; Tozuka, T.

    2016-12-01

    Wind forcing is fundamental to the ocean circulation. According to the classic "Ekman" theory developed in the early twentieth century, wind-induced steady flow spirals to the right of the wind stress in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere, resulting in a net wind-forced "Ekman" transport that is 90 degrees to the right of the wind stress in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This theory, however, assumes that the near-surface ocean is uniform in density (i.e., has no fronts). In frontal regions the surface "geostrophic" currents have a vertical shear aligned with the density front and this oceanic "thermal wind" shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress. In this study we show that in frontal regions, the classic Ekman response is altered. Surface ocean currents respond to the effective wind stress—the portion of the wind stress that is out of balance with the ocean's surface geostrophic shear. Consequently, the vertical velocity at the base of the mixed layer is better approximated by the curl of the effective wind stress, rather than the full wind stress. Wind blowing along a front can give rise to a local minimum in the effective wind stress and result in a secondary circulation with downwelling on the cold side of the front and upwelling on the warm side. Using data from the high-resolution Japanese Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES), we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Furthermore, these frontal effects dominate the classic Ekman response in regions of both hemispheres where trade winds change to westerlies.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals networks of genes activated in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci when fed on tomato plants infected with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daniel K; Chen, Wenbo; Zheng, Yi; Kaur, Navneet; Wintermantel, William M; Simmons, Alvin M; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2018-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci can transmit hundreds of viruses to numerous agricultural crops in the world. Five genera of viruses, including Begomovirus and Crinivirus, are transmitted by B. tabaci. There is little knowledge about the genes involved in virus acquisition and transmission by whiteflies. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach, we evaluated the gene expression profiles of whiteflies (B. tabaci MEAM1) after feeding on tomato infected by a begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in comparison to a recent study, in which whiteflies were fed on tomato infected by the crinivirus, Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). The data revealed similar temporal trends in gene expression, but large differences in the number of whitefly genes when fed on TYLCV or ToCV-infected tomato. Transcription factors, cathepsins, receptors, and a hemocyanin gene, which is implicated in mediating antiviral immune responses in other insects and possibly virus transmission, were some of the genes identified. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  8. An insight into differentially regulated genes in resistant and susceptible genotypes of potato in response to tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-[potato] infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevalatha, Arjunan; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Kumar, Ashwani; Kaundal, Priyanka; Guleria, Anupama; Sharma, Sanjeev; Nagesh, Mandadi; Singh, Bir Pal

    2017-03-15

    Apical leaf curl disease, caused by tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-[potato] (ToLCNDV-[potato]) is one of the most important viral diseases of potato in India. Genetic resistance source for ToLCNDV in potato is not identified so far. However, the cultivar Kufri Bahar is known to show lowest seed degeneration even under high vector levels. Hence, microarray analysis was performed to identify differentially regulated genes during ToLCNDV-[potato] infection in a resistant (Kufri Bahar) and a susceptible cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj). Under artificial inoculation conditions, in Kufri Pukhraj, symptom expressions started at 15days after inoculation (DAI) and then progressed to severe symptoms, whereas no or only very mild symptoms were observed in Kufri Bahar up to 35 DAI. Correspondingly, qPCR assay indicated a high viral load in Kufri Pukhraj and a very low viral load in Kufri Bahar. Microarray analysis showed that a total of 1111 genes and 2588 genes were differentially regulated (|log2 (Fold Change)|>2) in Kufri Bahar and Kufri Pukhraj, respectively, following ToLCNDV-[potato] infection. Gene ontology and mapman analyses revealed that these altered transcripts were involved in various biological & metabolic processes. Several genes with unknown functions were 5 to 100 fold expressed after virus infection and further experiments are necessary to ascertain their role in disease resistance or susceptibility. This study gives an insight into differentially regulated genes in response to ToLCNDV-[potato] infection in resistant and susceptible cultivars and could serve as the basis for the development of new strategies for disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength.

  10. Effects of genetic changes to the begomovirus/betasatellite complex causing cotton leaf curl disease in South Asia post-resistance breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddon, Rob W; Akbar, Fazal; Iqbal, Zafar; Amrao, Luqman; Amin, Imran; Saeed, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-06-24

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a problem for cotton production across Pakistan and north-eastern India since the early 1990s. The appearance of the disease has been attributed to the introduction, and near monoculture of highly susceptible cotton varieties. During the intervening period the genetic make-up of the virus(es) causing the disease has changed dramatically. The most prominent of these changes has been in response to the introduction of CLCuD-resistant cotton varieties in the late 1990s, which provided a brief respite from the losses due to the disease. During the 1990s the disease was shown to be caused by multiple begomoviruses and a single, disease-specific betasatellite. Post-resistance breaking the complex encompassed only a single begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), and a recombinant version of the betasatellite. Surprisingly CLCuBuV lacks an intact transcriptional-activator protein (TrAP) gene. The TrAP gene is found in all begomoviruses and encodes a product of ∼134 amino acids that is important in virus-host interactions; being a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (host defence) and a transcription factor that modulates host gene expression, including microRNA genes. Recent studies have highlighted the differences between CLCuBuV and the earlier viruses that are part of on-going efforts to define the molecular basis for resistance breaking in cotton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Analyses of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 Protein-Interacting Host Proteins in Healthy and Infected Tomato Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namgyu Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, a member of the genus Begomovirus, is one of the most important viruses of cultivated tomatoes worldwide, mainly causing yellowing and curling of leaves with stunting in plants. TYLCV causes severe problems in sub-tropical and tropical countries, as well as in Korea. However, the mechanism of TYLCV infection remains unclear, although the function of each viral component has been identified. TYLCV C4 codes for a small protein involved in various cellular functions, including symptom determination, gene silencing, viral movement, and induction of the plant defense response. In this study, through yeast-two hybrid screenings, we identified TYLCV C4-interacting host proteins from both healthy and symptom-exhibiting tomato tissues, to determine the role of TYLCV C4 proteins in the infection processes. Comparative analyses of 28 proteins from healthy tissues and 36 from infected tissues showing interactions with TYLCV C4 indicated that TYLCV C4 mainly interacts with host proteins involved in translation, ubiquitination, and plant defense, and most interacting proteins differed between the two tissues but belong to similar molecular functional categories. Four proteins—two ribosomal proteins, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, and 14-3-3 family protein—were detected in both tissues. Furthermore, the identified proteins in symptom-exhibiting tissues showed greater involvement in plant defenses. Some are key regulators, such as receptor-like kinases and pathogenesis-related proteins, of plant defenses. Thus, TYLCV C4 may contribute to the suppression of host defense during TYLCV infection and be involved in ubiquitination for viral infection.

  12. Reconstruction of Local Sea Levels at South West Pacific Islands—A Multiple Linear Regression Approach (1988-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Melet, A.; Meyssignac, B.; Ganachaud, A.; Kessler, W. S.; Singh, A.; Aucan, J.

    2018-02-01

    Rising sea levels are a critical concern in small island nations. The problem is especially serious in the western south Pacific, where the total sea level rise over the last 60 years has been up to 3 times the global average. In this study, we aim at reconstructing sea levels at selected sites in the region (Suva, Lautoka—Fiji, and Nouméa—New Caledonia) as a multilinear regression (MLR) of atmospheric and oceanic variables. We focus on sea level variability at interannual-to-interdecadal time scales, and trend over the 1988-2014 period. Local sea levels are first expressed as a sum of steric and mass changes. Then a dynamical approach is used based on wind stress curl as a proxy for the thermosteric component, as wind stress curl anomalies can modulate the thermocline depth and resultant sea levels via Rossby wave propagation. Statistically significant predictors among wind stress curl, halosteric sea level, zonal/meridional wind stress components, and sea surface temperature are used to construct a MLR model simulating local sea levels. Although we are focusing on the local scale, the global mean sea level needs to be adjusted for. Our reconstructions provide insights on key drivers of sea level variability at the selected sites, showing that while local dynamics and the global signal modulate sea level to a given extent, most of the variance is driven by regional factors. On average, the MLR model is able to reproduce 82% of the variance in island sea level, and could be used to derive local sea level projections via downscaling of climate models.

  13. Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5ºE -115ºE and 12ºN -13.5ºN. Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.

  14. Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    1998-01-01

    ...) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 1982-1989 to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities...

  15. Discovering Host Genes Involved in the Infection by the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Complex and in the Establishment of Resistance to the Virus Using Tobacco Rattle Virus-based Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosnek, Henryk; Eybishtz, Assaf; Sade, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Bejarano, Eduardo; Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Lozano-Durán, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) complex are among the most important pathogens impairing production of agricultural crops worldwide. To understand how these geminiviruses subjugate plant defenses, and to devise counter-measures, it is essential to identify the host genes affected by infection and to determine their role in susceptible and resistant plants. We have used a reverse genetics approach based on Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS) to uncover genes involved in viral infection of susceptible plants, and to identify genes underlying virus resistance. To identify host genes with a role in geminivirus infection, we have engineered a Nicotiana benthamiana line, coined 2IRGFP, which over-expresses GFP upon virus infection. With this system, we have achieved an accurate description of the dynamics of virus replication in space and time. Upon silencing selected N. benthamiana genes previously shown to be related to host response to geminivirus infection, we have identified eighteen genes involved in a wide array of cellular processes. Plant genes involved in geminivirus resistance were studied by comparing two tomato lines: one resistant (R), the other susceptible (S) to the virus. Sixty-nine genes preferentially expressed in R tomatoes were identified by screening cDNA libraries from infected and uninfected R and S genotypes. Out of the 25 genes studied so far, the silencing of five led to the total collapse of resistance, suggesting their involvement in the resistance gene network. This review of our results indicates that TRV-VIGS is an exquisite reverse genetics tool that may provide new insights into the molecular

  16. Comparison of experimental and simulation results of 2D-draw-bend springback

    OpenAIRE

    T. Da Sisva Botelho; E. Bayraktar; G. Inglebert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of experimental, analytical and numerical studies of draw-bendspringback on the response of steel blank strips.Design/methodology/approach: Springback, the elastically-driven change of shape of a part after forming, hasbeen simulated with 2-D plane strain finite elements model (ABAQUS). Springback simulations compared withexperimental test results under some test conditions and also sidewall curls were further discussed in this paper.Findings: The resu...

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    away the water from the disturbance source. This is measured by the divergence of the wind stress. Subsequently, the rotational character of the wind will become more important. This is the curl of the wind stress. . . . " We may express the solution of (14) in terms of a Green's function when we consider an infinite domain. If.

  18. Interannual variability of South Equatorial Current bifurcation and western boundary currents along the Madagascar coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.

    2015-12-01

    The South Equatorial Current (SEC) in the southern Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar Currents (NEMC and SEMC, respectively). In observational and reanalysis data, interannual variations of the NEMC and SEMC transports are strongly correlated with those of the SEC transport, rather than those of the SEC bifurcation latitude (SBL). Their dynamical mechanisms are then examined based on the Time-Dependent Island Rule for the first time. It is shown that interannual anomalies of the SBL as well as the NEMC and SEMC transports are predominantly a response to the anomalous inflow from the ocean interior that is determined by the meridional interior transport. This, in turn, is a result of westward propagating Rossby waves induced by wind stress curl anomalies mainly in 60°E-90°E. The above mechanism is contrasted with that of the seasonal variation, where the local transport driven by wind stress around the island plays a role. Furthermore, the interannual variations of the SBL and the NEMC and SEMC transports are significantly correlated with the Niño 3.4 index with 5-15 months lag. It is suggested that diabatic heating anomalies associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) along with a local process in the southeastern Indian Ocean may generate wind stress curl anomalies over the southern Indian Ocean.

  19. Introgression of genes for cotton leaf curl virus resistance and increased fiber strength from Gossypium stocksii into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, W; Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Tipu, A L; Mahmood, A; Zhou, B

    2014-02-21

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease is a major hurdle for successful cotton production in Pakistan. There has been considerable economic loss due to this disease during the last decade. It would be desirable to have cotton varieties resistant to this disease. We explored the possibility of transferring virus resistant genes from the wild species Gossypium stocksii into MNH-786, a cultivar of G. hirsutum. Hybridization was done under field condition at the Cotton Research Station, Multan, during 2010-11. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones. F1 seeds were treated with 0.03% colchicine solution for 6 h and germinated. Cytological observations at peak squaring/flowering stage showed that these plants were hexaploid, having 2n = 6x = 78 chromosomes. The F1 plants showed intermediate expression for leaf size, leaf area, petiole length, bracteole number and size, bracteole area, bracteole dentation, flower size, pedicel size, and petal number and size. Moreover it possessed high fiber strength of 54.4 g/tex, which is 54% greater than that of the check variety, i.e. MNH-786 (G. hirsutum). The F1 population did not show any symptom of CLCuVD in the field, tested by grafting with CLCuVD susceptible rootstock (var. S12). We conclude that it is possible to transfer CLCuVD resistance and high fiber strength from G. stocksii to G. hirsutum.

  20. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus transport across the midgut barrier of its whitefly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Chen, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Juan-Juan; Guo, Tao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Hariton-Shalev, Aliza; Czosnek, Henryk; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulative translocation of the virus in the insect is known in its broad line. However, transit of TYLCV from the digestive tract into the haemolymph is poorly understood. We studied the involvement of clathrin in this process by disrupting the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the endosome network using inhibitor feeding, antibody blocking and dsRNA silencing. We monitored the quantities of TYLCV in the whitefly and virus transmission efficiency. Following endocytosis and endosome network disruption, the quantity of virus was higher in the midgut relative to that of the whole insect body, and the quantity of virus in the haemolymph was reduced. The transmission efficiency of TYLCV by the treated insects was also reduced. These findings indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and endosomes play an important role in the transport of TYLCV across the whitefly midgut. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  2. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mehboob-Ur-; Khan, Ali Q; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A; Zafar, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci , which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease-thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  3. Molecular characterization and prevalence of two capulaviruses: Alfalfa leaf curl virus from France and Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Muhire, Brejnev; François, Sarah; Deshoux, Maëlle; Hartnady, Penelope; Farkas, Kata; Kraberger, Simona; Filloux, Denis; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Galzi, Serge; Ferdinand, Romain; Granier, Martine; Marais, Armelle; Monge Blasco, Pablo; Candresse, Thierry; Escriu, Fernando; Varsani, Arvind; Harkins, Gordon W; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, diversity, evolutionary processes, genomic structures and population dynamics of viruses in the divergent geminivirus lineage known as the capulaviruses. We determined and analyzed full genome sequences of 13 Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus (EcmLV) and 26 Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV) isolates, and partial genome sequences of 23 EcmLV and 37 ALCV isolates. While EcmLV was asymptomatic in uncultivated southern African Euphorbia caput-medusae, severe alfalfa disease symptoms were associated with ALCV in southern France. The prevalence of both viruses exceeded 10% in their respective hosts. Besides using patterns of detectable negative selection to identify ORFs that are probably functionally expressed, we show that ALCV and EcmLV both display evidence of inter-species recombination and biologically functional genomic secondary structures. Finally, we show that whereas the EcmLV populations likely experience restricted geographical dispersion, ALCV is probably freely moving across the French Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Response of the Kuroshio Extension path state to near-term global warming in CMIP5 experiments with MIROC4h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jing, Zhao; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, responses of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) path state to near-term (2006-2035) global warming are investigated using a Kuroshio-resolving atmosphere-ocean coupled model. Under the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) forcing, the KE system is intensified and its path state tends to move northward and becomes more stable. It is suggested that the local anticyclonic wind stress anomalies in the KE region favor the spin-up of the southern recirculation gyre, and the remote effect induced by the anticyclonic wind stress anomalies over the central and eastern midlatitude North Pacific also contributes to the stabilization of the KE system substantially. The dominant role of wind stress forcing on KE variability under near-term global warming is further confirmed by adopting a linear 1.5 layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress curl field from the present climate model. It is also found that the main contributing longitudinal band for KE index (KEI) moves westward in response to the warmed climate. This results from the northwestward expansion of the large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) field.

  5. Evaluation of some varieties and breeding lines of tomato (Lycopersison sp) against tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi-Adjei, R.

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate ten (10) tomato varieties and breeding lines against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in Ghana. The research was undertaken at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were evaluated in the field under natural whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. The field trial was done in the dry season from October, 2010 to February, 2011 and wet season from March, 2011 to July, 2011. Plants in the fields and in the cage exhibited varied symptoms such as leaf curling, leaf yellowing and reduced leaf sizes. Assessment of disease incidence and symptom severity using a four point scale (0-4) showed that, in the field there was higher disease incidence in the dry season as compared to the wet season. This was attributed to the higher number of whiteflies in the dry season as demonstrated through a whitefly population survey conducted in the field. Differences among means for disease incidence and whitefly surveys on the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). Wild Tomato (Solanum pimpinellifollium) and two hybrids, Wosowoso x Wild Tomato and Cherry Red x Wild Tomato exhibited signs of resistance in the field and did not show any symptoms of TYLCV disease symptoms. All the commercial varieties were highly susceptible and showed severe symptoms. Evaluation of fruit yield in the field revealed that the commercial variety Tomato Advanta had the heaviest fruit weight (42 g/ fruit) whilst Wosowoso had the highest total fruit yield (5.74 t/ha) in the wet season. Wild Tomato and the hybrids produced higher number of fruits compared to the commercial varieties. There were highly significant differences in the means of number of fruits, fruit weight (g) and total fruit yield (t/ha) among the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines in both the wet and dry seasons

  6. The begomoviruses Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus and Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus with DNAbeta satellites cause yellow dwarf disease of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Sharma, P; Ikegami, M

    2008-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two begomoviruses (Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2), a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Nara) and defective DNAs were obtained from honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) showing characteristic yellow vein mosaic symptoms in Nara Prefecture, Japan. One begomovirus (Ibaraki virus) and a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Ibaraki) was isolated and cloned from honeysuckle plants exhibited typical yellowing of veins and small elliptical shaped enations along veins on the under side of the leaves in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The genome organization of the three viruses is the same as those of other Old World monopartite begomoviruses. Nara virus-1 had overall nucleotide sequence identity with Nara virus-2 of 94% and Ibaraki virus of 90%. DNAbeta-Nara had overall nucleotide sequence identity with DNAbeta-Ibaraki of 83%. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with other begomoviruses revealed that Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2 are strains of Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), hence named as HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2, whereas Ibaraki virus was a strain of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV), designated as TbLCJV-Hs[Iba]. HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2 have hybrid genomes, which are likely to have formed recombination between HYVMV and TbLCJV. TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 could infect and cause yellowing, leaf crinkling and stunting symptoms when partial tandem dimeric constructs were agroinoculated on tomato plants. However, in the presence of DNAbeta, both TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 produced more severe stunting symptoms in tomato plants. Therefore, these viruses along with their satellites are causal agents of tomato yellow dwarf disease in Japan, and honeysuckle acts as a potential reservoir host. Previously available evidence indicated that DNAbeta elements do not contain iteron sequences of their helper viruses; hence this is the first evidence that DNAbeta satellites have the iteron of their helper virus.

  7. Seasonal cycle of cross-equatorial flow in the central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the seasonal cycle of meridional currents in the upper layers of central equatorial Indian Ocean using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and other data over the period 2004-2013. The ADCP data set collected along 80.5°E is the most comprehensive collection of direct velocity measurements in the central Indian Ocean to date, providing new insights into the meridional circulation in this region. We find that mean volume transport is southward across the equator in the central Indian Ocean in approximate Sverdrup balance with the wind stress curl. In addition, mean westerly wind stress near the equator drives convergent Ekman flow in the surface layer and subsurface divergent geostrophic flow in the thermocline at 50-150 m depths. In response to a mean northward component of the surface wind stress, the maximum surface layer convergence is shifted off the equator to between 0.5° and 1°N. Evidence is also presented for the existence of a shallow equatorial roll consisting of a northward wind-driven surface drift overlaying the southward directed subsurface Sverdrup transport. Seasonal variations are characterized by cross-equatorial transports flowing from the summer to the winter hemisphere in quasi-steady Sverdrup balance with the wind stress curl. In addition, semiannually varying westerly monsoon transition winds lead to semiannual enhancements of surface layer Ekman convergence and geostrophic divergence in the thermocline. These results quantify expectations from ocean circulation theories for equatorial Indian Ocean meridional circulation patterns with a high degree of confidence given the length of the data records.

  8. On the cyclonic eddy generation in Panay Strait, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, P. J.; Repollo, C. L. A.; Flores-vidal, X.; Villanoy, C.

    2016-12-01

    High Frequency Doppler Radar (HFDR), shallow pressure gauges and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) time-series observations during the Philippine Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx) were analyzed to describe the mesoscale currents in Panay Strait, Philippines. Low frequency surface currents inferred from three HFDR (July 2008 { July 2009), revealed a clear seasonal signal in concurrent with the reversal of the Asian monsoon. The mesoscale cyclonic eddy west of Panay Island is generated during the winter northeast (NE) monsoon. This causes changes in the strength, depth and width of the intra-seasonal Panay coastal jet as its eastern limb. Winds from QuikSCAT satellite and from a nearby airport indicate that these flow structures correlate with the strength and direction of the prevailing local wind. An intensive survey of the cyclonic eddy in February 8-9, 2009, obtaining a 24-hour successive cross-shore Conductivity-Temperature- Depth (CTD) sections in conjunction with shipboard ADCP measurements showed a well- developed cyclonic eddy characterized by near-surface velocities reaching 50 cm/s. This observation coincides with the intensification of the wind in between Mindoro and Panay islands generating a positive wind stress curl in the lee of Panay, which in turn induces divergent surface currents. Water column response from the mean transects showed a pronounced signal of upwelling, indicated by the doming of isotherms and isopycnals. A pressure gradient then was sets up, resulting in the spin-up of a cyclonic eddy in geostrophic balance. Evaluation of the surface vorticity balance equation suggests that the wind stress curl via Ekman pumping mechanism provides the necessary input in the formation and evolution of the cyclonic eddy. In particular, the cumulative effect of the wind stress curl plays a key role on the generation of the eddy. The Beta-effect on the other hand may led to propagation of the eddy westward.

  9. Les traumatismes crâniens font partie des blessures associées au curling récréatif qui peuvent être évitées en portant des chaussures appropriées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Notre étude s'intéresse à une population de joueurs de curling et vise à décrire la fréquence des blessures, à estimer le risque de se blesser et à évaluer l'opinion des joueurs à l'égard des stratégies de prévention axées sur l'équipement. Méthodologie : Dans le cadre d'une étude de série de cas rétrospective, nous avons fait des recherches dans le Système canadien hospitalier d'information et de recherche en prévention des traumatismes (SCHIRPT, une base de données nationale pour la surveillance des blessures, en vue d'y repérer les blessures subies au curling répertoriées entre 1993 et 2011. L'Hôpital général de Kingston et l'Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu sont les deux hôpitaux de Kingston (Ontario qui offrent des services d'urgence et qui font partie du réseau du SCHIRPT. Pour chaque entrée trouvée, nous avons procédé à l'analyse du dossier du patient. Un sondage complémentaire a été envoyé à certaines personnes ayant subi des blessures au curling afin d'en connaître les détails et de savoir ce qu'elles pensent du port d'un équipement comme mesure de prévention. Nous avons utilisé des statistiques descriptives pour les taux et les proportions. Résultats : Plus de 90 % des blessures graves au curling résultent d'une chute et 31,7 % des cas de blessures graves sont constitués de choc à la tête. Nous avons calculé que le taux de blessures graves qui nécessitent une consultation aux services d'urgence est approximativement de 0,17 pour 1 000 athlètes exposés (intervalle de confiance à 95 % : de 0,12 à 0,22. Le sondage complémentaire a été rempli par 54 % des joueurs blessés ciblés. Parmi eux, 41,3 % attribuent leur chute à l'absence de chaussures appropriées. Concernant les stratégies de prévention, 73,5 % des répondants étaient d'accord avec la suggestion du port obligatoire de chaussures spécialisées, mais seulement 8 % avec celle du port obligatoire du casque

  10. Lean body mass and muscle function in head and neck cancer patients and healthy individuals - results from the DAHANCA 25 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    speed, 30 s chair rise, 30 s arm curl, stair climb) from HNSCC patients from the DAHANCA 25 trials and data from 24 healthy individuals were included. Results. Lean body mass and maximal muscle strength were significantly associated according to the gender and age-adjusted linear regression model (p ...Introduction. Loss of lean body mass is common following radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and may reduce maximal muscle strength and functional performance. However, the associations between lean body mass, muscle strength and functional performance.......0001). In addition, maximal muscle strength were associated with 30 s arm curl performance, 10 m max gait speed and 30 s chair rise (p regression analyses showed that HNSCC patients expressed significant lower levels of the investigated variables after radiotherapy than healthy individuals (p

  11. Prolonged Decline of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Landings in the Gulf of California is Associated with Chronically low wind Stress and Decreased Chlorophyll a after El Niño 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. J.; Gomez-Gutierrez, J.

    2016-02-01

    Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squid) is an ecologically relevant predator in the Gulf of California, Mexico, where it supports an economically valuable fishery. The commercial jumbo squid fishery in the Gulf declined steeply after an El Niño event in 2009-2010, and subsequent landings have remained at historically low levels in the relevant squid fishing centers (Guaymas, Sonora, and Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur). In this paper, we examined wind speed and satellite chlorophyll a concentrations on the jumbo squid fishing grounds as factors that would be expected to be relevant to this prolonged period of low landings. Analysis from local weather stations, remote sensing and fishery data showed that low jumbo squid landings from 2010 to 2015 occurred during a period abnormally weak winter/spring winds and extremely low chlorophyll a concentrations off the East Guaymas Basin. Results indicate that the squid fishing area in the Guaymas region has been chronically impoverished during this period, and that this area may no longer be a productive habitat for jumbo squid. In response to this decreased productivity, size-at-maturity of jumbo squid showed a drastic decrease over the same period. Results are compared with the effect of El Niño 1997-1998 on the jumbo squid fishery and size-at-maturity of this species in the Gulf of California. The key difference between the recovery phases for El Niño 1997-1998 versus El Niño2009-2010 was the wind intensity as measured in the Guaymas fishing area.

  12. Seasonal variability of mixed layer in the central Arabian Sea and its implication on nutrients and primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.

    Kumar and Prasad, 1996 for detail). For the computation of wind- stress curl, Florida State University (FSU) winds for the period 1993-97 on a 1o x 1o grid was used. 3. Criteria for selecting the mixed layer depth In applying the concept... pattern though explained the cold SST during summer and shallow MLD during spring and fall intermonsoons, could not fully explain the MLD variations, especially during summer and winter in the northern latitudes. A look at the wind stress curl revealed...

  13. Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miozzi

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV, a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed.

  14. Wind-driven circulation in the subarctic north Pacific using altimeter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... third EOF of SLA (SLA3) and the second EOF of the wind stress curl are also related to the variation of the subarctic gyre. Though the correlation of their time series is 0.27, drastic changes in early winter coincide well. The two EOF pairs can be considered to mean that the SLA variation followed by the latitudinal migration ...

  15. Transport and potential vorticity in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Murty, C.S.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.; Rao, G.R.L.

    Current (EBC) contributed to an influx of 3.5 x 10 sup(6 m sup(3/s water respectively. The influence of overlying less saline, fresher water at the northern Bay: Ekman suction due to the wind stress curl in the central Bay; and the east-flowing IMC...

  16. Hydrography and circulation of the Bay of Bengal during early winter, 1983

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.

    flowing eastern boundary current from north of 8 degrees N west of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands and, to its west, a large cyclonic gyre between 19 degrees and 13 degrees N. The wind stress curl for November suggests that this gyre is primarily wind driven...

  17. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P; Beuzón, Carmen R; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2016-01-15

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels.

  18. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábata Rosas-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels.

  19. Nutrient variability in Subantarctic Mode Waters forced by the Southern Annular Mode and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jennifer M.; Strutton, Peter G.

    2013-07-01

    As the primary source of nutrients to the global thermocline, Subantarctic Mode Waters (SAMWs) play a key role in primary production and climate. Here we use repeat hydrographic World Ocean Circulation Experiment/Climate Variability and Predictability data to quantify interannual SAMW nutrient variability and its forcing. Pacific sector SAMW nutrients were significantly correlated with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and wind stress curl anomalies associated with a faster meridional overturning circulation (MOC). A stronger MOC results in greater upwelling of nutrients at high latitudes, increased Ekman transport of nutrients equatorward, and subduction of higher preformed nutrient loads in SAMWs. Australian sector SAMWs were significantly correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), likely due to its modulation of transport in the East Australian Current extension. Interannual variability in SAMW nutrients impacts downstream tropical export production by as much as 5-12% of the annual mean.

  20. Impacts of pre-existing ocean cyclonic circulation on sea surface chlorophyll-a concentrations off northeastern Taiwan following episodic typhoon passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fanghua; Yao, Yuan; Oey, Leo; Lin, Yanluan

    2017-08-01

    Off northeastern Taiwan, enhancement of sea surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration is frequently found after typhoon passages. From 1998 to 2013, 46 typhoon events are analyzed to examine the variations in Chl-a concentration from satellite ocean color data. On average, Chl-a concentration increased by 38% after a typhoon passage. Noticeably, four remarkable Chl-a increases after typhoons coincide with pre-existing oceanic cyclones in the study area. The Chl-a increase is significantly anticorrelated (p typhoons, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to simulate the oceanic response to Typhoon Kaemi (2006) with or without a pre-existing oceanic cyclone, and with or without strong typhoon winds. The results show that the experiment with a pre-existing oceanic cyclone produces the largest upwelling due to cyclone intensification, mainly induced by the positive wind stress curl dipole northeast of Taiwan.

  1. Sediment dispersal during ne monsoon over northern Bay of Bengal: Preliminary results using IRS-P4 OCM data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anuradha, T.; Suneethi, J.; Dash, S.K.; Pradhan, Y.; Prasad, J.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    waters. These sediments appear to sink along the coastal stretches of southern Orissa and Northern A.P. It has also been observed development of offshore curl in the deeper waters. This curl enhances with an increase in the width and augmentation...

  2. Seasonal and Interannual Variation of Currents and Water Properties off the Mid-East Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Chang, K. I.; Nam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Since 1999, physical parameters such as current, temperature, and salinity off the mid-east coast of Korea have been continuously observed from the long-term buoy station called `East-Sea Real-time Ocean monitoring Buoy (ESROB)'. Applying harmonic analysis to 6-year-long (2007-2012) depth-averaged current data from the ESROB, a mean seasonal cycle of alongshore currents, characterized by poleward current in average and equatorward current in summer, is extracted which accounts for 5.8% of the variance of 40 hours low-pass filtered currents. In spite of the small variance explained, a robust seasonality of summertime equatorward reversal typifies the low-passed alongshore currents along with low-density water. To reveal the dynamics underlying the seasonal variation, each term of linearized, depth-averaged momentum equations is estimated using the data from ESROB, adjacent tide gauge stations, and serial hydrographic stations. The result indicates that the reversal of alongshore pressure gradient is a major driver of the equatorward reversals in summer. The reanalysis wind product (MERRA) and satellite altimeter-derived sea surface height (AVISO) data show correlated features between positive (negative) wind stress curl and sea surface depression (uplift). Quantitative estimates reveal that the wind-stress curl accounts for 42% of alongshore sea level variation. Summertime low-density water originating from the northern coastal region is a footprint of the buoyancy-driven equatorward current. An interannual variation (anomalies from the mean seasonal cycle) of alongshore currents and its possible driving mechanisms will be discussed.

  3. Enceladus Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here are some results from the Spectra Decomposition Algorithm on infrared spectral images of Saturn's moon Enceladus. Figure 1 is the spatial contribution of the...

  4. 1998 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the financial and commercial results of Gaz de France (GdF) company for 1998. The following points are presented successively: financial results (budget results, turnover, self-financing capacity, investments, debt situation), commercial results (some remarkable numbers and records, the tertiary and residential market, the industrial market, cogeneration and natural gas for vehicles), the strategy, 1998 realizations and perspectives (the natural gas energy in the 21. century, the development of GdF, the gas distribution and services (development of the French distribution system, export of the know-how, development of services), the transportation and storage systems threw Europe (densification of the pipeline network, the key-position of France, the north-south equilibrium of the distribution network), the natural gas production by GdF, the diversification of supplies, and the main daughter companies abroad). (J.S.)

  5. Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  6. (abstract) Ekman Pumping/Suction and Wind-Driven Ocean Circulation from ERS-1 Scatterometer Measurements Over the Arabian Sea During October 1994-October 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Freilich, M. H.; Weller, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial variations of the east-west and north-south components of surface wind stress are critical in studies of ocean circulation and biological-physical interactions because surface wind stress curl produces a vertical velocity in the upper ocean at the bottom of the Ekman Layer.The ERS-1 scatterometer provides reasonable coverage and direct measurements of vector of winds. Three schemes are evaluated relative to high-quality moored-bouy wind observations recorded in the central Arabian Sea, where high surface waves and high atmospheric water content during the southeast monsoon adversely affect the estimation of satellite-derived winds.

  7. Coupled dynamics of the South China Sea, the Sulu Sea, and the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    1996-05-01

    The complex geometry, the seasonally reversing monsoon winds, and the connectivity with the Pacific Ocean all contribute to the coupled dynamics of the circulation in the South China Sea (SCS), the Sulu Sea, and the region around the Philippine Islands. The 1/2°, 1.5-layer global reduced gravity thermodynamic Navy layered ocean model (NLOM) is used to separate these components and to investigate the role of each one. When forced by the Hellerman and Rosenstein [1983] (HR) monthly wind stress climatology, the basic features of the model solution compare well with observations, and with higher-resolution NLOM versions. The dynamics of the flow from the Pacific Ocean into the SCS via the Luzon Strait are emphasized. The effects of Ekman suction/pumping due to wind curl are examined by forming monthly spatial averages of the winds over the SCS/Sulu Sea basins. This maintains a monthly varying stress but with a region of zero curl. Forcing the model with these modified winds leaves the mean Luzon Strait transport unchanged, and the variability actually increases slightly. These results suggest that it is the pressure head created by the pileup of water from the monsoonal wind stress that controls the variability of the Luzon Strait transport. The forcing for wind stress pileup effects could be either internal or external to the SCS/Sulu Sea basin. The effects of internal forcing are studied by applying monthly winds within this basin but annual HR winds outside the region. With this forcing the mean Luzon Strait transport is essentially unchanged, but the variability is only 44% of the standard case value. The external forcing is defined as zero stress in the SCS/Sulu Sea basins and HR monthly winds outside. Again, the mean Luzon Strait transport is unchanged, and here the variability is 60% of the standard case. The mean Luzon Strait transport is largely a function of the model geometry. When the Sulu archipelago is opened, a net cyclonic flow develops around the

  8. Life cycle of eddies along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nuncio, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    . The Rossby wave which arrives at this time augments the wind curl-induced downwelling. Thus, the upwelling near the western boundary and downwelling offshore will create a cross-shore density gradient, which is evident in the sea-level anomaly during... the influence of cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) wind stress curl and upwelling (down welling) near (away from) the western boundary. The down welling away from the western boundary is augmented by the Rossby wave, which arrives at this time from the eastern Bo...

  9. Wind-driven circulation in the subarctic north Pacific using altimeter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    shifts southward or strengths, providing positive wind stress curl in the subarctic region, and then, at the same time or one month later, the sea level of the zonal area with a center of 40◦N falls. Espe- cially the spatial pattern of SLA1 has the closest contour along the Kuril Islands where the west- ern boundary currents of the ...

  10. The Role of the New Zealand Plateau in the Tasman Sea Circulation and Separation of the East Australian Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Christopher Y. S.; Kiss, Andrew E.; van Sebille, Erik; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; England, Matthew H.

    2018-02-01

    The East Australian Current (EAC) plays a major role in regional climate, circulation, and ecosystems, but predicting future changes is hampered by limited understanding of the factors controlling EAC separation. While there has been speculation that the presence of New Zealand may be important for the EAC separation, the prevailing view is that the time-mean partial separation is set by the ocean's response to gradients in the wind stress curl. This study focuses on the role of New Zealand, and the associated adjacent bathymetry, in the partial separation of the EAC and ocean circulation in the Tasman Sea. Here utilizing an eddy-permitting ocean model (NEMO), we find that the complete removal of the New Zealand plateau leads to a smaller fraction of EAC transport heading east and more heading south, with the mean separation latitude shifting >100 km southward. To examine the underlying dynamics, we remove New Zealand with two linear models: the Sverdrup/Godfrey Island Rule and NEMO in linear mode. We find that linear processes and deep bathymetry play a major role in the mean Tasman Front position, whereas nonlinear processes are crucial for the extent of the EAC retroflection. Contrary to past work, we find that meridional gradients in the basin-wide wind stress curl are not the sole factor determining the latitude of EAC separation. We suggest that the Tasman Front location is set by either the maximum meridional gradient in the wind stress curl or the northern tip of New Zealand, whichever is furthest north.

  11. Dynamical response of the North Pacific Ocean to the tropical variability and its decadal modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, M.; Taguchi, B.; Schneider, N.

    2015-12-01

    While teleconnections from the tropical Pacific to the North Pacific sea surface temperature are well known, the dynamical response of the North Pacific Ocean to the tropical atmosphere-ocean variability is not well investigated. Based on observed and reanalysis data, we investigate this link through a correlation analysis using the indices of Nino3, Nino3.4, and El Nino Modoki Index (EMI). The simultaneous correlation maps of the wind-stress curl indicate that the signal associated with EMI in the eastern North Pacific is stronger than the counterparts with Nino3 and Nino3.4. Responding to these signals in wind-stress curl, sea surface height (SSH) anomalies develop following EMI, but almost no SSH responses are found to Nino3 and Nino3.4. As El Nino Modoki lasts for a longer period than canonical El Nino, the stronger wind-stress curl signal to EMI drives the ocean more persistently, and induces substantial SSH signals. The induced SSH signals propagate westward to the western boundary region around 35N, affecting variability in the Kuroshio Extension, which might further exert feedback on the atmosphere aloft. The teleconnection from EMI to the North Pacific, however, was not found before the 1990s, indicating its clear decadal modulation.

  12. Onshore Wind Stress and Buoyancy Flux Observed on a Dissipative Mediterranean Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    provided by a 12V lead acid battery that was housed in a separate waterproof enclosure. 11 Table 1. Surf Flux Tripod Sensor Suite Sensor Height...13 waterproof data shuttle, and pressure sensors were swapped-out during this time. 3. Beach Topography A total of 10 walking surveys were...system, which has a horizontal accuracy of O(1 cm). The surveys were conducted at the start and end of the study with additional surveys made after

  13. Ocean Current and Wave Effects on Wind Stress Drag Coefficient Over the Global Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kara, A. B; Metzger, E. J; Bourassa, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    ...%), but the notable impact of the latter is only evident in the tropical Pacific Ocean; (2) the presence of waves generally makes winds weaker and C0 lower almost everywhere over the global ocean; (3...

  14. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ingo; Xie, Shang-Ping; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role.

  15. Long term erosion resistance of unprotected radon suppression earth covers to wind stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    Estimates of the amount of soil cover lost due to wind erosion are obtained using three different models. One model developed by W. S. Chepil employs a wind erosion equation which is based on wind tunnel and agricultural field measurements. The second model is based on an analytical solution of the saltation process obtained by P. R. Owen and agrees well with the data of Bagnold and Zingg. The third model was developed by Gillette and is based on a modification of the horizontal flux equation used by Bagnold and Chepil. Basic differences between the models are examined and a comparison of the soil movement predicted by each is presented. The usefulness of these wind erosion models as guidance in designing long term erosion-resistant covers for tailings piles is considered.

  16. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Wittenberg, Andrew T. [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Masumoto, Yukio [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role. (orig.)

  17. Alongshore wind stress and heat flux divergence off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, D.P.

    Annual variation of heat flux divergence (Qv) was computed for the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam. The mean values of net heat exchange (Qn) and heat flux divergence (Qv) were found to be 114 and 115 W.m/2 respectively on annual scale. The net heat...

  18. Nearshore Wind-Stress Measurements: Background Preliminary Field Work and Experiment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    data collection support, and Ms. Harriet Klein for logistical coordination. Further recognition goes to Ms. Linda L. Lee, Coastal Oceanography Branch... Jacobs (1987) and in laboratory work by Papadimitrakis, Hsu, and Street (1984) and Papadimitrakis, Hsu, and Wu (1986). In analogy with flow over...Data Summary Report," Miscellaneous Paper CERC-87-3, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Jacobs , S. J. 1987. "An Asymptotic

  19. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results

  20. Mechanism of Interannual Variability in Western Boundary Currents along Madagascar and their Relation with the ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.

    2016-02-01

    The South Equatorial Current (SEC) in the Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar Currents (NEMC and SEMC, respectively). The NEMC and SEMC transport anomalies influence eddy activities in the Mozambique Channel and the southwest of Madagascar. These eddies not only influence the ecosystems in the Mozambique Channel, but may also modulate the global thermohaline circulation by affecting water mass exchange between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans through their influence on the Agulhas Ring shedding. Therefore, to enhance understanding of the dynamical connection between NEMC and SEMC variability and physical and biological variability in their downstream, the dynamical mechanism of interannual variations in the NEMC and SEMC transport is investigated. The NEMC (SEMC) transport in reanalysis data undergoes interannual variations with the peak-to-peak amplitude of about 15 (6) Sv. The time-dependent Island Rule indicates that the above interannual variations are due to the responses to anomalous meridional interior transport. This is a result of westward popagating Rossby waves generated by Ekman pumping anomalies over 60°E - 90°E. It is shown that the NEMC and SEMC transports are correlated with the Niño 3.4 index with 5-15 months lag and ENSO-related diabatic heating anomalies over the western tropical Pacific generate wind stress curl anomalies over the southern Indian Ocean. These wind stress anomalies are also modified by local SST anomalies in the southeastern Indian Ocean. The above influences from the local and remote SST anomalies are confirmed by atmospheric general circulation model experiments.

  1. Tomato leaf curl Kerala virus (ToLCKeV AC3 protein forms a higher order oligomer and enhances ATPase activity of replication initiator protein (Rep/AC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Sunil K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses are emerging plant viruses that infect a wide variety of vegetable crops, ornamental plants and cereal crops. They undergo recombination during co-infections by different species of geminiviruses and give rise to more virulent species. Antiviral strategies targeting a broad range of viruses necessitate a detailed understanding of the basic biology of the viruses. ToLCKeV, a virus prevalent in the tomato crop of Kerala state of India and a member of genus Begomovirus has been used as a model system in this study. Results AC3 is a geminiviral protein conserved across all the begomoviral species and is postulated to enhance viral DNA replication. In this work we have successfully expressed and purified the AC3 fusion proteins from E. coli. We demonstrated the higher order oligomerization of AC3 using sucrose gradient ultra-centrifugation and gel-filtration experiments. In addition we also established that ToLCKeV AC3 protein interacted with cognate AC1 protein and enhanced the AC1-mediated ATPase activity in vitro. Conclusions Highly hydrophobic viral protein AC3 can be purified as a fusion protein with either MBP or GST. The purification method of AC3 protein improves scope for the biochemical characterization of the viral protein. The enhancement of AC1-mediated ATPase activity might lead to increased viral DNA replication.

  2. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-06

    Jan 6, 2013 ... step in the RNA-silencing pathway that occurs after siRNA production (Zrachya et al. 2007). Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are a diverse group of plant viruses with circular single-stranded DNA genomes that are composed of one or two components of 2700–. 3000 bp length which are encapsidated ...

  3. Identification and distribution of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus TYLCV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... Analysis of samples harvested in 2001-2002 showed that infection of tomato crops was more common in the southwest than in the north (Tahiri et al., 2007). The sequence analysis revealed the existence of the. Spanish strain of TYLCSV and of two genetically different strains of TYLCV. The Spanish origin ...

  4. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-06

    Jan 6, 2013 ... satellite DNA β which are predicted to function as silencing suppressors. In the present study suppressor function ... of plant viruses with circular single-stranded DNA genomes that are composed of one or two components of ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 M. Figure 4. Southern blot analysis of DNA ...

  5. Seed storage protein components are associated with curled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Accumulation of specific proteins and other compounds for nutrient storage to high levels is one of the characte- ristic events during seed development. Improvement of storage protein in seed is being given more and more attention all over the world (Kim et al., 1990). Protein is the performer of life activity, ...

  6. The influence of small-scale sea surface temperature gradients on surface vector winds and subsequent impacts on oceanic Ekman pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul J.

    Satellite observations have revealed a small-scale (air--sea coupling in regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients (e.g., fronts, currents, eddies, and tropical instability waves), where the surface wind and wind stress are modified. Surface winds and wind stresses are persistently higher over the warm side of the SST front compared to the cool side, causing perturbations in the dynamically and thermodynamically curl and divergence fields. Capturing this small-scale SST--wind variability is important because it can significantly impact both local and remote (i.e., large scale) oceanic and atmospheric processes. The SST--wind relationship is not well represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models, and the relative importance of the physical processes that are proposed to be responsible for this relationship is actively and vehemently debated. This study focuses on the physical mechanisms that are primarily responsible for the SST-induced changes in surface wind and wind stress, and on the physical implication on ocean forcing through Ekman pumping. The roles that SST-induced atmospheric baroclinicity and boundary-layer stability play in modifying the surface vector wind in regions of strong SST gradients are examined with an idealized model. Modeled changes in surface wind speed due to changes in atmospheric boundary-layer stability and baroclinicity are largely between -2.0 and 2.0 m s-1, which is consistent with past observational findings. The baroclinic-related changes in the surface vector wind are found to have a largely linear dependence on the SST gradient, whereas the stability-related changes are highly non-linear. The linearity of the baroclinic impacts matches that of the observed (satellite and in situ) SST--wind relationship. This result suggests that the baroclinic-related mechanism is the leading factor in driving the observed surface wind response to strong open ocean SST fronts on scales greater than 25 km

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, University of North Bengal, P.O. North Bengal University,. Dist. Darjeeling 734 ... cillatory wind stress due to the atmospheric depression, resulting in spiral cyclonic wind pressure on the ... water wave in the case of wind stress exhibits a greater elevation on the sea surface as g the acceleration ...

  8. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  9. Mechanisms underlying recent decadal changes in subpolar North Atlantic Ocean heat content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Ponte, Rui M.; Little, Christopher M.; Buckley, Martha W.; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    The subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) is subject to strong decadal variability, with implications for surface climate and its predictability. In 2004-2005, SPNA decadal upper ocean and sea-surface temperature trends reversed from warming during 1994-2004 to cooling over 2005-2015. This recent decadal trend reversal in SPNA ocean heat content (OHC) is studied using a physically consistent, observationally constrained global ocean state estimate covering 1992-2015. The estimate's physical consistency facilitates quantitative causal attribution of ocean variations. Closed heat budget diagnostics reveal that the SPNA OHC trend reversal is the result of heat advection by midlatitude ocean circulation. Kinematic decompositions reveal that changes in the deep and intermediate vertical overturning circulation cannot account for the trend reversal, but rather ocean heat transports by horizontal gyre circulations render the primary contributions. The shift in horizontal gyre advection reflects anomalous circulation acting on the mean temperature gradients. Maximum covariance analysis (MCA) reveals strong covariation between the anomalous horizontal gyre circulation and variations in the local wind stress curl, suggestive of a Sverdrup response. Results have implications for decadal predictability.

  10. EPIC Results from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, John W

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the recent heavy ion results from the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. These new results are placed in perspective with those from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider experiments.

  11. The California current of the last glacial maximum: reconstruction at 42°N based on multiple proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Joseph D.; Mix, Alan C.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Kashgarian, Michaele

    1997-01-01

    Multiple paleoceanographic proxies in a zonal transect across the California Current near 42°N record modern and last glacial maximum (LGM) thermal and nutrient gradients. The offshore thermal gradient, derived from foraminiferal species assemblages and oxygen isotope data, was similar at the LGM to that at present (warmer offshore), but average temperatures were 3.3° ±1.5°C colder. Observed gradients require that the sites remained under the southward flow of the California Current, and thus that the polar front remained north of 42°N during the LGM. Carbon isotopic and foraminiferal flux data suggests enhanced nutrients and productivity of foraminfera in the northern California Current up to 650 km offshore. In contrast, marine organic carbon and coastal diatom burial rates decreased during the LGM. These seemingly contradictory results are reconciled by model simulations of the LGM wind- field, which suggest that wind stress curl at 42°N (and thus open-ocean upwelling) increased, while offshore Ekman transport (and thus coastal upwelling) decreased during the last ice age. The ecosystem of the northern California Current during the LGM approximated that of the modern Gulf of Alaska. Cooling and production in this region was thus driven by stronger open-ocean upwelling and/or southward flow of high-latitude water masses, rather than by coastal upwelling.

  12. Record low sea-ice concentration in the central Arctic during summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Barber, David; Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hongjie

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic sea-ice extent has shown a declining trend over the past 30 years. Ice coverage reached historic minima in 2007 and again in 2012. This trend has recently been assessed to be unique over at least the last 1450 years. In the summer of 2010, a very low sea-ice concentration (SIC) appeared at high Arctic latitudes—even lower than that of surrounding pack ice at lower latitudes. This striking low ice concentration—referred to here as a record low ice concentration in the central Arctic (CARLIC)—is unique in our analysis period of 2003-15, and has not been previously reported in the literature. The CARLIC was not the result of ice melt, because sea ice was still quite thick based on in-situ ice thickness measurements. Instead, divergent ice drift appears to have been responsible for the CARLIC. A high correlation between SIC and wind stress curl suggests that the sea ice drift during the summer of 2010 responded strongly to the regional wind forcing. The drift trajectories of ice buoys exhibited a transpolar drift in the Atlantic sector and an eastward drift in the Pacific sector, which appeared to benefit the CARLIC in 2010. Under these conditions, more solar energy can penetrate into the open water, increasing melt through increased heat flux to the ocean. We speculate that this divergence of sea ice could occur more often in the coming decades, and impact on hemispheric SIC and feed back to the climate.

  13. Projected changes of the low-latitude north-western Pacific wind-driven circulation under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin

    2017-05-01

    Based on the outputs of 25 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, the projected changes of the wind-driven circulation in the low-latitude north-western Pacific are evaluated. Results demonstrate that there will be a decrease in the mean transport of the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Mindanao Current, and Kuroshio Current in the east of the Philippines, accompanied by a northward shift of the NEC bifurcation Latitude (NBL) off the Philippine coast with over 30% increase in its seasonal south-north migration amplitude. Numerical simulations using a 1.5-layer nonlinear reduced-gravity ocean model show that the projected changes of the upper ocean circulation are predominantly determined by the robust weakening of the north-easterly trade winds and the associated wind stress curl under the El Niño-like warming pattern. The changes in the wind forcing and intensified upper ocean stratification are found equally important in amplifying the seasonal migration of the NBL.

  14. Mechanisms of interannual variations in the western boundary currents along the Madagascar coast as revealed by the extended Time-Dependent Island Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.

    2016-12-01

    The South Equatorial Current in the South Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar Currents. The dynamical mechanisms of interannual variations in the western boundary currents along Madagascar are examined using the "Time-Dependent Island Rule (TDIR)" for the first time. Since Rossby waves radiated from the Australian coast and the Indonesian Throghflow are known to play a role in oceanic variability over the southern Indian Ocean, the original TDIR is extended to incorporate these effects. Also, inertial effects are included for a more complete discussion. Using this modified TDIR, interannual variability of western boundary currents along Madagascar is shown to be predominantly a response to the meridional transport anomaly in the interior, which is a result of westward propagating Rossby waves induced by wind stress curl anomalies mainly in 60°E-90°E. On the other hand, the interannual variability is not much influenced by inertial effects and the Indonesian Throughflow. Although the damping of Rossby waves has an impact on the amplitude of the interannual variation, it does not alter the above mechanism qualitatively.

  15. Role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in supermodeling the tropical Pacific climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mao-Lin; Keenlyside, Noel; Bhatt, Bhuwan C; Duane, Gregory S

    2017-12-01

    The supermodel strategy interactively combines several models to outperform the individual models comprising it. A key advantage of the approach is that nonlinear improvements can be achieved, in contrast to the linear weighted combination of individual unconnected models. This property is found in a climate supermodel constructed by coupling two versions of an atmospheric model differing only in their convection scheme to a single ocean model. The ocean model receives a weighted combination of the momentum and heat fluxes. Optimal weights can produce a supermodel with a basic state similar to observations: a single Intertropical Convergence zone (ITCZ), with a western Pacific warm pool and an equatorial cold tongue. This is in stark contrast to the erroneous double ITCZ pattern simulated by both of the two stand-alone coupled models. By varying weights, we develop a conceptual scheme to explain how combining the momentum fluxes of the two different atmospheric models affects equatorial upwelling and surface wind feedback so as to give a realistic basic state in the tropical Pacific. In particular, we propose a mechanism based on the competing influences of equatorial zonal wind and off-equatorial wind stress curl in driving equatorial upwelling in the coupled models. Our results show how nonlinear ocean-atmosphere interaction is essential in combining these two effects to build different sea surface temperature structures, some of which are realistic. They also provide some insight into observed and modelled tropical Pacific climate.

  16. Recent wind-driven change in Subantarctic Mode Water and its impact on ocean heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libao; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Yu, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    The subduction and export of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) supplies the upper limb of the overturning circulation and makes an important contribution to global heat, freshwater, carbon and nutrient budgets1-5. Upper ocean heat content has increased since 2006, helping to explain the so-called global warming hiatus between 1998 and 2014, with much of the ocean warming concentrated in extratropical latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in close association with SAMW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW)6,7. Here we use Argo observations to assess changes in the thickness, depth and heat content of the SAMW layer. Between 2005 and 2015, SAMW has thickened (3.6 ± 0.3 m yr-1), deepened (2.4 ± 0.2 m yr-1) and warmed (3.9 ± 0.3 W m-2). Wind forcing, rather than buoyancy forcing, is largely responsible for the observed trends in SAMW. Most (84%) of the increase in SAMW heat content is the result of changes in thickness; warming by buoyancy forcing (increased heat flux to the ocean) accounts for the remaining 16%. Projected increases in wind stress curl would drive further deepening of SAMW and increase in heat storage in the Southern Hemisphere oceans.

  17. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  18. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  19. The Arising of Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Some Buddhist scholars have periodized the expected lifetime of the Buddha's teachings. According to them, these periods of 500 years each have different characteristics. The first is called 'the period of the results'. Therefore some scholars have claimed that only in the first 500 years after...... the Buddha results can arise. Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön has argued that results arise through practise as long as Dharma and Sangha exist....

  20. Results from SAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermul, V.M.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Bowles, T.J.; Cherry, M.L.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R.; Elliott, S.R.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Khairnasov, N.G.; Knodel, T.V.; Lande, K.; Mirmov, I.N.; Nico, J.S.; Shikhin, A.A.; Teasdale, W.A.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Wark, D.L.; Wildenhain, P.S.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Yants, V.E.; Zatsepin, G.T

    2002-07-01

    We report the results of 11 years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The overall result of 84 runs during the measurement period January 1990 through March 2001 is 75.6 +5.9/-5.8 (stat.) +3.5/-3.0 (syst.) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The individual results of each run, as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs are presented.

  1. Results from SAGE

    CERN Document Server

    Vermul, V M; Bowles, T J; Cherry, M L; Cleveland, B T; Davis, R; Elliott, S R; Gavrin, V N; Girin, S V; Gorbachev, V V; Ibragimova, T V; Kalikhov, A V; Khairnasov, N G; Knodel, T V; Lande, K; Mirmov, I N; Nico, J S; Shikhin, A A; Teasdale, W A; Veretenkin, E P; Vermul, V M; Wark, D L; Wildenhain, P S; Wilkerson, J F; Yants, V E; Zatsepin, G T

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of 11 years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The overall result of 84 runs during the measurement period January 1990 through March 2001 is 75.6 +5.9/-5.8 (stat.) +3.5/-3.0 (syst.) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The individual results of each run, as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs are presented.

  2. Results from OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the details of new ν τ event detected by OPERA were reported. Also first result on ν μ to ν e oscillation search in OPERA was described. The result excluded the high Δm 2 region down to sin 2 2θ 13 ∼2×10 −2

  3. Recent results from TASSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1982-03-01

    Results are presented on the inclusive production of π 0 , K 0 and antiK 0 and lambda and antilambda in e + e - annihilation. These results, together with those on inclusive charged hadron production are used to obtain information on fragmentation mechanisms and the production of heavy quark flavours in e + e - annihilation. (author)

  4. Recent results from TRISTAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Ryoji [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  5. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Land-atmosphere-ocean interactions in the southeastern Atlantic: interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2018-02-01

    Land-atmosphere-ocean interactions in the southeastern South Atlantic and their connections to interannual variability are examined using a regional climate model coupled with an intermediate-level ocean model. In austral summer, zonal displacements of the South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) can induce variations of mixed-layer currents in the Benguela upwelling region through surface wind stress curl anomalies near the Namibian coast, and an eastward shifted SASH is related to the first Pacific-South American mode. When the SASH is meridionally displaced, mixed layer vertically-integrated Ekman transport anomalies are mainly a response to the change of alongshore surface wind stress. The latitudinal shift of the SASH tends to dampen the anomalous alongshore wind by modulating the land-sea thermal contrast, while opposed by oceanic diffusion. Although the position of the SASH is closely linked to the phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the southern annular mode (SAM) in austral summer, an overall relationship between Benguela upwelling strength and ENSO or SAM is absent. During austral winter, variations of the mixed layer Ekman transport in the Benguela upwelling region are connected to the strength of the SASH through its impact on both coastal wind stress curl and alongshore surface wind stress. Compared with austral summer, low-level cloud cover change plays a more important role. Although wintertime sea surface temperature fluctuations in the equatorial Atlantic are strong and may act to influence variability over the northern Benguela area, the surface heat budget analysis suggests that local air-sea interactions dominate.

  7. Tevatron physics results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb^-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  8. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  9. Estimation and correction of surface wind-stress bias in the Tropical Pacific with the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The assimilation of high-quality in situ data into ocean models is known to lead to imbalanced analyses and spurious circulations when the model dynamics or the forcing contain systematic errors. Use of a bias estimation and correction scheme has been shown to significantly improve the balance of

  10. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  11. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  12. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited

  13. Unfavourable results in hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoon Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypospadias urethroplasty is considered difficult as the complications and unfavourable results are not uncommon. At the turn of the century, due to a better understanding of applied anatomy of hypospadias, new techniques were developed which significantly brought down the complication rate. However unfavourable results are still disturbing. An algorithm for selection of surgery has been presented. Forty three secondary surgeries were performed over 3 years for correction of unfavourable results. The urethrocutaneous fistula was the most common (21% followed by meatal stenosis (14% and narrow neourethra (14%. Common unfavourable results have been discussed. On the basis of experience with a large number of hypospadias urethroplasty ′tips to avoid or minimise unfavourable results′ have been presented. However, one should assess the final outcome of urethroplasty using hypospadias objective scoring evaluation.

  14. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  15. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  16. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  17. Haiti DevResults

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — DevResults is a web-based portfolio management system that tracks program data for the Haiti Mission that was awarded in April of 2013. (The Mozambique and/or...

  18. Arsenic speciation results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting results of synchrotron data to determine arsenic speciation in soil samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  19. Compilation of results 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A compilation is carried out which in concentrated form presents reports on research and development within the nuclear energy field covering a two and a half years period. The foregoing report was edited in December 1984. The projects are presendted with title, project number, responsible unit, person to contact and short result reports. The result reports consist of short summaries over each project. (L.F.)

  20. Higgs results from ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The updated Higgs measurements in various search channels with ATLAS Run 1 data are reviewed. Both the Standard Model (SM Higgs results, such as H → γγ, ZZ, WW, ττ, μμ, bb̄, and Beyond Standard Model (BSM results, such as the charged Higgs, Higgs invisible decay and tensor couplings, are summarized. Prospects for future Higgs searches are briefly discussed.

  1. Higgs results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00145153; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The updated Higgs measurements in various search channels with ATLAS Run 1 data are reviewed. Both the Standard Model (SM) Higgs results, such as $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma,ZZ,WW,\\tau\\tau,\\mu\\mu,b\\bar{b}$, and Beyond Standard Model (BSM) results, such as the charged Higgs, Higgs invisible decay and tensor couplings, are summarized. Prospects for future Higgs searches are briefly discussed.

  2. Unfavorable results in replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  3. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  4. Results from EQAS 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, A.B.

    An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117 laborator......An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117...... laboratories from 67 countries participated. For serotyping, almost 90 % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 91 % of the results were in agreement with the expected results, and 86 % of the performed tests with the reference strain E. coli ATCC 25922 were inside the quality control range...

  5. RTE - 2012 financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricour, Olivia; Marguier, Marina; Lartigau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's financial results for 2012: increase of investments for services to clients, performance results, financial balance, stability of the economical model. RTE's regulated economical model, main financial indicators, 2007-2012 investments, 2012 investments by category, 2012 turnover, 2012 costs structure, taxes, financial balance sheet at the end of 2012, and the share of electricity transport in the electricity price are presented in appendixes

  6. Recent results from Gargamelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musset, P.

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief summary of the main results from recent neutrino experiments, recent results from Gargamelle, including experimental design, a description of the leptonic neuutral current reaction, signal corrections and calculations of the neutral current elastic reaction rate, are presented. Decay rates of charmed particles were also studied. A μ - μ - background signal is identified and a genuine μ + μ - signal of 30 + or - 8 events found. Only indirect evidence for the production of charmed particles produced in the hadronic reaction is found. Experimental designs and their constraints are discussed

  7. Results from Adone

    CERN Document Server

    Celio, R B

    1979-01-01

    A short review on recent experimental results obtained at Adone, on multihadronic e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is given. Results and comments concern: R values, compared with QCD and EVMD predictions, charged and neutral multiplicities, threshold for 'energy crisis', G parities and SU/sub 3/ checks, sigma (2 pi /sup +/2 pi /sup -/); evidence for a large rho "(1600), sigma ( pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/2 pi degrees ); non evidence for a rho '(1250), and sigma (2 pi /sup +/2 pi /sup -/2 pi degrees ); evidence and interpretation of 1820. (8 refs).

  8. Results from PLUTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knies, G.

    1977-11-01

    Results obtained by the PLUTO collaboration from the 1976 data taking period at the electron-positron storage ring DORIS are presented. We report results on the total e + e - annihilation cross section, on inclusive measurements, on three new decay modes of the J/psi, and on various aspects of the heavy lepton tau. Among these there is an upper limit on the tau lifetime and the first evidence for the possible decay tau → upsilonA 1 . (orig./JS) [de

  9. [The applicability of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Same query - different results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevyjel, A.

    1983-10-01

    On behalf of a case study a simple truncated adjacency phrase search was executed in the online versions of Chemical Abstracts on five different host computers (DATA-STAR, DIALOG, ESA, SDC, TELESYSTEMES). The reasons for the differences in the appearing results are discussed. (Author) [de

  11. Jet results from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.

    1991-05-01

    Recent results from CDF in jet physics are presented. Tests of leading order and next to leading order QCD are performed by measuring the dijet invariant mass spectrum, jet shapes and three jet events. Tests the leading logarithm, approximation in QCD are made by comparing the high energy events at CDF with the Herwig Monte Carlo. 10 refs., 7 figs

  12. Recent results from LEP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The major goals of LEP2 are precision measurement of the mass and width of theW boson and search for new particles such as ... Recent results from LEP. Selection strategy: • Exclude hadronic events using multiplicity. • Identify 2 leptons (e, μ, tagging as at LEP I). • Apply selection cuts on. – acoplanarity angle between the ...

  13. Roadmap of Infinite Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive summary of equivalence checking results for infinite-state systems. References to the relevant papers will be updated continuously according to the development in the area. The most recent version of this document is available from the web-page http://www.brics.dk/~srba/roadmap....

  14. Management Values Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)

  15. Recent results from LEP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent results from the LEP collider at CERN are presented: on the identification of +- → +- and the determination of the mass and width and limits on its anomalous couplings; the search for the Standard Model and non-minimal Higgs; search for SUSY and other new particles. Fits to all electroweak data leading to ...

  16. First AFP results

    CERN Document Server

    Staszewski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) are detectors dedicated to measurements of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at small angles in inelastic processes. The first arm of AFP was installed in 2016. The installation of the full system was finished in 2017. Since 2016 AFP has collected data is special and standard runs. The presentation shows the first results obtained with data collected by AFP.

  17. RTE annual results 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the results of the RTE (Electric power Transport Network). The year 2005 is marked by the new status of RTE, as a limited company. The financial good performances, the market, the open network, the environmental policy, the human resources and the european and international relations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Recent results of BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.

    2001-01-01

    The BABAR detector at SLAC's PEP-II storage ring has collected data amounting to about 30.4 fb -1 until june 2001. Results on CP violation, and in particular search for direct CP violation, and measurement of rare B decays are presented

  19. First results at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.

    1977-01-01

    UNILAC, and accelerator for heavy ions up to uranium with energies up to 10 MeV/nucleon became operational January 1976. A report is given on results so far in various fields of heavy ion physics, in particular on search for new nuclides, deep-inelastic collisions, spectroscopy of high-spin states and some selected topics of atomic physics. (orig.) [de

  20. Latest results from HERA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper only a few of the many results from the HERA experiments are discussed. They have been chosen to give a flavour of the full scope of physics topics that are explored in high energy electron proton scattering. In the first section the measurements on the proton structure function F¾ are presented and interpreted ...

  1. Neutrino mass: Recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 13.5 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a ''model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. 38 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Results from LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1995-01-01

    Selected results from LEP on electroweak neutral currents and strong interactions are reviewed. In the first part, total cross sections, angular and polarization symmetries are interpreted in terms of basic electroweak parameters, like the mass, total and partial widths of the Z and neutral current couplings. Special attention is given to two apparent problems: the discrepancy between the measurements with final state vs. initial state polarization; and the deviation of the measured width of the Z into heavy quarks from Standard Model expectations. These discrepancies are not very significant, but they are the only ones observed at this point and thus deserve attention. In the second part, I outline results on final state strong interactions, namely measurements pertaining to differences between quark and gluon jets and the QCD group structure. (author) 19 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  3. Solar results purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-01-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  4. Envirhom: stakes and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a recall of the evolution of the international system for the protection against ionizing radiations, this report discusses the evolution of a new societal context (evolution of risk perception, concern about accidental situations). It also discusses the emerging scientific issues and challenges regarding the knowledge about biological and health effects of ionizing radiations, which requires investigations on the ecosystems, the effects of chronic low level exposures, and the propagation of effects at different biological levels (cells, tissue, individual, population, communities, and ecosystems). Then, it presents the IRSN environment-health research program, ENVIRHOM, its objectives, and its results concerning the environment on the one side, and health on the other side. The 'environment' side and the 'health' side of this program are then more precisely presented as well as their results

  5. Traceability of measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, George

    2008-08-01

    * Trueness must be independent of analytical platform and measurements comparable regardless of the analytical procedure used. * Traceability requirements for the clinical laboratory are via National Metrology Institutes, Reference (Calibration) laboratories and finally the routine laboratory. * Traceability information required by today's clinical laboratory may be requested from the manufacturer of the analytical kits and the internet. * Traceable laboratory results will greatly enhance the role of the laboratory in patient management.

  6. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    1999-01-01

    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  8. Recent results from LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer that collects data at the LHC. In this review, a few of recent results in the field of $b$-hadron decays performed by the LHCb Collaboration are presented. The analyses use proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb detector during 2011 and 2012 physics runs with the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.

  9. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  10. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  11. Consort 3 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve experiments designed to obtain samples and data for a variety of microgravity materials processing investigations were carried on Consort 3, a sounding rocket flight. The overall purpose of the flight was to provide an opportunity to investigate the effects of microgravity on processes with potential for new technology development and commercial applications. The range of experimentation included investigations of immiscible polymer demixing rates, electrodeposition and electrocodeposition, elastomer-modified epoxy resins, foam formation, a number of biomaterial mixing processes, and polymer thin-film formation. Specific objectives and results are summarized for each experiment.

  12. Results from PAMELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocchiutti, E.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.C.; Bazilevskaya, G.A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E.A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Borisov, S.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.

    2011-01-01

    The PAMELA satellite experiment was launched into low earth orbit on June 15th 2006. The combination of a permanent magnet silicon strip spectrometer and a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter allows precision studies of the charged cosmic radiation to be conducted over a wide energy range (100 MeV - several hundred GeV). A primary scientific goal is to search for dark matter particle annihilation by measuring the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiparticles. Latest results from the PAMELA experiment are presented with a particular focus on cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons.

  13. NAUTILUS recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafone, V.; Astone, P.; Bassan, M.; Bonifazi, P.; Carelli, P.; Coccia, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Federici, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Modestino, G.; Moleti, A.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Quintieri, L.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Terenzi, R.; Visco, M.; Votano, L.

    The resonant-mass gravitational wave detector NAUTILUS, operated by the ROG collaboration at the INFN Frascati National Laboratories, is in continuous data taking since June 1998 with peak sensitivity of h ~= 3×10-22Hz-1/2. It has recently proven to be capable of recording signals due to the passage of cosmic rays. The results of the latest coincidence analyses between the NAUTILUS data and the cosmic ray signals measured by detectors located above and below NAUTILUS are reported.

  14. New results from CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S C; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holender, J M; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Maas, A; Marin, A; Messer, F; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sedykh, S N; Seipp, W; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V I

    2002-01-01

    We will focus here on results from the 1999 data taking period, where 8 M Pb+Au events at 40 AGeV were recorded. Since the new readout system of the TPC was not yet properly working, this data set is limited in terms of statistics, and momentum resolution. Nevertheless, this data sample at lower beam energy allows to study initial conditions different from the ones at top SPS energy. This can be very useful to disentangle temperature and baryon density driven modifications of the dilepton spectrum. (15 refs).

  15. Results from AMANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Wiebusch, C; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Bertrand, D; Bernadini, E; Binon, Freddy G; Biron, A; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Burgess, T; Carius, S; Castermans, T; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Ekstrom, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaug, M; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Hauschildt, T; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Karle, A; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kühn, K; Lamoureux, J I; Leich, H; Leuthold, M J; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Minaeva, Y; Minocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ögelman, H B; Olbrechts, P; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pohl, A C; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Ross, D; Sander, H G; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sudhoff, P; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C; Wiedemann, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Yodh, G B; Young, S

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high- energy neutrino telescope operating at the geographic South Pole. It is a lattice of photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice. The primary goal of this detector is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos. We describe the detector methods of operation and present results from the AMANDA-B10 prototype. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the current AMANDA-II detector. We conclude with an outlook to the envisioned sensitivity of the future IceCube detector. (37 refs).

  16. Latest LHCb results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCb experiment is one of the major research projects at the Large Hadron Collider. Its acceptance and instrumentation is optimised to perform high-precision studies of flavour physics and particle production in a unique kinematic range at unprecedented collision energies. Using large data samples accumulated in the years 2010-2012, the LHCb collaboration has conducted a series of measurements providing a sensitive test of the Standard Model and strengthening our knowledge of flavour physics, QCD and electroweak processes. The status of the experiment and some of its recent results are presented here.

  17. Recent BABAR Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigen, Gerald [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics

    2015-04-29

    We present herein the most recent BABAR results on direct CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xsγ, on partial branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xs+-, on a search for B → π/ηℓ+- decays, on a search for lepton number violation in B+ → X-+ℓ'+ modes and a study of B0 →ωω and B0 → ωφ decays.

  18. Spacelab Science Results Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  19. Results from TOTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggert Karsten

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC is focussed on the measurement of the elastic proton-proton scattering, the total pp cross-section, and all kinds of diffractive phenomena. Detectors housed in “Roman Pots” which can be moved close to the outgoing proton beams allow to trigger on elastic and diffractive protons and to determine their parameters like the momentum loss and the transverse momentum transfer. In addition, charged particle detectors in the forward regions detect almost all inelastic events. Together with the CMS detector, a large solid angle is covered enabling precise studies of Min. Bias as well as Single Diffractive and Double Pomeron Interactions. The results will considerably help the interpretation of the Cosmic Ray Showers at highest energies and will give insight into the proton structure and the QCD theory of strong interactions. TOTEM measured the elastic pp- scattering over a large range of t (the squared momentum transfer from 10-3 – 4 GeV2. Noneof the considered models could yield a satisfactory fit over the complete range. However, the exponential slope at low |t|-values and the position of the diffractiveminimum are well within the extrapolation from lower energies. The total pp cross-section has been determined in different ways from the extrapolation of the elasticscattering to t=0 (optical point and the inelastic rate: (i From the elastic scattering using the optical theorem and the CMS, (ii luminosity independently, usingthe inelastic rate, elastic scattering and the optical theorem, (iiiρ independently, by using elastic scattering, inelastic rate and the CMS luminosity. The results for the total crosssection obtained from the different methods are in excellent agreement with each other. First studies of the data on diffractive phenomena havebeen performed by correlating the momentum loss of the forward protons with the topology of the particle flux. The data look very promising and further studies will

  20. Latest results from LUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Rosanna; LUNA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the cross section of nuclear fusion reactions is a crucial ingredient in understanding stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. At stellar temperatures, fusion cross sections are extremely small and difficult to measure. Measuring nuclear cross sections at astrophysical energies is a challenge that triggered a huge amount of experimental work. A breakthrough in this direction was the first operation of an underground accelerator at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) in Gran Sasso, Italy. The 1400 meters of rocks above the laboratory act as a natural shield against cosmic radiation, suppressing the background by orders of magnitude. The latest results achieved at LUNA are discussed, with special emphasis on the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction. Future perspectives of the LUNA experiment are also illustrated.

  1. Recent Results from BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid experiment, BLAST, at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Laboratory is designed to study in a systematic manner the spindependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems at momentum transfers below 1 GeV/c. Utilizing a polarized electron beam, highly polarized internal gas targets of H and D, and a symmetric detector configuration, BLAST is able to make simultaneous measurements of several reaction channels for different combinations of beam helicity and target polarization (vector for H, both vector and tensor for D). BLAST will provide new data on the nucleon and deuteron form factors as well as study few body physics and pion production. Preliminary results are presented

  2. Cosmogenic activation: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2018-01-01

    Activation of materials is known to cause background events in underground experiments that may affect the sensitivity of these experiments to rare event searches. The most common source of activation is the exposure of materials to cosmic rays at the surface of the Earth but other various sources of neutrons may also be dangerous. Different computer codes provide estimates of production rates of radioactive isotopes due to activation but their results are sometimes inconsistent. High-sensitivity experiments looking for dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay or neutrinos from various sources, although affected by activation, provide crucial tests of models used in the codes. Recent calculations and measurements of activation rates are discussed in this paper.

  3. ATLAS Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  4. EIGER characterization results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinapoli, Roberto; Bergamaschi, Anna; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Tinti, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and performance measurements have been done on several EIGER detector systems, produced with chips coming from two different lots, both with a lab X-ray source and at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Results on the detector calibration, electronic noise, threshold dispersion, minimum achievable energy threshold, maximum detectable incoming photon flux and maximum frame rate are presented. An EIGER module is constructed from a ∼4×8cm 2 monolithic silicon sensor bump-bonded to 2 ×4 readout chips and contains 0.5 Mpixel. The first EIGER 500 K systems have been produced and images taken with these detectors are shown. Modules can be tiled together to form large area detectors; both a 9 Mpixel and a 16 Mpixel systems are at present under development for the coherent small angle X-ray scattering and protein crystallography beamlines of the SLS

  5. EIGER characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinapoli, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.dinapoli@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bergamaschi, Anna; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Radicci, Valeria [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); ESRF, 6 Rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tinti, Gemma [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); ESRF, 6 Rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-12-11

    Characterization and performance measurements have been done on several EIGER detector systems, produced with chips coming from two different lots, both with a lab X-ray source and at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Results on the detector calibration, electronic noise, threshold dispersion, minimum achievable energy threshold, maximum detectable incoming photon flux and maximum frame rate are presented. An EIGER module is constructed from a ∼4×8cm{sup 2} monolithic silicon sensor bump-bonded to 2 ×4 readout chips and contains 0.5 Mpixel. The first EIGER 500 K systems have been produced and images taken with these detectors are shown. Modules can be tiled together to form large area detectors; both a 9 Mpixel and a 16 Mpixel systems are at present under development for the coherent small angle X-ray scattering and protein crystallography beamlines of the SLS.

  6. Scientific results - report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    During the year under report 1981, five working groups were active in the field of nuclear chemistry: neutron diffraction, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in bio-medicine and geo-chemistry. The objectives of the R+D projects ranged from the more basic research to the development of technological processes. Nuclear inspection methodes that have already been developed (e.g. neutron diffraction, trace element analysis) have increasingly been used in an interdisciplinary way. Besides these R+D projects the project of increase of power of the BER II was pursued also in 1981, and further planning documents on the extension of the BER II have been established. The report informs about the most important results of the single sections. A list of the publications (with abstracts) and lectures, also by guest scientists, is attached. (RB) [de

  7. Latest results from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper selected results obtained by the ALICE experiment at the LHC will be presented. Data collected during the pp runs taken at sqrt(s)=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and Pb-Pb runs at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV allowed interesting studies on the properties of the hadronic and nuclear matter: proton runs gave us the possibility to explore the ordinary matter at very high energy and up to very low pt, while Pb-Pb runs provided spectacular events where several thousands of particles produced in the interaction revealed how a very dense medium behaves, providing a deeper picture on the quark gluon plasma(QGP) chemical composition and dynamics.

  8. Recent results from CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in center-of-mass energy, a new energy frontier has been opened by the Large Hadron Collider. More than 25 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=13 TeV have been delivered to both ATLAS and CMS experiments during 2016. This enormous dataset can be used to test the Standard Model in a complete new regime with tremendous precision and it has the potential to unveil new physics or set strong bounds on it. In this talk some of the most recent results made public by the CMS Collaboration will be presented. The focus will mainly be on searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, with particular emphasis on searches for dark matter candidates.

  9. Dissociated methanol test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finegold, J.G.; McKinnon, J.T.

    1982-04-01

    The design and testing of an automotive fuel system that provides hydrogen-rich gases to an internal combustion engine by catalytically cracking, or dissociating, methanol on board the vehicle is described. The vaporization and dissociation of methanol absorb heat from the engine exhaust and increase the lower heating value of the fuel by approximately 22%. In addition, raising the compression ratio and burning with excess air increase the engine thermal efficiency. Engine dynamometer test results with dissociated methanol demonstrated improvement in brake thermal efficiency compared to gasoline from 30% to 100% depending on engine speed and torque. Lower speeds and torques produce the largest improvements. Maps of exhaust temperature and exhaust heat content are presented. The exhaust temperature is almost always high enough for dissociation to occur, but at lower power outputs, there is only enough exhaust energy for partial dissociation of the methanol.

  10. Undulator Transportation Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    A test was performed to determine whether transporting and handling the undulators makes any changes to their properties. This note documents the test. No significant changes to the test undulator were observed. After the LCLS undulators are tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF), they must be transported to storage buildings and transported to the tunnel. It has been established that the undulators are sensitive to temperature. We wish to know whether the undulators are also sensitive to the vibrations and shocks of transportation. To study this issue, we performed a test in which an undulator was measured in the MMF, transported to the tunnel, brought back to the MMF, and re-measured. This note documents the test and the results.

  11. Overview of HERMES results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hulse, C.

    2016-01-01

    The HERMES experiment has collected a wealth of deep-inelastic scattering data using the 27.6 GeV polarized lepton beam at HERA and various pure gas targets, both unpolarized and polarized. This allowed for a series of diverse and unique measurements. Among them are measurements that provide information on the 3-dimensional structure of the nucleon, both in momentum space and in position space. Results of measurements of exclusive ω production on an unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon target, sensitive to the distribution in transverse-position and longitudinal-momentum space, are discussed as well as the 3-dimensional extraction of azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, sensitive to twist-2 and twist-3 distributions in 3-dimensional momentum space. (author)

  12. Physics Results from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A.

    2005-01-01

    The COMPASS Experiment at the CERN SPS has a broad physics program focused on the nucleon spin structure and on hadron spectroscopy, using muon and hadron beams. Main objectives for the spin program with the muon beam are the direct measurement of the gluon contribution to the spin of the nucleon, semi-inclusive measurements, and the measurement of the transverse spin distribution $\\Delta_T q$. The COMPASS apparatus consists of a two-stage large acceptance spectrometer designed for high data rates and equipped with high-resolution tracking, particle identification and electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The data taking is ongoing since 2002 and till now was mainly devoted to the spin programme using a 160 GeV$/c$ naturally polarized, $\\mu^+$ beam and a polarized $^{6}$LiD target. First physics results from the 2002 and 2003 runs are presented.

  13. Recent results from LHCf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjo H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment is one of the LHC forward experiments. The aim of LHCf is to provide critical calibration data of hadronic intraction models used in air shower simulations. The LHCf has completed the operations for p-p collisions with a collision energy of √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV p-p in 2010 and for p-Pb collisions with a collision energy per nucleon of √sNN = 5.02. The recent LHCf result of forward neutron energy spectra at 7 TeV p-p collision and forward π0 spectra at p-Pb collisions are presented in this paper.

  14. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  15. Areva - 2011 Annual results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Michaut, Maxime; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2012-01-01

    Areva's backlog established at 45.6 billion euros at the end of 2011, significantly increasing at the end of a year marked by the Fukushima accident, confirms the commercial dynamism of the group alongside its customers and reinforces the visibility on its future business level. In a difficult context, the slight decline in revenue in 2011 demonstrates the robustness of Areva's integrated model, resting mainly on recurring business generated in relation to Areva's customers' nuclear installed base, and benefiting from the development of Areva's renewable energies operations. Free operating cash flow before tax, although down over the whole year in 2011, improved in the second half, showing the first effects of Areva's stronger focus on cash generation and debt management. After the success of Areva's bond issue in September 2011, the Group's liquidity remains high at the end of 2011. The Areva teams are now dedicating all of their efforts to the deployment of the 'Action 2016' strategic action plan, which had already yielded its first positive results at the end of 2011, with an improvement in the cost structure of Areva's operations, an increase in order intake, and the launch of several disposals of minority interests. Summary of the 2011 financial results: - Backlog: euro 45.6 bn, +3.1% vs. 2010, i.e +6.7% over 3 months; - Revenue: euro 8.872 bn, i.e -2.6% vs. 2010; - Operating income: - euro 1.923 bn; - Net income attributable to equity owners of the parent: - euro 2.424 bn; - EBITDA: euro 1.068 bn ( euro 420 m excluding Siemens impact); - Free operating cash flow before tax: - euro 2.397 bn (- euro 1.366 bn excluding Siemens impacts), improvement over the second half; - Decrease in net debt of euro 124 m for the year; - Significant drop in general and administrative expenses, with a noticeable reduction between the first and the second half; - Launch of several disposals of minority interests

  16. Developing the framework for a risk map for mite vectored viruses in wheat resulting from pre-harvest hail damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Stilwell, A.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; McMechan, J.; Hein, G.; Wegulo, S.; Smith, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to adversely influence the weather and may increase the severity of meteorological events, including thunderstorms capable of producing crop damaging hail. Hail events occurring on pre-harvest wheat fields are known to be a significant contributor to outbreaks of virus diseases such as Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus , and Wheat mosaic virus, in the subsequent year. These viruses are vectored by the wheat curl mite (WCM) and volunteer wheat from pre-harvest hail events provides WCMs with a green bridge between harvest in the summer and planting in the fall. Controlling volunteer wheat through herbicide application and tillage has been shown to reduce WSMV transmission as long as it is conducted before emergence of the winter wheat crop. The goal of this study was to develop a risk product for WCM-vectored viruses based on pre-harvest hail damage. Traditionally, vegetation indices (VI; i.e. normalized difference vegetation index) are used to remotely identify hail damage in satellite imagery. However, during the highest risk period for volunteer wheat resulting from pre-harvest hail damage, the wheat crop is senescing and dramatically reducing its 'greenness', decreasing its sensitivity to changes in many VIs. Ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing over mechanically hailed sites indicates that reflectance from hailed wheat increases in the visible/near infrared spectrum. This information can be incorporated into a model using satellite imagery (LandSat and MODIS) and a 1 x 1 km resolution map of estimated maximal hail size produced by NOAA. The risk maps produced from these inputs will enable farmers and stakeholders to more effectively manage WCM-vectored viruses of wheat.

  17. Report on Results 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report discusses work being carried out in Norway to promote energy efficiency and the production of new renewable energy. An overall review of the quantifiable results of last year's activities at national level is available. It will serve to initiate an annual reporting tradition. The report represents a step towards an ongoing process for improved targeting and management of national efforts. During the course of the year 2000, NVE has evaluated and adjusted its activities and established a system involving indicators and reporting procedures. It is also important to take notice of the long-term work being undertaken to influence people's attitudes, even though this work is difficult to assess. NVE is investing in i.a. measures aimed at children and young people. Apart from directly influencing future energy users, this investment is also having an effect due to the children's encouragement of their parents to engage in more energy and environment-friendly behaviour. Published in 2000, the IEA report ''Trends in Norwegian Stationary Energy Use'' shows that total Norwegian energy consumption per GDP is not much higher than in other IEA countries, when adjusted for cold climate and industrial structure. However, Norwegians do stand out as intensive users of electricity. The IEA report shows a reduction of 10 TWh in energy usage when compared to the projected post 1990 figures. Energy efficiency activities have contributed towards this reduction. However, the potential for a more rational use of energy in Norway is still substantial and well documented. Based on experience most enterprises could save around 10% of energy used just by making changes to their operations, i.e. without major investments. Furthermore, the potential is growing because of massive technological developments in respect of energy usage, production and distribution. With this in mind, it is necessary to take full advantage of the extensive knowledge

  18. URAT South Parallax Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Jao, Wei-Chun

    2018-04-01

    We present 916 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of newly discovered nearby stars from the United States Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT). Observations were taken at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory over a 2-year period from 2015 to 2017 October covering the entire sky south of about +25° decl. SPM4 and UCAC4 early epoch catalog data were added to extend the temporal coverage for the parallax and proper motion fit up to 48 years. Using these new URAT parallaxes, optical and near-IR photometry from the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey and Two Micron All-Sky Survey catalogs, we identify possible new nearby dwarfs, young stars, low-metallicity subdwarfs and white dwarfs. Comparison to known trigonometric parallaxes shows a high quality of the URAT-based results confirming the error in parallax of the URAT south parallaxes reported here to be between 2 and 13 mas. We also include additional 729 trigonometric parallaxes from the URAT north 25 pc sample published in Finch & Zacharias here after applying the same criterion as for the southern sample to have a complete URAT 25 pc sample presented in this paper.

  19. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  20. esophageal cancer: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Maddah Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dysphagia is a common initial presentation in locally advanced esophageal cancer and negatively impacts patient quality of life and treatment compliance. To induce fast relief of dysphagia in patients with potentially operable esophageal cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy was applied prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. Material and methods : In this single arm phase II clinical trial between 2013 to 2014 twenty patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (17 squamous cell and 3 adenocarcinoma were treated with upfront 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy, followed by 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. Results : Tumor response, as measured by endoscopy and/or computed tomography scan, revealed complete remission in 16 and partial response in 4 patients (overall response rate 100%. Improvement of dysphagia was induced by brachytherapy within a few days and maintained up to the end of treatment in 80% of patients. No differences in either response rate or dysphagia resolution were found between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma histology. The grade 2 and 3 acute pancytopenia or bicytopenia reported in 4 patients, while sub-acute adverse effects with painful ulceration was seen in five patients, occurring after a median of 2 months. A perforation developed in one patient during the procedure of brachytherapy that resolved successfully with immediate surgery. Conclusions : Brachytherapy before EBRT was a safe and effective procedure to induce rapid and durable relief from dysphagia, especially when combined with EBRT.

  1. ALOS-2 initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  2. Results from SNO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yuen-dat

    2001-10-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is an underground heavy water Cherenkov detector for studying solar neutrinos. SNO is capable of performing both flavor sensitive and flavor blind measurements of the solar neutrino flux. The first charged current (CC) measurement is found to be: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) = 1.75 {+-} 0.07(stat.){sub -0.11}{sup +0.12}(sys.) {+-} 0.05 (theor.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the elastic scattering fluxes (ES) is: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup ES}({nu}{sub x}) = 2.39 {+-} 0.34(stat.){sub -0.14}{sup +0.16} (sys.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) result, when combined with the high statistics elastic scattering (ES) measurement from Super-Kamiokande, provide a strong evidence for solar neutrino flavor transformation (3.3{sigma}). The deduced total solar neutrino flux is in good agreement with standard solar model predictions. No significant distortion in the energy spectrum is observed.

  3. Results from LHCf Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    The LHCf experiment has taken data in 2009 and 2010 p-p collisions at LHC at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The measurement of the forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR) field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of $10^{17}$ eV. In this paper the first results on the inclusive photon spectrum measured by LHCf is reported. Comparison of this spectrum with the model expectations show significant discrepancies, mainly in the high energy region. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the possibility to take data in p-Pb collisions, will be discussed.

  4. Results from SNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yuen-dat

    2001-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is an underground heavy water Cherenkov detector for studying solar neutrinos. SNO is capable of performing both flavor sensitive and flavor blind measurements of the solar neutrino flux. The first charged current (CC) measurement is found to be: ψ SNO CC (ν e ) = 1.75 ± 0.07(stat.) -0.11 +0.12 (sys.) ± 0.05 (theor.) x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 and the elastic scattering fluxes (ES) is: ψ SNO ES (ν x ) = 2.39 ± 0.34(stat.) -0.14 +0.16 (sys.) x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 . The ψ SNO CC (ν e ) result, when combined with the high statistics elastic scattering (ES) measurement from Super-Kamiokande, provide a strong evidence for solar neutrino flavor transformation (3.3σ). The deduced total solar neutrino flux is in good agreement with standard solar model predictions. No significant distortion in the energy spectrum is observed

  5. Climax granite test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  6. Areva: 2014 annual results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repaire, Philippine du

    2015-01-01

    The scale of the net loss for 2014 illustrates the twofold challenge confronting AREVA: continuing stagnation of the nuclear operations, lack of competitiveness and difficulties in managing the risks inherent in large projects. The group understands how serious this situation is. A comprehensive strategic review of operations was undertaken beginning in November 2014 and is being carried out without compromise. As a result, AREVA is now able to announce a solid transformation plan that sets a challenging but economically realistic course for its teams. First, AREVA will refocus on its core business: mastery of key nuclear processes essential to operators around the globe. This strategic redeployment will lead to the revision of certain goals, whether in the management of new reactor projects or in renewable energies. AREVA's objective is to achieve excellence as a high value-added supplier of products and services. Secondly, AREVA, whose resources had been marshaled to support a spurt of growth in nuclear power, must now adapt to new market realities and become competitive once again. The group's most urgent task is recovery and securing its future by immediately launching a far-reaching competitiveness plan founded on organizational simplification, quality of operations, and a completely revamped approach to managing risk in large projects. Last but not least, AREVA must ensure sustainable financing for its activities. A financing plan will be clarified before publication of the half-year financial statements. This document presents the key financial data of the group, its strategic road-map and its operating and financing plans

  7. First results from JADE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Gadermann, E.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, H.; Krehbiel, H.

    1979-11-01

    First results from the JADE experiment at the highest PETRA energies (√s = 22 to 31.6 GeV) are reported, QED is tested using the reactions e + e - → e + e - and γγ and found valid down to distances of 2 x 10 -16 cm. Fits to the differential cross section for e + e - → e + e - provide constraints on models of the weak-electromagnetic interaction. For the reaction e + e - → multihadrons an average R value of 4.1 +-0.3 is obtained in the above energy range, compatible with production of quarks with only the known flavours (u, d, s, c, b). Topological distributions of the hadrons are studied in search of derivations from narrow two-jet structure. No evidence is observed for spherical events, which would be expected from production of heavy particles bearing a new flavour. However, broadening of jets and an excess of planar events are observed at a rate which cannot be explained by statistical fluctuations in the two-jet mechanism. The planar events exhibit distinct three-jet structures in many cases. If gluon bremsstrahlung e + e - → q anti q g is included, detailed agreements are obtained between the predictions and data. This strongly suggests gluon bremsstrahlung as the origin of jet broadening and planar three-jet events. Free fractionally charged or heavy stable particles are searched for in the multihadron sample and upper limits for production cross sections are obtained. The azimuthal angular distributions of both inclusive hadrons and jet axes show a cos 2 diameter-like modulation, compatible with a large vertical beam polarization. (orig.)

  8. AREVA annual results 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA expanded its backlog and increased its revenues compared with 2008, on strong installed base business and dynamic major projects, fostering growth in operating income of 240 million euros. As announced previously, Areva is implementing a financing plan suited to its objectives of profitable growth. The plan was implemented successfully in 2009, including the conclusion of an agreement, under very satisfactory terms, to sell its Transmission and Distribution business for 4 billion euros, asset sales for more than 1.5 billion euros, and successful bond issues of 3 billion euros. The plan will continue in 2010 with a capital increase, the completion of asset disposals and cost reduction and continued operational performance improvement programs. Areva bolstered its Renewable Energies business segment by supplementing its offshore wind power and biomass businesses with the acquisition of Ausra, a California-based leader in concentrated solar power technology. Despite the sale of T and D, Areva is maintaining its financial performance outlook for 2012: 12% average annual revenue growth to 12 billion euros in 2012, double digit operating margin and substantially positive free operating cash flow. Annual results 2009: - For the group as a whole, including Transmission and Distribution: Backlog: euros 49.4 bn (+2.5%), Revenues: euros 14 bn (+6.4%), Operating income: euros 501 m (+20.1%); - Nuclear and Renewable Energies perimeter: Backlog: euros 43.3 bn (+1.8%), Strong revenue growth: +5.4% to euros 8.5 bn, Operating income before provision for the Finnish project in the first half of 2009: euros 647 m, Operating income: euros 97 m, for a euros 240 m increase from 2008; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euros 552 m, i.e. euros 15.59 per share; - Net debt: euros 6,193 m; - Pro-forma net debt, including net cash to be received from the sale of T and D in 2010: euros 3,022 m; - Dividend of euros 7.06 per share to be proposed during the Annual

  9. Montmorillonite stability - experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, Ola; Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Several repository concepts for spent nuclear fuel comprise a bentonite buffer which encloses the fuel containers. The function of this bentonite buffer is critically dependent on the properties of the swelling mineral in the bentonite, which typically is montmorillonite in commercial high quality bentonites. The physical and chemical properties of the montmorillonite in bentonites have consequently been studied in various types of analyses in several countries, and the results have been the basis for the design of the bentonite buffer with respect to size, degree of compaction etc (SKB TR-10-47). Significant changes in the montmorillonite structure with time may change the properties of the bentonite buffer and jeopardize the isolating function. In nature, illite is the most common alteration product from montmorillonite, and a 50% alteration reduces, for instance, the swelling pressure by one order of magnitude. Fortunately, the process is very slow at typical repository temperatures, and also in the perspective of repository life-time no significant alteration is expected according to the available kinetic models. The models are, however, based on laboratory batch experiments performed at temperatures, which by necessity are much higher than what is planned for in a repository. Alternatively, the models are based on natural montmorillonite-to-illite alteration in e.g. deep sediments. In both cases there are divergences from repository conditions which limit the arguments for the bentonite buffer stability. The mechanism by which the montmorillonite-to-illite reaction takes place is not fully understood, but the overall process may be represented by the following schematic reaction: Na + montmorillonite + K + + Al 3+ → illite + SiO 2 + Na + . Aluminum may be supplied from the bentonite itself, but potassium has to be transported to the buffer from an external source in order to give a significant alteration in

  10. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    stability of DDT in soil. Given its 'sticky' quality, DDT is difficult to isolate and treat in the solid matrix of soil. “Our ViroFlow Technology has been designed to overcome both these problems by using a chemical, not bacterial, agent and by separating DDT from the structure of the soil matrix, thereby making it vulnerable to decomposition,” said Barros. As a result of these findings, Virotec is conducting a series of tests in conjunction with the NSW EPA and Department of Primary Industries to examine ways its solution can be applied to treating DDT in soil.

  11. Result

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With reference to the detailed evaluation of bids submitted the following agencies has been selected to award the contract on L1 ( lowest bidder) basis. 1. M/s . CITO INFOTECH, Bengaluru ( for procurement of desktop computers). 2. M/s. MCCANNINFO SOLUTION, Mumbai ( for procurement of laptops computers)

  12. Result

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsinuel

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal deaths in general, early neonatal deaths in particular now represent two- third of infant deaths and one-third of under-five deaths worldwide. Therefore, improving newborn survival is a major priority in child health today. Negotiation of improved neonatal health care practice into the community ...

  13. Results

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refusing to eat new food. Baby losing weight. “The child refused eating the porridge since she was so used to the breastmilk.” “The child was crying of hunger always as he had never come to terms with the foods I started giving him. He refused to eat anything.” Children suffering from Diarrhea. “My child got very sick with ...

  14. An Idealized Modeling Study of the Gulf-Stream and Kuroshio Extension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, F. W.; Newman, D.

    2004-05-01

    A shallow-water model is used to study the dynamics of the mid-latitude wind-driven ocean circulation. A bifurcation analysis of the steady-state equilibrium solutions is presented. The analysis is in terms of several control parameters: some that control the wind-stress pattern and others that controls the dissipation parameterization. Of the parameters that control the wind-stress, one controls the tilt of the zero-curl line, another controls the relative intensity of the vorticity input in the subtropical and sub-polar gyres and a third controls the overall intensity of the wind-stress. We identify parameter ranges for which multiple equilibria with elongated and contracted western boundary current extensions exist. We also present time-dependent solutions with low frequency variability associated with transitions between the elongated and contracted modes of circulation. The modeled variability is conjectured to correspond to similar elongation-contraction patterns of variability observed in the Kuroshio and Gulf-Stream extension systems from satellite observations.

  15. High Resolution Wind and SST Coupling: Impacts on Ekman Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M. A.; Hughes, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a small-scale (air-sea coupling in regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts (e.g., currents, eddies, and tropical instability waves), where the surface wind and wind stress are altered by the underlying SST. Surface winds and wind stresses are persistently higher over the warm side of the SST front compared to the cool side, causing perturbations in the dynamically and thermodynamically curl and divergence fields. Capturing this small-scale SST-wind variability is important because it can significantly impact both local and remote (i.e., large scale) oceanic and atmospheric processes. The SST-wind relationship is not well represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models, and the relative importance of the physical processes that are proposed to be responsible for this relationship is actively and vehemently debated. This study focuses on the physical mechanisms that are primarily responsible for the SST-induced changes in surface wind and wind stress, and on the physical implication on ocean forcing through Ekman pumping. This study shows that the baroclinic-related changes in Ekman pumping are significant (first-order) over a seasonal (2003 winter season) time scale and that the meso-scale impacts are quite important over larger spatial scales. These findings highlight the need to consider the small-scale SST-wind relationship even in coarser resolution model simulation, which may be feasible to parameterize because of the linear nature of the baroclinic-related effect.

  16. Effects of Southern Hemispheric Wind Changes on Global Oxygen and the Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzlaff, J.; Dietze, H.; Oschlies, A.

    2016-02-01

    We use a coupled ocean biogeochemistry-circulation model to compare the impact of changes in southern hemispheric winds with that of warming induced buoyancy fluxes on dissolved oxygen. Changes in the southern hemispheric wind fields, which are in line with an observed shift of the southern annual mode, are a combination of a strengthening and poleward shift of the southern westerlies. We differentiate between effects caused by a strengthening of the westerlies and effects of a southward shift of the westerlies that is accompanied by a poleward expansion of the tropical trade winds. Our results confirm that the Southern Ocean plays an important role for the marine oxygen supply: a strengthening of the southern westerlies, that leads to an increase of the water formation rates of the oxygen rich deep and intermediate water masses, can counteract part of the warming-induced decline in marine oxygen levels. The wind driven intensification of the Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation drives an increase of the global oxygen supply. Furthermore the results show that the shift of the boundary between westerlies and trades results in an increase of subantarctic mode water and an anti-correlated decrease of deep water formation and reduces the oceanic oxygen supply. In addition we find that the increased meridional extension of the southern trade winds, results in a strengthening and southward shift of the subtropical wind stress curl. This alters the subtropical gyre circulation (intensification and southward shift) and with it decreases the water mass transport into the oxygen minimum zone. In a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario, the poleward shift of the trade-to-westerlies boundary is as important for the future evolution of the suboxic volume as direct warming-induced changes.

  17. Spatiotemporal trends in the southwest monsoon wind-driven upwelling in the southwestern part of the South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh Heng Kok

    Full Text Available This study analyzes two wind-induced upwelling mechanisms, namely, Ekman transport and Ekman pumping that occur during the southwest monsoon. The results suggest that the coastline of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM is affected by upwelling with spatiotemporal variations. Characterization of upwelling by using wind-induced upwelling indexes (UIW indicate the existence of favorable upwelling conditions from May to September. Upwelling intensity increased in May and peaked in August before declining in September, decreasing intensity from the southern tip towards the northern tip along the coastline of the ECPM. The existence of upwelling along the ECPM has resulted in an important difference between the SSTs of the inshore and the oceanic regions. Nonetheless, the use of the SST gradient between the inshore and the oceanic SSTs to characterize upwelling (UISST was found to be unsuitable because the SST along the ECPM was affected by water advection from the Java Sea and incessant changes in the SST. In order to indicate the major contributor of wind-induced upwelling along the ECPM in terms of the spatiotemporal scale, a comparison between Ekman transport and Ekman pumping was drawn by integrating Ekman pumping with respect to the distance where the positive wind stress curl existed. The estimation of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping indicated that Ekman pumping played a major role in contributing towards upwelling in any particular month during the southwest monsoon along the entire coastline of the ECPM as compared to Ekman transport, which contributed towards more than half of the total upwelling transport. By dividing the ECPM into three coastal sections, we observed that Ekman pumping was relatively predominant in the middle and northern coasts, whereas both Ekman transport and Ekman pumping were equally prevalent in the southern coast.

  18. Revisit the interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current transport with ECMWF ORA-S3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Hu, Dunxin

    2013-03-01

    interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) transport in the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean is investigated with the output from ECMWF Ocean Analysis/Reanalysis System 3 (ORA-S3). The results show that the amplitude and root mean square (RMS) of interannual NEC transport anomalies increase from about 3.0-4.0 Sv and 2.0 Sv at 170°E to above 5.0 and 3.4 Sv at 135°E, respectively. The NEC transport variation agrees well with the variation of the sea surface height (SSH) anomaly difference between the southern and northern boundaries of the NEC region. Further analysis near the Philippine coast suggests that their good agreement mainly comes from the agreement of the NEC transport and SSH variations south of the gyre boundary. Around the bifurcation point off the Philippine coast, the southern branch of the NEC transport is highly related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. During El Niño/La Niña years, westerly/easterly wind anomalies and positive/negative wind stress curl anomalies develop in the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean south of 20°N before the mature phase. The wind forcing center moves eastward with time and reaches the easternmost position around 170°E several months before the mature phase. This wind forcing generates upwelling/downwelling Rossby waves, which propagate westward to result in negative/positive SSH anomalies, hence inducing a cyclonic/anticyclonic gyre anomaly, which is responsible for the increase/decrease of the NEC transport. The northern branch of the NEC transport near the Philippine coast has no significant simultaneous relation with ENSO events.

  19. Recent SUSY Results from CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present a summary of the recent results of searches for supersymmetry conducted by the CMS experiment. Several searches are reported using complementary final states and methods. The results presented include searches for stops and sbottoms, production of charginos and neutralinos, and R-parity violating signatures. Several of them are the first results of their kind from CMS, while others increased the mass reach significantly over previously published results from the LHC.

  20. An overview of JET results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.M.; Alladio, F.; Altmann, H.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of experimental results obtained on JET during 1988, and in particular of results at high total power input into plasmas with various configurations. An account is given of the various interpretations of these results and some of the difficulties encountered are related. The progress is summarised in terms of the projected D-T performance. (author)

  1. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  2. On the dynamics of the Sri Lanka Dome in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jessica M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Murty, V. S. N.

    2017-09-01

    East of Sri Lanka, in the northern Indian Ocean, a cold dome, known as the Sri Lanka Dome (SLD), develops during southwest monsoon season (June-September). The SLD first forms around May, matures in July, and decays around September, in association with the strong cyclonic wind stress curl. In this study, the structure and dynamics of SLD in response to the climatic events such as the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are examined. Our results reveal that these climatic events modulated the subsurface temperature variability in the thermocline at ˜100 m depth, whose signature was also evident in the satellite-derived sea surface height (SSH) anomaly in the SLD region. We find that the mechanisms for the formation of SLD are consistent with previous research, and there is year-to-year variability in the SLD dynamics. This study also reveals that the atmospheric parameters including vertical wind shear and midtropospheric relative humidity are high over the SLD region and adjacent southern Bay of Bengal and show an upward (increasing) trend over the decades. This has impacted the atmospheric parameters over the northern Bay of Bengal over the decades and as a consequence the total number of monsoon depressions (June-September) decreased over the decades from 1980 to 2015, as reported by the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Thus, the new insight emerged from this study is the variability in the cyclogenesis and the occurrence of total number of monsoon depressions over northern Bay of Bengal over the decades is much related to the SLD dynamics.

  3. Sensitivity study of the generation of mesoscale eddies in a numerical model of Hawaii islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kersalé

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic circulation around the Hawaiian archipelago is characterized by a complex circulation and the presence of mesoscale eddies west of the islands. These eddies typically develop and persist for weeks to several months in the area during persistent trade winds conditions. A series of numerical simulations on the Hawaiian region has been done in order to examine the relative importance of wind, inflow current and topographic forcing on the general circulation and the generation of eddies. Moreover, numerical cyclonic eddies are compared with the one observed during the cruise E-FLUX (Dickey et al., 2008. Our study demonstrates the need for all three forcings (wind, inflow current and topography to reproduce the known oceanic circulation. In particular, the cumulative effect plays a key role on the generation of mesoscale eddies. The wind-stress-curl, via the Ekman pumping mechanism, has also been identified as an important mechanism upon the strength of the upwelling in the lee of the Big Island of Hawaii. In order to find the best setup of a regional ocean model, we compare more precisely numerical results obtained using two different wind databases: COADS and QuikSCAT. The main features of the ocean circulation in the area are well reproduced by our model forced by both COADS and QuickSCAT climatologies. Nevertheless, significant differences appear in the levels of kinetic energy and vorticity. The wind-forcing spatial resolution clearly affects the way in which the wind momentum feeds the mesoscale phenomena. The higher the resolution, the more realistic the ocean circulation. In particular, the simulation forced by QuikSCAT wind data reproduces well the observed energetic mesoscale structures and their hydrological characteristics and behaviors.

  4. Agulhas ring injection into the South Atlantic during glacials and interglacials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zharkov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent proxies suggest that, at the end of the last glacial, there was a significant increase in the injection of Agulhas rings into the South Atlantic (SA. This brought about a dramatic increase in the salt-influx (from the Indian Ocean into the SA helping re-start the then-collapsed meridional overturning cell (MOC, leading to the termination of the Younger Dryas (YD. Here, we propose a mechanism through which large variations in ring production take place.

    Using nonlinear analytical solutions for eddy shedding, we show that there are restricted possibilities for ring detachment when the coast is oriented in the north-south direction. We define a critical coastline angle below which there is rings shedding and above which there is almost no shedding. In the case of the Agulhas region, the particular shape of the African continent implies that rings can be produced only when the retroflection occurs beyond a specific latitude where the angle is critical. During glaciation, the wind stress curl (WSC vanished at a latitude lower than that of the critical angle, which prohibited the retroflection from producing rings. When the latitude at which the WSC vanishes migrated poleward towards its present day position, the corresponding coastline angle decreased below the critical angle and allowed for a vigorous production of rings.

    Simple process-oriented numerical simulations (using the Bleck and Boudra model are in satisfactory agreement with our results and enable us to affirm that, during the glacials, the behavior of the Agulhas Current (AC was similar to that of the modern East Australian Current (EAC, for which the coastline slant is supercritical.

  5. Low-frequency variability of Western Boundary Currents in the turbulent ocean: intrinsic modes and atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas Current and East Australian Current). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are investigated. We argue that OGCM studies of intrinsic dynamic of WBCs are key to interpreting their observed total variability, which might result from a subtle mixing between a non-linear small-scale response of intrinsic modes to the atmospheric forcing and a direct basin-scale linear response to the atmosphere.

  6. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large scale anomalies in the CMB temperature distribution detected earlier by WMAP are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits...... of the cosmology parameters. In general, Planck results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Because the analysis of Planck polarization data is not yet as mature as the analysis of temperature data, polarization results are not released. We do, however, illustrate...

  7. Recent physics results from LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.

    1990-12-01

    The LEP machine operations, the recent observation of transverse beam polarization, and the luminosity measurements are summarized. The results obtained up to now on the tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model are reviewed. This includes the Z neutral boson excitation curve parameters in hadronic and leptonic modes, the forward-backward asymmetries of the leptons, the detection of the polarization of the taus, and the corresponding results on the number of light neutrinos, on the electroweak coupling constants and mixing angle, and on the top quark mass. Some hadronic physics results and QCD studies are reported. The results for particle searches, notably the Higgs boson are summarized

  8. Latest Electroweak Results from CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The latest results in electroweak physics from proton anti-proton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron recorded by the CDF detector are presented. The results provide constraints on parton distribution functions, the mass of the Higgs boson and beyond the Standard Model physics.

  9. Heavy ion results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00241915; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings provide an overview of the new results obtained with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC, which are presented in the Quark Matter 2017 conference. These results are covered in twelve parallel talks, one flash talk and eleven posters, and they are grouped into five areas: initial state, jet quenching, quarkonium production, longitudinal flow dynamics, and collectivity in small systems.

  10. Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions......-hardness of the plan verification problem, which strengthens previous results on the complexity of DEL model checking....

  11. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  13. Selection of LHCb Physics Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2013-05-01

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC searching for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements of CP-violating observables and the study of very rare decays of beauty- and charm-flavoured hadrons. In this article a selection of recent LHCb results is presented. Unless otherwise stated, the results are based on an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 accumulated during the year 2011 at √s = 7 TeV.

  14. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  15. Electroweak results from the tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Electroweak results are presented from the CDF and DO experiments based on data collected in recent runs of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurements include the mass and width of the W boson, the production cross sections of the W and Z bosons, and the W charge asymmetry. Additional results come from studies of events with pairs of electroweak gauge bosons and include limits on anomalous couplings.

  16. Preliminary results from APE-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoloni, A.; Battista, C.; Cabasino, S.; Marzano, F.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pech, J.; Rapuano, F.; Sarno, R.; Todesco, G.M.; Torelli, M.; Tross, W.; Vicini, P.; Tripiccione, R.; Cabibbo, N.; Salina, G.; Fucci, A.; Lubicz, V.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Vladikas, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the preliminary results obtained on the 6 Gigaflop prototype which is the building block of the APE-100 computer. Results are presented for pseudoscalar and vector mesons for the Wilson and the improved action with a statistics of about 100 configurations. Static heavy-light meson propagator have also been studied for different smeared operators. We find that large smearing (≥ 9) are bad projectors on the lightest pseudoscalar states. (orig.)

  17. Result-Based Public Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Within the public sector, many institutions are either steered by governance by targets or result-based governance. The former sets up quantitative internal production targets, while the latter advocates that production is planned according to outcomes which are defined as institution-produced ef......Within the public sector, many institutions are either steered by governance by targets or result-based governance. The former sets up quantitative internal production targets, while the latter advocates that production is planned according to outcomes which are defined as institution...... the performance measure that guides the inspectors’ inspection (or nudging) of the businesses. The analysis shows that although a result-based governance system is advocated on a strategic level, performance measures which are not ‘result-based’ are developed and used in the daily coordination of work. The paper...... explores how and why this state of affairs appears and problematizes the widespread use of result-based governance and nudging-techniques by public sector institutions....

  18. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  19. CDF results on electroweak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, H.J.

    1993-11-01

    The second major run of the bar pp Fermilab Tevatron collider has just ended on June 1. The CDF detector has accumulated almost five times the data sample of its previous 1988--1989 run. We present new results on the ratio of W to Z boson production cross-sections and on the charge asymmetry in W decay. We give a progress report on the measurement of the W mass. New results from the 1988--1989 data on Drell-Yan production and on W γ production are also presented

  20. Impossibility results for distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Attiya, Hagit

    2014-01-01

    To understand the power of distributed systems, it is necessary to understand their inherent limitations: what problems cannot be solved in particular systems, or without sufficient resources (such as time or space). This book presents key techniques for proving such impossibility results and applies them to a variety of different problems in a variety of different system models. Insights gained from these results are highlighted, aspects of a problem that make it difficult are isolated, features of an architecture that make it inadequate for solving certain problems efficiently are identified

  1. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  2. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  3. Juridical utilization of dosimetric results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of the legal use of the results of dosimetry, for the solution of an action for instance, are considered first with respect to civil and occasionally administrative third part liability law making a distinction between common law and the special regime of civil liability for nuclear damage, secondly with respect to social security law [fr

  4. New ATLAS Higgs physics results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    New Higgs physics results from the ATLAS experiment using the full Run-1 LHC dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 25 fb-1, of proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, will be presented.

  5. Report of scientific results 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The scientific progress report of the HMI for 1977 gives a survey of the main results of HMI research in the fields of neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in biomedicine, geochemistry, reactor operation, and radionuclide production. After this, short summaries are given of HMI publications and papers in the above fields. (HK) [de

  6. Results from the AMANDA telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganupati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, Ph.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schinarakis, K.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudoff, P.; Sudoff, K.-H.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    2003-06-30

    We present results from the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole. They include measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux, search for UHE point sources, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic/hadronic showers at the detector or close to it.

  7. Recent results from lattice calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from lattice QCD calculations relevant to particle physics phenomenology are reviewed. They include the calculations of strong coupling constant, quark masses, kaon matrix elements, and D and B meson matrix elements. Special emphasis is on the recent progress in the simulations including dynamical quarks.

  8. EO framing flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Andre G.

    1995-09-01

    Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) has pioneered the electro-optical (E-O) framing generation of sensors with the CA-260, a KS-87 form/fit camera with a wafer-scale focal plane array (FPA) containing a patented, on-chip, forward motion compensation (FMC) architecture. The technology has now matured to the state where production E-O framing cameras are form/fit replacing their former film counterparts. During this interim production phase, flight demonstrations and tests are continuing to prove that E-O framing produces high-quality imagery, is robust to various platforms and mission tactics, interoperable with existing and planned C3I architectures, affordable and available, and meets the war-fighters needs. This paper discusses flight test results of the CA-260 E-O framing sensor flown in the F-14A TARPS during September 1994. This demonstration provided some unique imagery permitting a comparison of low-light level, in-flight FMC-on versus FMC-off performance. A first-level comparison of the resulting imagery based upon predicted FMC performance and post- processing numerical analysis is presented. The results indicae that the patented FMC architecture performed as predicted, and that for low-light conditions resulting in limited SNR images, on-chip FMC can provide a significant image quality improvement over post- processing alternatives.

  9. Latest results from B factories

    CERN Document Server

    Ben Haim, Eli

    2015-01-01

    I will briefly review recent results from Babar and Belle. For example, I will discuss probes for new physics in radiative penguin decays and the CP asymmetry in B0-B0bar mixing. I will also discuss direct searches for new physics, such as a light Higgs resonance or long lived particles.

  10. Results from PLUTO at PETRA

    CERN Document Server

    Blobel, Volker

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained at the e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring PETRA by the PLUTO collaboration at c.m. energies of 13, 17 and 27.4 GeV are presented. New limits on QED cut-off parameters are determined from Bhabha scattering; at 27.4 GeV the limits are Lambda /sub +/>38 GeV and Lambda /sub -/>60 GeV. The measured values of the total hadronic cross section, and the study of the jet character of the hadronic events are well consistent with the expected production of b mesons (with q/sub b/=1/3), but do not require additional new quarks with charge 2/3. Hadronic events from two-photon exchange processes are observed with comparable rates as events from one-photon exchange. First results on the hadronic cross section in gamma gamma collisions are given. (8 refs).

  11. Tau physics results from SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoudi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Results on τ physics at SLD are presented. They are based on 4,316 τ-pair events selected from a 150 k Z 0 data sample collected at the SLC. These results include measurements of the τ lifetime (τ r = 288.1 ± 6.1 ± 3.3 fs), the τ Michel parameters (ρ = 0.71 ± 0.09 ± 0.04, ζ = 1.03 ± 0.36 ± 0.05, and ζδ = 0.84 ± 0.27 ± 0.05), and the τ neutrino helicity (h ν = -0.81 ± 0.18 ± 0.03)

  12. First Physics Results from ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peressounko, Dmitri; Castillo Castellanos, Javier; Belikov, Iouri

    2010-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Also presented are first results of neutral meson reconstruction and its perspectives, as well as further physics studies. (author)

  13. Results of recent LOFT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, L.P.; Hanson, D.J.; Batt, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility during the past year. The experiments conducted spanned a wide range of potential accident scenarios, including large and small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), control rod withdrawal accidents, uncontrolled boron dilution, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). This summary describes these experiments and presents results available from the experiments and experiment prediction calculations. A brief overview is given for the remaining experiment planned in the LOFT Program

  14. Results of the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    The AMS experiment is a magnetic spectrometer designed and constructed to measure particles in space. For its first flight, the detector used a permanent magnet together with a precision silicon tracking detector, time-of-flight counters and aerogel counters. The first 10-day flight of AMS took place on June 2, 1998 on board the NASA Space Shuttle Discovery. The construction of the AMS detector, the first results of the shuttle flight and the future plans of AMS will be presented.

  15. Top physics results with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains some of the most recent results on top-quark physics obtained by the ATLAS collaboration from the analysis of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. Measurement of total and differential top-quark pair ($t\\bar{t}$), single top and $t\\bar{t}+\\gamma$ production cross sections and some top properties like mass, charge asymmetry and spin correlation are presented.

  16. LHC Results Highlights (CLASHEP 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O.

    2015-05-22

    The good performance of the LHC provided enough data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV to allow the experiments to perform very competitive measurements and to expand the knowledge about the fundamental interaction far beyond that from previous colliders. This report summarizes the highlights of the results obtained with these data samples by the four large experiments, covering all the topics of the physics program and focusing on those exploiting the possibilities of the LHC.

  17. Results on light quark spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienlein, J.K.; Harjes, J.; Kolanoski, H.

    1991-12-01

    This report contains a survey article of resonance production by the Crystal Ball Collaboration from J. K. Bienlein, an article on CELLO results for γγΠ*p* +- - from J. Harjes, a survey article on the production of scalar and tensor mesons in two-photon collisions, and an article on the study of the a 1 resonance by τ decays, the last two articles are both from H. Kolanoski. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  18. Geometric Results for Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Arter, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has been elegantly formulated in terms of Lie derivatives. This paper exploits the geometrical properties of the Lie bracket to give new insights into the properties of compressible MHD behaviour, both with and without feedback of the magnetic field on the flow. These results are expected to be useful for the solution of MHD equations in both tokamak fusion experiments and space plasmas.

  19. Audit result and its users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalimova Nataliya S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediate result. The article offers to define audit results user as a person, persons or category of persons for whom the auditor prepares the audit report and, in cases, envisaged by international standards of the audit and domestic legislative and regulatory acts, provides other additional information concerning audit issues. In order to identify the key audit results user the article distributes all audit tasks into two groups depending on possibilities of identification of users. The article proves that the key user should be identified especially in cases of a mandatory audit and this process should go in interconnection with the mechanism of allocation of a key user of financial reports. It offers to consider external users with direct financial interests, who cannot request economic subjects directly to provide information and who should rely on general financial reports and audit report when receiving significant portion of information they need, as the key user. The article makes proposals on specification of the categorical mechanism in the sphere of audit, which are the basis for audit quality assessment, identification of possibilities and conditions of appearance of the necessary and sufficient trust to the auditor opinion.

  20. Physics results from polarized DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections

  1. Physics results from polarized DIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-03-23

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections.

  2. Presentation of RTE results 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For RTE, the financial year 2003 was marked by a number of achievements: our financial performances registered a clear improvement, above objectives, with turnover growing strongly; net income reached levels almost three times higher than those recorded in 2002; the economic rate of return rose to 7.1%; and debt was reduced by 470 Meuros. These results are explained by the substantial improvement in productivity, which has risen by 5% per year on average over the last three years

  3. Recent results from Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    Precision measurements of the structure of nucleons and nuclei in the regime of strong interaction QCD are now possible with the availability of high current polarized electron beams, polarized targets, and recoil polarimeters, in conjunction with modern spectrometers and detector instrumentation. The authors present some recent results from the Jefferson Lab on the charge and current distributions of nucleons and nuclei. They also review measurements which relate physics at small distances to the regime where strong interaction QCD is the relevant theory

  4. Supersymmetry results at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaud, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    The results for searches for Supersymmetry by the CDF and D0 collaborations in pp-bar collisions at √s=1.96 TeV are presented here. Searches for chargino/neutralino and the lightest stop, as well as scenarios with R-parity violation are focused here. The integrated luminosity analyzed ranges from 300 to 800 pb -1 depending on the search. Further informations can be found on the public web pages of the two experiments. (author)

  5. First half 2006 financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Areva provides technological solutions for highly reliable nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group is the world leader in nuclear power and the only company to cover all industrial activities in this field. This Press release presents the first half 2006 financial results: the overall performance and the performance by division (front end, reactors and services, back end, transmission and distribution). (A.L.B.)

  6. Analysis of Benchmark 2 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, F.; Lefievre, B.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.

    1994-01-01

    The code GEANT315 has been compared to different codes in two benchmarks. We analyze its performances through our results, especially in the thick target case. In spite of gaps in nucleus-nucleus interaction theories at intermediate energies, benchmarks allow possible improvements of physical models used in our codes. Thereafter, a scheme of radioactive waste burning system is studied. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. SPQR -- Spectroscopy: Prospects, Questions & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Michael R. [JLAB

    2014-06-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in mapping out the spectrum of hadrons over the past decade with plans to make further advances in the decade ahead. Baryons and mesons, both expected and unexpected, have been found, the results of precision experiments often with polarized beams, polarized targets and sometimes polarization of the final states. All these hadrons generate poles in the complex energy plane that are consequences of strong coupling QCD. They reveal how this works.

  8. Presentation of RTE results 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In 2003, RTE recorded a clear improvement in its financial results, and continued its debt reduction programme. The financial year 2003 was marked by a clear improvement in RTE's financial performance: results exceeded objectives, with turnover growing strongly, net income reached levels almost three times higher than those recorded in 2002, the economic rate of return rose to 7.1%, and debt was reduced by 470 Meuros. These results are explained by the substantial improvement in productivity, which has risen by 5% per year on average over the last three years. Net income has almost tripled due to RTE's improved productivity completed by a significant rise in its turnover and stabilizing operating costs RTE's finances therefore remain healthy, enabling the company to continue its debt reduction programme. Satisfactory economic and financial rates of return. Deadlines facing RTE in 2004: in application of the second European Directive, adopted on 26 June 2003, RTE faces two major deadlines in 2004: - the implementation of the 2. phase in the process of opening up the French electricity market, - its legal independence. On 1 July 2004, the market will be opened up to competition for all professional customers. At that date RTE, like all other electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) in the European Union, should be a legally independent body. The new central role of TSOs in Europe: how are electricity transmission system operators in other EU countries organised?

  9. Presentation of the results 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Gaz de France (GDF) presents in a press kit the main results achieved in 1997. The European community has formulated a project of definition of rules concerning the natural gas market. Minima values for annual consumptions have been defined and the consumption and use of natural gas in EC countries is described. The financial results of GDF in 1997 are compared with previous years. Net sales grew by nearly 1 billion french francs to reach 55 billion. Overall sales were down by 4% but the share of natural gas in french energy consumption increased and sales to industrial users went up in particular due to new cogeneration plants installed in 1996. A comparison of gas prices in Europe is given for the years 1985 to 1998. The efforts of GDF to offer increased quality of services concerning in particular safety aspects as checking programs and installation of new safeguard appliances are described. The efforts of GDF to increase the energy market share of natural gas resulted in the development of new products like cogeneration, air conditioning and fuels for automotive needs. (C.B.)

  10. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  11. Heavy Flavour results from Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissov, G.; /Lancaster U.

    2012-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments finalize the analysis of their full statistics collected in the p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper presents several new results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy b- and c-quarks obtained by both collaborations. These results include the search for the rare decays B{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} (CDF), the study of CP asymmetry in B{sub s} {yields} J{psi}{phi} decay (CDF, D0), the measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry (D0), the measurement of CP asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (CDF), and the new measurement of the B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching fraction (CDF). Both experiments still expect to produce more results on the properties of heavy flavours.

  12. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data...... Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models...... against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy...

  13. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  14. Overview of the FTU results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladio, F.; Angelini, B.; Apicella, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    An overview over the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade results during the period 1996-1998 is presented. Most of the activity has been devoted to the investigation of the electron heat transport with flat/nonmonotonic safety factor profiles. Up to 14 keV of electron temperature have been obtained using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the current ramp. The transport analysis shows a very low electron heat transport in the region with flat/monotonic safety factor profile. The electron thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on the MHD activity and it drops to values of the order 0.1m 2 /s in the absence of MHD fluctuations. Upon varying the resonance position in steady state conditions the effect of the ECRH on the sawtooth stabilization has been also investigated. Lower hybrid current drive studies have been performed in order to investigate the dependence of the current drive efficiency with density. Previous results of the Alcator C tokamak pointed out that at high density rather low efficiency values were obtained. The investigation carried out on FTU shows that such a result can be explained as due to the electron temperature dependence of the current drive efficiency. No degradation of the current drive efficiency is indeed observed on FTU even at density values of the order 1020m -3 . Ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating studies have been also carried out in order to check the behaviour of wave-plasma coupling which is found in agreement with linear theory. Finally, impurity transport studies have been carried out. It has been possible to have a direct measurement of the flux of Mo33 which turns out to be in agreement with the expectation of quasilinear theory. (author)

  15. Results from DEMONA aerosol experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzleiter, T.; Wolf, L.; Schoeck, W.

    1987-01-01

    In the DEMONA experiments the behavior of aerosols released into a large dry PWR containment during a core meltdown accident was investigated by means of a 640 m 3 model containment. After performance of eight experiments with quasi-single-compartment containment geometry and one multi-compartment experiment, the DEMONA project is being completed by evaluating and recalculating the measured results. Up to now, good agreement between experiment and model calculations was achieved only for simple test conditions. Adequate modeling of more complicated test conditions requires additional analytical efforts

  16. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  17. ATLAS Run II Exotics Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    While Standard Model is in a good shape especially after Higgs boson discovery, there are a lot of questions beyond SM. The ATLAS detector is performing about 50 Exotics searches addressed these questions. This talk is discussing some of them with datasets collected during the 2015-2016 LHC run from 3 fb^-1 to 18 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV centre of mass energy . Results on searches for resonances decaying into vector boson or fermions, for vector like quarks, for dark matter, and for other new phenomena using these data will be presented.

  18. Results from IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeYoung Tyce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have revealed the existence of a flux of high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin, which is observed in a number of analyses spanning different energy ranges, fields of view, and neutrino flavors. The current data are consistent with an isotropic, equal-flavor flux described by a simple power law spectrum, but deviations from this simple model cannot yet be constrained with high precision. The existing observations in this area are reviewed, along with recent results on dark matter searches and observations of cosmic rays.

  19. Overview of recent ALICE results

    CERN Document Server

    Gunji, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment explores the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter at extremely high temperatures created in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC and provides further insight into small-system physics in (high-multiplicity) pp and p-Pb collisions. The ALICE collaboration presented 27 parallel talks, 50 posters, and 1 flash talk at Quark Matter 2015 and covered various topics including collective dynamics, correlations and fluctuations, heavy flavors, quarkonia, jets and high $p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons, electromagnetic probes, small system physics, and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  20. First half 2005 financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the first half 2005 financial results of the group: 1 - overall performance: sales revenue, operating income, consolidated net income, operating cash flow, balance sheet; 2 - outlook; 3 - performance by business division: front-end division, reactors and services division, back end division, transmission and distribution division, connectors division

  1. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  2. Recent results for Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  3. Optical Array Processor: Laboratory Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Jackson, James; Vaerewyck, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) is described and laboratory results on its performance in several practical engineering problems are presented. The applications include its use in the solution of a nonlinear matrix equation for optimal control and a parabolic Partial Differential Equation (PDE), the transient diffusion equation with two spatial variables. Frequency-multiplexed, analog and high accuracy non-base-two data encoding are used and discussed. A multi-processor OLAP architecture is described and partitioning and data flow issues are addressed.

  4. Reporting of Diagnostic Cytogenetic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Anne B S; Bieber, Frederick R; Dubuc, Adrian M; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Ligon, Azra H; Mason-Suares, Heather; Morton, Cynthia C; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Xiao, Sheng; Dal Cin, Paola

    2016-04-01

    This appendix, developed by the staff at the Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics in the Department of Pathology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, includes a comprehensive list of current "macros" or standardized statements used to facilitate reporting of cytogenetic results. These are provided as a useful reference for other laboratories. The statements are organized under the general categories of constitutional or acquired abnormalities and subdivided into analysis type (GTG-banding, FISH, or chromosomal microarray). Multi-specimen usage macros are included that can be applied to two or more specimen types. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Recent results from Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker D. Burkert

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on studies of the structure of nucleons and nuclei in the regime of strong interaction QCD are discussed. Use of high current polarized electron beams, polarized targets, and recoil polarimeters, in conjunction with modern spectrometers and detector instrumentation allow much more detailed studies of nucleon and nuclear structure than has been possible in the past. The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab was build to study the internal structure of hadrons in a regime where confinement is important and strong interaction QCD is the relevant theory. They author discusses how the first experiments already make significant contributions towards an improved understanding of hadronic structure

  6. Recent Results from Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker Burkert

    2000-03-01

    Recent results on studies of the structure of nucleons and nuclei in the regime of strong interaction QCD are discussed. Use of high current polarized electron beams, polarized targets, and recoil polarimeters, in conjunction with modern spectrometers and detector instrumentation allow much more detailed studies of nucleon and nuclear structure than has been possible in the past. The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab was built to study the internal structure of hadrons in a regime where confinement is important and strong interaction QCD is the relevant theory. I discuss how the first experiments already make significant contributions towards an improved understanding of hadronic structure

  7. Recent CMS B physics results

    CERN Document Server

    Polikarpov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Various recent CMS B physics results are reported, including measurement of B hadron lifetimes; observation of $\\Upsilon\\mathrm{(1S)}$ pair production; angular analysis of the rare decay $\\mathrm{B}^0\\rightarrow\\mathrm{K}^{*0}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$; search for X(5568) state. All analyses are performed using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$\\,TeV, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of about $20\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$.

  8. Recent photon results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Glasman, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production o f isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rap idity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential c ross sections for isolated photon pair production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.

  9. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  10. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  11. TMX-U experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). Mirror-confined electrons with 30 to 70 keV mean energy densities of 0.5 to 2.0 x 10 12 cm -3 and average betas of 3 to 5% are produced using electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). These results are consistent with an electron Fokker-Planck code. Improved ion-cyclotron microstability is observed using neutral beam injection at 47 0 to the magnetic axis, rather than at 90 0 as in the previous experiment, TMX. Strong end plugging has been produced using a combination of ECRH gyrotrons with sloshing-ion beam injection. In these low-density central cell experiments (3 x 10 11 cm -3 ) the axial losses (tau/sub parallel/ = 20 to 80 ms) are smaller than the nonambipolar radial losses (tau/sub perpendicular/ = 4 to 8 ms). Plugging has been achieved with a central cell density double that of the end plugs. Although no direct measurements are yet available to determine if a thermal barrier potential dip is generated, these experiments support many theoretical features of the thermal barrier concept

  12. Results from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, B A

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment has sought nu /sub mu / implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations by looking for the emergence of tau /sup -/ in events from the CERN SPS neutrino beam. With some improvements in the techniques of analysis in relation to the results published previously and with the inclusion of data from the 1998 run, no evidence for the oscillations has been found, which results in an updated limit on the oscillation probability [P( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<0.5* 10/sup -3/ at a 90% C.L.]. The corresponding limit on the oscillation mixing angle is given by sin/sup 2/2 theta /sub mu tau /<1.0*10/sup -3/ for large Delta m/sup 2/. By using a 1% contamination of nu /sub e/ in the neutrino beam, we can also rule out nu /sub e/ implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations and constrain the probability of the relevant transition as P( nu /sub 3/ to nu /sub tau /)<3*10/sup -2/ at a 90% C.L. (sin/sup 2/2Q/sub e tau /<6*10/sup -2/ at large Delta m/sup 2/). (10 refs).

  13. Mechanical Valve Replacement: Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Cakir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Valve diseases in developing countries like Turkey which often occur as a complication of rheumatic fever are a serious disease. Surgical treatment of valve diseases should be done before irreversible damage to the myocardium occurred. In this study, we aimed to present the early results of mechanical valve replacement operations. Method: A hundred patients with mechanical valve replacement surgery were retrospectively evaluated in Seyhan Application Center attached to our clinic between July 2007 and August 2011. Results: Fifty patients were male and 50 were women. The mean age of patients was 47.88 (18-78. Isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR was performed to 23 patients, isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR was 32, double valve replacement (AVR + MVR was 12, MVR + aortic valve valvuloplasty was 1, AVR + mitral kommissurotomi was 1, AVR + coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG was 17, MVR + CABG was 8, MVR + atrial septal defect closure was 2 and Bentall procedure.was 4 patients. In addition, ablation procedure was performed to 5 patients intraoperatively because of preoperative atrial fibrillation. Two patients (2 % died in early postoperative period. Conclusion: Mechanical prosthetic valves are used for surgical treatment of valve disease with low mortality and morbidity in a large group of patients like women that not to think to get pregnant, non advanced age group and patients have less risky for anticoagulation drug in our clinic. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 49-54

  14. Treatment Results for Supraglottic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Kim, Chul Yong; Choi, Myung Sun

    1994-01-01

    Purpose: In supraglottic cancer, radiation therapy is used to preserve the laryngeal function but combined surgery and radiation therapy is required in advanced stage. The authors present the results of radiation therapy alone and combined surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy for supraglottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was done for 43 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx who were treated from February 1982 to December 1991, in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Hospital. Patient distribution according to the AJCC staging system was as follows; I, 3(7.0%); II, 7(16.3%); III, 17(39.5%); IV, 16(37.2%). Patients' age ranged from 30 to 72 years(median 62). Follow up durations were from 21 to 137 months(median 27). Seventeen patients(39.5%) were treated by radiation therapy alone with radiation doses of 6840-7380 cGy and 26 patients(60.5%) were treated with surgery plus postoperative irradiation with doses of 5820-6660 cGy. Results: Overall five-year survival rate for all stage was 51.8%, with 100% for Stage I and II, 47.3% for Stage III, and 29.2% for Stage IV. The difference of the survival rate by stage was statistically significant(p=0.0152). Five-year survival rates were 100% for locally confined tumor in the supraglottic larynx, 37.5% for transglottic extension, 26.7% for hypopharynx extension, and only two of 5 patients with both transglottic and hypopharynx extension were alive(p=0.0033). Five-year survival rates by neck node status were as follows: 55.0% for N0, 64.3% for N1, 50.0% for N2, and all 2 of N3 were died of disease. Overall survival rate for radiation therapy alone group was 42.8% and it was 56.7% for surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy group with no statistically significant difference(p=0.5215). In Stage I and II, all patients survived. In Stage III and IV, 5-year survival rate for radiation therapy alone group was 28.5% and 43.4% for surgery plus

  15. Radial head prosthesis: results overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carità, E; Donadelli, A; Cugola, L; Perazzini, P

    2017-12-01

    Radial head replacement is frequently used in treatment of radial head fractures or sequela. Impossibility to restore a correct anatomy, acute elbow traumatic instability and failure of osteosynthesis hardware are the most common indications. The authors describe their case studies and results on the implantation of various radial head prostheses. Between June 2005 and June 2016, 28 radial head prostheses were implanted in the same number of patients with an average follow-up of 49 months (6-104). Indications for implantation were: Mason type III and IV radial head fractures and post-traumatic arthritis due to failure of previous treatments. Monopolar prostheses were used and were press-fit implanted via Kaplan's lateral access and Kocher's anconeus approach to the humeroradial joint. At the follow-up, assessments were made of the pain, according to the visual analogic scale, range of motion (ROM), stability and functionality according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, presence of osteolysis and mobilization during radiography tests, personal satisfaction of the patients, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation outcomes measurements. At the follow-up, we recorded an average level of pain of 1.8 in patients under acute treatments for radial head fractures and a marked reduction in the remaining cases from 6.7 to 2.1. ROM was found on average to be 107° of flexion-extension and 159° of pronosupination. Personal satisfaction was good-excellent in 23 cases. There was no case of infection; removal of the implant was necessary in three cases due to mobilization of the stem and oversized implants. In six cases, bone resorption was seen at the level of the prosthetic collar and it was in all cases asymptomatic. The results of this study suggest that the use of prostheses, if well positioned, is a valid solution in the treatment of secondary arthritis and fractures of the radial head with poor prognosis, with good results in the

  16. Discrete compactons: some exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P G; Konotop, V V; Bishop, A R; Takeno, S

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we use the method of constructing exact solutions on lattices proposed by Kinnersley and described in Schmidt (1979 Phys. Rev. B 20 4397), to obtain exact compacton solutions in discrete models. We examine the linear stability of such solutions, both for the bright compacton and for the dark compacton cases. We focus on a 'quantization condition' that the width of the profile should satisfy. We also use this quantization condition to examine the possibility of compact coherent structures travelling in discrete settings. Our results are obtained for sinusoidal profiles and then generalized to elliptic functions of arbitrary modulus. The possibility of multi-compacton solutions is considered. (letter to the editor)

  17. Recent Dibosons Results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kouskoura, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Measurements on the production of electroweak boson pairs at the LHC provide an important test of the predictions of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, and allow precise measurements of the Triple Gauge Couplings vertices probing for possible new phenomena involving gauge bosons. ATLAS has studied diboson production processes involving all combinations of W, Z and isolated photons, providing total and fiducial cross sections. The Wγ, Zγ, WW, WZ and ZZ processes were also used to provide new constraints on the triple-gauge couplings. We concentrate on the WZ and ZZ production measurements, both performed using leptonic decay channels since they are the cleanest signatures of these processes. The latest ATLAS results on dibosons are presented using data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.

  18. Cassini at Saturn Huygens results

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2007-01-01

    "Cassini At Saturn - Huygens Results" will bring the story of the Cassini-Huygens mission and their joint exploration of the Saturnian system right up to date. Cassini is due to enter orbit around Saturn on the 1 July 2004 and the author will have 8 months of scientific data available for review, including the most spectacular images of Saturn, its rings and satellites ever obtained by a space mission. As the Cassini spacecraft approached its destination in spring 2004, the quality of the images already being returned by the spacecraft clearly demonstrate the spectacular nature of the close-range views that will be obtained. The book will contain a 16-page colour section, comprising a carefully chosen selection of the most stunning images to be released during the spacecraft's initial period of operation. The Huygens craft will be released by Cassini in December 2004 and is due to parachute through the clouds of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in January 2005.

  19. Results from ISTC frame work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Under International Science Research Center (ISTC) projects, JAERI Nuclear Data Center has been taking a role of collaborator and monitor for following items; (1) Measurement of the Fission Neutron Spectra of the Minor Actinides and Spontaneous Fission of Curium Isotopes (ISTC no. 183: V.I. Khlopin Radium Institute, KRI, St. Petersburg, Russia), (2) Measurement and Analysis of the Basic Nuclear Data for Minor Actinides (ISTC no. 304: Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, IPPE, Obninsk, Russia), and Evaluation of Actinide Nuclear Data (ISTC no. CIS-3: Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute, RPCPI, Minsk, Belarus). These are related to the Japanese OMEGA Project and expected to supply minor actinide (MA) nuclear data, since Russia has good quality MA samples, experimental technique and nuclear data evaluation experiences. In this report, out-line and some results of above three projects are reviewed. (author)

  20. First results on fast baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, B. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bvisentin@cea.fr; Gasser, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  1. HEAO A-2 extragalactic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The all-sky surveys made with the A-2 instrument aboard HEAO-1 involved spectroscopy over a broad enough band width, with sufficient resolution, to obtain the basic spectral characteristics for two extreme aspects of the extragalactic X-ray sky. The overall spectrum (above 3 KeV) is remarkably well decribed by a thermal model. At the other extreme, the detailed broad-band observations of individual sources are restricted to objects within the present epoch. The objects include several individual active galaxies studied in detail for the first time as well as clusters of galaxies. Relating these results to the vast spatially unresolved hard X-ray flux measured with this instruments as well as the softer X-rays (at less than 3 keV) spatially resolved to high redshifts with the Einstein Observatory remains a challenge.

  2. Latest results from KLOE-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloise Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KLOE experiment at the Frascati φ–factory recently obtained results on i CPT and Lorentz invariance tests from the study of quantum interference of the neutral kaon pairs; ii precision measurement of the branching fraction, BR(K+ → π+π−π+(γ = 0.05565 ± 0.00031stat ± 0.00025syst, and iii on dark photon searches with the analysis of the e+e− → µµγ final state. We have also studied the transition form factors of the φ meson to the pseudoscalars, π0 and η, that is presented in a separate contribution to this volume.

  3. Results from the AMANDA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Albrecht, H; Bai, X; Bartelt, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Becka, T; Becker, J K; Becker, K H; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Boersma, D J; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Collin, B; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; Pérez de los Heros, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Ekstrom, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Gross, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Harenberg, T; Hauschildt, T; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kampert, K H; Karle, A; Kelley, J; Kestel, M; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Liubarsky, I; Madsen, J; Mandli, K; Marciniewski, P; Martino, J R; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Messarius, T; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Morse, R; Munich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Sander, H G; Schinarakis, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wiebusch, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Yodh, G

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high- energy neutrino telescope based at the geographic south pole. It is a lattice of photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice, which is used as interaction and detection medium. The primary goal of this detector is the observation of astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos. This paper shows the latest results of the search for a diffuse flux of extraterrestrial nu /sub mu /s with energies between 10/sup 11/ eV and 10/sup 18/ eV, nu /sub mu /s emitted from point sources and nu /sub mu /s from dark matter annihilation in the Earth and the Sun.

  4. Recent results on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent results regarding heating, confinement, current drive and profile modifications, heat and particle exhaust are reported. Improved core confinement is obtained after pellet injection (PEP) or Lower Hybrid current drive (LHEP) and may be linked with small - or reversed - central magnetic shear. Conversely, by increasing the magnetic shear in the gradient region, both LHCD and fast wave electron heating (FWEH) have produced improved global confinement was carried by the bootstrap current. Fast wave current drive has been observed at the level of 80 kA in a 0.4 MA discharge. In the ergodic divertor configuration, stable radiative layers were obtained with neon injection. At least 80% of a total of 7 MW injected power were radiated without confinement degradation or impurity accumulation. Finally, the heat exhaust capability of the various actively cooled plasma facing components is briefly described. (author) 14 refs.; 13 figs

  5. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  6. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  7. Recent ATLAS Heavy Ion results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Lead nucleus collisions in the LHC recreate the state of matter which existed when the universe was a few microseconds old. This super-hot matter, composed of quark and gluons, emits thousands of particles as it expands, cools and converts back into hadrons. The ATLAS detector provides an excellent opportunity to perform detailed studies of this novel state of matter, measuring its bulk properties and its response to penetrating probes. Recent studies of particle correlations and fluctuations shed light on the initial geometry and its evolution into the final state. Studies of jet suppression and fragmentation show how the energetic partons interact with the medium. High precision measurements of boson production and first results on boson-jet correlations are important steps towards quantitative understanding of the parton energy loss mechanism.

  8. Some results in Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen Højris

    This thesis consists of three papers in Diophantine approximation, a subbranch of number theory. Preceding these papers is an introduction to various aspects of Diophantine approximation and formal Laurent series over Fq and a summary of each of the three papers. The introduction introduces...... the basic concepts on which the papers build. Among other it introduces metric Diophantine approximation, Mahler’s approach on algebraic approximation, the Hausdorff measure, and properties of the formal Laurent series over Fq. The introduction ends with a discussion on Mahler’s problem when considered...... in the formal Laurent series over F3. The first paper is on intrinsic Diophantine approximation in the Cantor set in the formal Laurent series over F3. The summary contains a short motivation, the results of the paper and sketches of the proofs, mainly focusing on the ideas involved. The details of the proofs...

  9. Results from KASCADE–Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, M.; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.

    2012-01-01

    The KASCADE–Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10 14 –10 18 eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10 16 –10 18 eV range by sampling charged (N ch ) and muon (N μ ) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE–Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  10. MITG test procedure and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, M.E.; Mukunda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper

  11. Corrigendum to ``Sensitivity of near-inertial internal waves to spatial interpolations of wind stress in ocean generation circulation models'' [Ocean Modelling 99 (2016) 15-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhao; Wu, Lixin; Ma, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    The authors regret that the Acknowledgements section in Jing et al. (2016) neglected to give proper credit to the model development team and to the intellectual work behind the model simulation and wish to add the following acknowledgements: We are very grateful to the developers of the coupled regional climate model (CRCM) used in this study. The CRCM was developed at Texas A&M University by Dr. Raffaele Montuoro under the direction of Dr. Ping Chang, with support from National Science Foundation Grants AGS-1067937 and AGS-1347808, Department of Energy Grant DE-SC0006824, as well as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Grant NA11OAR4310154. The design of the reported CRCM simulations was led by Dr. Ping Chang and carried out by Dr. Xiaohui Ma as a part of her dissertation research under the supervision of Dr. Ping Chang, supported by National Science Foundation Grants AGS-1067937 and AGS-1347808. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  12. Energy 21. Preconditions and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In 1988 the Danish government adopted an action plan for the environment and sustainable development. In 1990, the energy aspects of this plan were embodied in Energy 2000 and, in 1993, in Energy 2000 follow-up. The objective is a 20% reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by the year 2005, compared with the level in 1988. Various measures are therefore being taken as time passes to help achieve this objective. As part of the monitoring of developments in the energy sector, it is necessary to take stock from time to time and to assess the direction in which the sector is moving. The government has therefore drawn up a new energy action plan, Energy 21, both to ensure that the overall objectives in the current plan are actively followed up on and to look ahead at the possibilities for action after the year 2005. The Danish Energy Agency has previously carried out a number of analyses of the technological and behavioural possibilities for reducing energy consumption in the short and the long term, for improving the efficiency of energy supply installations, and for using new and sustainable energy technologies. The results of this work are described in the report Denmark`s Energy Futures. The calculations in the report itself and its appendices. The more detailed assumptions and a description of the methods of analysis etc. are given in Basis for Analysis of Denmark`s Energy Futures. This report contains the assumptions, a description of methods and some of the results of the work on Energy 21. (au)

  13. Ruthenium nanoparticles decorated curl-like porous carbons for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bih-Show; Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Madhu, Rajesh; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of highly dispersed and stable ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs; ca. 2-3 nm) on porous activated carbons derived from Moringa Oleifera fruit shells (MOC) is reported and were exploited for supercapacitor applications. The Ru/MOC composites so fabricated using the biowaste carbon source and ruthenium acetylacetonate as the co-feeding metal precursors were activated at elevated temperatures (600-900 oC) in the presence of ZnCl2 as the pore generating and chemical activating agent. The as-prepared MOC carbonized at 900 oC was found to possess a high specific surface area (2522 m2 g-1) and co-existing micro- and mesoporosities. Upon incorporating RuNPs, the Ru/MOC nanocomposites loaded with modest amount of metallic Ru (1.0-1.5 wt%) exhibit remarkable electrochemical and capacitive properties, achiving a maximum capacitance of 291 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 in 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte. These highly stable and durable Ru/MOC electrodes, which can be facily fabricated by the eco-friendly and cost-effective route, should have great potentials for practical applications in energy storage, biosensing, and catalysis.

  14. Role of epicuticular waxes in the susceptibility of cotton leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... on Gossypium arboreum -786 plants, while lane 16,17 and 18 shows whiteflies on Gossypium hirsutum MNH-93. amplified from RCA product of whiteflies, G. hirsutum. MNH-93 plants and wax mutant GaWM3 plants but no amplification was observed in G. arboreum variety 786 as shown in Figure 5.

  15. Qualitative Investigation into Students' Use of Divergence and Curl in Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; De Cock, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Many students struggle with the use of mathematics in physics courses. Although typically well trained in rote mathematical calculation, they often lack the ability to apply their acquired skills to physical contexts. Such student difficulties are particularly apparent in undergraduate electrodynamics, which relies heavily on the use of vector…

  16. Kettlebell swing targets semitendinosus and supine leg curl targets biceps femoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Skotte, Jørgen; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    The medial hamstring muscle has the potential to prevent excessive dynamic valgus and external rotation of the knee joint during sports. Thus, specific training targeting the medial hamstring muscle seems important to avoid knee injuries.......The medial hamstring muscle has the potential to prevent excessive dynamic valgus and external rotation of the knee joint during sports. Thus, specific training targeting the medial hamstring muscle seems important to avoid knee injuries....

  17. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L.) and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova; Plamen Marinov-Serafimov

    2008-01-01

    Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous wee...

  18. Incidence, Distribution and Characteristics of Major Tomato Leaf Curl and Mosaic Virus Diseases in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, C

    2006-01-01

    In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...

  19. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L. and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous weeds, two field trials were carried out. A ready-to-use herbicide mixture 2,4-D 140.2 g/l-1 + Triclopyr 144 g/l-1, trade product Genoxon 3X (X0050, was tested at two doses of active ingredient, 3552 and 2842 ml/ha-1. It was found that: (1 population density of Rumex crispus L. can be successfully reduced by treatment at the stage of early stem formation; herbicideefficacy with 3552 and 2882 ml/ha-1 doses on the 21st day after treatment was 100% and 90.5%, respectively, at the end of vegetation 94.4 and 85.7%, respectively; (2 herbicidal efficacy was lower when R. crispus L. was treated at the 5 - 6 leaf stage, being 100 – 94.1%and 80 – 76.5% respectively for the indicated doses and time of recording; (3 at the studied doses the herbicide controlled both annual dicotyledonous weeds (Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L. and perennial dicotyledonous ones (Cirsiumarvense L., Sonchus arvensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Carduus acanthoides L., but it was not toxic to monocotyledonous weeds.

  20. Uncertainty of dustfall monitoring results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. van Nierop

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fugitive dust has the ability to cause a nuisance and pollute the ambient environment, particularly from human activities including construction and industrial sites and mining operations. As such, dustfall monitoring has occurred for many decades in South Africa; little has been published on the repeatability, uncertainty, accuracy and precision of dustfall monitoring. Repeatability assesses the consistency associated with the results of a particular measurement under the same conditions; the consistency of the laboratory is assessed to determine the uncertainty associated with dustfall monitoring conducted by the laboratory. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the uncertainty in dustfall monitoring; thereby improving the confidence in dustfall monitoring. Uncertainty of dustfall monitoring was assessed through a 12-month study of 12 sites that were located on the boundary of the study area. Each site contained a directional dustfall sampler, which was modified by removing the rotating lid, with four buckets (A, B, C and D installed. Having four buckets on one stand allows for each bucket to be exposed to the same conditions, for the same period of time; therefore, should have equal amounts of dust deposited in these buckets. The difference in the weight (mg of the dust recorded from each bucket at each respective site was determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials method D1739 (ASTM D1739. The variability of the dust would provide the confidence level of dustfall monitoring when reporting to clients.