WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind-solar hybrid renewable

  1. Techno-economic analysis of a wind-solar hybrid renewable energy system with rainwater collection feature for urban high-rise application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, W.T.; Naghavi, M.S.; Poh, S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Pan, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This wind-solar hybrid renewable energy system is a new concept of the utilization, integration and optimization of existing renewable energy and rain water harvesting technologies. It is compact and can be built on the top of high rise buildings to provide on-site green power to that building or feed into the grid line. This system utilizes the advantages of Malaysian climate, i.e. high solar radiation and rainfall for green energy generation and free water supply. It also overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind from all directions radially through power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine at center portion. The PAGV is an innovative design used to guide and create venturi effect to increase the wind speed before the wind-stream enters wind turbine. The system must also be designed to provide optimum surface area for solar panel (solar thermal or photovoltaic or solar PV/T)) installation and battery compartment for power storage. In addition; rain water collection feature must be built-into the system design. The system is recommended to be sited on the top of high rise buildings or structures with its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. With this system, the size of wind turbine can be reduced for a given power output and the noise is also reduced since it is contained in the PAGV. The design is also safer and suitable to be used in populated area. Mesh can be mounted at the entrance of the PAGV to prevent the bird-strike. This system can eliminate or minimize the current problems concerning public acceptance of wind energy, i.e. poor starting behavior in low wind speed, noise, visual impact, electromagnetic interference, safety and environmental factors. Highlights: → This wind, solar and rain harvester integrates existing renewable energy and rain water

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of hybrid wind-solar power generation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOMER power optimization software for evaluation of design and performance of both off-grid and gridconnected power systems has been applied for cost-benefit analysis of a wind-solar hybrid power generation system. Comparison was also made with the cost per kilowatt of grid power supply. The hybrid system had a ...

  3. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an optimization method for a hybrid (wind-solar) autonomous system designed for pumping water. This method is based on mathematical models demonstrated for the analysis and control of the performance of the various components of the hybrid system. These models provide an estimate of ...

  4. A GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID WIND-SOLAR POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAAMAR TALEB

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid renewable energy system consisting of a photovoltaic generator and a wind driven DC machine is interconnected with the power utilities grid. The interconnection is done through the use of two separate single phase full wave controlled bridge converters. The bridge converters are operated in the “inverter mode of operation”. That is to guaranty the extraction of the real powers from the wind driven generator as well as from the photovoltaic generator and inject them into the power utilities grid. At any pretended surrounding weather conditions, maximum extraction of powers from both renewable energy sources is targeted. This is done through the realization of self-adjusted firing angle controllers responsible of triggering the semiconductor elements of the controlled converters. An active power filter is shunted with the proposed setup to guaranty the sinusoid quality of the power utilities line current. The overall performance of the proposed system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Quite satisfactory and encouraging results have been obtained.

  5. Renewable Generation (Wind/Solar and Load Modeling through Modified Fuzzy Prediction Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Furqan Rafique

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of energy management system for renewable microgrid, either grid-connected or isolated, is heavily dependent on the forecasting precision such as wind, solar, and load. In this paper, an improved fuzzy prediction horizon forecasting method is developed to address the issue of intermittence and uncertainty problem related to renewable generation and load forecast. In the first phase, a Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy system is trained with many evolutionary optimization algorithms and established coverage grade indicator to check the accuracy of interval forecast. Secondly, a wind, solar, and load forecaster is developed for renewable microgrid test bed which is located in Beijing, China. One day and one step ahead results for the proposed forecaster are expressed with lowest RMSE and training time. In order to check the efficiency of the proposed method, a comparison is carried out with the existing models. The fuzzy interval-based model for the microgrid test bed will help to formulate the energy management problem with more accuracy and robustness.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel hybrid wind-solar-compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Wu; An, Baolin; Wang, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a novel hybrid wind-solar-compressed air energy storage system. • Wind and solar power are transformed into stable electric energy and hot water. • The system output electric power is 8053 kWh with an exergy efficiency of 65.4%. • Parametric sensitivity analysis is presented to optimize system performance. - Abstract: Wind and solar power have embraced a strong development in recent years due to the energy crisis in China. However, owing to their nature of fluctuation and intermittency, some power grid management problems can be caused. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-compressed air energy storage (WS-CAES) system was proposed to solve the problems. The WS-CAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Also, combined with organic Rankin cycle (ORC), the cascade utilization of energy with different qualities was achieved in the WS-CAES system. Aiming to obtain the optimum performance, the analysis of energy, exergy and parametric sensitivity were all conducted for this system. Furthermore, exergy destruction ratio of each component in the WS-CAES system was presented. The results show that the electric energy storage efficiency, round trip efficiency and exergy efficiency can reach 87.7%, 61.2% and 65.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, the parameters analysis demonstrates that the increase of ambient temperature has a negative effect on the system performance, while the increase of turbine inlet temperature has a positive effect. However, when the air turbine inlet pressure varies, there is a tradeoff between the system performance and the energy storage density.

  7. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  8. A Novel Hybrid Statistical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimodal Functions and Frequency Control of Hybrid Wind-Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to control frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises solar system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.

  9. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  10. Methodology to optimize the cost of deployment of a wind-solar hybrid system; Metodologia para otimizar o custo da implantacao de um sistema hibrido eolico-solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Jose Wilson Lage [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Norte (UERN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: wilson@ufrnet.br; Rocha, Brismark Goes da [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Patu, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: brismarkrocha@uern.br

    2008-07-01

    Purposes the application of a methodology to optimize the implantation cost of an wind-solar hybrid system, to potencies between 2.250 W and 3.750 W. The developed mathematical model was obtained through the Multiple Linear Regression technique, on the basis of the previous knowledge of variables: necessary capacity of storage, total daily energy demand, wind power, module power and module number. These variables are gotten by means of sizing. Parametric statistical: T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind. Parametric statistical T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind, F-Snedecor in the variance analysis to test if the coefficients of the considered model are significantly different of zero and test not-parametric statistical by Friedman, to verify if there is difference in the total cost, by being considered the photovoltaic module powers. In decision of hypothesis tests was considered a 5%-significant level. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 3 HP. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 5 HP only to wind speed of 4 m/s and 6 m/s in wind of 3 m, 4 m and 5 m of diameter. There was not significant difference in costs to diameters of winds of 3 m and 4 m. A computational program was developed to assist the study of several configurations that optimizes the implantation cost of an wind-solar through considered mathematical model. (author)

  11. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  12. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  13. Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Cordero, Francisco Jose

    Use of diesel generators in remote communities is economically and environmentally unsustainable. Consequently, researchers have focussed on designing hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) for distributed electricity generation in remote communities. However, the cost-effectiveness of interconnecting multiple remote communities (microgrids) has not been explored. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology for optimal design of HRES and microgrids for remote communities. A set of case studies was developed to test this methodology and it was determined that a combination of stand-alone decentralized HRES and microgrids is the most cost-effective power generation scheme when studying a group of remote communities.

  14. A simple model for the energy supply of a stand-alone house using a hybrid wind-solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    A research project for secondary school students involving both physical measurements and modelling is presented. The problem to be solved is whether and how a typical house can be supplied with energy off-grid, based entirely on renewable energy sources, more specifically, on solar and wind energy, while using relatively simple devices, namely, photovoltaic modules, wind turbines and accumulators. To this end our students carried out a long term measurement series in order to assess the typical energy consumption of houses. Further, the number of solar modules and wind turbines, and the necessary accumulator capacity, was estimated.

  15. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  16. Hybrid Hydro Renewable Energy Storage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting wind & tidal turbine pumped-storage solutions for improving the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of renewable energy systems. Indicated a viable option to solve problems of energy production, as well as in the integration of intermittent renewable energies, providing system flexibility due to energy load’s fluctuation, as long as the storage of energy from intermittent sources. Sea water storage energy is one of the best and most efficient options in terms of renewable resources as an integrated solution allowing the improvement of the energy system elasticity and the global system efficiency.

  17. Renewable rural electrification: sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available . The project comprised of wind, solar and lead acid battery energy storage technologies that were implemented as a mini-hybrid off-grid electrification system for the village. The sustainability assessment methodology predicts the outcomes of such interventions...

  18. Power management of a hybrid renewable system for artificial islands: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzolino, R.; Tribioli, L.; Bella, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid wind/solar/fuel cell power plant is designed and a possible power management strategy is proposed. In particular, wind and solar energy sources are used as primary power suppliers, while a pure-hydrogen-fueled fuel cell – with hydrogen produced by means of an electrolyzer recovering excess power – and a battery pack are employed to fulfill the power demand, when the power supplied by the renewable sources is not sufficient. The analysis is applied to a particular case study, i.e. the TUNeIT [TUNisia and ITaly] Project, that involves the realization of four artificial islands to connect Bon (Tunisia) and Pizzolato (Sicily), provided with electrical-power-demanding facilities for tourists. Components sizing has been performed with HOMER, where a load profile has been assumed in order to reproduce the possible power demand of one of these artificial islands, while Matlab/Simulink ® is used for simulations and power management strategy design. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing an almost self-sustaining renewable power plant, able to realize a good integration of different energy sources and power converters, with no negative effects on end-user satisfaction. The system would consist of a wind turbine of 1 MW and a photovoltaic array of 1.1 MW, acting as primary power sources and several backup systems, such as a 72-kWh battery, a 300-kW fuel cell and a 300-kW diesel engine to cope with power demand unmatches and/or failures. In order to verify the system performance under different situations, simulation studies have been carried out using practical load demand profiles and real weather data. Typical winter and summer day loads have been kept for simulations of a four-season scenario and results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed system. The major drawback encountered during the analysis is the low value of the utilization factors of both wind turbine and photovoltaic array, which are 10

  19. AN INTELLIGENT HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK MODEL IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gnana Sheela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to predict wind speed automatically in renewable energy systems. Wind energy is one of the renewable energy systems with lowest cost of production of electricity with largest resources available. By the reason of the fluctuation and volatility in wind, the wind speed prediction provides the challenges in the stability of renewable energy system. The aim is to compute predicted wind speed based on hybrid model which integrates a Self Organizing Map (SOM and Back propagation (BP neural network. The simulation result shows that the proposed approach provides significant result of wind speed prediction with less error rates. Due to seasonality, single computing models have some disadvantages such as fluctuality, randomness and unstable. These disadvantages are rectified by using hybrid computing neural network models. Wind speed prediction is an important in the field of wind power plants.

  20. Model for optimum design of standalone hybrid renewable energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An optimization model for the design of a hybrid renewable energy microgrid supplying an isolated load has been developed. This is achieved in two steps. The first step developed a linear programming model that uses the average pattern of demand, wind, and solar energy to determine the optimal configuration.

  1. Optimisation and Integration of Hybrid Renewable Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E. L. V.; MacA Gray, E.

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses renewable energy system concepts and integration techniques, and reviews modelling and optimization techniques for hybrid renewable energy systems for electricity provision. A proposal to use design criteria that are not limited to performance- and cost-related factors is introduced and forms a background to the following discussion. Optimization techniques in relation to constraints, reliability analysis and algorithms are discussed as well as software tools available for modelling/simulation, component sizing and optimization. The focus is on systems incorporating hydrogen, but the ideas presented have general relevance.

  2. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  3. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  4. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  5. A hybrid renewable energy system for a North American off-grid community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Khan, Md. Mohib-Ul-Haque; Ullah, Mohammad Ahsan; Zhang, Xiaolei; Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Canada has many isolated communities that are not connected to the electrical grid. Most of these communities meet their electricity demand through stand-alone diesel generators. Diesel generators have economic and environmental concerns that can be minimized by using hybrid renewable energy technologies. This study aims to assess the implementation of a hybrid energy system for an off-grid community in Canada and to propose the best hybrid energy combination to reliably satisfy electricity demand. Seven scenarios were developed: 1) 100% renewable resources, 2) 80% renewable resources, 3) 65% renewable resources, 4) 50% renewable resources, 5) 35% renewable resources, 6) 21% renewable resources, and 7) battery-diesel generators (0% renewable resources). A case study for the remote community of Sandy Lake, Ontario, was conducted. Hybrid systems were chosen to meet the requirements of a 4.4 MWh/day primary load with a 772 kW peak load. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the impact of solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price, CO 2 penalty cost, and project interest rate on optimum results. A GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement cost was assessed for each scenario. Considering GHG emission penalty cost, the costs of electricity for the seven scenarios are $1.48/kWh, $0.62/kWh, $0.54/kWh, $0.42/kWh, $0.39/kWh, $0.37/kWh, and $0.36/kWh. - Highlights: • Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems for an off-grid community. • Seven scenarios were developed based on various renewable energy fractions. • Cost of electricity is the highest for 100% renewable fraction scenario. • CO 2 emissions are reduced by 1232 tonnes/yr by switching from diesel to renewables. • The electricity cost is most sensitive to diesel price based on sensitivity analysis.

  6. Renewable energy in Spain : balance and projects for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book presents: 1) The renewable program under th energy saving and efficiency plan. 2) The current position of renewable energy in Spain. 3) Different renewable energies and their status : small hydropower, biomass, wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic, geothermal energy

  7. Optimization Techniques of Hybrid Renewable Energy System: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Dilruba; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; A, Hasniaty; Tahir, Zulkifli; A, Taufik

    2010-01-01

    The term renewable energy is energy derived from a broad spectrum of resources, all of which are based on self-renewing energy sources such as sunlight, wind, flowing water, the earth's internal heat, and biomass such as energy crops, agricultural and industrial waste, and municipal waste. These resources can be used to produce electricity for all economic sectors, fuels for transportation, and heat for buildings and industrial processes [1]. Germany has new targets for renewable energy b...

  8. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  9. Analysis of a hybrid renewable energy system on the Mures valley using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragoş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth, and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. This paper deals with the modeling and analysis of a hybrid system based on renewable energy resources, located on the Mureş valley, using a dedicated software named HOMER. Different types and topologies of renewable resources for the energy supply are analyzed; a small consumer situated on the Mureş Valley is modeled based on a load curve. Finally, the energy flows between the renewable energy system and the local supplying network are analyzed.

  10. Feasibility study and energy conversion analysis of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Fazia; Mohammedi, Kamal; Diaf, Said; Behar, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid stand-alone wind–solar–fossil power system is analyzed. • Measurement data are used to evaluate system performance. • The proposed system can generate about 70% from renewables. • Such a hybrid plant is very promising for remote regions in Algeria. - Abstract: There is a great interest in the development of renewable power technologies in Algeria, and more particularly hybrid concept. The present paper has investigated the performance of hybrid PV–Wind–Diesel–Battery configuration based on hourly measurements of Adrar climate (southern Algeria). Data of global solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed for a period of one year have been used. Firstly, the proposed hybrid system has been optimized by means of HOMER software. The optimization process has been carried out taking into account renewable resources potential and energy demand; while maximizing renewable electricity use and fuel saving are the purpose. In the second step, a mathematical model has been developed to ensure efficient energy management on the basis of various operation strategies. The analysis has shown that renewable energy system (PV–Wind) is able to supply about 70% of the demand. Wind power has ranked first with 43% of the annual total electricity production followed by diesel generator (with 31%) while the remaining fraction is being to PV panels. In this context, 69% of the fossil fuel can be saved when using the proposed hybrid configuration instead of the diesel generators that are currently installed in most remote regions in Algeria. Such a concept is very promising to meet the focus of renewable energy program announced in 2011.

  11. Sizing an isolated wind-solar-fuel cell generation system based on the particle swarm optimization method; Dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion aislado eolico-solar-celda de combustible basado en el metodo de optimizacion de enjambre de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Huerta, V; Ramirez-Arredondo, Juan M. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: vsanchez@gdl.cinvestav.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L. G. [CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Sizing an electric energy system requires an analysis of investment, maintenance and operating costs. In the case of a generation system that uses renewable sources, optimal capacity becomes more complex compared to a conventional system, because of the randomness of renewable resources (wind, solar) and the still high costs of wind and photovoltage generator modules. This work presents the optimal sizing of a wind-solar-fuel cell generation system, minimizing the costs of the system while satisfying the energy demands of an isolated charge. The optimization method used is based on an evolutionary programming technique known as particle swarms (PSO-particle swarm optimization). The generation of energy with a hybrid system is discussed, based on the profile of insolation and wind availability at the site, with the objective of satisfying a specific electric demand. [Spanish] El dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica requiere un analisis de los costos de inversion, mantenimiento y operacion. En el caso de un sistema de generacion que utiliza fuentes renovables la capacidad optima resulta mas compleja con respecto a un sistema convencional, debido a la aleatoriedad de los recursos renovables (eolico, solar), y a los aun altos costos de generadores eolicos y modulos fotovoltaicos. En este trabajo se presenta el dimensionamiento optimo de un sistema de generacion eolico-solar-celda de combustible minimizando los costos del sistema que satisfaga la energia demandada por una carga aislada. El metodo de optimizacion utilizado esta basado en una tecnica de programacion evolutiva conocida como enjambre de particulas (PSO por sus siglas en ingles: particle swarm optimization). Se plantea la generacion de energia del sistema hibrido con base a la insolacion y el perfil del viento disponible en sitio, con objeto de satisfacer una demanda electrica determinada.

  12. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  13. On- and off-grid operation of hybrid renewable power plants: When are the economics favorable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Santana, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid renewable energy conversion systems offer a good alternative to conventional systems in locations where the extension of the electrical grid is difficult or not economical or where the cost of electricity is high. However, stand-alone operation implies net energy output restrictions (limited to exclusively serve the energy demand of a region), capacity oversizing and large storage facilities. In interconnected areas, on the other hand, the operational restrictions of the power stations change significantly and the efficiencies and costs of renewable technologies become more favorable. In this paper, the operation of three main renewable technologies (CSP, PV and wind) is studied assuming both hybrid and individual operation for both autonomous and inter-connected operation. The case study used is a Mediterranean island of ca. 3,000 inhabitants. Each system is optimized to fully cover the energy demand of the community. In addition, in the on-grid operation cases, it is required that the annual energy generated from the renewable sources is net positive (i.e., the island generates at least as much energy as it uses). It is found that when connected to the grid, hybridization of more than one technology is not required to satisfy the energy demand, as expected. Each of the renewable technologies investigated can satisfy the annual energy demand individually, without significant complications. In addition, the cost of electricity generated with the three studied technologies drops significantly for on-grid applications, when compared to off-grid operation. However, when compared to business-as-usual scenarios in both the on- and off-grid cases, both investigated hybrid and single-technology renewable scenarios are found to be economically viable. A sensitivity analysis reveals the limits of the acceptable costs that make the technologies favorable when compared to conventional alternatives.

  14. Research on hybrid transmission mode for HVDC with optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hongfu

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy in Northwest China, curtailment phenomena is becoming more and more serve owing to lack of adjustment ability and enough transmission capacity. Based on the existing HVDC projects, exploring the hybrid transmission mode associated with thermal power and renewable power will be necessary and important. This paper has proposed a method on optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination for HVDC lines, based on multi-scheme comparison. Having established the mathematic model for electric power balance in time series mode, ten different schemes have been picked for figuring out the suitable one by test simulation. By the proposed related discriminated principle, including generation device utilization hours, renewable energy electricity proportion and curtailment level, the recommendation scheme has been found. The result has also validated the efficiency of the method.

  15. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  16. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Mark; Cutler, Dylan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Stark, Greg; Jenkin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  17. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel wind-solar-liquid air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, W.; Pan, C. Z.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the nature of fluctuation and intermittency, the utilization of wind and solar power will bring a huge impact to the power grid management. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-liquid air energy storage (WS-LAES) system was proposed. In this system, wind and solar power are stored in the form of liquid air by cryogenic liquefaction technology and thermal energy by solar thermal collector, respectively. Owing to the high density of liquid air, the system has a large storage capacity and no geographic constraints. The WS-LAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to investigate the best system performance. The result shows that the increases of compressor adiabatic efficiency, turbine inlet pressure and inlet temperature all have a beneficial effect.

  18. HR in the Canadian renewable energy sector: HRSDC situational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Ferguson, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the human resources needs in the Canadian renewable energy sector. Emerging energies sector has many skills needs, some of which need to be developed. Emerging energy sector includes wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and bio energy

  19. On the economics of stand-alone renewable hybrid power plants in remote regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Economic evaluation of three renewable hybrid power plants for off-grid operation. • The high electricity cost of remote regions increases the competitiveness of renewable energy. • The proposed plants are economically viable when compared to the existing situation. • The zero direct emissions of the plants constitute an additional advantage of the plants. - Abstract: In recent years ever more examples of regions that have managed to achieve or orientate themselves toward renewable energy sufficiency are emerging. However, actions to create energy autonomy are mainly the result of isolated activities and they are less driven from fully organized movements. In addition, total energy independence without the support of a centralized electrical grid is yet to be achieved. The objectives of this work are to investigate the associated costs of stand-alone renewable hybrid power plants on a Greek island and compare them to the cost of the currently used fossil-fuel-based conventional plant. The plants examined here are designed to fully cover the electricity needs of the island. Islands may face numerous energy problems and rely heavily on foreign and environmentally-harmful fuels. It is shown that the relatively high cost of electricity of such a remote region can increase the competitiveness and promote the wider incorporation of technologies based on renewable energy sources that may, in other cases, seem economically inferior to business-as-usual energy solutions.

  20. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  1. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  2. Six-Phase Vehicular Drive with Renewable DC Sources and Hybrid PWM Control of Four Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Ermuratskii, Vladimir; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research of quad-inverter-based automotive system with combined scheme of PWM control of inverters, supplied by two renewable dc sources (by fuel cells and by battery). It has been shown, that hybrid switching techniques can be used successfully for control of vehicle...... drive with non-equal (variable) voltages of dc-links. Results of modeling proved the fact of symmetries of waveforms of the phase voltages of the system for any operating conditions....

  3. Feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy plant for Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristanto, J. [Bangka Polytechnic, Bangka Island (Indonesia); Gol, O. [South Australia Univ., Adelaide (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Bangka is a small island situated on the north-east cost of the main island of Sumatra in Indonesia. The local geographical conditions in Indonesia have made it difficult to connect remote islands to the electricity grids of the main islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali. People living in coastal and remote areas have not been connected to electricity grids and industries are facing severe daily electricity shortages. In order to sustain the development and economic growth of the region, the Babel provincial government has expressed its willingness to provide financial support for technically and economically feasible renewable energy schemes in supplying electricity. A combined wind and photovoltaic system is being considered as an electricity generation system for a coastal village in Bangka Island, Indonesia. This paper discussed a feasibility study for the proposed hybrid system consisting of two components, notably technological feasibility, and financial feasibility. A software tool created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory called HOMER was used to examine the technological feasibility of the proposed hybrid energy system. HOMER simplifies the task of evaluating design options for both off-grid and grid connected power systems for remote, stand-alone and distributed generation applications. It was concluded that the proposed hybrid renewable energy plant in Bangka Island is both technologically and financially feasible. The system could reliably supply the modest electrical energy needs of the residents. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Simplified Method of Optimal Sizing of a Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools are a suitable public building for renewable energy systems. Renewable energy hybrid systems (REHSs have recently been introduced in schools following a new national regulation that mandates renewable energy utilization. An REHS combines the common renewable-energy sources such as geothermal heat pumps, solar collectors for water heating, and photovoltaic systems with conventional energy systems (i.e., boilers and air-source heat pumps. Optimal design of an REHS by adequate sizing is not a trivial task because it usually requires intensive work including detailed simulation and demand/supply analysis. This type of simulation-based approach for optimization is difficult to implement in practice. To address this, this paper proposes simplified sizing equations for renewable-energy systems of REHSs. A conventional optimization process is used to calculate the optimal combinations of an REHS for cases of different numbers of classrooms and budgets. On the basis of the results, simplified sizing equations that use only the number of classrooms as the input are proposed by regression analysis. A verification test was carried out using an initial conventional optimization process. The results show that the simplified sizing equations predict similar sizing results to the initial process, consequently showing similar capital costs within a 2% error.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Renewable Hybrid Power System using Matlab Simulink Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modeling of a solar-wind-hydroelectric hybrid system in Matlab/Simulink environment. The application is useful for analysis and simulation of a real hybrid solar-wind-hydroelectric system connected to a public grid. Application is built on modular architecture to facilitate easy study of each component module influence. Blocks like wind model, solar model, hydroelectric model, energy conversion and load are implemented and the results of simulation are also presented. As an example, one of the most important studies is the behavior of hybrid system which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply. Application represents a useful tool in research activity and also in teaching

  6. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  7. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  8. Stochastic analysis and simulation of hydrometeorological processes for optimizing hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Georgios; Ioannou, Christos; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The drawbacks of conventional energy sources including their negative environmental impacts emphasize the need to integrate renewable energy sources into energy balance. However, the renewable sources strongly depend on time varying and uncertain hydrometeorological processes, including wind speed, sunshine duration and solar radiation. To study the design and management of hybrid energy systems we investigate the stochastic properties of these natural processes, including possible long-term persistence. We use wind speed and sunshine duration time series retrieved from a European database of daily records and we estimate representative values of the Hurst coefficient for both variables. We conduct simultaneous generation of synthetic time series of wind speed and sunshine duration, on yearly, monthly and daily scale. To this we use the Castalia software system which performs multivariate stochastic simulation. Using these time series as input, we perform stochastic simulation of an autonomous hypothetical hybrid renewable energy system and optimize its performance using genetic algorithms. For the system design we optimize the sizing of the system in order to satisfy the energy demand with high reliability also minimizing the cost. While the simulation scale is the daily, a simple method allows utilizing the subdaily distribution of the produced wind power. Various scenarios are assumed in order to examine the influence of input parameters, such as the Hurst coefficient, and design parameters such as the photovoltaic panel angle.

  9. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  10. Design, analysis, operation, and advanced control of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Zachary S.

    Because using non-renewable energy systems (e.g., coal-powered co-generation power plants) to generate electricity is an unsustainable, environmentally hazardous practice, it is important to develop cost-effective and reliable renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines (WTs), and fuel cells (FCs). Non-renewable energy systems, however, are currently less expensive than individual renewable energy systems (IRESs). Furthermore, IRESs based on intermittent natural resources (e.g., solar irradiance and wind) are incapable of meeting continuous energy demands. Such shortcomings can be mitigated by judiciously combining two or more complementary IRESs to form a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). Although previous research efforts focused on the design, operation, and control of HRESs has proven useful, no prior HRES research endeavor has taken a systematic and comprehensive approach towards establishing guidelines by which HRESs should be designed, operated, and controlled. The overall goal of this dissertation, therefore, is to establish the principles governing the design, operation, and control of HRESs resulting in cost-effective and reliable energy solutions for stationary and mobile applications. To achieve this goal, we developed and demonstrated four separate HRES principles. Rational selection of HRES type: HRES components and their sizes should be rationally selected using knowledge of component costs, availability of renewable energy resources, and expected power demands of the application. HRES design: by default, the components of a HRES should be arranged in parallel for increased efficiency and reliability. However, a series HRES design may be preferred depending on the operational considerations of the HRES components. HRES control strategy selection: the choice of HRES control strategy depends on the dynamics of HRES components, their operational considerations, and the practical limitations of the HRES end-use. HRES data

  11. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard; Rabiti, Cristian; Suk Kim, Jong; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Chen, Jun; Cetiner, M. Sacit; Harrison, T. Jay; Qualls, A. Lou

    2016-01-01

    The United States is in the midst of an energy revolution, spurred by advancement of technology to produce unprecedented supplies of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously, there is an increasing concern for climate change attributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that, in large part, result from burning fossil fuels. An international consensus has concluded that the U.S. and other developed nations have an imperative to reduce GHG emissions to address these climate change concerns. The global desire to reduce GHG emissions has led to the development and deployment of clean energy resources and technologies, particularly renewable energy technologies, at a rapid rate. At the same time, each of the major energy sectors-the electric grid, industrial manufacturing, transportation, and the residential/commercial consumers- is increasingly becoming linked through information and communications technologies, advanced modeling and simulation, and controls. Coordination of clean energy generation technologies through integrated hybrid energy systems, as defined below, has the potential to further revolutionize energy services at the system level by coordinating the exchange of energy currency among the energy sectors in a manner that optimizes financial efficiency (including capital investments), maximizes thermodynamic efficiency (through best use of exergy, which is the potential to use the available energy in producing energy services), reduces environmental impacts when clean energy inputs are maximized, and provides resources for grid management. Rapid buildout of renewable technologies has been largely driven by local, state, and federal policies, such as renewable portfolio standards and production tax credits that incentivize investment in these generation sources. A foundational assumption within this program plan is that renewable technologies will continue to be major contributors to the future U.S. energy infrastructure. While increased use of clean renewable

  12. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cetiner, M. Sacit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, T. Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. Lou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The United States is in the midst of an energy revolution, spurred by advancement of technology to produce unprecedented supplies of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously, there is an increasing concern for climate change attributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that, in large part, result from burning fossil fuels. An international consensus has concluded that the U.S. and other developed nations have an imperative to reduce GHG emissions to address these climate change concerns. The global desire to reduce GHG emissions has led to the development and deployment of clean energy resources and technologies, particularly renewable energy technologies, at a rapid rate. At the same time, each of the major energy sectors—the electric grid, industrial manufacturing, transportation, and the residential/commercial consumers— is increasingly becoming linked through information and communications technologies, advanced modeling and simulation, and controls. Coordination of clean energy generation technologies through integrated hybrid energy systems, as defined below, has the potential to further revolutionize energy services at the system level by coordinating the exchange of energy currency among the energy sectors in a manner that optimizes financial efficiency (including capital investments), maximizes thermodynamic efficiency (through best use of exergy, which is the potential to use the available energy in producing energy services), reduces environmental impacts when clean energy inputs are maximized, and provides resources for grid management. Rapid buildout of renewable technologies has been largely driven by local, state, and federal policies, such as renewable portfolio standards and production tax credits that incentivize investment in these generation sources. A foundational assumption within this program plan is that renewable technologies will continue to be major contributors to the future U.S. energy infrastructure. While increased use of clean

  13. Overview of U.S. programs for hydrogen from renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses US program for hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources include biomass, wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal and ocean waves. Although nuclear power is not considered renewable, a case can be made that it is, but requires recycling of spent fuel. The paper also discusses hydrogen production, storage and delivery. It discusses fuel cells, safety codes and standards and system analysis

  14. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  15. Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabak, Mehmet; Dağdeviren, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

  16. Metering systems and demand-side management models applied to hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasques, L.C.M.; Pinho, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a demand-side management model integrated to a metering system for hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration. The proposal is based on the management problems verified in most of this kind of renewable hybrid systems installed in Brazil. The main idea is the implementation of a pre-paid metering system with some control functions that directly act on the consumer demand, restricting the consumption proportionally to the monthly availability of renewable energy. The result is a better distribution of the electricity consumption by month and by consumer, preventing that only one user, with larger purchasing power, consumes all the renewable energy available at some time period. The proportionality between the consumption and the renewable energy's availability has the objective to prevent a lack of energy stored and a high use of the diesel generator-set on months of low renewable potential. This paper also aims to contribute to the Brazilian regulation of renewable energy systems supplying micro-grids. - Highlights: ► Review of the Brazilian electricity regulation for small-scale isolated systems. ► Renewable systems are the most feasible option in several isolated communities. ► One proposal is to guarantee government subsidies for renewable energy systems. ► Smart electronic meters to create electricity restrictions for the consumers.

  17. The Economic Potential of Two Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that investigate the technical and economic aspects of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems. It provides the results of an analysis of two scenarios. The first is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario and the second is an Arizona-desalination scenario. The analysis focuses on the economics of the N-R HESs and how they compare to other options, including configurations without all the subsystems in each N-R HES and alternatives in which natural gas provides the energy.

  18. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  19. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  20. Renewable energy technology for off-grid power generation solar hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Abd Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Off-grid power generation is meant to supply remote or rural area, where grid connection is almost impossible in terms of cost and geography, such as island, aborigine's villages, and areas where nature preservation is concern. Harnessing an abundance renewable energy sources using versatile hybrid power systems can offer the best, least-cost alternative solution for extending modern energy services to remote and isolated communities. The conventional method for off-grid power generation is using diesel generator with a renewable energy (RE) technology utilizing solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, biogas and/or mini/micro hydro. A hybrid technology is a combination of multiple source of energy; such as RE and diesel generator and may also include energy storage such as battery. In our design, the concept of solar hybrid system is a combination of solar with diesel genset and battery as an energy storage. The main objective of the system are to reduce the cost of operation and maintenance, cost of logistic and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. The operational concept of solar hybrid system is that solar will be the first choice of supplying load and excess energy produced will be stored in battery. Genset will be a secondary source of energy. The system is controlled by a microprocessor-based controlled to manage the energy supplied and load demand. The solar hybrid system consists of one or two diesel generator with electronic control system, lead-acid battery system, solar PV, inverter module and system controller with remote monitoring capability. The benefits of solar hybrid system are: Improved reliability, Improved energy services, reduced emissions and pollution, provide continuous power supply, increased operational life, reduced cost, and more efficient use of power. Currently, such system has been installed at Middle and Top Station of Langkawi Cable Car, Langkawi and Aborigines Village Kg Denai, Rompin, Pahang. The technology is considered new in Malaysia

  1. Status Report on Modelling and Simulation Capabilities for Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, J. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yigitoglu, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, S. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ganda, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Maronati, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes the current status of the modeling and simulation capabilities developed for the economic assessment of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (N-R HES). The increasing penetration of variable renewables is altering the profile of the net demand, with which the other generators on the grid have to cope. N-R HES analyses are being conducted to determine the potential feasibility of mitigating the resultant volatility in the net electricity demand by adding industrial processes that utilize either thermal or electrical energy as stabilizing loads. This coordination of energy generators and users is proposed to mitigate the increase in electricity cost and cost volatility through the production of a saleable commodity. Overall, the financial performance of a system that is comprised of peaking units (i.e. gas turbine), baseload supply (i.e. nuclear power plant), and an industrial process (e.g. hydrogen plant) should be optimized under the constraint of satisfying an electricity demand profile with a certain level of variable renewable (wind) penetration. The optimization should entail both the sizing of the components/subsystems that comprise the system and the optimal dispatch strategy (output at any given moment in time from the different subsystems). Some of the capabilities here described have been reported separately in [1, 2, 3]. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the improvement and extension of those capabilities and to illustrate their integrated application in the economic assessment of N-R HES.

  2. Robust multi-objective control of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, John

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid energy system of micro-CHP, solar PV, and battery storage is presented. • Possible to exploit synergy of systems to fulfil the thermal and electrical demands. • Can control to minimise the interaction with the local electrical network. • Three different control approaches were compared. • The nonlinear inversion-based control strategy exhibits optimum performance. - Abstract: Microgeneration technologies are positioned to address future building energy efficiency requirements and facilitate the integration of renewables into buildings to ensure a sustainable, energy-secure future. This paper explores the development of a robust multi-input multi-output (MIMO) controller applicable to the control of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems with the objective of minimising the electrical grid utilisation of a building while fulfilling the thermal demands. The controller employs the inverse dynamics of the building, servicing systems, and energy storage with a robust control methodology. These inverse dynamics provides the control system with knowledge of the complex cause and effect relationships between the system, the controlled inputs, and the external disturbances, while an outer-loop control ensures robust, stable control in the presence of modelling deficiencies/uncertainty and unknown disturbances. Variable structure control compensates for the physical limitations of the systems whereby the control strategy employed switches depending on the current utilisation and availability of the energy supplies. Preliminary results presented for a system consisting of a micro-CHP unit, solar PV, and battery storage indicate that the control strategy is effective in minimising the interaction with the local electrical network and maximising the utilisation of the available renewable energy.

  3. A review on recent size optimization methodologies for standalone solar and wind hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-falahi, Monaaf D.A.; Jayasinghe, S.D.G.; Enshaei, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Possible combinations and configurations for standalone PV-WT HES were discussed. • Most recently used assessment parameters for standalone PV-WT HES were explained. • Optimization algorithms and software tools were comprehensively reviewed. • The recent trend of using hybrid algorithms over single algorithms was discussed. • Optimization algorithms for sizing standalone PV-WT HES were critically compared. - Abstract: Electricity demand in remote and island areas are generally supplied by diesel or other fossil fuel based generation systems. Nevertheless, due to the increasing cost and harmful emissions of fossil fuels there is a growing trend to use standalone hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs). Due to the complementary characteristics, matured technologies and availability in most areas, hybrid systems with solar and wind energy have become the popular choice in such applications. However, the intermittency and high net present cost are the challenges associated with solar and wind energy systems. In this context, optimal sizing is a key factor to attain a reliable supply at a low cost through these standalone systems. Therefore, there has been a growing interest to develop algorithms for size optimization in standalone HRESs. The optimal sizing methodologies reported so far can be broadly categorized as classical algorithms, modern techniques and software tools. Modern techniques, based on single artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, are becoming more popular than classical algorithms owing to their capabilities in solving complex optimization problems. Moreover, in recent years, there has been a clear trend to use hybrid algorithms over single algorithms mainly due to their ability to provide more promising optimization results. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review on recent developments in size optimization methodologies, as well as a critical comparison of single algorithms, hybrid algorithms, and software tools

  4. Kajian Ekonomis Pembangkit Hybrid Renewable Energi Menuju Desa Mandiri Energi di Kabupaten Bone-Bolango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabhan Kanata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis due to extensive uses of fossil fuel and environmental issues caused by unsustainable uses of energy driving the world and Indonesian government to accelerate the usage of renewable energy such as hydro, wind and solar. One of the government approaches is to implement a program called Independent Energy Village (IEV. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER serves to design a micropower systems and to facilitate the comparison between some of power generation technologies. Researcher models the power system based on the physical behavior and overall cost, which are the total cost of installation and operation of the system during operation of the system. HOMER allows researcher to compare various forms of system designs technically and economically. This research was conducted in the village of Lombongo, District Suwawa, in Bone-Bolango Gorontalo. Some of the modeling results showed that the combination of micro-hydro and solar power have the most favorable economic value if operated over 25 years with a Net Present Cost (NPC is US$ -369,087.00 and a Level Cost of Energy (LCOE of -0.106 US$/kWh below the level energy costs of PLN at 0.116 US$/kWh in whch made this hybrid plant is very competitive. The hybrid plant has micro-hydro generating capacity of 58,9 kW with annual production of 657,384 kW, while solar power plant with a production capacity of 15,7 kW per year 20.091 kW.

  5. GIS-based site selection methodology for hybrid renewable energy systems: A case study from western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Nazli Yonca; Kentel, Elcin; Sebnem Duzgun, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposed a site selection methodology for renewable energy systems. ► Fuzzy logic and geographic information system tools are used. ► Alternative locations are evaluated in terms of economic and environmental criteria. - Abstract: Renewable energy sources are presently being considered as alternatives to fossil fuels, because they are perpetual, environmentally friendly, and release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere while producing energy. A disadvantage of renewable energy systems, however, is that continuous energy generation is not possible by using only one type of renewable energy system, since renewable energy resources depend on climate and weather conditions. Two or more renewable energy systems can be integrated into a hybrid system to overcome this problem so that when one resource is not available, the other can continue producing energy. Another disadvantage of renewable energy sources is that they are not available at every geographic location. Their use is mostly advantageous at remote locations that often are of high ecological value. Thus, identification of preferable locations for renewable energy systems is a decision-making problem that requires evaluation of the potential of the resource together with economic and environmental limitations. This paper introduces a methodology for site selection of hybrid wind solar–PV renewable energy systems. First, environmental acceptability and economic feasibility objectives are identified through a comprehensive review of the literature, current Turkish laws and legislations, and interviews with the General Directorate of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration of Turkey. Second, viable locations in terms of environmental acceptability and economic feasibility are determined through a fuzzy decision-making procedure that uses ordered weighted averaging algorithm for aggregating multiple objectives. Then, priority sites are identified

  6. Hybrid Non-Isolated and Non Inverting Nx Interleaved DC-DC Multilevel Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Kulkarni, Rishi M.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated/ non inverting Nx interleaved DC-DC multilevel Boost Converter for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid topology is derived from the conventional interleaved converter and the Nx Multilevel boost converter. In renewable energy...... applications, generated energy cannot be directly used at application end. In most of the cases it needs to be stepped up with DC-DC converter at operating voltage levels as per the requirement of the application. Though conventional boost converter can theoretically be used for this purpose, but obtaining...

  7. Non Isolated and Non-Inverting Cockcroft Walton Multiplier Based Hybrid 2Nx Interleaved Boost Converter For Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated and non-invertingCockcroft-Walton multiplier based 2Nx InterleavedBoost converter (2Nx IBC) for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid boost converter topology is derived from non-inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC......) and inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC). In renewable energy applications, generated voltage needs to be stepped up with high conversion ratio using a DC-DC converter at voltage levels as per the application requirement. The advantages of the presentedtopology of interleaved converter are high...

  8. A hybrid model for the optimum integration of renewable technologies in power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to assess the unavoidable increase in the cost of electricity of a generation system by the integration of the necessary renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) technologies in order for the European Union Member States to achieve their national RES energy target. The optimization model developed uses a genetic algorithm (GA) technique for the calculation of both the additional cost of electricity due to the penetration of RES-E technologies as well as the required RES-E levy in the electricity bills in order to fund this RES-E penetration. Also, the procedure enables the estimation of the optimum feed-in-tariff to be offered to future RES-E systems. Also, the overall cost increase in the electricity sector for the promotion of RES-E technologies, for the period 2010-2020, is analyzed taking into account factors, such as, the fuel avoidance cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance cost, the conventional power system increased operation cost, etc. The overall results indicate that in the case of RES-E investments with internal rate of return (IRR) of 10% the cost of integration is higher, compared to RES-E investments with no profit, (i.e., IRR at 0%) by 0.3-0.5 Euro c/kWh (in real prices), depending on the RES-E penetration level. - Research Highlights: →Development of a hybrid optimization model for the integration of renewable technologies in power generation systems. →Estimation of the optimum feed-in-tariffs to be offered to future renewable systems. →Determination of the overall cost increase in the electricity sector for the promotion of renewable technologies. →Analyses taking into account fuel avoidance cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance cost, the conventional power system increased operation cost, etc.

  9. Optimal configuration assessments of hybrid renewable power supply for rural healthcare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanre Olatomiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed optimal configurations of hybrid renewable system for rural health clinic (RHC application in three grid-unconnected rural villages in Nigeria. The RHC consist of an emergency room, consulting room, nurse/injection room, male ward, female ward, a delivery room and a laboratory with average total daily energy consumption of 15.5 kWh and 2.75 kW peak demand. The assessment of configurations that optimally meet the daily load demand with zero loss of power supply probability (LPSP was carried out using HOMER software, by considering three energy resources; photovoltaic (PV, wind and diesel with battery energy storage. The result obtained revealed hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system as the most cost-effective configuration for powering rural health clinic in both Maiduguri and Enugu sites, while that of Iseyin site was found to be hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. In all the sites, the selected optimal configuration is far better than the conventional diesel stand-alone system in terms of cost and emission reduction.

  10. Application of synchronous grid-connected controller in the wind-solar-storage micro grid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hua; Ren, Yongfeng; Li, Le; Luo, Zhenpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using distributed generators (DG) not only to inject power into the grid, but also to enhance the power quality. In this study, a space voltage pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control method is proposed for a synchronous grid-connected controller in a wind-solar-storage micro grid. This method is based on the appropriate topology of the synchronous controller. The wind-solar-storage micro grid is controlled to reconnect to the grid synchronous...

  11. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  12. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  13. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  14. Allocating resources and products in multi-hybrid multi-cogeneration: What fractions of heat and power are renewable in hybrid fossil-solar CHP?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo; Iora, Paolo; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the allocation of resources and products in multi-resource/multi-product facilities is developed with particular reference to the important two-resource/two-product case of hybrid fossil and solar/heat and power cogeneration. For a realistic case study, we show how the method allows to assess what fractions of the power and heat should be considered as produced from the solar resource and hence identified as renewable. In the present scenario where the hybridization of fossil power plants by solar-integration is gaining increasing attention, such assessment is of great importance in the fair and balanced development of local energy policies based on granting incentives to renewables resources. The paper extends to the case of two-resource/two-product hybrid cogeneration, as well as to general multi-resource/multi-generation, three of the allocation methods already available for single-resource/two-product cogeneration and for two-resource/single-product hybrid facilities, namely, the ExRR (Exergy-based Reversible-Reference) method, the SRSPR (Single Resource Separate Production Reference) method, and the STALPR (Self-Tuned-Average-Local-Productions-Reference) method. For the case study considered we show that, unless the SRSPR reference efficiencies are constantly updated, the differences between the STALPR and SRSPR methods become important as hybrid and cogeneration plants take up large shares of the local energy production portfolio. - Highlights: • How much of the heat and power in hybrid solar-fossil cogeneration are renewable? • We define and compare three allocation methods for hybrid cogeneration. • Classical and exergy allocation are based on prescribed reference efficiencies. • Adaptive allocation is based on the actual average efficiencies in the local area. • Differences among methods grow as hybrid CHP (heat and power cogeneration) gains large market fractions

  15. The Economic Potential of Two Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Tightly coupled nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) are an option that can generate zero-carbon, dispatchable electricity and provide zero-carbon energy for industrial processes at a lower cost than alternatives. N-R HESs are defined as systems that are managed by a single entity and link a nuclear reactor that generates heat, a thermal power cycle for heat to electricity conversion, at least one renewable energy source, and an industrial process that uses thermal and/or electrical energy. This report provides results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. The first is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario that includes four subsystems: a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, wind power plant, and synthetic gasoline production technology. The second is an Arizona-desalination scenario with its four subsystems a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, solar photovoltaics, and a desalination plant. The analysis focuses on the economics of the N-R HESs and how they compare to other options, including configurations without all the subsystems in each N-R HES and alternatives where the energy is provided by natural gas.

  16. Load-following mode control of a standalone renewable/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A FC hybrid power source (HPS) fed by renewable energy sources (RESs) is proposed. • The fuel cell (FC) operates as a backup to RESs based on the load-following strategy. • The energy storage device (ESS) will operate in charge-sustaining mode during a load cycle. • The ESS optimal design considers the peaks of RESs power and the imposed SOC window. • The FC/RES/ESS HPS is ideal to be used for standalone plug-in charge station. - Abstract: A hybrid power source (HPS), fed by renewable energy sources (RESs) and fuel cell (FC) sources, with an energy storage device (ESS) to be suitable for distributed generation (DG) applications, is proposed herein. The RESs could be a combination of photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines (WT) based on common DC-bus, which are used as the primary DC source. The FC operates as a backup, feeding only the insufficiency power from the RESs based on the load-following strategy. The battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS operates as an auxiliary source for supplying the power deficit based on dynamic power balance strategy (the transient power – mainly via the ultracapacitors stack, and the steady-state power – mainly via the FC and batteries stack). If the FC stack is designed and operates based on average load-following strategy, then the ESS will operate in charge-sustaining mode during a load cycle. This feature permits to optimize the batteries stack capacity and extend its life time as well. The ultracapacitors stack can be designed considering the peaks of RESs power on DC-bus and the imposed window for its state-of-charge (SOC). This FC/RES/ESS HPS is ideal to be used for standalone plug-in charge station (PCS) or as DG system grid connected. In the last case, which is not analyzed here, the energy management unit (EMU) that communicates with smart grid will establish the moments to match the HPS power demand with grid supply availability, stabilizing the grid. Using load and RES power profiles that have

  17. Fossil energy versus nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass: Insights from an Italian national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicia, Gianni; Cembalo, Luigi; Del Giudice, Teresa; Palladino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In Italy there has been considerable political debate around the new energy policy, which is specifically designed to contribute to climate change mitigation. While there is renewed interest in nuclear energy generation, there has been heated debate concerning wind farms that have rapidly expanded and are dramatically changing the landscape in many rural areas. Finally, interest has also increased in biomass as an energy source. However, in this case, a significant part of the population is worried about landscape change and primary crop reduction. In this study we report the results from a nation-wide survey (=504 households) in Italy undertaken during summer 2009. A Latent Class Choice Experiment was used to quantify household preferences over different energy sources. Our results show that Italian households can be split into three segments with homogeneous preferences. The first segment (35% of the population) shows strong preference for wind and solar energy and dislikes both biomass and nuclear. The second (33% of the population) shows moderate preference for solar and wind energy and, as with the first segment, dislikes both nuclear and biomass. The third (32% of the population) shows a strong preference for green energy (solar, wind and biomass) and is very much against nuclear energy. The three segments were also characterized in terms of household socio-economic characteristics. - Highlights: ► We quantify Italian household preferences over different energy sources. ► Results come from a nation-wide survey undertaken during summer 2009. ► Energy sources tested: fossil fuel, nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass. ► A latent class choice experiment was used. ► Italians can be split into three segments with different energy source preferences.

  18. Dynamic modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems for off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasemeyer, Mark David

    The volatile prices of fossil fuels and their contribution to global warming have caused many people to turn to renewable energy systems. Many developing communities are forced to use these systems as they are too far from electrical distribution. As a result, numerous software models have been developed to simulate hybrid renewable energy systems. However almost, if not all, implementations are static in design. A static design limits the ability of the model to account for changes over time. Dynamic modeling can be used to fill the gaps where other modeling techniques fall short. This modeling practice allows the user to account for the effects of technological and economic factors over time. These factors can include changes in energy demand, energy production, and income level. Dynamic modeling can be particularly useful for developing communities who are off-grid and developing at rapid rates. In this study, a dynamic model was used to evaluate a real world system. A non-governmental organization interested in improving their current infrastructure was selected. Five different scenarios were analyzed and compared in order to discover which factors the model is most sensitive to. In four of the scenarios, a new energy system was purchased in order to account for the opening of a restaurant that would be used as a source of local income generation. These scenarios were then compared to a base case in which a new system was not purchased, and the restaurant was not opened. Finally, the results were used to determine which variables had the greatest impact on the various outputs of the simulation.

  19. Comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of a renewable energy sourced hybrid heating system combined with latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Aydın, Devrim; Kıncay, Olcay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. • Analyses were done by using real data obtained from a prototype structure. • Exergy efficiency of system components investigated during discharging period are close to each other as 32%. • The average input energy and exergy rates to the LHS were 0.770 and 0.027 kW. • Overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of LHS calculated as 72% and 28.4%. - Abstract: In this study an experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. Latent heat storage stores energy, gained by solar collectors and supplies medium temperature heat to heat pump both day time also night time while solar energy is unavailable. In addition to this an accumulation tank exists in the system as sensible heat storage. It provides supply–demand balance with storing excess high temperature heat. Analyses were done according to thermodynamic’s first and second laws by using real data obtained from a prototype structure, built as part of a project. Results show that high percent of heat loses took place in heat pump with 1.83 kW where accumulator-wall heating cycle followed it with 0.42 kW. Contrarily highest break-down of exergy loses occur accumulator-wall heating cycle with 0.28 kW. Averagely 2.42 kW exergy destruction took place in whole system during the experiment. Solar collectors and heat pump are the promising components in terms of exergy destruction with 1.15 kW and 1.09 kW respectively. Exergy efficiency of system components, investigated during discharging period are in a close approximately of 32%. However, efficiency of solar collectors and charging of latent heat storage are 2.3% and 7% which are relatively low. Average overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of latent heat storage calculated as 72% and 28.4% respectively. Discharging energy efficiency of latent heat storage is the highest through all system components. Also heat

  20. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Palm Springs, CA (United States); Stewart, Royce [Red Mountain Energy Partners, Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  1. Hybrid renewable energy support policy in the power sector: The contracts for difference and capacity market case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onifade, Temitope Tunbi

    2016-01-01

    The article employs qualitative methods in contextualizing and conceptualizing the hybrid renewable energy support policy. It claims that hybrid policies may combine distinct mechanisms to drive desirable objectives better than traditional policies. A policy cycle helps to frame the United Kingdom's Contracts for Difference and Capacity Market (CFD & CM) scheme as a case study. The CFD & CM policy emerged to address environmental and energy challenges through the deployment of renewable energy (RE) in a low-carbon economy, employing liberalization: Environmental protection is foremost in this scheme. The policy combines and improves on the elements of feed-in tariff (FIT) and quota obligation (QO), and strives to solve the problems of these traditional policies. It addresses regulatory uncertainty under FIT by employing private law mechanics to guarantee above-loss reward for low carbon generation, and addresses market uncertainty under QO by incentivizing the capacity to supply future low carbon energy based on projected demand, hence creating a predictable and stable market. It also accommodates other important commitments. Overall, the CFD & CM scheme is a hybrid policy that engages the energy market mainly for advancing the end goal of environmental protection. To thrive however, it needs to meet private sector interests substantially. - Highlights: •The hybrid support policy combines traditional support systems. •Hybrid policies may drive objectives better than traditional policies. •The UK's contract for difference and capacity market system is a hybrid policy. •Environmental protection is foremost in the UK's hybrid policy. •To thrive, the UK's hybrid policy should address private sector interests.

  2. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa: Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A case study methodology and assessment of renewable energy technology and sustainable development is applied to a DME rural village project. Wind, solar and lead acid battery energy storage technology were used for off-grid electrification...

  3. Flexible Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Uncertain Renewable Generation and Load Demand Based on Hybrid Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method is capable of recognizing the actual cluster distribution of complex datasets and providing high-quality clustering results. By clustering the hourly data for renewable generation and load demand, a multi-scenario model is proposed to consider the corresponding uncertainties in TNEP. Furthermore, due to the peak distribution characteristics of renewable generation and heavy investment in transmission, the traditional TNEP, which caters to rated renewable power output, is usually uneconomic. To improve the economic efficiency, the multi-objective optimization is incorporated into the multi-scenario TNEP model, while the curtailment of renewable generation is considered as one of the optimization objectives. The solution framework applies a modified NSGA-II algorithm to obtain a set of Pareto optimal planning schemes with different levels of investment costs and renewable generation curtailments. Numerical results on the IEEE RTS-24 system demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  5. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  6. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  7. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Power System for an Emerging Island of South Korea: The Case of Yeongjong Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available South Korea, which has led in “green growth” since 2012, is now focusing on investigating new-growth engine industries such as the gaming industry and mega-resort development. Yeongjong Island is the most representative and promising location for nurturing the gaming industry, which has already generated more than 20 billion USD. However, the construction of mega resort clusters generates critical energy issues. Despite this potential problem, local governments and South Korea’s central government have not yet established a sustainable energy blueprint plan. Therefore, the objective of our research is to analyze and suggest an optimal hybrid renewable power system for Yeongjong Island by using empirical data (load data, climate data, equipment data, and economic variables. The results of the study academically show 100% of electricity in Yeongjong Island with renewable energy-oriented hybrid system technologically, economically, and socially feasible for the following reasons: First, the island’s renewable energy station has a lower cost and a shorter construction period than other energy stations. Second, the island’s renewable energy station produces no carbon dioxide and has no risk of other environmental pollution that may encounter resistance from local residents.

  8. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

  9. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

  10. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  11. Load estimator-based hybrid controller design for two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougrine, Mohamed; Benmiloud, Mohammed; Benalia, Atallah; Delaleau, Emmanuel; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the development of a hybrid controller for a two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications. The control requirements, resumed in fast transient and low input current ripple, are formulated as a problem of fast stabilization of a predefined optimal limit cycle, and solved using hybrid automaton formalism. In addition, a real time estimation of the load is developed using an algebraic approach for online adjustment of the hybrid controller. Mathematical proofs are provided with simulations to illustrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller despite different disturbances. Furthermore, a fuel cell system supplying a resistive load through a two-interleaved boost converter is also highlighted. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient energy control strategies for a Standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu; Oproescu, Mihai; Raceanu, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A load – following control that operates the battery in charge – sustained mode. • A real-time Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking control that saves hydrogen fuel. • A comparative study of four strategies to control the fueling rates of the fuel cell stack. • Four control strategy for the HPS under unknown RES and load power profile are analyzed. • An increase of 3–5% of fuel efficiency was observed for the best strategy proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, four energy control strategies are proposed and analyzed for the standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source (RES/FC HPS). The concept of the load following (LF) and Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) is used to control the fueling rates. A standalone RES/FC HPS uses at least one Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell (FC) as backup source. Photovoltaic (PV) array and wind turbines (WT) farm are used as RES and the surplus of energy during light load stages is stored in hydrogen tank via water electrolysis to fuel the PEMFC. Small-scale RESs and commercially available PEMFCs are interfaced to the common DC bus via power converters and then to the single-phase distribution grid through a voltage source inverter. RES/FC HPS seem to be an efficient alternative for supplying smart houses and isolated sites. This paper proposes a new supervision strategy of the Energy Management Unit (EMU) based on the LF control approach that assures a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for the Energy Storage System (ESS). So, the capacity of the batteries stack can be reduced at minimum if it is directly connected to the DC bus. The ultracapacitors stack compensates dynamically the power flow balance on the DC bus, regulating the DC voltage via a bidirectional buck-boost power converter. Thus, a semi-active hybrid topology is adopted for the ESS having the batteries stack. The MEPT loops ensure an optimized energy management of the RES/FC HPS. The LF

  13. Design and analysis of a hybrid renewable energy plant with solar and wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalci, Ersan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A distributed generation system is developed with separate solar plant and wind turbine. • The solar plant is controlled with MPPT infrastructure of Perturb and Observe algorithm. • Power generation of source sites are converted to DC with PI controlled buck converters and collected on a DC busbar. • Harvested DC power is converted to AC with a full bridge inverter and SPWM control is performed in inverter. • The total harmonic distortion (THD) ratio of the generated 3-phase line is obtained in the limit of standards. - Abstract: A hybrid renewable energy plant that is based on solar and wind energy conversion systems is designed and analysed in this paper. Each separate energy conversion system is controlled either using regular PI controller or extended PI controller with an auxiliary controller containing Perturb and Observe algorithm. The solar plant model is constituted by connecting 170 W photovoltaic (PV) panels serially and energy conversion is performed with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm that controls the modulator of buck converter. The MPPT algorithm utilized in the control step of converter is developed using Perturb and Observe (P and O) that is extended with PI controller. The wind energy plant is designed with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and the AC–DC conversion stage is constituted with an uncontrolled full-bridge rectifier. All the converter outputs are connected to a busbar over interphase transformers (IPTs). The DC bus-bar voltage is supplied to a full bridge inverter to generate three-phase AC voltages at the output of inverter. The three-phase inverter is controlled with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme, which is developed with phase shifted carrier signals. The total harmonic distortion (THD) ratios are obtained at proper values according to international standards such as IEC61000 and IEEE 519-1992. Measurement results and obtained three phase voltage are analysed

  14. Hybrid modeling to support energy-climate policy: Effects of feed-in tariffs to promote renewable energy in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proença, Sara; St Aubyn, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Feed-in tariffs have been the main policy instrument applied in Portugal for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources under the EU Directives on energy and climate regulation. In this paper, we provide an empirical impact assessment of the economic and environmental effects of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. Impact assessment of policy instruments plays a crucial role on decision-making process. For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium modeling approach, which represents a reliable tool to analyze the complex interactions between economic, energy, and environmental issues related to energy policies. Numerical simulations confirm the empirical evidence that the FITs policy implemented by Portugal was both an effective and a cost-efficient way to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and thus to achieve the national RES-E target of 45% in 2010. Results show relatively modest macroeconomic impacts indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. From an environmental perspective, the deployment of renewable energy source results in significant carbon emissions reductions. - Highlights: ► We provide an impact assessment of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. ► For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium model. ► Portugal's FITs policy proved to be a cost-efficient way to increase generation of renewable electricity. ► Results show relatively modest macroeconomic effects indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. ► The deployment of renewable energy sources results in significant carbon emission reductions

  15. Investigations of different hybrids and alternative renewables for the electrification of remote sites; Investigations des differentes alternatives renouvelables et hybrides pour l'electrification des sites isoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne; Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre

    2008-09-15

    Diesel generators are the main source of electricity in remote areas. Efforts are underway to replace costly diesel fuel with renewable energy sources. However, one of the limiting factors of renewable energy is the variety of resource available. This document explored the possibility of combining different sources, such as wind turbines, solar panels and diesel generators. Although renewable energy produced by way of wind power or photovoltaic sources is not efficient on its own, when combined with a diesel generator it can provide continuous electricity without interruptions. The basic principles of a hybrid system are to provide continuous energy in an economical manner and have automated systems between renewable energy and traditional energy to ensure continuous electrical supply. Investment costs should also be recoverable. Other factors that must be taken into consideration are performance, service life, fuel economy, cost per kWh, the number and duration of electrical failures, and number of interruptions for repair. This document also discussed energy storage issues. 7 refs., 42 figs.

  16. Simulation of electricity demand in a remote island for optimal planning of a hybrid renewable energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, Aristotelis; Zacharopoulou, Eleni; Pouliasis, George; Engonopoulos, Ioannis; Mavroyeoryos, Konstantinos; Deligiannis, Ilias; Karakatsanis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Tyralis, Hristos

    2017-04-01

    We simulate the electrical energy demand in the remote island of Astypalaia. To this end we first obtain information regarding the local socioeconomic conditions and energy demand. Secondly, the available hourly demand data are analysed at various time scales (hourly, weekly, daily, seasonal). The cross-correlations between the electrical energy demand and the mean daily temperature as well as other climatic variables for the same time period are computed. Also, we investigate the cross-correlation between those climatic variables and other variables related to renewable energy resources from numerous observations around the globe in order to assess the impact of each one to a hybrid renewable energy system. An exploratory data analysis including all variables is performed with the purpose to find hidden relationships. Finally, the demand is simulated considering all the periodicities found in the analysis. The simulation time series will be used in the development of a framework for planning of a hybrid renewable energy system in Astypalaia. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  17. Dynamic performance analysis of two regional Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong S.; Vilim, Richard B.; Binder, William R.; Bragg Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.; McKellar, Michael G.; Paredis, Christiaan J.J.

    2016-01-01

    In support of more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, HES (hybrid energy systems) can be designed and operated as FER (flexible energy resources) to meet both electrical and thermal energy needs in the electric grid and industrial sectors. These conceptual systems could effectively and economically be utilized, for example, to manage the increasing levels of dynamic variability and uncertainty introduced by VER (variable energy resources) such as renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar), distributed energy resources, demand response schemes, and modern energy demands (e.g., electric vehicles) with their ever changing usage patterns. HES typically integrate multiple energy inputs (e.g., nuclear and renewable generation) and multiple energy outputs (e.g., electricity, gasoline, fresh water) using complementary energy conversion processes. This paper reports a dynamic analysis of two realistic HES including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by their application in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high renewable penetration. It is performed for regional cases – not generic examples – based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses. - Highlights: • Hybrids including renewables can operate as dispatchable flexible energy resources. • Nuclear energy can address high variability and uncertainty in energy systems. • Nuclear hybrids can reliably provide grid services over various time horizons. • Nuclear energy can provide operating reserves and grid inertia under high renewables. • Nuclear hybrids can greatly reduce GHG emissions and support grid and industry needs.

  18. Implementation and Control of a Residential Electrothermal Microgrid Based on Renewable Energies, a Hybrid Storage System and Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an energy management strategy for a residential electrothermal microgrid, based on renewable energy sources. While grid connected, it makes use of a hybrid electrothermal storage system, formed by a battery and a hot water tank along with an electrical water heater as a controllable load, which make possible the energy management within the microgrid. The microgrid emulates the operation of a single family home with domestic hot water (DHW consumption, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system as well as the typical electric loads. An energy management strategy has been designed which optimizes the power exchanged with the grid profile in terms of peaks and fluctuations, in applications with high penetration levels of renewables. The proposed energy management strategy has been evaluated and validated experimentally in a full scale residential microgrid built in our Renewable Energy Laboratory, by means of continuous operation under real conditions. The results show that the combination of electric and thermal storage systems with controllable loads is a promising technology that could maximize the penetration level of renewable energies in the electric system.

  19. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  20. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  1. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  2. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  3. Delta-WIND Solar Panel Repair and Move at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Hangar AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center video release presents footage of workcrews moving the WIND solar panel in order to make repairs in Hangar AO prior to launch at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Sep. 13, 1994. WIND was launched on November 1, 1994 and is the first of two NASA spacecraft in the Global Geospace Science initiative and part of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Project.

  4. Energy–exergy and economic analyses of a hybrid solar–hydrogen renewable energy system in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ender; Tari, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uninterrupted energy in an emergency blackout situation. • System modeling of a solar–hydrogen based hybrid renewable energy system. • A comprehensive thermodynamical analysis. • Levelized cost of electricity analysis for a project lifetime of 25 years. - Abstract: A hybrid (Solar–Hydrogen) stand-alone renewable energy system that consists of photovoltaic panels (PV), Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, PEM based electrolyzers and hydrogen storage is investigated by developing a complete model of the system using TRNSYS. The PV panels are mounted on a tiltable platform to improve the performance of the system by monthly adjustments of the tilt angle. The total area of the PV panels is 300 m 2 , the PEM fuel cell capacity is 5 kW, and the hydrogen storage is at 55 bars pressure and with 45 m 3 capacity. The main goal of this study is to verify that the system meets the electrical power demand of the emergency room without experiencing a shortage for a complete year in an emergency blackout situation. For this purpose, after modeling the system, energy and exergy analyses for the hydrogen cycle of the system for a complete year are performed, and the energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 4.06% and 4.25%, respectively. Furthermore, an economic analysis is performed for a project lifetime of 25 years based on Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCE), and the LCE is calculated as 0.626 $/kWh.

  5. Hybrid mini-grid systems - distributed generation systems for communities based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available energy/economic framework and describes the CSIR's role in the formulation of South Africa's first hybrid mini-grids and the lessons learnt. The hybrid mini-grid systems can also be classified as distributed generation systems....

  6. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mizrahi, A. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karas, J. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nathan, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) with a detailed representation of renewables; the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sector detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long distance transmission.

  7. Definition, analysis and experimental investigation of operation modes in hydrogen-renewable-based power plants incorporating hybrid energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, L.; Pino, F.J.; Guerra, J.; Rosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conceptual analysis of operation modes in energy storage plants is presented. • Key Performance Indicators to select operation modes are provided. • The approach has been applied to a laboratory hybrid power plant. • The methodology provides guidance for the operation of hybrid power plants. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with Operating Modes in hybrid renewable energy-based power plants with hydrogen as the intermediate energy storage medium. Six operation modes are defined according to plant topology and the possibility of operating electrolyzer and fuel cell at steady-power or partial load. A methodology for the evaluation of plant performance is presented throughout this paper. The approach includes a set of simulations over a fully validated model, which are run in order to compare the proposed operation modes in various weather conditions. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation stage using a set of Key Performance Indicators defined in this paper. This analysis yields the conclusion that certain modes are more appropriate from technical and practical standpoints when they are implemented in a real plant. From the results of the simulation assessment, selected operating modes are applied to an experimental hydrogen-based pilot plant to illustrate and validate the performance of the proposed operation modes. Experimental results confirmed the simulation study, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode in terms of performance and equipment durability.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Renewable Hybrid Power System using Matlab Simulink Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru; Adrian Gligor

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the modeling of a solar-wind-hydroelectric hybrid system in Matlab/Simulink environment. The application is useful for analysis and simulation of a real hybrid solar-wind-hydroelectric system connected to a public grid. Application is built on modular architecture to facilitate easy study of each component module influence. Blocks like wind model, solar model, hydroelectric model, energy conversion and load are implemented and the results of simulation are also presented. A...

  9. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  10. Genetic algorithm based optimization on modeling and design of hybrid renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.S.; Moghavvemi, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar data was analyzed in the location under consideration. • A program was developed to simulate operation of the PV hybrid system. • Genetic algorithm was used to optimize the sizes of the hybrid system components. • The costs of the pollutant emissions were considered in the optimization. • It is cost effective to power houses in remote areas with such hybrid systems. - Abstract: A sizing optimization of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic (PV) panels, a backup source (microturbine or diesel), and a battery system minimizes the cost of energy production (COE), and a complete design of this optimized system supplying a small community with power in the Palestinian Territories is presented in this paper. A scenario that depends on a standalone PV, and another one that depends on a backup source alone were analyzed in this study. The optimization was achieved via the usage of genetic algorithm. The objective function minimizes the COE while covering the load demand with a specified value for the loss of load probability (LLP). The global warming emissions costs have been taken into account in this optimization analysis. Solar radiation data is firstly analyzed, and the tilt angle of the PV panels is then optimized. It was discovered that powering a small rural community using this hybrid system is cost-effective and extremely beneficial when compared to extending the utility grid to supply these remote areas, or just using conventional sources for this purpose. This hybrid system decreases both operating costs and the emission of pollutants. The hybrid system that realized these optimization purposes is the one constructed from a combination of these sources

  11. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  12. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub; Jang, Sung Cheol; Choi, Jeong Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  13. Analysis, Design, Modeling, and Control of an Interleaved-Boost Full-Bridge Three-Port Converter for Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of an isolated dc-dc three-port converter (TPC) based on an interleaved-boost full-bridge converter with pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and phase-shift control for hybrid renewable energy systems. In the proposed topology, the switches are driven...

  14. The uncertainty of atmospheric processes in planning a hybrid renewable energy system for a non-connected island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniil, Vasiliki; Pouliasis, George; Zacharopoulou, Eleni; Demetriou, Evangelos; Manou, Georgia; Chalakatevaki, Maria; Parara, Iliana; Georganta, Xristina; Stamou, Paraskevi; Karali, Sophia; Hadjimitsis, Evanthis; Koudouris, Giannis; Moschos, Evangelos; Roussis, Dimitrios; Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Koskinas, Aristotelis; Pollakis, Giorgos; Gournari, Panagiota; Sakellari, Katerina; Moustakis, Yiannis

    2017-04-01

    Non-connected islands to the electric gird are often depending on oil-fueled power plants with high unit cost. A hybrid energy system with renewable resources such as wind and solar plants could reduce this cost and also offer more environmental friendly solutions. However, atmospheric processes are characterized by high uncertainty that does not permit harvesting and utilizing full of their potential. Therefore, a more sophisticated framework that somehow incorporates this uncertainty could improve the performance of the system. In this context, we describe several stochastic and financial aspects of this framework. Particularly, we investigate the cross-correlation between several atmospheric processes and the energy demand, the possibility of mixing renewable resources with the conventional ones and in what degree of reliability, and critical financial subsystems such as weather derivatives. A pilot application of the above framework is also presented for a remote island in the Aegean Sea. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly. *The "Stochastics in Energy Resources Management (NTUA)" Team: Nikos Mamasis, Andreas Efstratiadis, Hristos Tyralis, Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Theano Iliopoulou, Georgios Karakatsanis, Katerina Tzouka, Ilias Deligiannis, Vicky Tsoukala, Panos Papanicolaou and Demetris Koutsoyiannis

  15. Renewable hybrid nanocatalyst from magnetite and cellulose fortreatment of textile effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid catalyst was prepared using cellulose nanofibrils and magnetite to degrade organic compounds. Cellulose nanofibrils were isolated by mechanical defibrillation producing a suspension used as a matrixfor magnetite particles. The solution of nanofibrils and magnetite was dried and milled resul...

  16. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shashidhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC to AC, electrical lighting loads, electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. The proposed hybrid solar-wind power generating system can be extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on laboratories and also for demonstrations in the Industrial Technology curriculum. This paper describes an analysis of local PV-wind hybrid systems for supplying electricity to a private house, farmhouse or small company with electrical power depending on the site needs. The major system components, work principle and specific working condition are presented.

  17. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  18. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    consists in producing electricity by using the CSP technology (Concentration of the solar energy) installed in the Tunisian desert. ... electricity and exploit the Moto-pump, it is necessary to arrange an energizing system that ensures the conversion of energy. ...... Revue Energies Renouvelables ICRESD-07 Tlemcen, 343 –.

  19. Energy, economic and environmental performance simulation of a hybrid renewable microgeneration system with neural network predictive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueniy Entchev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in various applications has grown significantly over the years. This paper compares an ANN based approach with a conventional on-off control applied to the operation of a ground source heat pump/photovoltaic thermal system serving a single house located in Ottawa (Canada for heating and cooling purposes. The hybrid renewable microgeneration system was investigated using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. A controller for predicting the future room temperature was developed in the MATLAB environment and six ANN control logics were analyzed.The comparison was performed in terms of ability to maintain the desired indoor comfort levels, primary energy consumption, operating costs and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions during a week of the heating period and a week of the cooling period. The results showed that the ANN approach is potentially able to alleviate the intensity of thermal discomfort associated with overheating/overcooling phenomena, but it could cause an increase in unmet comfort hours. The analysis also highlighted that the ANNs based strategies could reduce the primary energy consumption (up to around 36%, the operating costs (up to around 81% as well as the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (up to around 36%. Keywords: Hybrid microgeneration system, Ground source heat pump, Photovoltaic thermal, Artificial neural network, Predictive control, Energy saving

  20. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  1. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

    2007-02-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem.

  2. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Hurlé, Jesús; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess willingness to pay for renewable energy electricity. We used a choice experiment to elicit willingness-to-pay for different electricity service attributes: renewable sources (wind, solar and biomass) and the regional origin of the electricity with data from a survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Findings indicate that a majority of consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the renewable component of their electricity mix. Moreover, they would...

  3. Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy...... production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based...... on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements...

  4. A New Hybrid PLL for Interconnecting Renewable Energy Systems to the Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to develop new control strategies for interconnecting renewable energy systems (RESs) to the power grid due to the continuously increasing penetration of RES and, in particular, of wind power systems. The control strategies are typically based on a fast and accurate detection...... of the phase angle of the grid voltage which may be estimated by using a phase-locked loop (PLL) control circuit. The performance of the PLL under normal and abnormal operational conditions is a crucial aspect, since the RES is desired to operate accurately to support the power system under grid fault...

  5. Cooperative Energy Management of Hybrid DC Renewable Grid Using Decentralized Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Beykverdi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempted to control a hybrid DC microgrid in islanded operation mode using decentralized power management strategies. Proposed adaptive I/V characteristic for hybrid photovoltaic (PV and battery energy storage system (BESS and wind turbine generator (WTG adapts the distributed energy resources (DER behavior independently in accordance with the load demand. Hence, the PV module can spend its maximum power on load demand and spend the extra power for charging the BESS, which will regulate DC bus voltage and maintain the power balance within the microgrid. When load demand is beyond the maximum generation power of PV unit, WTG will supply the energy shortage. The proposed control system was applied on the DC microgrid in order to achieve control objectives through a decentralized procedure, without telecommunication links. In order to validate the proposed strategies, the control system was implemented on a DC microgrid within MATLAB/SIMULINK, where the simulation results were analyzed and validated.

  6. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, D.

    2006-07-01

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  8. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  9. Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, Z.; Filipov, A.; Filipov, V.

    2008-01-01

    The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

  10. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

  11. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  12. Complex Technical Solution for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex technical solution for implementing renewable energy, namely: wind, solar photovoltaic and hydraulics. Because wind and solar photovoltaic energy habe a highly random character, it is required to find solution to store the product energy for unfavorable periods, without wind or solar radiations. This could be achieved using the third type of renewable energy, the hydraulic one, obtained from an hydroelectric pumped storage plant (HPSP, located in the imediate vicinity of the wind and solar photovoltaic plant.

  13. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  14. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... competitiveness of U.S. wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydropower, waste-to-energy, smart grid, and energy... efficiency; renewable energy; traditional fossil fuels; smart grid; competition in electricity distribution... advantage of U.S. Embassy rates for hotel rooms. The cost to exhibit at the show is $575 per square meter of...

  15. A critical evaluation of deterministic methods in size optimisation of reliable and cost effective standalone hybrid renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheri, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) strongly depends on various uncertainties affecting the amount of power produced by the system. In the design of systems subject to uncertainties, both deterministic and nondeterministic design approaches can be adopted. In a deterministic design approach, the designer considers the presence of uncertainties and incorporates them indirectly into the design by applying safety factors. It is assumed that, by employing suitable safety factors and considering worst-case-scenarios, reliable systems can be designed. In fact, the multi-objective optimisation problem with two objectives of reliability and cost is reduced to a single-objective optimisation problem with the objective of cost only. In this paper the competence of deterministic design methods in size optimisation of reliable standalone wind–PV–battery, wind–PV–diesel and wind–PV–battery–diesel configurations is examined. For each configuration, first, using different values of safety factors, the optimal size of the system components which minimises the system cost is found deterministically. Then, for each case, using a Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of safety factors on the reliability and the cost are investigated. In performing reliability analysis, several reliability measures, namely, unmet load, blackout durations (total, maximum and average) and mean time between failures are considered. It is shown that the traditional methods of considering the effect of uncertainties in deterministic designs such as design for an autonomy period and employing safety factors have either little or unpredictable impact on the actual reliability of the designed wind–PV–battery configuration. In the case of wind–PV–diesel and wind–PV–battery–diesel configurations it is shown that, while using a high-enough margin of safety in sizing diesel generator leads to reliable systems, the optimum value for this margin of safety leading to a

  16. A new hybrid PLL for Interconnecting Renewable Energy Systems to the Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    . This paper investigates the performance of three different PLLs: a synchronous reference frame PLL (dqPLL), a stationary reference frame PLL (αβPLL), and a decoupled double synchronous reference frame PLL (ddsrfPLL). The results of this investigation motivate to the development of a new hybrid PLL which...... of the phase angle of the grid voltage which may be estimated by using a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) control circuit. The performance of the PLL under normal and abnormal operational conditions is a crucial aspect, since the RES is desired to operate to support the power system under grid fault conditions...... is a combination of the abovementioned PLLs and uses the advantages of each PLL. The proposed decoupled stationary reference frame PLL (dαβPLL) may be an appropriate solution to use in an interconnected RES with Ride Through Fault (RTF) capability, since it prevails the other PLLs with regards to its accuracy...

  17. The energy transition by everyone and for everyone: what potential is there for hybridization in renewable energy projects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    hybridization between these two approaches and where the industrial approach is combined with varying types and levels of citizen or local participation in project financing and governance. This variety in models constitutes an argument in favor of a growth in collaborative projects. However, there is a genuine risk of focusing attention solely on the financial involvement of local actors - thus pushing aside the larger debate on collaborative governance models for these projects. This debate must confront two challenges. On the normative level, what political value does one wish to accord to the implementation of collaborative governance, in line with the vision of the energy transition by and for everyone? And on a political level, how does one reconcile the introduction of a more open and competitive regulatory framework for renewable energy with this idea of increased participation by all actors?

  18. A decision support technique for the analysis of autonomous and grid-connected renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiki, Hadi Boulos

    1996-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in using novel methods to generate electrical energy using wind and solar energy sources. Unfortunately, such energy sources are intermittent, and, therefore, conventional sources must still be available to meet demand during critical periods. In addition, renewable energy technologies are still expensive in general, although extensive research programs are being conducted to overcome this disadvantage. Hence, reliability, economic assessment and environmental impacts are three objectives to be satisfied simultaneously when designing either an autonomous or a grid-connected hybrid power generation system. The installation of any of these two systems should, undoubtedly, be preceded by an assessment of the available resources at the candidate site. In addition, many other factors are to be studied, including economics of transmission lines, site constraints, distances etc. In this thesis, the subjective judgments of various experts, related to the overall approach, are quantified and prioritized using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Two systems have been considered, an autonomous wind-solar-diesel-battery system and a grid-connected system composed of wind, solar, battery and a grid option. The trade-off/risk method, which is a multi objective planning technique under uncertainty, is used to optimize the size of the system components, so as to give a robust design. A reasonable compromise among the conflicting design objectives in 3-D is sought, under most foreseeable conditions and uncertainties, but with the cost being the dominating objective. Finally, hedging analysis to reduce risk is conducted to cope with the occurrence of any risky future. (author)

  19. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV- wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  20. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  1. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  2. Intercalibration and Cross-Correlation of Ace and Wind Solar Wind Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This report covers activities funded from October 1, 1998 through September 30, 2002. Two yearly status reports have been filed on this grant, and they are included as Appendix 1. The purpose of this grant was to compare ACE and Wind solar wind parameters when the two spacecraft were near to one another and then to use the intercalibrated parameters to carry out scientific investigations. In September, 2001 a request for a one-year, no-cost extension until September 30, 2002 was submitted and approved. The statement of work for that extension included adjustment of ACE densities below wind speeds of 350 km/s, a study of shock normal orientations using travel time delays between the two spacecraft, comparison of density jumps at shocks, and a study of temperature anisotropies and double streaming to see if such features evolved between the spacecraft.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  4. Lignin Modification for Biopolymer/Conjugated Polymer Hybrids as Renewable Energy Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ting Yang; Wagner, Michal; Inganäs, Olle

    2015-12-07

    Lignin derivatives, which arise as waste products from the pulp and paper industry and are mainly used for heating, can be used as charge storage materials. The charge storage function is a result of the quinone groups formed in the lignin derivative. Herein, we modified lignins to enhance the density of such quinone groups by covalently linking monolignols and quinones through phenolation. The extra guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroquinone groups introduced by phenolation of kraft lignin derivatives were monitored by (31) P nuclear magnetic resonance and size exclusion chromatography. Electropolymerization in ethylene glycol/tetraethylammonium tosylate electrolyte was used to synthesize the kraft lignin/polypyrrole hybrid films. These modifications changed the phenolic content of the kraft lignin with attachment of hydroquinone units yielding the highest specific capacity (around 70 mA h g(-1) ). The modification of softwood and hardwood lignin derivatives yielded 50 % and 23 % higher charge capacity than the original lignin, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  6. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  7. Conceptual evaluation of hybrid energy system comprising wind-biomass-nuclear plants for load balancing and for production of renewable synthetic transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Shropshire, David; Cherry, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Future energy systems will increasingly need to integrate variable renewable energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power production. Addressing this trend the present paper studies how a hybrid energy systems comprising aggregated wind farms, a biomass processing plant, and a nuclear cogeneration plant could support high renewable energy penetration. The hybrid energy system operates so that its electrical output tends to meet demand. This is achieved mainly through altering the heat-to-power ratio of the nuclear reactor and by using excess electricity for hydrogen production through electrolysis. Hybrid energy systems with biomass treatment processes, i.e. drying, torrefaction, pyrolysis and synthetic fuel production were evaluated. It was shown that the studied hybrid energy system comprising a 1 GWe wind farm and a 347 MWe nuclear reactor could closely follow the power demand profile with a standard deviation of 34 MWe. In addition, on average 600 m 3 of bio-gasoline and 750 m 3 bio-diesel are produced daily. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 4.4 MtCO 2 eq annually compared to power generation and transport using conventional fossil fuel sources. (author)

  8. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles charging demand on the optimal energy management of renewable micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Abunasri, Alireza; Zare, Alireza; Hoseinzadeh, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a new stochastic expert framework to investigate the charging effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the optimal operation and management of micro-grids (MGs). In this way, a useful method based on smart charging approach is proposed to consider the charging demand of PHEVs in both residential location and public charging stations. The analysis is simulated for 24 h considering the uncertainties associated with the forecast error in the charging demand of PHEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly energy price and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) output power. In order to see the effect of storage devices on the operation of the MG, NiMH-Battery is also incorporated in the MG. According to the high complexity of the problem, a new optimization method called θ-krill herd (θ-KH) algorithm is proposed which uses the phase angle vectors to update the velocity/position of krill animals with faster and more stable convergence. In addition, a new modification method is proposed to improve the search ability of the algorithm, effectively. The suggested problem is examined on an MG including different RESs such as photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells (FCs), wind turbine (WT), micro turbine (MT) and battery as the storage device. - Highlights: • Introducing an expert stochastic framework for optimal operation and management of MGs including PHEVs. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm based on KH evolutionary technique. • Introducing a new version of KH algorithm called θ-KH for the optimization applications. • Modeling the uncertainty of forecast error in Wind turbine, Photovoltaics, market price, load data, PHEVs electric charging demand in an intelligent framework

  9. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  10. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  11. An overview on cellulose-based material in tailoring bio-hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts for water treatment and renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan; M Zain, M F; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Jeffery Minggu, Lorna; Awang, Nor Asikin; W Salleh, W N

    2017-10-01

    A combination between the nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials promotes a new functionality of cellulose towards the development of new bio-hybrid materials for various applications especially in water treatment and renewable energy. The excellent compatibility and association between nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials was induced by bio-combability and high hydrophilicity of the cellulose components. The electron rich hydroxyl group of celluloses helps to promote superior interaction with photocatalyst. The formation of bio-hybrid nanostructured are attaining huge interest nowadays due to the synergistic properties of individual cellulose-based material and photocatalyst nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review we introduce some cellulose-based material and discusses its compatibility with nanostructured photocatalyst in terms of physical and chemical properties. In addition, we gather information and evidence on the fabrication techniques of cellulose-based hybrid nanostructured photocatalyst and its recent application in the field of water treatment and renewable energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility study of renewable energy resources and optimization of electrical hybrid energy systems: Case study for Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelpour Farivar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies are increasingly seen as the best solution to a growing global population demanding affordable access to electricity while reducing the need for fossil fuels. Country of Iran has vast untapped solar, wind, geothermal and hydroelectric sources that hold the potential to meet domestic needs. Renewable energy is also essential to Iran as it will curb massive air pollution. In this paper economical and feasibility study of various hybrid systems are performed by using HOMER software model for supplying electricity to the Engineering Department of Islamic Azad University. For this study, annual electricity demand of the university is 1,174,935 kWh with a peak demand of about 331 kW, average wind speeds, based on hourly data during the period of eleven years (2000-2010, are between 3 to 5 m/s in all months of the year. For solar radiation, six models are evaluated to select the best model for estimation of the daily global solar radiation (GSR on a horizontal surface in the study location. Among these six models, H/HO=a+b (S/S0+ c(S/S02 is chosen as the most optimum model for estimating solar irradiation. The results indicate that among the three hybrid systems for fulfilling electrical energy needs, the Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid system with 9 wind turbines (20 kW, one diesel generator (300 kW, 50 batteries, and 50 kW power converters with net present cost of $4,281,800 and cost of energy of 0.285 $/kWh is the most economically efficient hybrid system. (based on 2015 US dollar.

  13. Renewable rural electrification: sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation summarised in this paper applied a sustainability assessment methodology on a renewable energy technological system in a rural village project that was commissioned by the South African Department of Minerals and Energy...

  14. Renewable energies in France: the main results in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document is a status for the year 2007 of the production and consumption of renewable energies in France. This status allows to follow and measure the advance the programs sustained by the public authorities for the use and valorization of renewable energy sources. The production includes the power generation (hydraulic, wind, solar and biofuel power plants) and the heat generation (heat pumps, biofuels and refuse fuels). The consumption concerns only the heat generation and is analyzed by sector of use. Statistical production data are summarized in tables. (J.S.)

  15. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  16. Techno-economic study of a distributed hybrid renewable energy system supplying electrical power and heat for a rural house in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jindou; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Yaodong

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction have become targets for modern society due to the potential energy crisis and the threat of climate change. A distributed hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) consists of photovoltaic (PV) arrays, a wood-syngas combined heat and power generator (CHP) and back-up batteries is designed to power a typical semi-detached rural house in China which aims to meet the energy demand of a house and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Based on the annual load information of the house and the local meteorological data including solar radiation, air temperature, etc., a system model is set up using HOMER software and is used to simulate all practical configurations to carry out technical and economic evaluations. The performance of the whole HRES system and each component under different configurations are evaluated. The optimized configuration of the system is found

  17. Regional Integration of Renewable Energy Systems in Ireland: the Role of Hybrid Energy Systems for Small Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Goodbody, Craig; Walsh, Eileen; McDonnell, Kevin; Owende, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Due to a lack of indigenous fossil energy resources, Ireland's energy supply constantly teeters on the brink of political, geopolitical, and geographical unease. The potential risk to the security of the energy supply combined with the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to climate change gives a clear indication of Ireland's need to reduce dependency on imported fossil fuels as primary energy source. A feasibility analysis to investigate the available renewable energy opti...

  18. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  19. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  20. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  1. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  2. Optimal hybrid renewable energy design in autonomous system using Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis and Homer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahboune, Hassan; Zouggar, Smail; Krajacic, Goran; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Elhafyani, Mohammed; Ziani, Elmostafa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New approach to integrate the Pinch Analysis illustrated. • Total annual cost and loss of power supply probability are the objective functions. • The new Hybrid Cascade Table to determine the optimal system design. • The performances of the new method are compared with Homer Pro. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for designing hybrid electricity generation systems is presented. It is based on the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis method. The Power Pinch analysis is used as a guideline for development of an isolated power supply system, which consists of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and energy storage units. The design procedure uses a simulation model, developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and applies the developed algorithms for obtaining an optimal design. A validation of the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis method is performed by comparing the obtained results with those from the Homer Pro software. The procedure takes as inputs hourly wind speed, solar radiation, demands, as well as cost data, for the generation and storage facilities. It is also applied to minimize the loss of power supply probability and to minimize the number of storage units. The algorithm has been demonstrated with a case study on a site in Oujda city, with daily electrical energy demand of 18.7 kWh, resulting in a combination of photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and batteries at minimal cost. The results from the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis and HOMER Pro show that both tools successfully identified the optimal solution with difference of 0.04% in produced energy, 5.4% in potential excess of electricity and 0.07% in the cost of the energy.

  3. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares MC Borba, Bruno; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have proposed different tools for analyzing the integration of variable renewable energy into power grids. This study applies an optimization tool to model the expansion of the electric power system in northeastern Brazil, enabling the most efficient dispatch of the variable output of the wind farms that will be built in the region over the next 20 years. The expected combined expansion of wind generation with conventional inflexible generation facilities, such as nuclear plants and run-of-the-river hydropower plants, poses risks of future mismatch between supply and demand in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, this article evaluates the possibility of using a fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to regularize possible energy imbalances. Findings indicate that a dedicated fleet of 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015, and a further 1.5 million in 2030, could be recharged overnight to take advantage of the surplus power generated by wind farms. To avoid the initial costs of smart grids, this article suggests, as a first step, the use of a governmental PHEV fleet that allows fleet managers to control battery charging times. Finally, the study demonstrates the advantages of optimizing simultaneously the power and transport sectors to test the strategy suggested here. -- Highlights: ► We evaluated the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to regularize possible energy imbalances in northeastern Brazil. ► This imbalance might result from the large-scale wind power penetration along with conventional inflexible power plants in the region. ► We adapted the MESSAGE optimization tool to the base conditions of the Brazilian power system. ► 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015 and 1.5 million in 2030 could be recharged taking advantage of wind energy surplus.

  4. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  5. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  6. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  7. The market of new electric energies. Wind, solar, biomass, hydroelectricity: which perspectives by 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the consequences of the modification of the energy economic environment, the main trends of the sector, and predictable evolutions. A first part presents the situation of the French market of new electric energy sources in 2011 and its perspectives by 2015 for hydroelectricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, and biomass-based energy (production capacities, installations to be connected, electricity production and its share in electricity consumption), and discusses the main challenges faced by the profession. The second part proposes a comparison between these new energies and nuclear energy in terms of economic structure (number of companies, staff, turnover, public investment, and so on), synthetic sheets of the different renewable sectors, and an overview of the World and European markets of new electric energies. The third part identifies the existing actors. The fourth part analyses growth brakes and drivers (French energy policy, economic context for the 2011-2015 period, other factors which have influence on the market). The fifth part proposes a large set of economic and financial indicators for 200 actors of the sector

  8. The new 2.5L L4 gasoline engine for LEXUS IS300h. The renewed engine series for FR hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Fumihisa; Mashiki, Zenichiro; Yamanari, Kenji [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    To ensure future sustainable mobility, vehicles have to face crucial problems such as energy security, global warming and air quality. To address these problems, TOYOTA introduced in 1997 the TOYOTA Hybrid System (THS) and has continuously improved its technology, globally contributing to the environmental improvement by its expansion into many markets in the world. TOYOTA presented the renewed 4 Cylinder Engine Series for FF vehicles at this symposium last year. This year, Toyota presents the result of its continuous development for FR Hybrid Vehicles, especially for D and E segment vehicles. Toyota not only improved thermal efficiency and reduced CO{sub 2} but also achieved high power output. In 2012, TOYOTA launched 3.5L V6 engine for LEXUS-GS (2GR-FXE engine), as first engine of this new engine series. In 2013, TOYOTA will launch 2.5L-L4 engine for LEXUS-IS (2AR-FSE engine), as the leading engine of this series. Toyota developed these new engines, aiming at leadership with regard to fuel economy, clean exhaust gas and high reliability. Toyota carried out modifications, taking into account usage of Hybrid System. With targeting highest levels of environmental performance, Toyota improved the vehicle driving performances like acceleration response by the combination of enhanced engine power output and newly developed Hybrid System. One of the biggest feature of this series is new generation D-4S system, including two injectors (for Direct injection and Port injection) for each cylinder, high fuel pressure (greater than 18MPa) and high fuel flow rate. The new generation D-4S system helps achieving high performance and good thermal efficiency. Furthermore, Toyota added on Cooled EGR system to 2AR-FSE engine, contributing to lower the fuel consumption, especially in highway driving. The very low friction technology and the well proven Atkinson Cycle are also key features of this engine series. Thanks to the above features, the new engine series achieves high

  9. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  10. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? Evidence from a Spanish region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Azucena; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the willingness to pay for mix of renewable sources of electric power by means of a discrete choice experiment survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Two main categories of power supply attributes are explored: source of renewable power (wind, solar and biomass) and the origin of such power. The findings suggest that most consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the shares of renewable in their electricity mix. For two of the three renewable sources considered (wind and biomass) an increase of the renewable mix would require a discount. Instead, we record positive willing to pay for increases in the share of both solar power and locally generated power. However, preferences for types of renewable (solar and wind) are found to be heterogeneous. By classifying respondents in two groups according to the implied importance of the share of renewable sources in their power mix we identify a market segment consisting of 20% of respondents that could promote renewable energy in the absence of subsidies. This is because such a segment shows willingness to pay higher than the current feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the WTP for different renewable electricity sources in a Aragon. ► Average positive WTP is found for only some renewable sources. ► Specific market segments are willing to pay for specific renewable sources. ► Geographical origin is more important than renewable source.

  11. Renewable energies in France: the main results in 2007; Les energies renouvelables en France: les principaux resultats en 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document is a status for the year 2007 of the production and consumption of renewable energies in France. This status allows to follow and measure the advance the programs sustained by the public authorities for the use and valorization of renewable energy sources. The production includes the power generation (hydraulic, wind, solar and biofuel power plants) and the heat generation (heat pumps, biofuels and refuse fuels). The consumption concerns only the heat generation and is analyzed by sector of use. Statistical production data are summarized in tables. (J.S.)

  12. Energy droughts in a 100% renewable electricity mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoît; François, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    During the 21st conference of parties, 175 countries agreed on limiting the temperature increase due to global warming to 2°C above preindustrial levels. Such an ambitious goal necessitates a deep transformation of our society in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Europe has started its energy transition years ago by, for instance, increasing the share of renewables in the European electricity generation and should continue in this direction. Variable renewable energies (VRE) and especially those driven by weather conditions (namely wind, solar and hydro power from river flow), are expected to play a key role in achieving the GHG reduction target. However, these renewables are often criticized for their intermittency and for the resulting difficult integration in the power supply system, especially for large shares of VRE in the energy mix. Assessing the feasibility of electricity generation using large contributions of VRE requires a deep understanding and characterization of the VRE spatiotemporal variations. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the short-term intermittency of VRE generation, but the persistency and the characteristics of periods of low/high electricity generation have been rarely studied. Yet, these particular situations require some demanding adaptations of the power supply system in term of back-up sources or production curtailment respectively. This study focuses on what we call "energy droughts" which, by analogy with hydrological or meteorological droughts, are defined as periods of very low energy production. We consider in turn "energy droughts" associated to wind, solar and hydro power (run-of-the-river). Their characteristics are estimated for 12 European regions being subjected to different climatic regimes. For each region and energy source, "droughts" are evaluated from a 30-yr time series of power generation (1983-2012). These series are simulated by using a suite of weather-to-energy conversion models with

  13. Rejecting renewables. The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-11-15

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection. (author)

  14. Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-11-15

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection.

  15. Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection.

  16. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  17. Desalination by renewable energy: A mini review of the recent patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rawajfeh Aiman Eid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent patents on water desalination by using renewable energy technologies are critically reviewed with highlighting on environmental impacts and sustainable development. An overview of using wind, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, wind/solar, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for desalinated water production are assessed. Solar energy is the mother of all other renewable energies; it does not pollute, it is free and available everywhere. Several patents have been invented systems and methods that collected and converted solar energy to electrical energy via solar energy which can be used for water desalination. Wind farm with wind-driven pressurizing devices is used to desalinate salt water by reverse osmosis. Geothermal has been used as an effective method for water desalination. It is highly recommended to provide seawater desalination powered by a renewable energy source in remote areas. On the other hand, sequentially staged of energy conversion steps operate at low efficiencies.

  18. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  19. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  20. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  1. Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D. S.; Busche, S.; Cowlin, S.; Engelmeier, T.; Jaritz, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Wang, S.

    2010-10-01

    India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to ensure that India is able to meet both economic and environmental objectives and has supported the development of renewable energy through several policy actions. This paper describes the status of renewable energy in India as of DIREC 2010. It begins by describing the institutional framework guiding energy development in India, the main policy drivers impacting energy, and the major policy actions India has taken that impact renewable energy deployment. The paper presents estimates of potential for wind, solar, small hydro, and bioenergy and the deployment of each of these technologies to date in India. The potential for India to meet both large-scale generation needs and provide access to remote, unelectrified populations are covered. Finally, the enabling environment required to facilitate rapid scale of renewables is discussed, including issues of technology transfer and the status of financing in India.

  2. A quadratic helix approach to evaluate the Turkish renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celiktas, Melih Soner; Kocar, Gunnur

    2009-01-01

    The first renewable energy law concerning the 'Use of Renewable Energy Resources for the Generation of Electrical Energy' was adopted from European Union regulations on 18 May 2005 in Turkey. The purpose of the Law is to expand the utilization of renewable energy resources for generating electricity. Renewables are defined in the Law as generation facilities based on wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, biogas, wave, current and tidal energy resources, hydrogen energy and hydroelectric generation facilities. The aim of the study was to use strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to identify Turkish renewable energy market strategy and perspective by focusing on four different concepts: policy, market, technology and the social dimension. Different information gathering strategies have been applied such as monitoring of all statements and press releases published in the newspapers by all Turkish renewable energy parties starting from the launch of the law, articles presented in the events between 2000 and 2008 and face-to-face interviews. Our results demonstrated the importance of technology development and knowledge creation for gaining competitiveness on the global arena and the need for a systematic approach for transforming the created know-how into economic and social benefits. (author)

  3. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  4. Hybrid mini-grid systems – electricity for communities not connected to the national electricity grid based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The primary objective of this project was the identification of electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to existing and new economic activities. A holistic and integrated approach is required...

  5. CopenHybrid – Development of a CO2 Neutral Hybrid Street Lighting System for the Danish Municipalities’ Illumination Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the energy system of the hybrid street lighting making it possible to simulate a given configuration (solar panel performance data, size and orientation - wind turbine performance data, projected area and height - battery data) over a year in an urban...... environment of a given configuration based on measured wind/solar/temperature data from nearby meteorological station or other relevant weather data. The simulation can show if it is possible to cover the consumption by the light source over the year. The model can be used to evaluate both commercial hybrid...

  6. Renewable source controls for grid stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability

  7. Social renewal

    OpenAIRE

    A.W. van der Pennen; V. Veldheer; E. ter Borg; M. Kunst; J. Boelhouwer; F.A. Knol

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Sociale vernieuwing. Social renewal began in Rotterdam in 1989, as a response to the presence of stubborn social disadvantage. The Idenburg Committee produced recommendations in that year suggesting how these social problems could best be tackled at local level. Central government adopted these ideas in 1990, since when social renewal policy has really taken off. Most municipalities have joined in, developing social renewal policy and creating an administrative apparatus for i...

  8. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  9. Background research paper : windpower and renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, R.; Cane, T.; Loft, K. [Jones Consulting Group, Barrie, ON (Canada)

    2007-09-04

    This background paper reviewed wind and renewable energy generation approaches and best practices for the county of Essex in Ontario. The aim of the paper was to provide a foundation for a planning approval framework for the county. No specific provincial guidance is currently offered on how to plan renewable energy facilities. An overview of Essex county provided details of the region's physiography, economy, and general landscape characteristics. Separate details of all townships and municipalities in the county were also included. Renewable energy facilities considered in the study included solar, biomass, wind, geothermal, and hydro technologies. Scale options were considered for wind, solar, and biomass energy facilities. Issues related to wind power and community concerns over visual and noise impacts were reviewed. Opportunities for wind power development in the region were also outlined. Mineral, petroleum and aggregate resources were also reviewed. The report also considered the development of renewable energy resources in relation to environmental impacts on lands as well as cultural heritage landscapes and built heritage resources in the region. It was concluded that the county of Essex possesses a variety of resources that continue to attract the attention of renewable energy facility developers. The background paper will encourage stakeholders to participate in the development of draft policies to respond to emerging land use issues in the county. A literature review of wind turbines and wildlife was provided as an appendix. 51 refs., 11 figs.

  10. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  11. Renewables 2015 global status report - Annual Reporting on Renewables: Ten years of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Rickerson, Wilson; Lins, Christine; Williamson, Laura E.; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Musolino, Evan; Hullin, Martin; Reith, Ayla; Valero, Alana; Mastny, Lisa; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Seyboth, Kristin; Skeen, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Wouters, Frank; Martinot, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against the backdrop of increasing global energy consumption, particularly in developing countries, and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. Despite rising energy use, for the first time in four decades, global carbon emissions associated with energy consumption remained stable in 2014 while the global economy grew; this stabilisation has been attributed to increased penetration of renewable energy and to improvements in energy efficiency. Globally, there is growing awareness that increased deployment of renewable energy (and energy efficiency) is critical for addressing climate change, creating new economic opportunities, and providing energy access to the billions of people still living without modern energy services. Although discussion is limited to date, renewables also are an important element of climate change adaptation, improving the resilience of existing energy systems and ensuring delivery of energy services under changing climatic conditions. Renewable energy provided an estimated 19.1% of global final energy consumption in 2013, and growth in capacity and generation continued to expand in 2014. Heating capacity grew at a steady pace, and the production of bio-fuels for transport increased for the second consecutive year, following a slowdown in 2011-2012. The most rapid growth, and the largest increase in capacity, occurred in the power sector, led by wind, solar PV, and hydropower. Growth has been driven by several factors, including renewable energy support policies and the increasing cost-competitiveness of energy from renewable sources. In many countries, renewables are broadly competitive with conventional energy sources. At the same time, growth continues to be tempered by subsidies to fossil fuels and nuclear power, particularly in developing countries. Although Europe remained an important market and a centre for innovation, activity continued to shift towards other

  12. Development plan for renewable energies with a high environmental quality 2008-2012-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Starting with the objectives defined by the Grenelle de l'Environnement in terms of percentage of renewable energies in the final energy consumption (20 - 25 percent), the authors indicate the present situation and objectives to be met by 2020 for the different sources of production of heat, of electricity and of biofuels, while mentioning the main obstacles to be overcome. They also define intermediate objectives to be met in 2012, and then examine the implications and need in terms of institutional organization and of action of local communities. They also propose objectives for each sector concerned by the production and consumption of renewable heat (housing, office building, and industry), renewable electricity (wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydro-energy, use of biomass and wastes) and biofuels. They discuss the particular case of overseas territories, outline the industrial challenges for different energy production sectors (wind, solar, wood, biofuels), and give an insight on research and development perspectives for the different energy production technologies

  13. Techno economic analysis of a wind-photovoltaic-biomass hybrid renewable energy system for rural electrification: A case study of Kallar Kahar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Jameel; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    system. The total load has been optimally shared among generated power through wind, photovoltaic and biomass resources and surplus power is supplied to the national grid in case of low local demand of the load. The results of techno-economic feasibility study show that hybrid power system can generate......This paper focuses on the techno-economic feasibility of a grid-tied hybrid microgrid system for local inhabitants of Kallar Kahar near Chakwal city of Punjab province in Pakistan and investigates the potential for electricity generation through hybrid wind, photovoltaic and biomass system...... more than 50 MW. The cost of energy based on peak load demand profiles are considered for both residential and commercial sectors. The cost of hybrid system for peak load of 73.6 MW is 180.2 million USD and levelized cost of energy is 0.05744 $/kWh....

  14. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  15. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  16. Renewable energy: key factor of China’s energy revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wan

    2017-12-01

    To realize the sustainable development of China’s energy industry, it is necessary to speed up the transformation of energy development mode and deepen the reform of the energy system in an all-round way so as to establish a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient modern energy system. This paper analysed the opportunities and challenges in energy sectors to promote the energy mix update in China. Fossil energy, especially coal, has brought great progress to the world as well as a great deal of negative effects. In recent years, China’s greenhouse gas emissions continued to grow rapidly, and has become the world’s largest greenhouse gas emitter. To deal with the challenge, the Chinese government has promised that renewable energy will account for 15% of total energy consumption in 2020 and 20% in 2030. This goal requires China to add 800 to 1000 GW of wind, solar and other clean energy.

  17. A methodology for analysis of impacts of grid integration of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Mel [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Banerjee, Rangan, E-mail: rangan@iitb.ac.i [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2011-03-15

    Present electricity grids are predominantly thermal (coal, gas) and hydro based. Conventional power planning involves hydro-thermal scheduling and merit order dispatch. In the future, modern renewables (hydro, solar and biomass) are likely to have a significant share in the power sector. This paper presents a method to analyse the impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. A load duration curve based approach has been developed. Renewable energy sources have been treated as negative loads to obtain a modified load duration curve from which capacity savings in terms of base and peak load generation can be computed. The methodology is illustrated for solar, wind and biomass power for Tamil Nadu (a state in India). The trade-offs and interaction between renewable sources are analysed. The impacts on capacity savings by varying the wind regime have also been shown. Scenarios for 2021-22 have been constructed to illustrate the methodology proposed. This technique can be useful for power planners for an analysis of renewables in future electricity grids. - Research highlights: {yields} A new method to analyse impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. {yields} Effects of wind, solar PV and biomass power on load duration curve and capacity savings are shown. {yields} Illustration of intermittent renewables and their interplay for sites in India and the UK. {yields} Future scenarios constructed for generation expansion planning with higher levels of renewable.

  18. Renewable energy annual 1998, with data for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This is the fourth annual report published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) which presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data; US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities; and US geothermal heat pump manufacturing activities. It updates and provides more detail on renewable energy information than what`s published in the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Review 1997. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid waste, ethanol, and biodiesel); geothermal; wind; solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic); and hydropower. However, hydropower is also regarded as a conventional energy source because it has furnished a significant amount of electricity for more than a century. Therefore, the contribution of hydropower to total renewable energy consumption is discussed, although hydropower as an individual energy source is not addressed. Since EIA collects data only on terrestrial (land-based) systems, satellite and military applications are not included in this report. 13 figs., 44 tabs.

  19. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  20. Wind/Solar : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, Don; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This handbook is one of a series that was recently written or updated for persons involved in the development of generating plants that use renewable resources. Other siting handbooks cover facilities powered by geothermal, hydro, and biomass resources. These handbooks are intended to introduce the reader to the regulations and their corresponding institutions that affect the development of physical facilities. The handbooks, for the most part, apply to resource development in the Pacific Northwest, i.e., Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Western Montana. Some states have their own development or siting handbooks. These may be identified and obtained by contacting the states` energy offices.

  1. Wind/solar: A regulatory guide to leasing, permitting, and licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D. (Oregon State Dept. of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)); Bloomquist, R.G. (Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    This handbook is one of a series that was recently written or updated for persons involved in the development of generating plants that use renewable resources. Other siting handbooks cover facilities powered by geothermal, hydro, and biomass resources. These handbooks are intended to introduce the reader to the regulations and their corresponding institutions that affect the development of physical facilities. The handbooks, for the most part, apply to resource development in the Pacific Northwest, i.e., Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Western Montana. Some states have their own development or siting handbooks. These may be identified and obtained by contacting the states' energy offices.

  2. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy of renewable hybrid systems PV-Diesel Generator-Battery: application to the case of Djanet city of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yahiaoui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for optimal sizing of hybrid system consisting of a Photovoltaic (PV panel, diesel generator, Battery banks and load is considered in this paper. To this end a novel approach is proposed. More precisely a methodology for the design and simulation of the behavior of Hybrid system PV-Diesel-Battery banks to electrify an isolated rural site in southern Algeria Illizi (Djanet. This methodology is based on the concept of the loss power supply probability. Sizing and simulation are performed using MATLAB. The technique developed in this study is to determine the number of photovoltaic panels, diesel generators and batteries needed to cover the energy deficit and respond to the growing rural resident energy demand. The obtained results demonstrate the superior capabilities of this proposed method.

  3. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  4. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...... installations in the local landscape. A number of countries have introduced financial incentives to promote community acceptance. The tool box of incentives is still limited but in recent years it has been expanded to address local concerns. Certain general characteristics can be identified, suggesting...... that there are at least three distinct categories of incentives: individual compensation, community benefits and ownership measures. Local opposition must be approached with caution, as financial incentives to promote local acceptance can be seen as buying consent or even ‘bribery’, stirring up further opposition....

  5. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  6. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  7. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  8. Optimization of Renewable Energy Efficiency using HOMER

    OpenAIRE

    Okedu, Kenneth Eloghene; Uhunmwangho, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Optimization Model for Electrical Renewable (HOMER), is a micro power optimization model, that simplifies the task of evaluating designs of both off-grid and grid-connected power systems for a variety of applications. The HOMER Hybrid Optimization Modeling Software is used for designing and analyzing hybrid power systems, which contain a mix of conventional generators, cogeneration, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic, hydropower, batteries, fuel cells, hydropower, biomass and other inpu...

  9. The French know-how in the field of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having briefly described the energetic and environmental context (climate change, energy supply, environment and health protection, development of 'green' industries in France) which calls for a development of renewable energies, this report proposes a rather brief overview of their stage of development in France. For each type of renewable energy, i.e. wind, solar, wood, biomass and biofuels, hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, sea energy, the report gives an overview of available technologies, of the energy production capacity, of industrial actors, of some programmes, projects or realizations. It also describes the innovation and research and development context (involved agencies and institutions, French and European programmes and projects). It presents important aspects of public policies: 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', Mediterranean Solar Plan, electricity purchase, tax credit, Heat Fund (Fonds Chaleur), and other financing funds and instruments. It also indicates public and private bodies committed in consultancy, education and information

  10. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO 2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO 2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO 2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  11. Social renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. van der Pennen; V. Veldheer; E. ter Borg; M. Kunst; J. Boelhouwer; F.A. Knol

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Sociale vernieuwing. Social renewal began in Rotterdam in 1989, as a response to the presence of stubborn social disadvantage. The Idenburg Committee produced recommendations in that year suggesting how these social problems could best be tackled at local level. Central

  12. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  13. Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.; Olis, D.

    2012-02-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage the development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. As part of this effort, EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island. NREL's Renewable Energy Optimization (REO) tool was utilized to identify RE technologies that present the best opportunity for life-cycle cost-effective implementation while also serving to reduce energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and increase the percentage of RE used at NAVSTA Newport. The technologies included in REO are daylighting, wind, solar ventilation preheating (SVP), solar water heating, photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal (heating and electric), and biomass (gasification and cogeneration). The optimal mix of RE technologies depends on several factors including RE resources; technology cost and performance; state, utility, and federal incentives; and economic parameters (discount and inflation rates). Each of these factors was considered in this analysis. Technologies not included in REO that were investigated separately per NAVSTA Newport request include biofuels from algae, tidal power, and ground source heat pumps (GSHP).

  14. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  15. Background research paper : township of East Garafraxa utilities and renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-11

    This paper established the foundation for future policies in Ontario's Township of East Garafraxa regarding renewable energy facilities and utilities. The paper provided research which included a summary of policy and regulatory best practices; a lexicon for renewable energy and wind power terminology; a baseline for scales of facilities; identification of constraints and land use issues; a discussion on alternative energy sources and their impacts; a summary of discussions with stakeholders and interest groups; and an opportunity and constraints analysis. Specifically, the report provided an overview of the Township of East Garafraxa and discussed regulations such as the Environmental Assessment Act and Environmental Protection Act. The forms of renewable energy that were discussed included wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal energy. A jurisdictional analysis was then presented. Scale options for each renewable energy system were presented along with recommended scales for each renewable energy system. It was concluded that the Township of East Garafraxa has an opportunity to proactively accommodate new renewable energy land uses in a manner that reflects the local characteristics and aspirations of its residents. 50 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  16. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  17. Sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables para el suministro de energía a plantas desaladoras / Hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy for the energy supply to desalination plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Ávila‐Prats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se modelan los sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables, quegaranticen las necesidades energéticas en plantas desaladoras de ósmosis inversa, con unacapacidad de hasta 50 m3 de producción diaria, a fin de obtener la combinación óptima. Para elprocesamiento de los datos se hará uso del software especializado HOMER. Se tomarán comoelementos de partida: la demanda eléctrica de una planta desaladora tipo, las especificacionestécnicas de los equipos propuestos, así como los potenciales de radiación solar y las velocidades deviento de la región analizada (Islas Canarias.Las conclusiones muestran que el sistema híbrido óptimo, desde el punto de vista técnico-económicopara el suministro de energía a desaladoras de ósmosis inversa con capacidad de producción de 50m3/día, será un sistema eólico- diesel, compuesto por: dos aerogeneradores, un banco de baterías yun generador diesel. Se demuestra que la velocidad del viento es la variable termodinámicadeterminante para la configuración de los sistemas híbridos estudiados, considerando los potencialesenergéticos naturales existentes en la región estudiada.Palabras claves: desalinización, ósmosis inversa, HOMER, Islas Canarias, sistemas híbridos, energíasrenovables._____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the following work the hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy are modeled, to comparemany different design options based on their technical and economic merits. The energy necessitieswill be guaranteed in reverse osmosis desalination plants, with a capacity of up to 50 m3 of dailyproduction. The data processing was analyzed using the computer model, HOMER. The departureelements were: the electric demand of the desalination plant, the technical specifications of theequipments, as well as the potentials of solar radiation and the speeds of wind of the analyzed region(Canary Island

  18. g-C3N4/NiAl-LDH 2D/2D Hybrid Heterojunction for High-Performance Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2into Renewable Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonda, Surendar; Kumar, Santosh; Bhardwaj, Monika; Yadav, Poonam; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2018-01-24

    2D/2D interface heterostructures of g-C 3 N 4 and NiAl-LDH are synthesized utilizing strong electrostatic interactions between positively charged 2D NiAl-LDH sheets and negatively charged 2D g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets. This new 2D/2D interface heterojunction showed remarkable performance for photocatalytic CO 2 reduction to produce renewable fuels such as CO and H 2 under visible-light irradiation, far superior to that of either single phase g-C 3 N 4 or NiAl-LDH nanosheets. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity could be attributed mainly to the excellent interfacial contact at the heterojunction of g-C 3 N 4 /NiAl-LDH, which subsequently results in suppressed recombination, and improved transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers. In addition, the optimal g-C 3 N 4 /NiAl-LDH nanocomposite possessed high photostability after successive experimental runs with no obvious change in the production of CO from CO 2 reduction. Our findings regarding the design, fabrication and photophysical properties of 2D/2D heterostructure systems may find use in other photocatalytic applications including H 2 production and water purification.

  19. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  20. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  1. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Rewards of renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Gregory

    2008-09-01

    In 1987 an American-style fridge freezer would use about 950 kWh of electricity and cost about 150 (£80) a year to run. Two decades on, a comparable appliance uses half the electricity and costs less than half as much to run. In 1975 there were about 3780 000 cars on the streets of Los Angeles, whereas today there are more than 5200 000 - yet air-pollution levels have fallen by half and an increasing number of those vehicles are hybrids or rely on renewable fuels like bio-diesel. Last year, half a million homes in Southern California were receiving direct solar power, either from solar electricity plants or from rooftop photovoltaic panels.

  3. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Renewable Energy Technologies Diffusion in Sindh: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASIF ALISHAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundant resources of Sindh province for RE (Renewable Energy such as wind, solar, etc. can be tapped through RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies to fulfil energy needs. But RETs are still not able to make major breakthrough in individual?s life to enhance it. Even though individuals began to use solar panels to conquer power deficiencies, more endeavours are required to diffuse RETs in Sindh. This research paper explores the present situation for the dissemination of RETs in masses. A survey is conducted to achieve the said task. It measures the opinion difference of respondents regarding awareness creation towards RETs, needs for funding, provision of incentives and role of community engagement required for promotion of RETs in Sindh. The opinion difference was measuredregarding stakeholders? individual perception and chances of occurring the same (societal perception. The outcome of the survey identifies an entirely opposite opinion of stakeholders regarding their individual and social perceptions. Thus, predicting the real situation for RETs diffusion in Sindh. It indicates that despite much enthusiasm for RETs, lesser possibilities are accessible for their fruitful dispersion in Sindh in current conditions. Lack of awareness regarding RETs, few funding opportunities and absence of incentives from government resulted in the low engagement of communities to utilise RETs. Hence, due to hurdles identified, RETs face hindrances in their popularisation, which can be addressed through appropriate policy decisions.

  5. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kevin; Jones, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.4 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Currently, 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal global access to energy by the year 2030. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to energy mix is derived from 91% non-renewable (oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear) and 9% renewable (e.g., hydropower, wind, solar, biofuels) sources. Here we use a nine region model of the world to quantify the changes in the global energy mix necessary to address population and climate change under two energy-use scenarios and find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary to support the 2014 UN population projections. We also find that renewable energy production must comprise 87-94% of global energy consumption by 2100. Our study suggests >50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a energy use scenario. Each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. We find that global energy demand in 2100 will be more than double that of today; of this demand, 82% will need to be derived from renewable sources. More renewable energy production will be required in 2100 than the 2014 total global energy production. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the energy as quickly as possible in order to supply the projected world energy demand and to limit warming to 2.5-3°C by 2100.

  6. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  8. Integration of renewable generation uncertainties into stochastic unit commitment considering reserve and risk: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainties of renewable energy have brought great challenges to power system commitment, dispatches and reserve requirement. This paper presents a comparative study on integration of renewable generation uncertainties into SCUC (stochastic security-constrained unit commitment) considering reserve and risk. Renewable forecast uncertainties are captured by a list of PIs (prediction intervals). A new scenario generation method is proposed to generate scenarios from these PIs. Different system uncertainties are considered as scenarios in the stochastic SCUC problem formulation. Two comparative simulations with single (E1: wind only) and multiple sources of uncertainty (E2: load, wind, solar and generation outages) are investigated. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies are performed. Different generation costs, reserve strategies and associated risks are compared under various scenarios. Demonstrated results indicate the overall costs of E2 is lower than E1 due to penetration of solar power and the associated risk in deterministic cases of E2 is higher than E1. It implies the superimposed effect of uncertainties during uncertainty integration. The results also demonstrate that power systems run a higher level of risk during peak load hours, and that stochastic models are more robust than deterministic ones. - Highlights: • An extensive comparative study for renewable integration is presented. • A novel scenario generation method is proposed. • Wind and solar uncertainties are represented by a list of prediction intervals. • Unit commitment and dispatch costs are discussed considering reserve and risk.

  9. Modeling the effects of the new Russian capacity mechanism on renewable energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, Mariia; Collan, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Russian renewable energy policy, introduced in May 2013, is a capacity mechanism-based approach to support wind, solar, and small hydro power development in Russia. This paper explores the effect of the new mechanism on the profitability of new renewable energy investments with a numerical example. The sensitivity of project profitability to selected factors is studied and the results are compared ceteris paribus to results from a generic feed-in premium case. Furthermore, the paper gives a complete and detailed presentation of the capacity price calculation procedure tied to the support mechanism. The results show that the new Russian renewable energy capacity mechanism offers a significant risk reduction to the investor in the form of dampening the sensitivity to external market factors. At the same time it shields the energy market system from excessive burden of renewable energy support. Even if the complexity of the method is a clear drawback to the detailed understanding of how the mechanism works, the design of the incentive policy could be an appealing alternative also for other emerging economies. - Highlights: •New Russian RE investment incentive mechanism is presented in detail. •Effect of the mechanism on RE investment profitability is numerically illustrated. •Sensitivity of project profitability to selected variables is studied. •Sensitivity results are compared to results under a generic feed-in premium. •The mechanism is shown to reduce market-related risks of RE investments.

  10. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  11. Renewable energies in France. New financing modes and challenges for French actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This document comprises three reports and a video. The first report is an executive summary which focuses on the main factors of evolution of the activity in the field of renewable energies, and stresses factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second report proposes a strategic analysis which addresses key challenges and problematic of the sector, analyses the evolution of competition, deciphers the strategies of the main operators, and tries to identify the best performing business models. It proposes an overview of the situation of the French market of renewable energies (hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass including biogas, waste combustion, geothermal and heat pumps), a precise description of renewable energy financing modes (notably four models: capital-investment, green bonds, institutional financing, participative financing), an analysis of opportunities for the different French renewable energy sectors on the medium term, and an identification of actors with an analysis of their market positioning. The third report proposes data which provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the market, of its dynamics and of operators. It presents the market environment (energy policy, energy assessment, housing fleet, GDP, other environmental factors), the French market of renewable energies (final consumption, primary production, turnover of 5 component suppliers and of 5 operators, renewable heat production and consumption, renewable electric power production and consumption), and the competitive environment (economic structure, overview of main manufacturers, exploiters and operators in France) with a more detailed presentation of 18 manufacturers, owners and operators). The video proposes a presentation of operational conclusions of this study

  12. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  13. Renewables for sustainable village power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL's RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal

  14. Renewable Energy Education for Future Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the constantly growing use of technology, modern society requires increasing amounts of electrical power. Acknowledging the global efforts to increase the use of renewable energy sources, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, a school in Hong Kong, plans to provide the opportunity for students to explore the applications of various forms of renewable energy through a Renewable Energy Education Centre (REEC). Two students are involved in the designing and construction of the Renewable Energy Education Centre to understand the technologies, processes, and provide insight from the students' perspective. The REEC will incorporate various uses of renewable energy, including a solar photovoltaic system, hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system, vertical windmill, hot water heater, and heat pump. As a means to enrich students' learning experiences, the REEC will be open to access by science students for a wide range of investigations, such as science experiments related to renewable energy and energy efficiency, providing opportunities for student led research projects, Personal Projects and IB Extended Essays. In short, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy aims to allow students to familiarize themselves with various forms of renewable energy from a young age, and develop a deeper understanding of technologies that will become primary sources of electrical power in the near future.

  15. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  16. Renewable target in sight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy industry is expecting several billion dollars of investment over the next 10 years following passage in December last year of the Renewable Energy Electricity) Act 2000 through Federal Parliament. The Act requires an additional 9500GWh of Australia's electricity production to be sourced from renewables by the year 2010. It also establishes a market for the 'green' component of the energy separate from the electricity itself, through a Renewable Energy Certificate (REC), whereby an accredited generator of renewable energy is able to issue one REC for each megawatt-hour of renewable energy generated

  17. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  18. Wind energy technology: an option for a renewable clean environment energy. Low impact renewable energy: options for a clean environment and healthy Canadian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.

    1999-01-01

    As Canada debates ways to address climate change, the country's low-impact renewable energy industries want to ensure that Canadians are provided with all of the options available to them. Accordingly, they have come together to create Options for a Clean Environment and Healthy Canadian Economy. Recognizing there is no 'silver bullet' solution to climate change, this document identifies an important suite of measures that, along with others, will allow Canada to achieve its long-term economic and environmental goals. The measures described in this document represent an investment in Canada's future. If implemented, they will reduce annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by more than 12 million tonnes (Mt) by the year 2010 (roughly 8% of Canada's reduction target), create thousands of new jobs, and reduce health-care costs by millions of dollars each year. The most significant dividends from these measures, however, will occur after 2010 as a result of having set in motion fundamental changes in the attitudes of Canadians and the nature of the Canadian energy market. By 2020, the spin-off actions prompted by these measures will likely have resulted in GHG reductions twice as great as those achieved in 2010. This document highlights the opportunities associated specifically with Canada's low-impact renewable energy resources. These are non-fossil-fuel resources that are replenished through the earth's natural cycles and have a minimal impact on the environment and human health. They include wind, solar, earth energy, run-of-river hydro and sustainable biomass fuels. These resources can replace fossil fuels in a variety of areas, including electricity and space and water heating. Fuel cells, although not a renewable resource in themselves, are a promising technology that in combination with renewables have the potential to deliver versatile low-impact electricity. The document also identifies opportunities associated with the increased use of passive renewable energy

  19. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  20. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Renewable Distributed Generations and Capacitor Banks into Radial Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable types of distributed generation in the distribution system have been much appreciated due to their enormous technical and environmental advantages. This paper proposes a methodology for optimal placement and sizing of renewable distributed generation(s (i.e., wind, solar and biomass and capacitor banks into a radial distribution system. The intermittency of wind speed and solar irradiance are handled with multi-state modeling using suitable probability distribution functions. The three objective functions, i.e., power loss reduction, voltage stability improvement, and voltage deviation minimization are optimized using advanced Pareto-front non-dominated sorting multi-objective particle swarm optimization method. First a set of non-dominated Pareto-front data are called from the algorithm. Later, a fuzzy decision technique is applied to extract the trade-off solution set. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is tested on the standard IEEE 33 test system. The overall results reveal that combination of renewable distributed generations and capacitor banks are dominant in power loss reduction, voltage stability and voltage profile improvement.

  1. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  2. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  3. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  4. Mapping of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany is the champion of green energy in Europe: the contribution of renewable energies to electricity generation reached about 20% in 2011. This article describes the situation of renewable energies in Germany in 2011 with the help of 2 maps, the first one gives the installed electrical generation capacity for each region and for each renewable energy source (wind power, hydro-electricity, biomass, photovoltaic energy and biogas) and the second one details the total number of jobs (direct and indirect) for each renewable energy source and for each region. In 2011 about 372000 people worked in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (A.C.)

  5. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  6. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  7. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  8. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  9. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and

  10. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  11. Ac Hybrid Charge Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini S. Durgam; Anuradha B. Musale

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be...

  12. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  13. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of PV/Wind/ Battery Hybrid Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa M. Atia; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. Ahmed; Hassen T. Dorrah

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the optimum design for renewable energy system powered an aquaculture pond was determined. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software program, which is developed by U.S National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is used for analyzing the feasibility of the stand alone and hybrid system in this study. HOMER program determines whether renewable energy resources satisfy hourly electric demand or not. The program calculates energy balance for every 8760 hou...

  14. Renewables. The clean advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Europe's big utilities are increasingly seeing renewable energy as a viable alternative to conventional forms of power generation which at present have disadvantages in terms of cost and/or environment. Europe's biggest 20 utilities aim to double their renewables capacity in the next five years and nearly 20 billion US dollars have been earmarked for such projects. This report by Emerging Energy Research discusses the likely trends for the next five years. The various sources of renewable energy and how they might be developed are discussed. The companies leading exploitation of renewables and their market share are named

  15. Renewable energy action agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    To assist the long-term development of the renewable energy industry, the Commonwealth Government, in partnership with industry, has developed the Renewable Energy Action Agenda. New Era -New Energy, launched in June 2000 by Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Senator Robert Hill, and Greg Bourne, Regional President of BP Amoco, sets an ambitious target for growth and identifies the strategies and actions necessary to achieve it. The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Agenda was to develop a policy framework underpinning growth in a commercially viable and internationally competitive Australian renewable energy industry

  16. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  17. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...... per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes...

  18. Practical Investigation for Road Lighting using Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged A. Abu Adma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Hybrid renewable energy systems are recently used to counteract the limitations of solar and wind as solo renewable energy sources due to adverse weather conditions. This study explains a design of a fully independent -off grid- hybrid solar and wind road lighting system according to geography and weather conditions recorded from the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics. The computerized model is designed step by step by the aid of Simulink-Matlab and the simulation was successfully run to show the performance of each module.

  19. Distributed-dispersed renewable energy systems and novel control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljankawey, Abdualah S.

    Renewable green-energy systems are re-emerging as viable economic alternative sources of environmentally safe power generation in place of conventional fossil fuels. In terms of power quality and safety, this research investigates a number of renewable green-energy (wind, photovoltaic and fuel cells) interface schemes and control strategies that ensure maximum energy utilization, voltage and frequency stabilization and minimum impact on the host electric grid systems. The research key objectives are to study efficient and robust renewable energy converter schemes with associated control strategies and validate their operations for both stand-alone and electric utility grid interfacing. The research work investigates both stand-alone and grid connected renewable green-energy utilization schemes with a number of power electronic converter topologies and robust control schemes for both dispersed and hybrid renewable energy systems. Different sample study systems and control strategies are digitally simulated and fully validated using the MATLAB-Simulink-SimPower environment.

  20. Renewing Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, John

    This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper…

  1. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  2. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  3. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  4. Renewable energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosello-Garcia, M.

    2003-04-01

    Dependent upon its energy supplies, the Japan aims to develop its renewable energies production. This evolution will also agrees the engagements of the Kyoto protocol to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. To reach in 2010 7% of the energy consumption by a ''clean energy'', the Japan supports and finances many research projects on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  5. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  6. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  7. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  8. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  9. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  10. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  11. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  12. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2006-01-01

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then-contrary to common practice-any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000 to 2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation. (author)

  13. Renewable Firming EnergyFarm Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepien, Tom [Primus Power, Hayward, CA (United States); Collins, Mark [Primus Power, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2017-01-26

    flexible EnergyFarm®. 2. Accelerate adoption of renewable energy and enhance grid stability by firming the output of wind & solar farms. 3. Demonstrate improved grid asset utilization by storing energy during off-peak periods for dispatch during local load peaks. 4. Establish an advanced battery manufacturing industry in the U.S. 5. Reduce CO2 emissions from utilities. This report summarizes the key milestones, data, results and lessons learned from the project. The desired goals and benefits of the cooperative agreement with the DOE have all been achieved. The project has contributed to reducing power costs, accelerating adoption of renewable energy resources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and establishing advanced battery manufacturing in the U.S. The Recovery Act funds provided thru the DOE have been leveraged multiple times by additional private equity investment. Primus Power continues to ship low cost, long life and long duration EnergyPod® flow battery systems to utilities, commercial/industrial, microgrid and data center customers. After the conclusion of this project, Primus Power has modified the EnergyPod® design to optimize around energy performance. Primus Power has moved to a prefabricated enclosure instead of multiple EnergyCells in a container. This lowers capital and maintenance costs and can optimize site design. Utilities are starting to adopt energy storage for a variety of functions. The market will grow as the technology is proven and profitable applications expand.

  14. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  15. Renewables in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has evaluated the potential for using renewable energy for electricity in the Midwest, and has been carrying out a multifaceted effort to expand the use of renewables in the region. The UCS study presents a strategy for developing renewable-electric technologies and resources in 12 midwestern states. UCS analysts used a geographic information system (GIS) to create data-bases of renewable resources, land uses, vegetation cover, terrain elevation and locations of utility transmission lines, and to analyze and present information on a .6 mi x .6 mi (1 km x 1 km) grid scale. In addition, UCS developed a model to calculate the net employment impact of renewable versus conventional electricity technologies on a state-by-state basis. In evaluating the costs and benefits of renewable energy sources, UCS analysts explored a cost assessment that accounted for the impact of pollution from fossil fuels on energy resource cost. Researchers also considered the risks associated with fuel-price volatility, environmental regulation, construction lead times and other uncertainties. Finally, UCS researchers suggested steps to remove the institutional, regulatory and legislative barriers that inhibit renewable energy development, and proposed policies to expand the use of the region's renewable resources. The UCS analysis showed that wind is currently the least expensive renewable resource. UCS also found numerous opportunities to expand biomass-electric generation in the near term, such as converting small coal-fired power plants to wood fuel, making greater use of logging residues and co-firing a small percentage of biomass with fossil fuel at large power plants

  16. Damn renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author describes how renewable energies have been developed in a way he considers as scandalous, whereas they are a technical, financial and ecological dead end. He also explains how ecologists (notably the ADEME) manipulate figures to make believe that these energies could be an answer to the needs of France, of Europe and of humanity. In a first chapter, he criticises the influence of a so-called green ideology on the design of energy transition. In the second one, he denounces twelve tales about energy transition. In the next chapters, he denounces the sham of renewable energies, and finally tells some unfortunate renewable experiments

  17. Renewable energy sources '91. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-01-01

    Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. (M.D.). 4 tabs., 10 figs., 10 refs

  18. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  19. The value of renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The article extols the virtues of renewable energy sources. Based largely on the outcome of an IAE meeting in May 2001, the author has outlined an approach for accelerating the development of renewables. The article quotes several statements made by the IAE with respect to the need for a secure supply of affordable energy, sustainable development, diversification, the value of renewables and challenges confronting developers of renewables. The article is presented under the sub-headings of: (i) harnessing energy market forces; (ii) understanding costs in the context of diversification; (iii) economic performance; (iv) environmental protection; (v) an IAE action plan and (vi) conclusions. The author was once the IAE's director for energy efficiency, technology and R and D

  20. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  1. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  2. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  3. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  4. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  5. License renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fable, D.; Prah, M.; Vrankic, K.; Lebegner, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about license renewal process, as defined by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Atomic Energy Act and NRC regulations limit commercial power reactor licenses to an initial 40 years but also permit such licenses to be renewed. This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected time period; however, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. The NRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements codified in 10 CFR Part 51 and 10 CFR Part 54, that are needed to assure safe plant operation for extended plant life. The timely renewal of licenses for an additional 20 years, where appropriate to renew them, may be important to ensuring an adequate energy supply during the first half of the 21st Century. License renewal rests on the determination that currently operating plants continue to maintain adequate levels of safety, and over the plant's life, this level has been enhanced through maintenance of the licensing bases, with appropriate adjustments to address new information from industry operating experience. Additionally, NRC activities have provided ongoing assurance that the licensing bases will continue to provide an acceptable level of safety. This paper provides additional discussion of license renewal costs, as one of key elements in evaluation of license renewal justifiability. Including structure of costs, approximately value and two different approaches, conservative and typical. Current status and position of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, related to license renewal process, will be briefly presented in this paper. NPP Krsko is designed based on NRC Regulations, so requirements from 10 CFR 51, and 10 CFR 54, are applicable to NPP Krsko, as well. Finally, this paper will give an overview of current status of

  6. Processes of Strategic Renewal,

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Aadne, John; Mahnke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We discuss strategic renewal from a competence perspective. We argue that the management of speed and timing in this process is viewed distinctively when perceived through a cognitive lens. Managers need more firmly grounded process-understanding. The key idea of this paper is to dynamically conceptualize key activities of strategic renewal, and possible sources of break-down as they relate to the managment of speed and timing. Based on a case from the media industry, we identi...

  7. Is biomass always a renewable fuel as guaranteed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In official EU documents the terms biomass, biofuels, renewable energy resources have not yet been defined unambiguously. In the respective statistical reports peat falls, according to earlier classification traditions, under the subdivision NACE 10 together with coal and lignite (fossil fuels). No NACE classification has been applied in the renewable energy industry. This is probably why no unanimity has been achieved in classifying peat as a renewable fuel. Besides wind, solar, geothermal and water energy, biomass belongs to renewable energy sources as well. The situation is also regrettably equivocal because the terms biomass and biofuel (biological fuel) were used only recently and are continuously used as a wholly dry mass of animal or plant population (kg/m 2 or kg/m 3 ) and as manure or other organic waste as a source of heat delivered in an anaerobic decay in greenhouses, respectively. This uncertainty in using the terms under consideration leads sometimes to a nonsense in official documents. For example, in paragraph 2 of the Energy Act, the provision concerning fuel does not apply to wood, peat and biofuel. According to this statement wood and peat are not classified as biofuels (the correct statement is: wood, peat and other biofuels). Another statement of the Act (paragraph 28 1 The obligation to purchase alternatively produced electric power) declares that an energy trader dominating the market is required to purchase electric power from traders connected to its network and who produce such power from water, wind or solar energy, biomass, waste gases or waste material. According to this statement waste material is not classified as biomass either. As wood and peat are not classified as biofuel in Paragrapg 2 (4) and paragraph 28 1 , an energy trader dominating the market must not purchase electricity produced from wood and peat. By way of a remark: almost 99 % of Estonia's electric energy was produced from oil shale. It means that in Estonia

  8. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  9. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  10. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  11. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  12. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  13. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  14. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Office, Title 10, U.S. Code ; Act of 5 May 1960. 3. 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 2010, 8. 4. Hybrid Warfare, Global Accountability...Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Proceedings 132 (November 2005); William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid War- fare (master’s thesis, U.S...William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work on the subject, in which the emergence of devolved hybrid societies gives rise to hybrid

  15. Impacts on the biophysical economy and environment of a transition to 100% renewable electricity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Graham M.; Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts on the biophysical economy, employment and environment of a transition scenario to an energy-efficient, 100% renewable electricity (RE) system by 2060, based on wind, solar and biomass technologies, and an introduction of electric vehicles. We employ a CSIRO process-based model of the physical activity of Australia’s economy and environmental resources, the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework. The RE systems are assumed to be manufactured in Australia to identify possible employment benefits. In comparison with the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, on a national scale, the RE scenario has much lower economy-wide net emissions, remaining below contemporary levels and becoming zero in the electricity sector by 2060. Compared with BAU, the RE scenario also has significantly lower industrial water use, somewhat higher materials use, slightly lower unemployment, lower net foreign debt (relative to a GDP proxy) and, resulting from the growth in electric vehicles, reduced oil imports. The GDP per capita growth, based on the physical stocks of capital and labour, is virtually the same in both scenarios. Hence, from the viewpoint of the biophysical economy, there are no major barriers to implementing policies to facilitate the transition to a 100% renewable electricity system for Australia. - Highlights: ► Simulation of a 100% renewable electricity (RE) system in a process-based model. ► The RE scenario achieves zero GHG emissions in the electricity sector by 2060. ► Consumption of secondary materials is higher and more variable in the RE scenario. ► The RE scenario has lower water use, unemployment, foreign debt and oil imports

  16. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  17. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  18. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  19. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2006-11-01

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  20. Organometallics and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Michael A.R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C.A. (eds.) [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Debye Inst. of Nanomaterials Science

    2012-11-01

    USPs - BPF Each volume of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry provides the broad scientific readership with a comprehensive summary and critical overview of a specific topic in organometallic chemistry. Research in this rapidly developing transdisciplinary field is having profound influence on other areas of scientific investigation, ranging from catalytic organic synthesis to biology, medicine and material science. With contributions by international experts. Lucas Montero de Espinosa and Michael A. R. Meier: Olefin Metathesis of Renewable Platform Chemicals.- Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx, Robin Jastrzebski, Peter J. C. Hausoul, Robertus J. M. Klein Gebbink, and Bert M. Weckhuysen: Pd-Catalysed Telomerisation of 1,3-Dienes with Multifunctional Renewable Substrates - Versatile Routes for the Valorisation of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules.- A Behr, A. J. Vorholt: Hydroformylation and related reactions of renewable resources.- Ties J. Korstanje, Robertus J.M. Klein Gebbink: Catalytic oxidation and deoxygenation of renewables with rhenium complexes.- Antoine Buchard, Clare M. Bakewell, Jonathan Weiner and Charlotte K. Williams: Recent Developments In Catalytic Activation Of Renewable Resources For Polymer Synthesis.

  1. Art : accessible, renewable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

  2. People and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvald, Avo

    2002-01-01

    The use of renewable energy is tightly connected to solving social problems in Estonia by creating more new jobs. It is essential that Estonia should increase the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels, firewood, has been used already for centuries. For wider use of renewable energy in Estonia, it is not enough to rely only on enterprices. Rather, before any serious progress can take place, the state should create the appropriate legal environment. Due to its many social and environmental aspects, renewable energy is more important to the state than a sole enterprice. Unfortunately, Estonian government has been delaying its duties. Estonia has two resources that should be taken advantage of, fertile spare land and people still used to the country life. The country people would get work by growing different energy crops on the spare land. (author)

  3. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  4. Renewable energy management through microgrid central controller design: An approach to integrate solar, wind and biomass with battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheeruddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an isolated microgrid comprising of renewable energy (RE sources like wind, solar, biogas and battery is considered. Provision of utility grid insertion is also given if total microgrid sources falls short of supplying the total load. To establish an efficient energy management strategy, a central controller takes the decision based on the status of the loads and sources. The status is obtained with the assistance of multi-agent concept (treating each source and load as an agent. The data acquisition system of these renewable sources and loads consists of multiple sensors interconnected through Low Power Radio over one of many GPRS communication. The Microgrid Central Controller (MGCC would use an embedded energy management algorithm to take decisions, which are then transmitted to the controllable RE systems to manage the utilization of their power outputs as per the load-supply power balance. A control strategy is adopted to regulate the power output from the battery in case of supply shortage, which results in a floating battery scheme in steady state.

  5. Assessment of air pollution emissions and evaluation of renewable energy as mitigation option-power generation sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.H.; Uqaili, M.A.; Memon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is an engine for growth and is linked with all aspects of development, poverty alleviation, and improvement of quality of life. The production, distribution and use of energy particularly fossil fuels have significant environmental impacts. Pakistan has total power generation capacity of 19.25 GW, with 63.9% thermal, 33.7% hydel and 2.4% nuclear share. The electricity generation increased by 7.5% per annum during the last three decades and future demand has been projected to grow at 7%-11 % per annum. This increasing power demand will depend mainly on power generation from fossil fuels. This paper presents the review of power generation situation and assesses the air pollution emissions from thermal power generation in Pakistan. The paper also investigates the prospects of renewable energy- sources for air pollution mitigation in the country. The study indicates that thermal power generation plants are the major source of air pollution emissions in the country. This air pollution has local, regional and global environmental impacts. The paper concludes that the use of renewables such as hydel, wind, solar and biomass energy for power generation can contribute substantially in air pollution mitigation in the country. (author)

  6. Outlook for renewable energy technologies: Assessment of international programs and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branstetter, L.J.; Vidal, R.C.; Bruch, V.L.; Zurn, R.

    1995-02-01

    The report presents an evaluation of worldwide research efforts in three specific renewable energy technologies, with a view towards future United States (US) energy security, environmental factors, and industrial competitiveness. The overall energy technology priorities of foreign governments and industry leaders, as well as the motivating factors for these priorities, are identified and evaluated from both technological and policy perspectives. The specific technologies of interest are wind, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaics (PV). These program areas, as well as the overall energy policies of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), Japan, Russia, and the European Community as a whole are described. The present and likely future picture for worldwide technological leadership in these technologies-is portrayed. The report is meant to help in forecasting challenges to US preeminence in the various technology areas, particularly over the next ten years, and to help guide US policy-makers as they try to identify specific actions which would help to retain and/or expand the US leadership position.

  7. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  8. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  9. Renewable Energy for Microenterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allderdice, A.; Rogers, J.H.

    2000-11-28

    This guide provides readers with a broad understanding of the potential benefits that current renewable energy technologies can offer rural microenterprises. It also introduces the institutional approaches that have been developed to make RE technologies accessible to microentrepreneurs and the challenges that these entrepreneurs have encountered.

  10. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available with enhanced support for global sustainability. High performance plastics are the outcome of continuous research over the last few decades. The real challenge of renewable polymers lies in finding applications, which will result in mass production, and price...

  11. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  12. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  13. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  14. Student Outreach With Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric B. (Technical Monitor); Buffinger, D.; Fuller, C.; Kalu, A.

    2003-01-01

    resources for an Applied Renewable Energy Laboratory offered to both Central State and Wilberforce students. In addition, research endeavors for high school and undergraduates were funded during the summer. The research involved attempts to layer photovoltaic materials on a conducting polymer (polypyrrole) substrate. Two undergraduate students who were interested in polymer research originated this concept. Finally, the university was able to purchase a meteorological station to assist in the analysis of the solar/wind hybrid power system operating at the university.

  15. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  16. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  17. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  18. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  19. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  20. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  1. Financing and regulation for the new and renewable energy sources: the geothermal case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coviello, M.

    1998-01-01

    The development and rational utilization of energy sources promotes economic growth and alleviates the environmental worries. Within the first frame, the use of new and renewable energy sources - wind, solar, photovoltaic, biomass, small hydroelectrical and geothermal - progressively reaches the highest priority in the context of the energy reforms that have been undertaken in the countries of the region. Among renewable energies, besides those of the hydraulic origin, geothermal is the one with the highest grade of safety as was demonstrated by its technical and economical reliability. If the estimation that the geothermal electricity potential of the Latin American region will reach more than 6000 MWe is correct, this is only indicative of its nature. The enormous financial resources of the Andean geothermal systems have to this date been ignored, while in Central America there exits a large number of financial resources still untouched. The rationale and the problems connected with this that remain - in all of Latin America, with the exception of Mexico - are of different natures. Most importantly, in first place, the economical difficulties; in effect, the fault of the ad-hoc economic initiatives have very much obstructed the sustained geothermal development and support. Other relevant obstacles for the use of this type of resource have been the lacking of specific and reliable legal aspects. Last but not least, the financial obstacles of the projects, under private or mixed schemes, should be emphasized. Because of the crucial role that these problems are asked to play in the implementation and development of geothermal projects in Latin America, it has been decided to prepare this document which is a part of the global view about the subject (making comparisons with experiences of other countries), and tries to identify possible solutions for the future

  2. Renewable Energy Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Representatives of state universities, public institutions and Costa Rican private sector, and American experts have exposed projects or experiences about the use and generation of renewable energy in different fields. The thematics presented have been about: development of smart grids and design of electrical energy production systems that allow money saving and reducing emissions to the environment; studies on the use of non-traditional plants and agricultural waste; sustainable energy model in the process of coffee production; experiments from biomass for the fabrication of biodiesel, biogas production and storage; and the use of non-conventional energy. Researches were presented at the Renewable Energy Symposium, organized by the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas and support of the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion, both from the Universidad de Costa Rica [es

  3. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MIHĂILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

  4. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  5. Renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  6. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  7. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  8. What drives renewable energy development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappan, L.; Orans, R.; Woo, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint reviews renewable energy development in 14 markets that differ in market structure (restructured vs. not restructured), use of feed-in-tariff (FIT) (yes vs. no), transmission planning (anticipatory vs. reactive), and transmission interconnection cost allocated to a renewable generator (high vs. low). We find that market restructuring is not a primary driver of renewable energy development. Renewable generation has the highest percent of total installed capacity in markets that use a FIT, employ anticipatory transmission planning, and have loads or end-users paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. In contrast, renewable developers have been less successful in markets that do not use a FIT, employ reactive transmission planning, and have generators paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. While these policies can lead to higher penetration of renewable energy in the short run, their high cost to ratepayers can threaten the economic sustainability of renewable energy in the long-run. - Highlights: → Market structure seems to have little effect on renewable energy development. → Renewable energy development is more successful in markets that use a FIT. → Anticipatory transmission planning aids renewable energy development. → Low interconnection costs for developers also aids renewable energy development.

  9. An adaptive load dispatching and forecasting strategy for a virtual power plant including renewable energy conversion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascikaraoglu, A.; Erdinc, O.; Uzunoglu, M.; Karakas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of virtual power plant concept for electricity market participation. • An economic operation based adaptive load dispatching strategy. • A new meteorological data forecasting algorithm. • Long term scheduling of virtual power plant components. - Abstract: The increasing awareness on the risky state of conventional energy sources in terms of future energy supply security and health of environment has promoted the research activities on alternative energy systems. However, due to the fact that the power production of main alternative sources such as wind and solar is directly related with meteorological conditions, these sources should be combined with dispatchable energy sources in a hybrid combination in order to ensure security of demand supply. In this study, the evaluation of such a hybrid system consisting of wind, solar, hydrogen and thermal power systems in the concept of virtual power plant strategy is realized. An economic operation-based load dispatching strategy that can interactively adapt to the real measured wind and solar power production values is proposed. The adaptation of the load dispatching algorithm is provided by the update mechanism employed in the meteorological condition forecasting algorithms provided by the combination of Empirical Mode Decomposition, Cascade-Forward Neural Network and Linear Model through a fusion strategy. Thus, the effects of the stochastic nature of solar and wind energy systems are better overcome in order to participate in the electricity market with higher benefits

  10. Boosting renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the

  11. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodrom, Andrei; Federenciuc, Dumitru; Ignat, Vasile; Dobre, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  12. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  13. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a ''hybrid system'' that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear - Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to

  14. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsberg, Charles [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Collins, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear – Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to estimate FOM for

  15. Renewables 2017 Global Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Edwards, Isobel; Hullin, Martin; Nguyen, Linh H.; Prillianto, Satrio S.; Satzinger, Katharina; Appavou, Fabiani; Brown, Adam; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Logan, Jeffrey; Milligan, Michael; Zinaman, Owen; Epp, Baerbel; Huber, Lon; Lyons, Lorcan; Nowak, Thomas; Otte, Pia; Skeen, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Witkamp, Bert; Musolino, Evan; Brown, Adam; Williamson, Laura E.; Ashworth, Lewis; Mastny, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies increase their hold across developing and emerging economies throughout the year The year 2016 saw several developments and ongoing trends that all have a bearing on renewable energy, including the continuation of comparatively low global fossil fuel prices; dramatic price declines of several renewable energy technologies; and a continued increase in attention to energy storage. For the third consecutive year, global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and industry were nearly flat in 2016, due largely to declining coal use worldwide but also due to improvements in energy efficiency and to increasing use of renewable energy. As of 2015, renewable energy provided an estimated 19.3% of global final energy consumption, and growth in capacity and production continued in 2016. The power sector experienced the greatest increases in renewable energy capacity in 2016, whereas the growth of renewables in the heating and cooling and transport sectors was comparatively slow. Most new renewable energy capacity is installed in developing countries, and largely in China, the single largest developer of renewable power and heat over the past eight years. In 2016, renewable energy spread to a growing number of developing and emerging economies, some of which have become important markets. For the more than 1 billion people without access to electricity, distributed renewable energy projects, especially those in rural areas far from the centralised grid, offer important and often cost-effective options to provide such access. The renewable energy sector employed 9.8 million people in 2016, an increase of 1.1% over 2015. By technology, solar PV and biofuels provided the largest numbers of jobs. Employment shifted further towards Asia, which accounted for 62% of all renewable energy jobs (not including large-scale hydropower), led by China. The development of community renewable energy projects continued in 2016, but the pace of

  16. Harvesting Broad Frequency Band Blue Energy by a Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Zi, Yunlong; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Wang, Xin; Deng, Jianan; Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Ocean wave associated energy is huge, but it has little use toward world energy. Although such blue energy is capable of meeting all of our energy needs, there is no effective way to harvest it due to its low frequency and irregular amplitude, which may restrict the application of traditional power generators. In this work, we report a hybrid nanogenerator that consists of a spiral-interdigitated-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) and a wrap-around electromagnetic generator (W-EMG) for harvesting ocean energy. In this design, the S-TENG can be fully isolated from the external environment through packaging and indirectly driven by the noncontact attractive forces between pairs of magnets, and W-EMG can be easily hybridized. Notably, the hybrid nanogenerator could generate electricity under either rotation mode or fluctuation mode to collect energy in ocean tide, current, and wave energy due to the unique structural design. In addition, the characteristics and advantages of outputs indicate that the S-TENG is irreplaceable for harvesting low rotation speeds (10 Hz). The complementary output can be maximized and hybridized for harvesting energy in a broad frequency range. Finally, a single hybrid nanogenerator unit was demonstrated to harvest blue energy as a practical power source to drive several LEDs under different simulated water wave conditions. We also proposed a blue energy harvesting system floating on the ocean surface that could simultaneously harvest wind, solar, and wave energy. The proposed hybrid nanogenerator renders an effective and sustainable progress in practical applications of the hybrid nanogenerator toward harvesting water wave energy offered by nature.

  17. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  18. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  19. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  20. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

  1. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type* Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type* ­ Main Producers Principaux producteurs * Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux. Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of Wor...

  2. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  3. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  4. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  5. Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Renewable Polygeneration System Serving a Small Isolated Community

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Calise; Massimo Dentice d'Accadia; Antonio Piacentino; Maria Vicidomini

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, special attention has been paid to renewable polygeneration technologies, able of simultaneously producing thermal, cooling, electrical energy and desalinated water from seawater. This paper focuses on an innovative polygeneration system driven by renewable energy sources, including the following technologies: hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors, concentrating parabolic trough (CPVT), a biomass heater, a single-stage absorption chiller and a multiple-effect distillat...

  6. Visions of regulatory renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth, A.

    1998-01-01

    The economic contribution of the CEPA (Canadian Energy Pipeline Association) member companies to Canada's trade balance was discussed. CEPA member companies transport 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada to domestic and export markets. This represents a total of 5.6 Tcf of gas annually. Half of Canada's natural gas and oil production is exported to U.S. markets. All of these exports are transported by pipeline. CEPA member companies operate 90,000 km of pipeline from British Columbia to Quebec. Expansions are needed as a result of a significant increase in demand for natural gas and crude oil since 1990. Several issues exist for regulatory renewal. They include the need to create a level playing field, the overseeing of tolls and contract renewal terms, changing risk/reward trade-offs, the right to confidentiality of information and price discovery mechanism. The drivers for regulatory reform at Westcoast Energy are the need for pricing flexibility, customers desire for toll certainty, decontracting and opposition to rolled-in expansions for gathering and processing. An overview of Westcoast Energy's negotiated toll settlement, its implications, and the components of Westcoast Energy's 'light handed regulation' (LHR) was presented

  7. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  8. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  9. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  10. Renewable Energy Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimian, Vachik

    The renewable energy sector is evolving, and today, renewable energy has become a viable alternative for many facilities. Because this sector is in its infancy stage, lack of experience has resulted in failing solar projects. This project involves the design and implementation of a functioning web application that streamlines and automates the planning, risk assessment and financing of a solar development project. The three key stakeholders, the host facility, solar installer and financier are seamlessly integrated into a single marketplace. By designing a project development workflow, projects are vetted early on and terminated if deemed infeasible, saving time and resources. By risk assessing the project using the proposed scoring model, one can inherit more confident investors. The project scoring model also serves as a debt rating system, where investors can measure the risk/rewards. The platform will also serve as a communication medium between the three stakeholders. Besides storing documents like engineering drawings, permits, etc., the platform auto-generates all necessary transactional documents, legal documents and agreements among the three stakeholders.

  11. Renewables 2007 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Mastny, Lisa; Rosbotham, Lyle; Suding, Paul; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Lempp, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, more than $100 billion was invested in new renewable energy capacity, manufacturing plants, and research and development-a true global milestone. Yet perceptions lag behind the reality of renewable energy because change has been so rapid in recent years. This report captures that reality and provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2007. The report covers trends in markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy. (By design, the report does not provide analysis, discuss current issues, or forecast the future.) Many of the trends reflect increasing significance relative to conventional energy

  12. Regulatory guidance for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed 10 CFR Part 54 rule proceduralizes the process for license renewal by identifying both the administrative and technical requirements for a renewal application. To amplify and support this regulation, written guidance has been provided in the form of a draft Regulatory Guide (DG 1009) and a draft Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (NUREG 1299). This guidance is scheduled to be finalized in 1992. Similar guidance will be provided for the proposed revisions to 10 CFR Part 51 concerning the environmental aspects of license renewal. (author)

  13. HORIZONTAL AXIS MARINE CURRENT TURBINE DESIGN FOR WIND-ELECTRIC HYBRID SAILING BOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ekinci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of theoretical studies and applications on electric power production from renewable sources such as wind, solar, sea and tidal flows, has been increasing rapidly. Marine Current Turbines (MCTs, among the power turbines, produce power from alternating flows and are a means of power production even at lower flow rates in oceans and seas. In this study, while maintaining functional requirements, an initial and detailed design (mechanic and hydrodynamic, of an MCT fixed on a sailing boat and at sail which extracts power from the flow around the boat, is undertaken. In the design stages, for analysis and optimization of the marine turbine blade design, the Momentum Blade Element Method is utilized. The Horizontal Axis Marine Turbine (HAMT, determined by the initial and mechanical design, is illustrated with its components included. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses, covering turbine pod geometry at required flow rates and turbine speeds are performed. These analyses are performed very close to real conditions, considering sailing with and without the turbine running (on and off states. The alternator is determined from the results, and the final design which meets the design requirements, is obtained. As a result, a user friendly and innovative turbine design for sail boats, offering more power and efficiency, which is longer lasting compared to solar and wind technologies, that also makes use of renewable sources, such as wind and/or solar, and in addition stores and uses accumulated energy when needed, is proposed.

  14. The long-term relationships among China's energy consumption sources and adjustments to its renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gaolu

    2012-01-01

    To reduce its consumption of coal and oil in its primary energy consumption, China promotes the development of renewable energy resources. I have analysed the long-term relationship among China's primary energy consumption sources. Changes in coal consumption lead those in the consumption of other energy sources in the long term. Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. The long-term elasticities of China's coal consumption relative to its hydroelectricity consumption were greater than one and nearly equal during the two sample periods. Therefore, increased hydroelectricity consumption did not imply a reduction in coal consumption. China holds abundant hydroelectricity, wind and, solar energy potential. China must prevent an excessive escalation of its economy and resultant energy demand to realise a meaningful substitution of coal with hydroelectricity. Moreover, China must develop and use wind and solar energy sources. Natural gas can be a good substitute for coal, given its moderate price growth and affordable price levels. - Highlights: ► Coal consumption changes lead those of other energy sources in the long term. ► Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. ► Increased hydroelectricity consumption has not meant lower coal consumption. ► Wind, solar and natural gas are China's promising energy sources.

  15. Assessing the Determinants of Renewable Electricity Acceptance Integrating Meta-Analysis Regression and a Local Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In dealing with renewable electricity (RE, individuals are involved both as end-consumers on the demand side and as stakeholders (citizens in the local production process on the supply side. Empirical evidence shows that in many countries, consumers are willing to pay a significant amount to facilitate adoption of RE. By contrast, environmental externalities are often the cause of strong opposition to RE adoption if local communities are involved as stakeholders in wind, solar or biomass investment projects. Looking at the literature on willingness to pay and on willingness to accept, we have investigated RE acceptance mechanisms. First, we have used the meta-analysis to assess the major determinants of RE acceptance on both demand and supply sides. Meta-analysis has provided some insights useful for managing field research on an onshore wind farm enlargement project located in the Umbria region. Meta-analysis and survey results confirm that the local community plays a central role in local RE acceptance. Furthermore, people who have previous experience with windmills require less compensation, or are willing to pay more, for RE development. Results suggest that these attributes should be included in future research to improve understanding of determinants of RE acceptance.

  16. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  17. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  18. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  19. Today's and future challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, Mattheus F A

    2013-08-28

    Recent trends and challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for water desalination are critically reviewed with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. After providing an overview of wind, wave, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for fresh water production, hybrid systems are assessed. Then scale-up and economic factors are considered. This is followed with a section on regulatory factors, environmental concerns, and globalization, and a final segment on selecting the most suitable renewable energy technology for conventional and emerging desalination processes. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Renewable acrylonitrile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Eric M; Eaton, Todd R; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; Vorotnikov, Vassili; Biddy, Mary J; Tan, Eric C D; Brandner, David G; Cywar, Robin M; Liu, Rongming; Manker, Lorenz P; Michener, William E; Gilhespy, Michelle; Skoufa, Zinovia; Watson, Michael J; Fruchey, O Stanley; Vardon, Derek R; Gill, Ryan T; Bratis, Adam D; Beckham, Gregg T

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 ± 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  2. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing, determin...... coupled day-ahead markets for the member states and co-ordination for balancing, by looking into coupling mechanisms that promote the effective cooperation between the power systems of various countries.......Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing......, deterministic market designs were considered adequate with straightforward setups consisting of a forward optimal allocation accompanied by a real-time balancing mechanism. However, as the share of renewable sources of energy (RES) increases, such market designs tend to become inefficient since they were...

  3. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... grids should be seen as part of overall smart energy systems and emphasizes the inclusion of flexible combined heat and power (CHP) production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilization. Furthermore, it highlights how to design and model future sustainable smart energy systems.......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...

  4. Renewable Acrylonitrile Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Todd R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorotnikov, Vassili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Rongming [University of Colorado; Gill, Ryan T. [University of Colorado; Gilhespy, Michelle [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Skoufa, Zinovia [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Fruchey, O. Stanley [MATRIC; Cywar, Robin M. [Formerly NREL

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 +/- 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements.

  5. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  6. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  7. Renewal Processes and Repairable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss the following topics: 1. Renewal reward processes The marginal distributions of renewal reward processes and its version, which we call in this thesis instantaneous reward processes, are derived. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson

  8. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  9. Business development in renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how to foster development of renewable energy business. Factors that impede or enhance renewable energy in the EU 27 member states in the period 1998–2008 are analyzed. Nine factors are considered: population density, production output and energy sector output to indicate market

  10. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  11. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  12. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  13. External Benefit Evaluation of Renewable Energy Power in China for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s renewable energy power has developed rapidly in recent years. Evaluating the external benefits of renewable energy power can provide a reference for the Chinese government to set diverse development goals and to implement differentiated supporting policies for different renewable energy power types, which can promote their sustainable development. In this paper, a hybrid MCDM method was applied to evaluate the external benefits of China’s renewable energy power. Firstly, the impacts of renewable energy power accessing the power grid for multiple stakeholders in the electric power system were analyzed. Secondly, the external benefit evaluation index system for renewable energy power was built from the economic, social and environmental factors, based on the concept of sustainability. Then, the basic theory of the hybrid MCDM method employed in this paper was introduced in two parts: the superiority linguistic ratings and entropy weighting method for index weight determination and the fuzzy grey relation analysis for ranking alternatives. Finally, the external benefits of wind power, solar PV power and biomass power were evaluated. Taking a regional electric power system as an example, the results show that PV power has the greatest external benefit, followed by wind power and biomass power. Therefore, more policies supporting PV power should be put in place to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of the whole renewable energy power industry.

  14. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  15. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  16. New renewables - a business challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, G.

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a look at the increased use of renewable forms of energy and, in particular, the so-called 'new renewables' that are the subject of discussion in Europe and Switzerland. The wide divergence between the political and economical viewpoints concerning renewables is examined and the question is posed on how political desires and economical sense can be brought closer together. Questions concerning the public acceptance of various forms of energy are looked at and the expectations placed on renewable forms of energy are commented on. Criteria for models of promotion are listed including CO 2 emissions, technology and cost efficiency, marketing aspects and flexibility. Also, aspects concerning plausibility, fairness and responsibility are looked at. A model named 'Swiss Renewables Model' is proposed and its efficiency, functionality and financing are discussed

  17. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is not exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: ψ α (t)∼t -1-α , 0 2 >, obeys, 2 >∼ 2 > nrml α , where 2 > nrml is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  18. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  19. Modeling renewable energy company risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is one of the fastest growing components of the energy industry and along with this increased demand for renewable energy there has been an increase in investing and financing activities. The tradeoff between risk and return in the renewable energy sector is, however, precarious. Renewable energy companies are often among the riskiest types of companies to invest in and for this reason it is necessary to have a good understanding of the risk factors. This paper uses a variable beta model to investigate the determinants of renewable energy company risk. The empirical results show that company sales growth has a negative impact on company risk while oil price increases have a positive impact on company risk. When oil price returns are positive and moderate, increases in sales growth can offset the impact of oil price returns and this leads to lower systematic risk.

  20. DSM renewable opportunities in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J. [Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA (United States); Coakley, S. [Boston Edison DSM Settlement Board, Lexington, MA (United States); Schoengold, D. [MSB Energy Associates, Middleton, WI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

  1. Regensim – Matlab toolbox for renewable energy sources modelling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind-hydro systems connected to local grids. Blocks like wind generators, hydro generators, solar photovoltaic modules and accumulators are implemented. The main objective is the study of the hybrid power system behavior, which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply.

  2. Starr Ranch Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr Ranch Renewable Energy success story is the summary of a renewable energy study by U.S. EPA Region 6. This publication summarizes the analyses to determine appropriate renewable energy options in Starr Ranch.

  3. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  4. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  5. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  6. renewables 2011 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Martinot, Eric; Barnes, Douglas; Martinot, Eric; McCrone, Angus; Roussell, Jodie; Sawin, Janet L.; Sims, Ralph; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Adib, Rana; Skeen, Jonathan; Musolino, Evan; Riahi, Lily; Mastny, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Changes in renewable energy markets, investments, industries, and policies have been so rapid in recent years that perceptions of the status of renewable energy can lag years behind the reality. This report captures that reality and provides a unique overview of renewable energy worldwide as of early 2011. The report covers both current status and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future. Global energy consumption rebounded in 2010 after an overall downturn in 2009. Renewable energy, which experienced no downturn in 2009, continued to grow strongly in all end-use sectors - power, heat and transport - and supplied an estimated 16% of global final energy consumption. Renewable energy accounted for approximately half of the estimated 194 gigawatts (GW) of new electric capacity added globally during the year. Renewables delivered close to 20% of global electricity supply in 2010, and by early 2011 they comprised one quarter of global power capacity from all sources. In several countries, renewables represent a rapidly growing share of total energy supply, including heat and transport

  7. Renewables 2013. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy markets, industries, and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by many contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecasts. This latest Renewables Global Status Report saw: a shift in investment patterns that led to a global decrease in clean energy investment; continuing growth in installed capacity due to significant technology cost reductions and increased investment in developing countries; renewables progressively supplementing established electricity systems, demonstrating that the implementation of suitable policies can enable the successful integration of higher shares of variable renewables; and the emergence of integrated policy approaches that link energy efficiency measures with the implementation of renewable energy technologies.

  8. Hybrid-Source Impedance Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid-source impedance networks have attracted attention among researchers because of their flexibility in performing buck-boost energy conversion. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing voltage-type inverters with another three types summarized...... the cascaded networks would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not been investigated yet. It is anticipated that these advantages would help the formed inverters find applications in photovoltaic and other renewable systems, where a high voltage gain is usually...

  9. Removing Barriers for Effective Deployment of Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabali, Amirsaman

    The stochastic nature of intermittent renewable resources is the main barrier to effective integration of renewable generation. This problem can be studied from feeder-scale and grid-scale perspectives. Two new stochastic methods are proposed to meet the feeder-scale controllable load with a hybrid renewable generation (including wind and PV) and energy storage system. For the first method, an optimization problem is developed whose objective function is the cost of the hybrid system including the cost of renewable generation and storage subject to constraints on energy storage and shifted load. A smart-grid strategy is developed to shift the load and match the renewable energy generation and controllable load. Minimizing the cost function guarantees minimum PV and wind generation installation, as well as storage capacity selection for supplying the controllable load. A confidence coefficient is allocated to each stochastic constraint which shows to what degree the constraint is satisfied. In the second method, a stochastic framework is developed for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including renewable resources (PV and wind) and energy storage system. The hybrid power system is optimally sized to satisfy the controllable load with a specified reliability level. A load-shifting strategy is added to provide more flexibility for the system and decrease the installation cost. Load shifting strategies and their potential impacts on the hybrid system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated trough different scenarios. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost will be realized for the hybrid system. For the second problem, a grid-scale stochastic framework is developed to examine the storage application and its optimal placement for the social cost and transmission congestion relief of wind integration. Storage systems are optimally placed and adequately sized to minimize the sum of operation

  10. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  11. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeant, Paul [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Miller, John [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Howes, Brian [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Baldwin, Kenneth [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Grilli, Annette [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Terray, Eugene [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  12. Renewables 2005. Global status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy. (au)

  13. Renewables 2005 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy

  14. Renewables 2005. Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy. (au)

  15. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  16. Collective Identity Formation in Hybrid Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    on the literature on knowledge sharing across organizational boundaries, particularly the notions of transfer, translation and transformation, to examine in real time how knowledge sharing in a hybrid setting contributes (or not) to the emergence of a new collective identity at the interface of two heterogeneous......The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw...... organizations. Our findings point to two factors that limit knowledge sharing and hence to new collective identity formation in a hybrid space: 1) ambiguous or multiple organizational roles and 2) strong identities of the collaborating organizations. These findings contribute to illuminating the initial...

  17. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  18. Renewables 2010 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Martinot, Eric; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; McCrone, Angus; Roussell, Jodie; Barnes, Douglas; Flavin, Christopher; Mastny, Lisa; Kraft, Diana; Wang, Shannon; Ellenbeck, Saskia; Ilieva, Lili; Griebenow, Christof; Adib, Rana; Lempp, Philippe; Welker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Changes in renewable energy markets, investments, industries, and policies have been so rapid in recent years that perceptions of the status of renewable energy can lag years behind the reality. This report captures that reality and provides a unique overview of renewable energy worldwide as of early 2010. The report covers both current status and key trends. By design, the report does not provide analysis, discuss current issues, or forecast the future. Many of the trends reflect the increasing significance of renewable energy relative to conventional energy sources (including coal, gas, oil, and nuclear). By 2010, renewable energy had reached a clear tipping point in the context of global energy supply. Renewables comprised fully one quarter of global power capacity from all sources and delivered 18 percent of global electricity supply in 2009. In a number of countries, renewables represent a rapidly growing share of total energy supply-including heat and transport. The share of households worldwide employing solar hot water heating continues to increase and is now estimated at 70 million households. And investment in new renewable power capacity in both 2008 and 2009 represented over half of total global investment in new power generation. Trends reflect strong growth and investment across all market sectors-power generation, heating and cooling, and transport fuels. Grid-connected solar PV has grown by an average of 60 percent every year for the past decade, increasing 100-fold since 2000. During the past five years from 2005 to 2009, consistent high growth year-after-year marked virtually every other renewable technology. During those five years, wind power capacity grew an average of 27 percent annually, solar hot water by 19 percent annually, and ethanol production by 20 percent annually. Biomass and geothermal for power and heat also grew strongly. Much more active policy development during the past several years culminated in a significant policy milestone

  19. Renewable energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Van Gerven, B.

    2001-01-01

    In two articles an overview is given of the developments in the Netherlands with respect to renewable energy. The Dutch government aims at wind power and biomass at the expense of solar energy and heat pumps and hydroelectric power [nl

  20. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo; Berganza, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  1. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  2. Which leadership for renewable energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumien, Marielle

    2016-02-01

    This publication first outlines that France is late in deploying renewable energies by 2020. It comments the application of the Energy multi-year plan (PPE), evokes the content of a report by the French Court of Auditors about costs and means of implementation of transition (with notably the issue of maintenance of nuclear plants). It also shows that European Union is not a leader in renewable energies any more, that some European countries are changing sides, that figures and trends must be carefully compared with those in the field of fossil and nuclear energies, that all energies are not all the same, that jobs and system integration are also important, that investments and attractiveness of countries in renewable energies must be assessed, and that a mobilisation on small scale and consumer-based renewable energies is required. Ten recommendations are made for France to support the EU leadership development

  3. Panorama of renewable electricity 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, we publish a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2014's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 14412 MW installed capacity at December 31, 2014. These two industries now represent a third of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 41382 MW, 61% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  4. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout...... the variability and unpredictability of stochastic renewable units so that supply security is not at risk. • The trading of the electric energy produced by stochastic renewable producers. • The association of a number of electricity production facilities, stochastic and others, to increase their competitive edge...... electric energy systems, an increasing level of flexible backup provided by non-stochastic units and other system agents is needed if supply security and quality are to be maintained. Within the context above, this book provides up-to-date analytical tools to address challenging operational problems...

  5. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  6. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Hydroelectric

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  7. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  8. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  9. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  10. Renewable Energy Water Pumping Systems Handbook; Period of Performance: April 1--September 1, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, N.

    2004-07-01

    Water is one of the most basic necessities of rural development. This book provides valuable information on how renewable energy technologies can be used for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic water supplies. This report emphasizes wind and solar energy resources, and hybrid water pumping systems.

  11. Renewables Global Futures Report: Great debates towards 100% renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, Sven; Fattal, Alex; Lins, Christine; Hullin, Martin; Williamson, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    The first version of REN21's Renewables Global Futures Report (GFR) published in January 2013 identified a panorama of likely future debates related to the renewable energy transition. As a reflection of the wide range of contemporary thinking by the many experts interviewed for the report, it did not present just one vision of the future but rather a 'mosaic' of insights. Given the positive feedback in response to the first edition, a new edition has been prepared, continuing where the last one left off. The objective of this report is to gather opinions about the feasibility of a 100% renewable energy future, and the macro-economic impacts it would entail. In so doing, the report reflects on the debates of 2013, and tracks their evolution to the present time. Some remain, some have changed, some have been overtaken by progress, and new ones have arisen. They are summarised here as the Great Debates in renewable energy. The questionnaire for the survey was developed in close cooperation between the REN21 Secretariat, the Institute for Sustainable Future (ISF) of the University of Technology Sydney/Australia (UTS) and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam/Germany. It covered the following topics: 1. How much renewables?; 2. Power sector; 3. Heating and cooling; 4. Transport; 5. Storage; 6. Demand-side management and energy efficiency; 7. Integration of sectors; 8. Macro-economic considerations; 9. Technology and costs; 10. Policy; 11. Cities; 12. Distributed renewable energy/energy access; 13. Barriers/challenges/enablers. 114 experts were interviewed in total; the average interview time was approximately one hour. The interviews were conducted between May and October 2016. The questionnaire was also mirrored in an online version and used both by interviewers and interviewees to record the interview process. Interviewees were selected from the following regions: Africa, Australia and Oceania, China, Europe, India, Japan

  12. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  13. The renewable energies: the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2005-03-01

    If one takes into account the hydroelectric power, the France is the first european country in the renewable energies domain. The position is also honorable concerning the wood energy. Meanwhile, for the solar and wind energy, France is late. To discuss this debate, the authors bring together today data on the renewable energies, offer some proposals for the next 50 years taking into account the reduction of greenhouse gases emission for 2050. (A.L.B.)

  14. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  15. GRENADA. Renewables Readiness Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Grenada, like many Caribbean islands, is dependent on costly oil imports for its energy needs, including the generation of electricity. The transition to renewable energy could potentially support price reductions and improve the overall competitiveness of key sectors of the economy, particularly tourism. This report provides facts and analysis to support the country's discussion on ways to move forward with the renewable energy agenda. IRENA is ready to provide support in the implementation of the actions identified in this report.

  16. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs

  17. The Potential of hybrid solar-wind electricity generation in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibiru, Ayirewura Vitus

    2013-07-01

    In this work the potential of harnessing electricity from solar and wind sources in Ghana is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this regard solar, wind and other relevant data were collected (over a period of one year) from various parts of Ghana. Detailed assessment of the capacity or potential of power production from hybrid solar-wind sources is done with the use of empirical mathematical formulae and the PRO VITUS model incorporated in the 'ENERGY X' software. The various characteristics of wind, solar and available energy resources for the five locations over a one year period have been studied too. The annual mean wind speed at a height of 10 m above ground level for five locations namely Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Sunyani and Tamale are 2.38 ms -1 ± 0.05, 2.39 ms -1 ± 0.05, 2.38 ms -1 ± 0.06, 2.18 ms -1 ± 0.05 and 2.47 ± ms -1 respectively and their corresponding annual mean solar radiations are 228.71 Wm -2 ± 9.81, 187.69 Wm -2 ± 9.60, 236.58 Wm -2 ± 10.39, 200.99 Wm -2 ± 9.88 and 231.63 Wm -2 . Thus, the five sites hold potential for hybrid solar-wind energy exploitation. (au)

  18. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  19. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  20. PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN ALGERIA FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND BETTER FUTURE FOR NEXT GENERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainouche, A.; Ainouche, H.

    2007-07-01

    Beyond its hydrocarbon resources, Algeria has a high potential of renewable energy which it has the ambition to develop with foreign partners. The development of renewable energies corresponds to the option of a sustainable development. Independently of the units of solar energy intended to feed the remote centers, projects of renewable energies connected to the national grid are in course of development. Our strategy consists in carrying out a synergy between the Solar one and the natural gas thanks to gas/solar hybrid projects by profiting from the Algerian natural gas endowment and to the permanent sunshining of the South of the country. A first gas/solar hybrid project, of large capacity, is under development. Its realization will bring a significant solar energy contribution to the national energy balance and will constitute a first experiment, on a large scale, in the production of renewable electricity connected to the grid of national distribution. This communication focuses on the strategy and efforts made by Algeria to promote renewable energies within the framework of the sustainable development with as objective bringing the share of the electricity produced by renewable energies to 5 % of the total electricity produced from by 2010. (auth)

  1. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 753-756. Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... be composed of normal nuclear matter with hyperons and/or condensed mesons. The matter at ...

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available balance between the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Also, using a hybrid composite that contains two or more types of fibre, the advantages of one type of fibre could complement with what are lacking in the other. As a consequence, a balance in cost...

  3. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  4. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  5. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  6. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  7. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  8. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    in the day-ahead market and to correct for potential energy imbalances in the intraday market and ultimately in the balancing market. However, the design and rules of electricity markets do not support the transition from conventional generation to renewable energy sources as recently sought by many...... (generators and consumers) promoting equity, fairness, impartiality and equality. The hybrid methodology combines different costs (fixed, network usage/congestion and losses) covering all the gaps of each conventional cost allocation method.......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...

  9. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  10. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  11. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  12. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  13. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  14. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  15. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  16. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic

  17. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2000-01-01

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The promotion of renewable electricity in Romania relies primarily on a renewable quota scheme. Since 2017 the scheme has been closed for new projects. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted through investment subsidies. Renewable energy sources in the transport sector are promoted by a bio-fuels quota scheme and indirectly through a subsidy scheme for the purchase of electric vehicles

  19. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  20. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  1. Workforce Education For Renewable Energy -- Lessons Learned From A National Gathering Of Educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Latham, NY (United States); Ferranti, Adele [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States); Laflin, Kirk [Partnership for Environmental Technology Education, South Portland, ME (United States)

    2007-07-01

    On November 8 -10, 2006, the first national conference on renewable energy workforce education was held at Hudson Valley Community College in Troy, New York. The event was sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and organized by the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) and the Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (PETE). Over 200 instructors, school administrators, and industry representatives attended this event representing 30 states and over 65 Community Colleges and Technical High Schools. The conference resulted in an enormous collection of information on the best practices and effective approaches to teaching workforce skills in the renewable energy trades and industries. This paper discusses the following educational strategies: the hybrid course delivery model; interdisciplinary instruction; linking technical high schools with the local community college; integrating a renewable energy concentration within an energy management degree program; expanding hands-on opportunities through internship programs; and an industry-sponsored certificate program. Recommendations by educators are also discussed.

  2. MENA Renewables Status Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The MENA Renewables Status Report is an outcome of ADIREC, the Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference. The report provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the region, drawing on the most recent data available. It is produced in cooperation with over 50 contributors and researchers in the region and reveals massive growth in the renewable energy markets of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Regional investment topped US$2.9 billion in 2012, up 40% from 2011 and 650% from 2004. With over 100 projects under development, the region could see a 450% increase in non-hydro renewable energy generating capacity in the next few years. For the report, the 21 MENA countries were clustered into two sub-groups: Net Oil-Exporting Countries (NOEC) -- Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; and Net Oil-Importing Countries (NOIC) -- Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia.

  3. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  4. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark new issues in urban renewal are being introduced. Legislation on urban renewal now demands that residents be invited to take an active part in the development of their urban area. And urban renewal is increasingly taking place in inner suburbs which are recently built, complex...... and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...... of urban architecture be developed? This research project attempts to answer these questions through a discourse on theories and methods and the development of "dialogue methods" by which professionals can learn about residents' perception of the urban architecture of their area, thus achieving a better...

  5. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view....... It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production...

  6. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  7. Renewable energy technology acceptance in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardooni, Roozbeh; Yusoff, Sumiani Binti; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Despite various policies, renewable energy resources have not been developed in Malaysia. This study investigates the factors that influence renewable energy technology acceptance in Peninsular Malaysia and attempts to show the impact of cost and knowledge on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of renewable energy technology. The results show that cost of renewable energy has an indirect effect on attitudes towards using renewable energy through the associated impact on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The results also indicate that public knowledge in Peninsular Malaysia does not affect perceived ease of use, although the positive impact of knowledge on perceived usefulness is supported. Furthermore, our results show that the current business environment in Peninsular Malaysia does not support the adoption of renewable energy technology, and thus, renewable energy technology is not commercially viable in Peninsular Malaysia. Additionally, the population of Peninsular Malaysia associates the use of renewable energy with a high level of effort and therefore has a negative attitude towards the use of renewable energy technology. There is, therefore, a definite need to pay more attention to the role of public perception and awareness in the successes and failures of renewable energy policy. - Highlights: • Public acceptance is an essential element in the diffusion of renewable energy. • Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness affect intention to use renewables. • It is important to reduce the cost of renewable energy, particularly for end users. • Renewable energy policies should address issues of public perception and awareness.

  8. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  9. Equilibrium transitions from non-renewable energy to renewable energy under capacity constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We study the transition between non renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  10. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  11. Renewable energy prospects for implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Renewable Energy: Prospects for Implementation contains papers that were originally commissioned by the journal Energy Policy for a series on renewable energy appearing between January 1991 to September 1992. In view of the fast-changing demands on conventional energy supply to meet environmental imperatives, it seemed timely to reproduce here a selection of those papers with a new introduction and a revised concluding chapter by the Editor of the series, Dr Tim Jackson, a research fellow with the Stockholm Environment Institute. The book is organized into four parts. The papers in Part I

  12. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  13. Renewable energies - Situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, Claude; Vaillant, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The world has to face increasing energy needs while it is today dependent of fossil fuels at 80%. Getting out of the fossil fuels dependence model requires an important effort to promote the energy saving and the carbon-free energies as well, and in particular the renewable energy sources. Taking all this information into account, the authors evaluate the global share that renewable energies could represent in the energy mix, in France and in the entire world. This share represents today only 10% of the energy consumed, but will it remain marginal or will it become important and eventually prominent? (J.S.)

  14. Renewables 2012. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2012-08-15

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future.

  15. Renewable energies: the Spanish assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Pez, Ch.; Molenat, G.

    2009-01-01

    Even though Spain is far away from the Kyoto protocol objectives, this country possesses numerous assets in terms of renewable energies. This report presents overviews of the present situation and of innovation and research activities in the different fields of renewable energies: wind energy, solar energy (thermal, thermoelectric and photovoltaic), hydraulic energy (dams, tide and wave energy), biomass (wood, bio-fuels, biogas). Along with these presentations, the authors propose tables and graphs of quantitative data concerning these different energy productions, at the national as well as at the regional level, with comparison with data for other European countries

  16. Inventor networks in renewable energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Technological change and gains in efficiency of renewable power generation technologies are to a large extent driven by governmental support. Various policy instruments that can broadly be categorized as technology push, demand pull or systemic constitute part of the policy mix for renewable...... energies. Our goal is to gain insights into the influence of this policy mix on the intensity and organization of inventive activities for wind power and photovoltaics in Germany since the 1980s. We examine the effect of different instruments on the size and structure of co-inventor networks based...

  17. Analysis of hybrid energy systems for application in southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The option of using hybrid energy for electricity in remote areas of Ghana is examined. • The cost of electricity produced by the hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. • The levelized cost of electricity increase by 9% when the PV price is increased from $3000/kW to $7500/kW. - Abstract: Due to advances in renewable energy technologies and increase in oil price, hybrid renewable energy systems are becoming increasingly attractive for power generation applications in remote areas. This paper presents an economic analysis of the feasibility of utilizing a hybrid energy system consisting of solar, wind and diesel generators for application in remote areas of southern Ghana using levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and net present cost of the system. The annual daily average solar global radiation at the selected site is 5.4 kW h/m 2 /day and the annual mean wind speed is 5.11 m/s. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was employed to carry out the present study. Both wind data and the actual load data have been used in the simulation model. It was found that a PV array of 80 kW, a 100 kW wind turbine, two generators with combined capacity of 100 kW, a 60 kW converter/inverter and a 60 Surrette 4KS25P battery produced a mix of 791.1 MW h of electricity annually. The cost of electricity for this hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of changes in wind speed, solar global radiation and diesel price on the optimal energy was investigated and the impact of solar PV price on the LCOE for a selected hybrid energy system was also presented

  18. Renewable energy policy. Into the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Renewable energy today is at a critical stage of development: renewable technologies are maturing, and costs for some technologies are in the competitive range. Beyond the energy they produce, renewable energy technologies offer a variety of other benefits towards the achievement of sustainable development goals. This promise has led to all IEA governments to support their greater development. But, while renewables markets are growing strongly, additional steps must be taken to accelerate the achievement of sustainable, large-scale markets. This report by the IEA's Renewable Energy Working Party outlines those steps, and the benefits of moving renewable energy into the mainstream

  19. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  20. Storing in carbon nano structures for hybrid systems solar hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazzi, R.; Zini, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid energy system for converting energy from renewable sources and its storage in the form of hydrogen. The storage uses activated carbon and the methodology was modelled mathematically and simulated in numerical software. The results show that storage compression is cheaper storage for liquefaction. [it

  1. Growth, photosynthesis, and herbicide tolerance of genetically modified hybrid poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond A. Donahue; Tim D. Davis; Charles H. Michler; Don E. Riemenschneider; Doug R. Carter; Paula E. Marquardt; Daksha Sankhla; Narendra Sankhla; Bruce E. Haissig; J. G. Isebrands

    1994-01-01

    Poplar hybrids have high light-saturated photosynthetic rates and potential utility as a renewable biofuel, but they lack tolerance to commercially important herbicides that may be needed for successful plantation management. Tolerance to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) has been conferred to many plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transfor-...

  2. Graphene hybridization for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2018-03-07

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique two-dimensional structure, high electronic mobility, exceptional thermal conductivity, excellent optical transmittance, good mechanical strength, and ultrahigh surface area. To meet the ever increasing demand for portable electronic products, electric vehicles, smart grids, and renewable energy integrations, hybridizing graphene with various functions and components has been demonstrated to be a versatile and powerful strategy to significantly enhance the performance of various energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and beyond, because such hybridization can result in synergistic effects that combine the best merits of involved components and confer new functions and properties, thereby improving the charge/discharge efficiencies and capabilities, energy/power densities, and cycle life of these energy storage systems. This review will focus on diverse graphene hybridization principles and strategies for energy storage applications, and the proposed outline is as follows. First, graphene and its fundamental properties, followed by graphene hybrids and related hybridization motivation, are introduced. Second, the developed hybridization formulas of using graphene for lithium-ion batteries are systematically categorized from the viewpoint of material structure design, bulk electrode construction, and material/electrode collaborative engineering; the latest representative progress on anodes and cathodes of lithium-ion batteries will be reviewed following such classifications. Third, similar hybridization formulas for graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes will be summarized and discussed as well. Fourth, the recently emerging hybridization formulas for other graphene-based energy storage devices will be briefed in combination with typical examples. Finally, future prospects and directions on the exploration of graphene hybridization toward the design and construction of

  3. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  4. Renewable energies and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.; Pierret, Ch.; Lienemann, M.N.

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  5. Renewables exceed even optimistic expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas [Energy Watch Group, Berlin (Germany). Projektmanagement

    2010-07-01

    The growth of renewables has outpaced even the most optimistic forecasts. However, even the expansion rate we've seen so far won't be enough to close the energy gap threatening to open up within conventional energy sources. (orig.)

  6. The USNCR license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Pao-Tsin

    2002-01-01

    The US Congress promulgated a law in 1954, entitled 'Atomic Energy Act'. This Act states that operating licenses for commercial nuclear power plants are limited to a fixed term of 40 years, but they may be renewed for a period not to exceed 20 years. The terms were established mainly for economic considerations, not based on technical limitations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the license renewal rule, Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), in December, 1991. The rule has since been amended in May, 1995. The underlying principle of the rule is that the regulatory process is adequate for ensuring safety of operating plants. The regulatory process includes NRC's issuance of Orders, Bulletins, Generic Letters, and Information Notices, as well as a number of special inspections in addition to the continuous oversight and routine inspection activities performed by on-site inspectors. Because of this comprehensive regulatory process, compilation of the current license basis or re-verification of the current licensing basis is not considered necessary for a license renewal review. The USNRC also determined on the basis of the findings of its research programs that active structures and components are well maintained by the existing programs. Therefore, the focus of the license renewal review is on passive, long-lived structures and components and on time-limited ageing analyses. The time-limited ageing analyses are for those structures and components which were originally designed to a 40 year service life

  7. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  8. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  9. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  10. Renewable energy from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass potential from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, OK and to estimate the potential biomas...

  11. Renewables 2012 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Bhattacharya, Sribas Chandra; Galan, Ernesto Macias; McCrone, Angus; Moomaw, William R.; Sims, Ralph; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Sverrisson, Freyr; Chawla, Kanika; Adib, Rana; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Skeen, Jonathan; Martinot, Eric; Hinrichs-Rahlwes, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future. As such, this report and subsequent editions will serve as a benchmark for measuring global progress in the deployment of renewable energy, which is of particular interest in this International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has marked the occasion with a new global initiative, Sustainable Energy for All, which seeks to mobilise global action on three inter-linked objectives to be achieved by 2030: universal access to modern energy services, improved rates of energy efficiency, and expanded use of renewable energy sources

  12. Production of Renewable Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oils have been investigated as a way to provide a renewable source for diesel fuel. A successful approach to using : vegetable oils in diesel engines has been transesterification of the oils with simple alcohols to produce mono-alkyl esters...

  13. Legal framework: Renewables in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matute, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the framework (organic structure and legislation) in promotion of renewables in Honduras, the policies for promotion of the free market of energy, laws on environmental protection and law of electricity. Also describes treties and agreements suscribed by Honduras in these matters

  14. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  15. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  16. Heliodromus : Renewable energy from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates

  17. Power marketing and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences

  18. The renewable energies in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

  19. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  20. EPRI support of license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, Jeff; Carey, John J.

    1991-01-01

    During the early 1980's, the US utility industry recognized that Light Water Reactors (LWRs) could have a useful life substantially in excess of the current licensed term of 40 years service. These observations were confirmed by two plant specific studies and have led to a major initiative undertaken by EPRI and DOE to demonstrate the technical and institutional basis for a predictable, rational, and stable life extension option. The primary objective of the lead plants project is to establish and demonstrate, by the end of 1993, nuclear plant license renewal as a viable option. As part of this initiative, the lead plants project will result in a complete license renewal application to the NRC and will document the license renewal process for use by other utilities. A number of EPRI and DOE sponsored projects are providing technical support for the license renewal process. These projects are identifying deteriorating service environments for key components, systems, and structures and are establishing methods of assessing consequences and remedial actions. Other projects include economic evaluations and life cycle management assessment tools to address deterioration mechanisms. However, the principal means for providing technical support for license renewal is the generic Industry Reports (IRs), which as of October 1990, have all been submitted to the NRC for review. The IRs discussed in this paper are intended to identify and resolve key technical issues associated with extended operation of major LWR components, structures, and systems. The principle means of providing technical support for license renewal is the IRs whose objective is to document results of generic component, structure, or system evaluations to support life extension by addressing potential impacts of aging on components, structures, or systems as it relates to the plant's performance for extended service. Ten IRs on major components or systems have been completed and submitted to the NRC. The

  1. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  2. Renewable energy in Indian country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  3. Strategies and best practices for staff renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottingham, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategies and best practices for staff renewal in the electricity sector. Strategic initiatives for staff renewal include strategic recruiting, succession planning, employee relations, knowledge management and strategic partnerships

  4. Renewable Energy: Ready to Meet Its Promise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Stanley R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Billman, Lynn L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly review the technical status, cost, and applications of major renewable energy technologies in 1998, and also discuss some of the socioeconomic impacts of wide-scale adoption of renewables.

  5. Renewable Energy Potential for New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RE-Powering America's Land: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land and Mining Sites was presented by Penelope McDaniel, during the 2008 Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop.

  6. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  7. PETROBRAS and the renewable energies; PETROBRAS e as energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratelli Junior, Fernando; Silva, Alcyr; Pavinatto, Eduardo Fiorini; Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    All scenarios point towards an energy crisis along this century, motivated by the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, increased by greenhouse gasses restrictions. Crescent shares of the energy demand on the next decades shall be supplied by renewable, like solar and wind energy, biomass and biofuels. Attending to this concern, oil companies redefined their strategies, aiming to attend to the new market demands, and PETROBRAS, aiming to become an energy company, invests in the renewable development. A particular attention has been given to biofuels, for their great similarity with the company's current products, and for being a natural Brazilian vocation. In this field, PETROBRAS developed its proprietary process to produce biodiesel from Castor seeds. Several research and demonstration projects in renewable have been developed by the Company, specially the 1,8 MW Wind Power Plant of Macau, in Rio Grande do Norte, the utilization of solar energy in ducts and offshore platforms, and the hybrid solar wind- diesel electrification of Vila de Sao Tome, in Para. PETROBRAS, conscious of its strategic role as the main energy and fuels supplier of the country, attends to the challenges and gets prepared to give a technologically suitable response to this demand, as it has been doing along its fifty years of existence. (author)

  8. Terrestrial Micro Renewable Energy Applications of Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerath, N. M.; Komerath, P. P.

    This paper explores the synergy between technologies intended for extraterrestrial in situ resource utilization and those for terrestrial mass-market micro renewable power generation systems. The case for a micro renewable energy architecture is presented. The obstacles hindering market success are summarized, along with opportunities from recent demonstrations suggesting that the public appetite for sophisticated technology worldwide may be underappreciated by technical researchers. Technical innovations from space research are summarized along with estimates of possible conversion efficiencies. It is argued that the cost-effectiveness of micro power generation must be viewed through the value of the first few watts of available power, rather than the marginal cost per kilowatt-hour of electric power from utility power grids. This leads to the finding that the actual target cost per unit power, and efficiency, are well within reach of space technology products. Hybrid systems integrating power extraction from multiple resources, and adaptable for multiple applications, can break through mass market price barriers. Recent work to develop learning resources and test beds as part of a Micro Renewable Energy Laboratory is summarized.

  9. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  10. New narratives on Russian renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.; Overland, I.

    2010-01-01

    The article points out the renewable energy potential in Russia in light of the new policy targets development, technical and economic potential as well as limits related to a lack of effectiveness of renewable energy promoting policies. Moreover, the article links the renewable energy development to the liberalization of Russian power sector which actually provides a possibility for market-support mechanisms, such as the green certificates. Renewable energy in Russia also has an important regional dimension, particularly for remote regions. (authors)

  11. Renewables 2014. Global status report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Chawla, Kanika; Lins, Christine; Adib, Rana; Hullin, Martin; Leitner, Sarah; Mazzaccaro, Stefano; Murdock, Hannah; Williamson, Laura E.; Wright, Glen; McCrone, Angus; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Lily Riahi; Sims, Ralph; Jonathan Skeen; Sverrisson, Freyr; Martinot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It enables policy-makers, industry, investors, and civil society to make informed decisions. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast. The Renewables Global Status Report relies on up-to-date renewable energy data, provided by an international network of more than 500 contributors, researchers, and authors

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  13. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  14. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  15. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  16. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  17. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  18. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable Energy Field Study Number 2 (ARE2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    ARL-TR-8198 ● Oct 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable Energy ...originator. ARL-TR-8198 ● Oct 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable... Energy Field Study #2 (ARE2) by Gail Vaucher and Sean D’Arcy Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Jenna Forrester Advanced

  19. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  20. Photon Science for Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.