WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind-pv-battery hybrid power

  1. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...... predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm for battery management in a hybrid wind/PV/battery system to suppress the short-term power fluctuation on the ‘minute’ scale. A case study with data collected from a practical hybrid system setup is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm...... together with a Monte Carlo simulation-based sensitivity analysis. In addition to illustrating the complementarity between the fluctuations of wind power and PV power, the results prove the proposed MPC algorithm is effective in fluctuation suppression but sensitive to factors such as forecast accuracy...

  2. Study of a Wind/PV/Battery hybrid system – Case study at Plaka in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum hybrid system able to supply the necessary electrical load of a typical community in a remote location in Greece. The renewable energy systems were comprised of different combinations of PV modules and wind turbines supplemented with battery storage. A software tool, HOMER is used for the analysis. The hybrid system analysis has showed that the minimum cost of energy is 0.268 $/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage. The optimum hybrid system is comprised of 1.5 kW PV array, 1 wind generator, 3 kW power converter and 14 storage batteries.

  3. Study of a Wind/PV/Battery hybrid system – Case study at Plaka in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    J. G. Fantidis; D. V. Bandekas; N. Vordos

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum hybrid system able to supply the necessary electrical load of a typical community in a remote location in Greece. The renewable energy systems were comprised of different combinations of PV modules and wind turbines supplemented with battery storage. A software tool, HOMER is used for the analysis. The hybrid system analysis has showed that the minimum cost of energy is 0.268 $/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage...

  4. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  5. Optimal Sizing for Wind/PV/Battery System Using Fuzzy c-Means Clustering with Self-Adapted Cluster Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wind generation, photovoltaic power, and battery storage to form hybrid power systems has been recognized to be promising in renewable energy development. However, considering the system complexity and uncertainty of renewable energies, such as wind and solar types, it is difficult to obtain practical solutions for these systems. In this paper, optimal sizing for a wind/PV/battery system is realized by trade-offs between technical and economic factors. Firstly, the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was modified with self-adapted parameters to extract useful information from historical data. Furthermore, the Markov model is combined to determine the chronological system states of natural resources and load. Finally, a power balance strategy is introduced to guide the optimization process with the genetic algorithm to establish the optimal configuration with minimized cost while guaranteeing reliability and environmental factors. A case of island hybrid power system is analyzed, and the simulation results are compared with the general FCM method and chronological method to validate the effectiveness of the mentioned method.

  6. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  7. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  8. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores. In...... operation and energy saving. Index Terms—magnetic devices, passive components, boost inductor....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  9. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay; Mary Rose Q. Añonuevo; Rexzel M. Cuenca; Ricmart V. Garbin

    2015-01-01

    .... The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar...

  10. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  12. Power surplus in an hybrid desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eduardo Manfredini [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil); Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrela; Zanardi, Mauricio de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], Emails: perrela@feg.unesp.br, mzanardi@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Desalination is a process to be considered in the water planning - its use is year by year worldwide and must be considered as an opportunity even for Brazil. Associated to the perspectives of implementing such technology, advances such as integrating energy generation systems to desalination processes in the so-called hybrid systems have been suggested to obtain a more efficient process. The power surplus generated by hybrid technologies is an interesting index to be considered in the context of produced fresh water. In this paper, several gas turbine systems were considered in a hybrid system; the power surplus of these configurations in a Brazilian case is presented and analyzed. (author)

  13. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  14. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  15. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  16. Hybrid Power Management for Office Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingade, Ganesh P.

    Office machines (such as printers, scanners, fax, and copiers) can consume significant amounts of power. Few studies have been devoted to power management of office equipment. Most office machines have sleep modes to save power. Power management of these machines are usually timeout-based: a machine sleeps after being idle long enough. Setting the timeout duration can be difficult: if it is too long, the machine wastes power during idleness. If it is too short, the machine sleeps too soon and too often--the wakeup delay can significantly degrade productivity. Thus, power management is a tradeoff between saving energy and keeping short response time. Many power management policies have been published and one policy may outperform another in some scenarios. There is no definite conclusion which policy is always better. This thesis describes two methods for office equipment power management. The first method adaptively reduces power based on a constraint of the wakeup delay. The second method is a hybrid with multiple candidate policies and it selects the most appropriate power management policy. Using six months of request traces from 18 different offices, we demonstrate that the hybrid policy outperforms individual policies. We also discover that power management based on business hours does not produce consistent energy savings.

  17. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    compact and efficient new devices, it noted increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of electronic ... in electric machines and capacitors,. HIGH POWER FACTOR. HIGH POWER FACTOR HYBRID ...... Auxiliary DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Vehicles ”,. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics vol. 23, no. 6, pp.

  18. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  19. Hybrid power technology for remote military facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates hundreds of test, evaluation, and training facilities across the US and abroad. Due to the nature of their missions, these facilities are often remote and isolated from the utility grid. The preferred choice for power at these facilities has historically been manned diesel generators. The DoD Photovoltaic Review Committee, estimates that on the order of 350 million gallons of diesel fuel is burned each year to generate the 2000 GWh of electricity required to operate these remote military facilities. Other federal agencies, including the National Park Service and the USDA Forest Service use diesel generators for remote power needs as well. The generation of power diesel generators is both expensive and detrimental to the environment. The augmentation of power from diesel generators with power processing and battery energy storage enhances the efficiency and utilization of the generator resulting in lower fuel consumption and lower generator run- time in proportion to the amount of renewables added. The hybrid technology can both reduce the cost of power and reduce environmental degradation at remote DoD facilities. This paper describes the expected performance and economics of photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems. Capabilities and status of systems now being installed at DoD facilities are presented along with financing mechanisms available within DoD.

  20. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  1. Decentralized Autonomous Hybrid Renewable Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Power extension of grid to isolated regions is associated with technical and economical issues. It has encouraged exploration and exploitation of decentralized power generation using renewable energy sources (RES. RES based power generation involves uncertain availability of power source round the clock. This problem has been overcome to certain extent by installing appropriate integrated energy storage unit (ESU. This paper presents technical review of hybrid wind and photovoltaic (PV generation in standalone mode. Associated components like converters, storage unit, controllers, and optimization techniques affect overall generation. Wind and PV energy are readily available, omnipresent, and expected to contribute major future energy market. It can serve to overcome global warming problem arising due to emissions in fossil fuel based thermal generation units. This paper includes the study of progressive development of standalone renewable generation units based on wind and PV microgrids.

  2. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  3. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  4. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  5. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  6. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  7. Hybrid simulation: an active power filter case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Garcés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation concept consisting of a combination of computer simulation and laboratory tests. This approach is a cost effective alternative to physically testing the whole system and allows better understanding of complex coupled systems.This paper describes implementing an active power filter (APF hybrid prototype where the source system and load are implemented as a real-time simulation and the system of static power converter acting as an active power filter is implemented in physical hardware. It also confirmed the hybrid simulation results by implementing the simulation in MATLAB-Simulink regarding the same system implemented during the active power filter analysis and design stage.

  8. The Power Quality Compensation Strategy for Power Distribution System Based on Hybrid Parallel Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid DEHINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main aim is to confront the performance of shunt active power filter (SAPF and the shunt hybrid active power filter (SHAPF to achieve flexibility and reliability of the filter devices. Both of the two devices used the classical proportional-integral controller for pulse generation to trigger the inventers MOSFET’s. In the adopted hybrid active filter there is a passive power filter with high power rating to filter the low order harmonies and one active filter with low power rating to filter the other high order harmonies. In order to investigate the effectiveness of (SHAPF, the studies have been accomplished using simulation with the MATLAB-SIMULINK. The results show That (SHAPF is more effective than (SAPF, and has lower cost.

  9. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  10. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  11. HYBRID2: A versatile model of the performance of hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. James; Manwell, James

    1995-04-01

    In 1993, the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) made an assessment of the available tools from the United States and Europe for predicting the long-term performance of hybrid power systems. By hybrid power the authors mean combinations of two or more power sources wind turbines, photovoltaics (PV), diesel gensets, or other generators into integrated systems for electric power generation in remote locations. Their conclusion was that there was no single, user-friendly tool capable of modeling the full range of hybrid power technologies being considered for the 1990s and beyond. The existing tools were, in particular, lacking flexibility in system configuration and in dispatch of components. As a result, NREL developed a specification for a model, called HYBRID2, for making comparisons of competing technology options on a level playing field. This specification was prepared with a range of potential users in mind including not only the US Department of Energy (DOE) renewable energy programs, but also the US wind industry, technical consultants, international development institutions/banks, and rural electrification programs in developing countries. During 1994, NREL and subcontractor, the University of Massachusetts (UMass), began development of HYBRID2 with funding from the DOE Wind Energy Program. It builds on the wind/diesel model, HYBRID1, developed previously by UMass, and expands that model to accommodate the wider array of technologies used in hybrid power systems. This paper will provide an overview of the model's features, functions, and status.

  12. Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Shunt Hybrid Power Filter for Power Quality Improvement Using PQ Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R Balasubramanian; S Palani

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes the design of shunt hybrid filter using instantaneous power theory to improve the power quality and simulation has been carried out for 3 phase distribution system feeding different...

  13. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  14. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  15. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  16. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  17. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Cs.

    2012-06-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  18. Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad Wadduwage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.

  19. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  20. Concentrated Solar Power Gas Turbine Hybrid with Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Wallentinsen, Bård Sve

    2016-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology and shows promise for large-scale renewable electric power generation. CSP is suitable for development in conjunction with other technologies, and this thesis examines the combination of CSP technology with natural gas turbines in order to boost operating temperatures and efficiencies in a resulting solar hybrid gas turbine (SHGT) power plant. Thermal energy storage and a bottoming cycle are included in the design to increase both performance and rene...

  1. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  2. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  3. The Hybrid Media System : Politics and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Baviera Puig, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Reseña: El libro The Hybrid Media System ha sido recientemente galardonado con el 2016 International Journal of Press/Politics Book Award. Entre los motivos que justificaron la decisión del jurado, se señaló lo siguiente: ?Más y más investigadores insisten en que la investigación en comunicación política necesita innovación teórica para comprender adecuadamente un entorno cambiante de medios. Son pocos los que han intentado tales innovaciones. Andrew Chadwick es uno de ellos.? Esta apreciació...

  4. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  5. Measurement and Analysis of Power in Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Keshri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application with renewable energy  sources  such   as solar cell array, wind turbines, or fuel cells have increased significantly during the past decade. To obtain the clean energy, we are using the hybrid solar-wind power generation. Consumers prefer quality power from suppliers. The quality of power can be measured by using parameters such as voltage sag, harmonic and power factor.   To   obtain   quality   power   we   have different topologies. In our paper we present a new possible topology which improves power quality. This paper presents modeling analysis and design of a pulse width modulation voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI to be connected between sources, which supplies energy from a hybrid solar wind energy system to the ac grid. The objective of this paper is to show that, with an adequate control, the converter not only can transfer the dc from hybrid solar wind energy system, but also can improve the power factor and quality power of electrical system. Whenever a disturbance occurs on load side, this disturbance can be minimized using open loop and closed loop control systems.

  6. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  7. Photovoltaic and thermal hybrid power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo; Chinen, Masanori; Inoue, Kotaro

    1988-10-21

    In the conventional technology, further utilization of the exhaust heat of the solar cell for power generation is not at all considered; power generation efficiency is not especially high although the reduction of the use amount of GaAs solar cell is possible. In addition, the heat dissipation is difficult when light collection yield is enhanced in the case of a trough type parabolic mirror. In this invention, the unit consists of plural number of light collecting mirrors and correspondinng power-generating parts wherein a heat-receiving part of the thermo-element is closely contacted to the non-light-receiving surface of the cell through the intermediary of an electric insulating layer; the power-generating part is located near to the focusing point of the light collector. In this invention, the solar light can be efficiently converted into electricity and most of the formerly unutilized exhaust heat can be efficiently converted into electricity by means of a thermo-element. In addition, enhancement of reliability and the output voltage are possible by increasing the redundancy. 14 figures.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  9. High Power Factor Hybrid Rectifier | Odeh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the analysis of a new single-phase hybrid rectifier with high power factor (PF) and low harmonic distortion current. The proposed rectifier structure is composed of an ordinary single-phase diode rectifier with parallel connection of a switched converter. It is outlined that the switched converter is capable of ...

  10. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.

    1998-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long

  11. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 4. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical design approach. Unnikrishnan A K ... This paper presents a control strategy and design criteria for transformer-less shunt HAPF with special attention to the integration of series passive filter. The paper also ...

  12. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toland, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Honey Lake Hybrid Geothermal Wood Residue Power Project with a planned output of 50 MW is undergoing feasibility studies funded by GeoProducts Corporation, Department of Water Resources, State of California, US Department of Energy and the Forest Service, USDA. The outlook is optimistic. It is reliably estimated that the required volume of woody biomass can be made available without environmental degradation.

  13. Modeling a PV-FC-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javadpoor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical grid expansion onto remote areas is often not cost-effective and/or technologically feasible. Thus, isolated electrical systems are preferred in such cases. This paper focuses on a hybrid photovoltaic (PV-hydrogen/fuel cell (FC system which basic components include a PV, a FC, alkaline water electrolysis and a hydrogen gas tank. To increase the response rate, supercapacitors or small batteries are usually employed in such systems. This study focuses on the dynamics of the system. In the suggested structure, the PV is used as the main source of power. The FC is connected to the load in parallel with the PV by a transducer in order to inject the differential power while reducing power generation in relation to power consumption. An electrolyzer is used to convert the surplus power to hydrogen. This study studies a conventional hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen/fuel cell system to evaluate different loading behaviors. Software modeling is done for the suggested hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  14. Probabilistic Wind Power Forecasting with Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua; Xu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainty of wind power generation imposes significant challenges to optimal operation and control of electricity networks with increasing wind power penetration. To effectively address the uncertainties in wind power forecasts, probabilistic forecasts that can quantify the associated...... via a bootstrap technique. Subsequently, the maximum likelihood estimation method is employed to construct a distinct neural network to estimate the noise variance of forecasting results. The proposed approach has been tested on multi-step forecasting of high-resolution (10-min) wind power using...... actual wind power data from Denmark. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid artificial neural network approach is effective and efficient for probabilistic forecasting of wind power and has high potential in practical applications....

  15. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both...

  16. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Wen He; Rui Xiong; Yu-Hua Chang

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UD...

  18. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method.

  19. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M. [TNO Institute of Environmental Essences (Netherlands); Mourad, S. [TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute (Netherlands); Have, P. [Centurion Accumulatoren BV (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEVs). In order to come to a successful of HEVs, beside fulfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long life time and must be cost effective. On the basis of TNO technology (patent pending), the development of a bipolar lead-acid battery has been started, together with a battery manufacturer (Centurion), having as final aim a commercial battery for hybrid vehicles and other high power applications. A prototype of 80 V has been built and tested, mainly for the purpose to identify the route to the final aim. Results of this prototype are discussed. (author)

  20. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Samatova, Nagiza [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  1. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  2. Voltage Harmonics Mitigation through Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ali Sahito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast dynamic response, high efficiency, low cost and small size of power electronic converters have exponentially increased their use in modern power system which resulted in harmonically distorted voltage and currents. Voltage harmonics mainly caused by current harmonics are more dangerous as performance and expected operating life of other power system equipment are affected by harmonically distorted supply voltage. Electronic filter circuits are used to improve system power quality by mitigating adverse effects of harmonics. Hybrid filters having advantages of both passive and active filters are preferred to resolve the problem of harmonics efficiently and avoiding any chance of resonance. In this paper, a three phase three wire network is considered to supply an adjustable speed drive represented by a resistive load connected across a three phase bridge rectifier. Simulation of the considered system shows THD (Total Harmonic Distortion of 18.91 and 7.61% in supply current and voltage respectively. A HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter is proposed to reduce these THD values below 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard-519. P-Q theorem is used to calculate required parameters for proposed filter, which is implemented through hysteresis control. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the designed filter as THD for both current and voltage have reduced below allowable limit of 5%.

  3. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  4. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  5. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of hybrid wind-solar power generation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOMER power optimization software for evaluation of design and performance of both off-grid and gridconnected power systems has been applied for cost-benefit analysis of a wind-solar hybrid power generation system. Comparison was also made with the cost per kilowatt of grid power supply. The hybrid system had a ...

  7. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A. [Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  8. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  9. A GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID WIND-SOLAR POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAAMAR TALEB

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid renewable energy system consisting of a photovoltaic generator and a wind driven DC machine is interconnected with the power utilities grid. The interconnection is done through the use of two separate single phase full wave controlled bridge converters. The bridge converters are operated in the “inverter mode of operation”. That is to guaranty the extraction of the real powers from the wind driven generator as well as from the photovoltaic generator and inject them into the power utilities grid. At any pretended surrounding weather conditions, maximum extraction of powers from both renewable energy sources is targeted. This is done through the realization of self-adjusted firing angle controllers responsible of triggering the semiconductor elements of the controlled converters. An active power filter is shunted with the proposed setup to guaranty the sinusoid quality of the power utilities line current. The overall performance of the proposed system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Quite satisfactory and encouraging results have been obtained.

  10. Power Management of Hybrid Power Systems with Li-Fe Batteries and Supercapacitors for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy of a Li-Fe battery and supercapacitor hybrid power system to provide both high power density and energy density for mobile robots with fluctuating workloads. A two-phase power-optimization approach is proposed to exploit the high power density of supercapacitors and the high energy density of Li-Fe batteries. With our strategy, large peak power can be provided for a short time period whenever needed, while low power can be provided for very long time. A set of experiments have been conducted. The experimental results show that our strategy can effectively improve the performance of mobile robots and extend the lifetime of batteries.

  11. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  12. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  13. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  14. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  15. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  16. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then...

  17. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  18. Turbine Powered Simulator Calibration and Testing for Hybrid Wing Body Powered Airframe Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick R.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Long, Kurtis R.; James, Kevin D.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Beyar, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion airframe integration testing on a 5.75% scale hybrid wing body model us- ing turbine powered simulators was completed at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-foot test section. Four rear control surface con gurations including a no control surface de ection con guration were tested with the turbine powered simulator units to investigate how the jet exhaust in uenced the control surface performance as re- lated to the resultant forces and moments on the model. Compared to ow-through nacelle testing on the same hybrid wing body model, the control surface e ectiveness was found to increase with the turbine powered simulator units operating. This was true for pitching moment, lift, and drag although pitching moment was the parameter of greatest interest for this project. With the turbine powered simulator units operating, the model pitching moment was seen to increase when compared to the ow-through nacelle con guration indicating that the center elevon and vertical tail control authority increased with the jet exhaust from the turbine powered simulator units.

  19. Shape changing thin films powered by DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Tae Soup; Estephan, Zaki G.; Qian, Zhaoxia; Prosser, Jacob H.; Lee, Su Yeon; Chenoweth, David M.; Lee, Daeyeon; Park, So-Jung; Crocker, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Active materials that respond to physical and chemical stimuli can be used to build dynamic micromachines that lie at the interface between biological systems and engineered devices. In principle, the specific hybridization of DNA can be used to form a library of independent, chemically driven actuators for use in such microrobotic applications and could lead to device capabilities that are not possible with polymer- or metal-layer-based approaches. Here, we report shape changing films that are powered by DNA strand exchange reactions with two different domains that can respond to distinct chemical signals. The films are formed from DNA-grafted gold nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer deposition process. Films consisting of an active and a passive layer show rapid, reversible curling in response to stimulus DNA strands added to solution. Films consisting of two independently addressable active layers display a complex suite of repeatable transformations, involving eight mechanochemical states and incorporating self-righting behaviour.

  20. Optimal fuzzy power control and management of fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Yan [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 95 Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Guo-Ping [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan (United Kingdom); Center for Control Theory and Guidance Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)

    2009-07-15

    Hybrid electric vehicles powered by fuel cells have been focused for alternative powertrains due to their high efficiency and low emission. The relative engine sizing and power split strategy of different power sources have great effect in influencing the fuel economy. In this paper, for a given driving cycle, the overall efficiency of a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle is maximized by identifying the best degree of hybridization (DOH) and a power control strategy. Fuzzy logic is used in power distribution of the hybrid vehicle, where the optimized centers and widths of membership functions are found by optimization. Simulation results show that the optimally designed and controlled hybrid vehicle can provide good fuel economy and overall system efficiency. (author)

  1. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  3. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  5. Lifetime Prognostics of Hybrid Backup Power System: State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises the n...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  6. Hybrid propulsion with highest electric power density for the ML 450 BlueHYBRID; Hybridantrieb mit hoechster elektrischen Leistungsdichte fuer den ML 450 BlueHYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Nietfeld, Franz; Inderka, Robert [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ML 450 BlueHYBRID is an elementary milestone in the strategy to the sustainable mobility at Daimler AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany). This hybrid system based on the current M-class and is equipped with the innovative Two-Mode-Hybrid-System AHS-C with two high speed electrical engines. The entire propulsion system, the battery and power electronics and the strategy of operation particularly developed for this vehicle integrally provide for a significant reduction of consumption and emission. At the same time, the comfort of the total vehicle increases. In the ML 450 BlueHYBRID, a high volt battery on basis of nickel metal hydride is used. This battery consists of an extremely compact building method and enables an optimal packaging in the vehicle. For the first time, the cooling is performed with a liquid. This enables a stable operation in all situations. For the first time, the cooling takes place with a liquid and enables a stable enterprise in all situations. In connection with the AHS-C Two-Mode-Hybrid system, the battery system enables all hybrid-specific operation conditions such as a purely electrical tour, engine start stop, recupation, boosting. The ML 450 BlueHYBRID serially is produced in Tuscaloose (Alabama, USA). The manufacturing of the hybrid vehicle completely is integrated in the operation of work and is based on the existing serial production plants with hybrid-specific supplements and adjustments in assembly stations.

  7. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  8. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  9. A New Hybrid Power Configuration Used In HEV And Development of Its Driving BLDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Xu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range is focused on nowadays. A new hybrid power configuration used in HEV is presented with different control strategies and HEV performances when equipping different weight of fuel power and battery one. In order to realize the new hybrid power configuration especially in the refitted HEV, fractional-slot concentrated-wingding BLDC with higher rated spinning speed is given and the prototyped one is developed and fabricated which satisfy successfully the requirements of high performance and demission restriction for the refitted HEV.

  10. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change leads to more extreme meteorological conditions such as icing weather, which have caused great losses to power systems. Comprehensive simulation tools are required to enhance the capability of power system risk assessment under extreme weather conditions. A hybrid...... numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interaction of slow dynamics of weather events and fast dynamics of power systems. An extended package for PSS....../E enabling hybrid simulation of icing event and power system disturbance is developed, based on which a hybrid simulation platform is established. Numerical studies show that the functionality of power system simulation is greatly extended by taking into account the icing weather events....

  11. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant has been completed for four geothermal Resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. Brown University provided the theoretical basis for the hybrid study. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant. Costing methods followed recommendations issued by the Energy research and Development Administration.

  12. Optimal Power Flow Modelling and Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Grids with Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    , it is essential to develop a suitable model and apply optimization algorithms for different application scenarios. The objective of this work is to develop a generalized model and evaluate the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions in a hybrid AC/DC system including HVDC (LCC based) and offshore WPP (VSC based......, the wind power production level also plays a major role in a hybrid system on transmission loss evaluation. The developed model is tested in Low, Medium and High wind power production levels to determine the objective function of the OPF solution. MATLAB Optimization Toolbox and MATLAB script are used...

  13. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Using the Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hybrid Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yeau Chang

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of wind power in the electricity system provides many challenges to power system operators, mainly due to the unpredictability and variability of wind power generation. Although wind energy may not be dispatched, an accurate forecasting method of wind speed and power generation can help power system operators reduce the risk of an unreliable electricity supply. This paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) based hybrid forecasting method for short-term wi...

  14. Investigation of a Novel Coaxial Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain for Mining Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different working conditions and specification requirements of mining trucks when compared to commercial passenger vehicles, better fuel efficiency of mining trucks could lead to more significant economic benefits. Therefore, investigating a hybrid transmission system becomes essential. A coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain system for mining trucks is presented in this paper. The system is characterized as comprising an engine, a generator (MG1, a motor (MC2, two sets of planetary gears, and a clutch (CL1. There are six primary operation modes for the hybrid system including the electric motor mode, the engine mode, the hybrid electric mode, the hybrid and assist mode, the regenerative mode, and the stationary charging mode. The mathematical model of the coaxial power-split hybrid system is established according to the requirements of vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy performance in a given driving cycle. A hybrid vehicle model based on a rule-based control strategy is established to evaluate the fuel economy. Compared with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS and the conventional mechanical vehicle system using a diesel engine, the simulation results based on an enterprise project indicate that the proposed hybrid system can enhance the vehicle’s fuel economy by 8.21% and 22.45%, respectively, during the given mining driving cycle. The simulation results can be used as a reference to study the feasibility of the proposed coaxial hybrid system whose full potential needs to be further investigated by adopting non-causal control strategies.

  15. Conceptual Design and Optimal Power Control Strategy for AN Eco-Friendly Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, N. Mir; Chieng, Frederick T. A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new concept for a hybrid vehicle using a torque and speed splitting technique. It is implemented by the newly developed controller in combination with a two degree of freedom epicyclic gear transmission. This approach enables optimization of the power split between the less powerful electrical motor and more powerful engine while driving a car load. The power split is fundamentally a dual-energy integration mechanism as it is implemented by using the epicyclic gear transmission that has two inputs and one output for a proper power distribution. The developed power split control system manages the operation of both the inputs to have a known output with the condition of maintaining optimum operating efficiency of the internal combustion engine and electrical motor. This system has a huge potential as it is possible to integrate all the features of hybrid vehicle known to-date such as the regenerative braking system, series hybrid, parallel hybrid, series/parallel hybrid, and even complex hybrid (bidirectional). By using the new power split system it is possible to further reduce fuel consumption and increase overall efficiency.

  16. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  17. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  18. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter and...

  19. Reactive power control and optimisation of hybrid off shore tidal turbine with system uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Mohanty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects an isolated hybrid model of Offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine and discusses the stability and reactive power management issue of the whole system. The hybrid system often loses its stability as it becomes prone to uncertain load and input parameters and therefore the necessity of Reactive power management becomes necessary. The overall stability of the hybrid offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine is made possible by the management of reactive power in the hybrid system through the application of FACTS devices. And therefore the dynamic hybrid model of the DFIG and DDPMSG based offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine is analysed for stability with different input parameters like wind and tidal energies. For detailed modelling and simulation, a small signal model of the whole hybrid system is designed and reactive power management of the system is achieved by the incorporation of a STATCOM controller. For improvement of stability and reactive power compensation of the hybrid system, GA and PSO optimised STATCOM controller is used.

  20. Frequency Regulation of a Hybrid Wind–Hydro Power Plant in an Isolated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martínez-Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, some small islands with high wind potential are trying to reduce the environmental and economic impact of fossil fuels by using renewable resources. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these renewable resources negatively affect the quality of the electrical energy, causing frequency disturbances, especially in isolated systems. In this study, the combined contribution to frequency regulation of variable speed wind turbines (VSWT and a pump storage hydropower plant (PSHP is analyzed. Different control strategies, using the kinetic energy stored in the VSWT, are studied: inertial, proportional, and their combination. In general, the gains of the VSWT controller for interconnected systems proposed in the literature are not adequate for isolated systems. Therefore, a methodology to adjust the controllers, based on exhaustive searches, is proposed for each of the control strategies. The control strategies and methodology have been applied to a hybrid wind–hydro power plant on El Hierro Island in the Canary archipelago. At present, in this isolated power system, frequency regulation is only provided by the PSHP and diesel generators. The improvements in the quality of frequency regulation, including the VSWT contribution, have been proven based on simulating different events related to wind speed, or variations in the power demand.

  1. Assessment of engine׳s power budget for hydrogen powered hybrid buoyant aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar U. Haque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that hydrogen has less undesirable exhaust emissions as compared with other types of liquid fuels. It can be used as an alternative fuel for a hybrid buoyant aircraft in which half of the gross takeoff weight is balanced by the aerostatic lift. In the present study, weight advantage of liquid hydrogen as an ideal fuel has been explored for its further utilization in such aircraft. Existing relationships for the estimation of zero lift drag of airship is discussed with special focus on the utilization of such analytical relationships for the aircraft whose fuselage resembles with the hull of an airship. Taking the analytical relationship of aircraft and airship design as a reference, existing relationships for estimation of power budget are systematically re-derived for defined constraints of rate of climb, maximum velocity and takeoff ground roll. It is perceived that when the propulsion sizing for liquid hydrogen is required, then the presented framework for estimation of its power budget will provide a starting point for the analysis. An example for estimation of the power requirement is also presented as a test case.

  2. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-11-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  3. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lihui Zhang; He Xin; Jing Wu; Liwei Ju; Zhongfu Tan

    2017-01-01

    ...) are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS). Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation...

  4. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karbaschian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.

  5. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized......-distributed (HCD) power conditioning system for TEG and its control strategy are proposed in this paper. The HCD power conditioning system is composed by a centralized power conversion stage and multiple distributed power conversion stages. Most of the power is processed by the centralized power conversion stage...... while only the mismatched power among the TEG modules is processed by the distributed power conversion stages. As a result, accurate distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for each TEG module and single-stage power conversion between TEG modules and the load can be achieved by using...

  6. Recent advances in the PV-CSP hybrid solar power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xing; Xu, Chao; Han, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Gaosheng; Chen, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Photovoltaic - Concentrated Solar Power (PV-CSP) hybrid technology is considered to be an important future research trend in solar energy engineering. The development of the PV-CSP hybrid technology accelerates in recent years with the rapid maturation of photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP). This paper presents the recent advances on PV-CSP technology, including different technologies based on new dispatch strategies, Organic Rankine Cycles, spectral beam filters and so on. The research status and the hybrid system performance of the recent researches are summarized, aimed to provide an extended recognition on the PV-CSP hybrid technology. The advantages and limitations of the hybrid system are concluded according to the researches reviewed.

  7. Control Strategy Based on Wavelet Transform and Neural Network for Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an energy management of a hybrid power generation system. The proposed control strategy for the energy management is based on the combination of wavelet transform and neural network arithmetic. The hybrid system in this paper consists of an emulated wind turbine generator, PV panels, DC and AC loads, lithium ion battery, and super capacitor, which are all connected on a DC bus with unified DC voltage. The control strategy is responsible for compensating the difference between the generated power from the wind and solar generators and the demanded power by the loads. Wavelet transform decomposes the power difference into smoothed component and fast fluctuated component. In consideration of battery protection, the neural network is introduced to calculate the reference power of battery. Super capacitor (SC is controlled to regulate the DC bus voltage. The model of the hybrid system is developed in detail under Matlab/Simulink software environment.

  8. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The increasing importance of Power Quality problems has been respon- sible for several improvements in Active Power Filter (APF) typologies in the last decade. The increased cost and switching losses make a pure shunt APF economi- cally impractical for high power applications. In higher power levels shunt ...

  9. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei; Terzija, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change leads to more extreme meteorological conditions such as icing weather, which have caused great losses to power systems. Comprehensive simulation tools are required to enhance the capability of power system risk assessment under extreme weather conditions. A hybrid numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interact...

  10. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant was completed for four geothermal resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa, and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant.

  11. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  12. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  13. Generator maintenance scheduling in power systems using metaheuristic-based hybrid approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, Keshav P. [School of Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford (United Kingdom); Chakpitak, Nopasit [College of Arts, Media and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    The effective maintenance scheduling of power system generators is very important for the economical and reliable operation of a power system. This represents a tough scheduling problem which continues to present a challenge for efficient optimization solution techniques. This paper presents the application of metaheuristic approaches, such as a genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and their hybrid for generator maintenance scheduling (GMS) in power systems using an integer representation. This paper mainly focuses on the application of GA/SA and GA/SA/heuristic hybrid approaches. GA/SA hybrid uses the probabilistic acceptance criterion of SA within the GA framework. GA/SA/heuristic hybrid combines heuristic approaches within the GA/SA hybrid to seed the initial population. A case study is formulated in this paper as an integer programming problem using a reliability-based objective function and typical problem constraints. The implementation and performance of the metaheuristic approaches and their hybrid for the test case study are discussed. The results obtained are promising and show that the hybrid approaches are less sensitive to the variations of technique parameters and offer an effective alternative for solving the generator maintenance scheduling problem. (author)

  14. Comparative Analysis of On- and Off-Grid Electrification: The Case of Two South Korean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s main industry is the manufacturing industry, and it requires stable energy. Korea heavily relies on importing oils to produce energy, thus efficient energy management is critical. This is why many renewable and smart energy policies and infrastructure planning are being set up currently. Supplying reliable and sustainable renewable energy to remote areas has especially been questioned; therefore, adopting sustainable and clean energy based on renewable resources cannot be delayed any more. This research examines the most economically, technologically and environmentally suitable energy grid of two South Korean Islands. Several hybrid energy system configurations that analyze and identify the optimal grid-connected and grid-independent hybrid power generation systems are simulated in this study. According to the results of the study, the optimal regionally detached power generation system was the wind-PV-battery-converter hybrid system. At the end of this paper, implications and limitations are discussed.

  15. Analysis of the Hybrid Power System for High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of single solar array on high-altitude unmanned aircraft will waste energy because of its low conversion efficiency. Furthermore, since its energy utilization is limited, the surface temperature of solar array will rise to 70°C due to the waste solar energy, thus reducing the electrical performance of the solar array. In order to reuse the energy converted into heat by solar array, a hybrid power system is presented in this paper. In the hybrid power system, a new electricity-generating method is adopted to spread the photovoltaic cell on the wing surface and arrange photothermal power in the wing box section. Because the temperature on the back of photovoltaic cell is high, it can be used as the high-temperature heat source. The lower wing surface can be a low-temperature cold source. A high-altitude unmanned aircraft was used to analyze the performances of pure solar-powered aircraft and hybrid powered aircraft. The analysis result showed that the hybrid system could reduce the area of wing by 19% and that high-altitude unmanned aircraft with a 35 m or less wingspan could raise the utilization rate of solar energy per unit area after adopting the hybrid power system.

  16. Coordinated Stability Control of Wind-Thermal Hybrid AC/DC Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind-thermal hybrid power transmission will someday be the main form of transmitting wind power in China but such transmission mode is poor in system stability. In this paper, a coordinated stability control strategy is proposed to improve the system stability. Firstly, the mathematical model of doubly fed wind farms and DC power transmission system is established. The rapid power controllability of large-scale wind farms is discussed based on DFIG model and wide-field optical fiber delay feature. Secondly, low frequency oscillation and power-angle stability are analyzed and discussed under the hybrid transmission mode of a conventional power plant with wind farms. A coordinated control strategy for the wind-thermal hybrid AC/DC power system is proposed and an experimental prototype is made. Finally, real time simulation modeling is set up through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS, including wind power system and synchronous generator system and DC power transmission system. The experimental prototype is connected with RTDS for joint debugging. Joint debugging result shows that, under the coordinated control strategy, the experimental prototype is conductive to enhance the grid damping and effectively prevents the grid from occurring low frequency oscillation. It can also increase the transient power-angle stability of a power system.

  17. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  18. Neutronic analysis of a high power density hybrid reactor using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natural lithium is also utilized for comparison to these two innovative coolants. Neutron transport calculations are performed on a simple experimental hybrid blanket with cylindrical geometry with the help of the SCALE 4·3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups ...

  19. Efficiency Characteristics of Low Power Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors (SRM) are usually considered inferior in terms of efficiency as compared to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) and brushless DC-motors (BLDC), but less costly. This article presents a test of a 70W hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM), that archieves a peak e...

  20. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  1. Modeling and Control of Cogeneration Power Plants: A Hybrid System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ferrari-Trecate (Giancarlo); E. Gallestey (Eduardo); P. Letizia (Paolo); M. Spedicato (Matteo); M. Morari (Manfred); M. Antoine (Marc)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the short term scheduling optimization of a combined cycle power plant is accomplished by exploiting hybrid systems, i.e. systems evolving according to continuous dynamics, discrete dynamics, and logic rules. Discrete features of a power plant are, for instance, the

  2. Online Junction Temperature Cycle Recording of an IGBT Power Module in a Hybrid Car

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denk, Marco; Bakran, Mark-M

    2015-01-01

    ... of the reliability and the lifetime of voltage source inverters used in hybrid-electric powertrains the IGBT power module can be considered as the most lifetime critical component. This is especially true if power modules with conventional linking and packaging technology are used. Those modules are characterized by a bond-wire connection, a direct copper bonded ...

  3. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  4. Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The AC-DC hybrid microgrid is an effective form of utilizing different energy resources and the analysis of this system requires a proper power flow algorithm. This paper proposes a suitable power flow algorithm for LV hybrid AC-DC microgrid based on droop control and virtual impedance. Droop...... and virtual impedance concepts for AC network, DC network and interlinking converter are reviewed so as to model it in the power flow analysis. The validation of the algorithm is verified by comparing it with steady state results from detailed time domain simulation. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  5. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  7. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  8. Power supply system for the superconducting outsert of the CHMFL hybrid magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Zhu, J.; Chen, W.; Jiang, D.; Huang, P.; Chen, Z.; Tan, Y.; Kuang, G.

    2017-12-01

    The construction of a new hybrid magnet, consisting of a 11 T superconducting outsert and a 34 T resistive insert magnet, has been finished at the Chinese High Magnetic Field Laboratory (CHMFL) in Hefei. With a room temperature bore of 800 mm in diameter, the hybrid magnet superconducting outsert is composed of four separate Nb3Sn-based Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) coils electrically connected in series and powered by a single power supply system. The power supply system for the superconducting outsert consists of a 16 kA DC power supply, a quench protection system, a pair of 16 kA High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads, and two Low Temperature Superconducting bus-lines. The design and manufacturing of the power supply system have been completed at the CHMFL. This paper describes the design features of the power supply system as well as the current fabrication condition of its main components.

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  10. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P.

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  12. Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramu Sharat [Niskayuna, NY; Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Bose, Sumit [Niskayuna, NY; de Bedout, Juan Manuel [West Glenville, NY

    2011-08-02

    A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.

  13. The Optimal Power Assignment for Cooperative Hybrid-ARQ Relaying Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    HYBRID- ARQ RELAYING PROTOCOL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-11-1-0015 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62702F 6. AUTHOR(S...sequence for cooperative hybrid automatic-repeat-request (H- ARQ ) relaying protocol over quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. We try to determine the...the average total power consumption of the cooperative H- ARQ relaying protocol is complicated in general, so we develop first in this work a simple

  14. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Haitao; Zhao Yulan; Liu Zunnian; Hao Kui

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF) observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC) of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual t...

  15. Research on the Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Electric Variable Transmissions

    OpenAIRE

    Qiwei Xu; Shumei Cui; Liwei Song; Qianfan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Electric variable transmission is a new electromechanical energy conversion device structure, which is especially suitable as the driving force distribution device for hybrid electric vehicles. This paper focuses on the power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicles based on an electric variable transmission, and a kind of hierarchical control ideology is proposed. The control strategy is composed of four control levels, namely analysis of force requirement, operation mode switching, f...

  16. Diode-clamped multi-level power converter with a zero-sequence current loop for three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang [Department of Microelectronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Rd., Kaohsiung (China); Wu, Kuen-Der; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Xiao, Shun-Tian [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter configured by a three-phase passive power filter and a three-phase diode-clamped multi-level power converter with a small power capacity of zero-sequence current loop connected in series to compensate for the harmonic currents of nonlinear load. The salient feature is that a small power capacity of zero-sequence current loop is applied to overcome the problem of balancing voltages of two DC capacitors for a diode-clamped multi-level power converter applying in the three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter. A laboratory prototype is developed to verify the performance of the proposed three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter. The experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and practicality of the proposed three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter. (author)

  17. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  19. Optimization of wind-marine hybrid power system configuration based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongda; Li, Linna; Zhao, Chenyu

    2017-08-01

    Multi-energy power systems can use energy generated from various sources to improve power generation reliability. This paper presents a cost-power generation model of a wind-tide-wave energy hybrid power system for use on a remote island, where the configuration is optimized using a genetic algorithm. A mixed integer programming model is used and a novel object function, including cost and power generation, is proposed to solve the boundary problem caused by existence of two goals. Using this model, the final optimized result is found to have a good fit with local resources.

  20. Hybrid zero-voltage switching (ZVS) control for power inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Hu, Haibing; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-11-01

    A power inverter combination includes a half-bridge power inverter including first and second semiconductor power switches receiving input power having an intermediate node therebetween providing an inductor current through an inductor. A controller includes input comparison circuitry receiving the inductor current having outputs coupled to first inputs of pulse width modulation (PWM) generation circuitry, and a predictive control block having an output coupled to second inputs of the PWM generation circuitry. The predictive control block is coupled to receive a measure of Vin and an output voltage at a grid connection point. A memory stores a current control algorithm configured for resetting a PWM period for a switching signal applied to control nodes of the first and second power switch whenever the inductor current reaches a predetermined upper limit or a predetermined lower limit.

  1. [Diagnosis and analysis of high power YAG laser and MAG arc hybrid source with spectral information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu-you; Li, Huan

    2010-11-01

    High power YAG laser and MAG are hybrid source is a promising material processing heat source for future industry application Diagnosis of the plasma state is critical for better understanding of the coupling effect, application of the source and optimization of the hybrid parameters. Through establishing a hollow probe spectral collecting system, Avaspec-Ft-2 high speed digital spectrometer was applied for collecting the spectral information of hybrid are plasma. The hollow probe scans the plasma body to acquire the spatial distribution of the YAG laser-MAG hybrid are spectrum. The radiation intensity in specific spectral zone was acquired for analysis of the radiation variation when the laser beam was hybrid with the MAG arc. High speed photo was also applied for comparison of the plasma with and without laser beam coupling. Furthermore, line spectra of Fe I were selected for calculating the electronic temperature of the hybrid plasma with Boltzmann plot method. The results show that energy of the hybrid plasma focused on the weld plate with high intensity and wider acting zone. The electronic temperature increased in the center of the hybrid plasma.

  2. A Frequency Control Approach for Hybrid Power System Using Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid power system uses many wind turbine generators (WTG and solar photovoltaics (PV in isolated small areas. However, the output power of these renewable sources is not constant and can diverge quickly, which has a serious effect on system frequency and the continuity of demand supply. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a new frequency control scheme for a hybrid power system to ensure supplying a high-quality power in isolated areas. The proposed power system consists of a WTG, PV, aqua-electrolyzer (AE, fuel cell (FC, battery energy storage system (BESS, flywheel (FW and diesel engine generator (DEG. Furthermore, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs are implemented at the customer side. A full-order observer is utilized to estimate the supply error. Then, the estimated supply error is considered in a frequency domain. The high-frequency component is reduced by BESS and FW; while the low-frequency component of supply error is mitigated using FC, EV and DEG. Two PI controllers are implemented in the proposed system to control the system frequency and reduce the supply error. The epsilon multi-objective genetic algorithm ( ε -MOGA is applied to optimize the controllers’ parameters. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared with that of recent well-established techniques, such as a PID controller tuned by the quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm (QOHSA. The effectiveness and robustness of the hybrid power system are investigated under various operating conditions.

  3. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  4. Ultra-Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Using a Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to develop and apply a hybrid model of two data analytical methods, multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), for ultra-short-term wind power prediction (WPP), for example taking, Northeast China electricity demand. The data was obtained from the historical records of wind power from an offshore region, and from a wind farm of the wind power plant in the areas. The WPP achieved in two stages: first, the ratios of wind power were forecasted using the proposed hybrid method, and then the transformation of these ratios of wind power to obtain forecasted values. The hybrid model combines the persistence methods, MLR and LS. The proposed method included two prediction types, multi-point prediction and single-point prediction. WPP is tested by applying different models such as autoregressive moving average (ARMA), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and artificial neural network (ANN). By comparing results of the above models, the validity of the proposed hybrid model is confirmed in terms of error and correlation coefficient. Comparison of results confirmed that the proposed method works effectively. Additional, forecasting errors were also computed and compared, to improve understanding of how to depict highly variable WPP and the correlations between actual and predicted wind power.

  5. A Hybrid Multilevel Storage Architecture for Electric Power Dispatching Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hu; Huang, Bibin; Hong, Bowen; Hu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Electric power dispatching is the center of the whole power system. In the long run time, the power dispatching center has accumulated a large amount of data. These data are now stored in different power professional systems and form lots of information isolated islands. Integrating these data and do comprehensive analysis can greatly improve the intelligent level of power dispatching. In this paper, a hybrid multilevel storage architecture for electrical power dispatching big data is proposed. It introduces relational database and NoSQL database to establish a power grid panoramic data center, effectively meet power dispatching big data storage needs, including the unified storage of structured and unstructured data fast access of massive real-time data, data version management and so on. It can be solid foundation for follow-up depth analysis of power dispatching big data.

  6. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS. To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach.

  7. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  8. Hybrid energy cell for degradation of methyl orange by self-powered electrocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Dongseob; Hwang, Woonbong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-02-13

    In general, methyl orange (MO) can be degraded by an electrocatalytic oxidation process driven by a power source due to the generation of superoxidative hydroxyl radical on the anode. Here, we report a hybrid energy cell that is used for a self-powered electrocatalytic process for the degradation of MO without using an external power source. The hybrid energy cell can simultaneously or individually harvest mechanical and thermal energies. The mechanical energy was harvested by the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) fabricated at the top by using a flexible polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) nanowire array with diameters of about 200 nm. A pyroelectric nanogenerator (PENG) was fabricated below the TENG to harvest thermal energy. The power output of the device can be directly used for electrodegradation of MO, demonstrating a self-powered electrocatalytic oxidation process.

  9. Load Flow Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Power System with Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    is to model such hybrid AC-DC systems including the interfacing converters, which have several control parameters that can change the load flow of the hybrid systems. Then, the paper proposes a Load Flow algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson method, which covers three different section types...

  10. An analysis of hybrid power generation systems for a residential load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceran Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an energetic and economical analysis of a hybrid power generation system (HPGS which utilises photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, fuel cells and an electrolyzer with hydrogen tank working as the energy storage. The analysis was carried out for three different residential loads, local solar radiation and local wind speed, based on the real measurement values. The analysis shows the optimal solution and the limits of the investment costs required for the system construction. The presented results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which could be assumed as a very useful tool in the design and analysis of a hybrid power generation system.

  11. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

  12. A Hybrid Harmony Search Algorithm Approach for Optimal Power Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoun YOUNES

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Power Flow (OPF is one of the main functions of Power system operation. It determines the optimal settings of generating units, bus voltage, transformer tap and shunt elements in Power System with the objective of minimizing total production costs or losses while the system is operating within its security limits. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel methodology (BCGAs-HSA that solves OPF including both active and reactive power dispatch It is based on combining the binary-coded genetic algorithm (BCGAs and the harmony search algorithm (HSA to determine the optimal global solution. This method was tested on the modified IEEE 30 bus test system. The results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained with BCGAs or HSA separately. The results show that the BCGAs-HSA approach can converge to the optimum solution with accuracy compared to those reported recently in the literature.

  13. Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.; Huacuz, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico). Energias No Convencionales

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the ''Presidente Benito Juarez'' dam in Jalapa del Marques, Oaxaca, Mexico. The other hypothetical facility is a wind farm located near ''La Venta's', an area in Juchitan, Oaxaca, Mexico. The wind-hydro-power system is a combined wind and hydro power plant in a region that is rich in both resources. The model shows that the hybrid plant could provide close to 20 MW of firm power to the electrical distribution system. On a techno-economic basis, we obtain the levelized production cost of the hybrid system. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, figures for levelized production cost are developed. (author)

  14. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Using the Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yeau Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of wind power in the electricity system provides many challenges to power system operators, mainly due to the unpredictability and variability of wind power generation. Although wind energy may not be dispatched, an accurate forecasting method of wind speed and power generation can help power system operators reduce the risk of an unreliable electricity supply. This paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO based hybrid forecasting method for short-term wind power forecasting. The hybrid forecasting method combines the persistence method, the back propagation neural network, and the radial basis function (RBF neural network. The EPSO algorithm is employed to optimize the weight coefficients in the hybrid forecasting method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the method is tested on the practical information of wind power generation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS installed on the Taichung coast of Taiwan. Comparisons of forecasting performance are made with the individual forecasting methods. Good agreements between the realistic values and forecasting values are obtained; the test results show the proposed forecasting method is accurate and reliable.

  15. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flow data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.

  16. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  17. Flat tie-line power scheduling control of grid-connected hybrid microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Guerrero, Josep M.; Shuang, Jia

    2018-01-01

    In future active distribution networks (ADNs), microgrids (MGs) may have the possibility to control the power dispatched to the ADN by coordinating the output power of their multiple renewable generation units and energy storage units (ESUs). In this way, each MG may support the active distribution....... Also, a method to calculate the tie-line power flow to be exchanged between the MG and the ADN is explored, and a power ramp rate is given between different dispatch intervals. Finally, a simulation model of the hybrid MG is built and tested. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical...

  18. Flat tie-line power scheduling control of grid-connected hybrid microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Guerrero, Josep M.; Shuang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    In future active distribution networks (ADNs), microgrids (MGs) may have the possibility to control the power dispatched to the ADN by coordinating the output power of their multiple renewable generation units and energy storage units (ESUs). In this way, each MG may support the active distribution....... Also, a method to calculate the tie-line power flow to be exchanged between the MG and the ADN is explored, and a power ramp rate is given between different dispatch intervals. Finally, a simulation model of the hybrid MG is built and tested. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical...

  19. Hybrid Three-Phase/Single-Phase Microgrid Architecture with Power Management Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Zhou, Jianguo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    architecture and its power management strategy. In this microgrid structure, a power sharing unit (PSU), composed of three single-phase back-to-back (SPBTB) converters, is proposed to be installed at the point of common coupling (PCC). The aim of the PSU is mainly to realize the power exchange and coordinated...... of the proposed PSU and its power management strategy, the loads among different phases can be properly supplied and the energy can be fully utilized as well as obtaining better load sharing. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed hybrid microgrid structure...

  20. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    energy density storage unit and power density storage unit in reasonable fashion. Primary control introduces change rate of voltage as virtual information carrier, and urges supercapacitor unit to pick up major dynamic power immediately in the load switching moment, by setting sensitivity of different......In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  1. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  2. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, Yanbin; Sun, Wanrong; Ren, Aifeng; Liu, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    ...) and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output...

  3. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    priority. This heavy reliance on diesel generation has negative effects on the surrounding environment including soil, groundwater, and air pollution. Although good solar and wind resource prospects exist for the use of cleaner hybrid power systems in certain desert locations, little research has been done...... to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages......Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...

  4. Simulation and performance evaluation of shunt hybrid power filter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Balasubramanian

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... current control and for voltage regulation of the DC link capacitor. The simulation schematic ... controller is also able to compensate the distortion generated by the voltage- and current-fed non-linear loads, unbalanced and ...... transformer less AC/DC power conversion system consisting of a diode rectifier ...

  5. Simulation and performance evaluation of shunt hybrid power filter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work involves introduction of individual fuzzy logic controllers for d and q axiscurrent control and for voltage regulation of the DC link capacitor. The simulation schematic covering the power and control circuits have been developed taking into account severe harmonic distortion caused by non-linear and unbalanced ...

  6. Optimal Power Scheduling for an Islanded Hybrid Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a system that integrates energy generation, energy storage, and loads and it is able to operate either in interconnected or islanded mode. Energy resources should be scheduled to supply the load properly in order to coordinate optimally the power exchange within the microgrid accor...

  7. Harmonic Resonance Damping with a Hybrid Compensation System in Power Systems with Dispersed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and a group of distributed passive filters has been studied previously. The passive filters are used for each distorting load or Dispersed Generation (DG) unit to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active...... filter is connected in parallel with the distributed passive filters and loads/DGs to correct the system unbalance and remove the remaining harmonic components. The effectiveness of the presented compensation system has also been demonstrated. This paper studies the performance of the hybrid compensation...... system under system harmonic resonance. The harmonic resonance and the characteristics of harmonic sources are briefly described. The damping effects of the active filter in the hybrid filter system are analyzed with a simplified circuit. An example system including various power electronic interfaces...

  8. A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solar-wind power generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2013-05-01

    We give a detailed description of the energy balance equation for a stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generating system. The dimensions of the power generator and the energy capacity of a buffer battery (used as an energy storage system) are chosen to suit a known consumer's profile. Future applications of the mathematical model developed and analogies with a similar hydrodynamic problem are discussed.

  9. Optimization of PV/WIND/DIESEL Hybrid Power System in HOMER for Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Q.; Jaszczur, M.; Abdulateef, J.

    2016-09-01

    A large proportion of the world's population lives in remote rural areas that are geographically isolated and sparsely populated. The present study is based on modeling, computer simulation and optimization of hybrid power generation system in the rural area in Muqdadiyah district of Diyala state, Iraq. Two renewable resources, namely, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine (WT) are considered. The HOMER software is used to study and design the proposed hybrid energy system model. Based on simulation results, it has been found that renewable energy sources perhaps replace the conventional energy sources and would be a feasible solution for the generation of electric power at remote locations with a reasonable investment. The hybrid power system solution to electrify the selected area resulted in a least-cost combination of the hybrid power system that can meet the demand in a dependable manner at a cost about (0.321/kWh). If the wind resources in the study area at the lower stage, it's not economically viable for a wind turbine to generate the electricity.

  10. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  11. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mines, Greg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  12. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  13. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  14. Hybrid Power: Mobility Air Forces and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    power, including its culture, human potential, industry , science and technology, academic institutions, geography, and national will. See Joint Chiefs...bombers (B-29 Superfortress) to engage industrial targets on the Japanese mainland.64 Allied victory did not look promising in March of 1942...html (accessed February 2, 2010). Avaition Operations Magazine. A Special Study of Operation "Vittles". Technical report on the role of avaition in

  15. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  16. Design of Passive Power Filter for Hybrid Series Active Power Filter using Estimation, Detection and Classification Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Sushree Diptimayee; Ray, Pravat Kumar; Mohanty, K. B.

    2016-06-01

    This research paper discover the design of a shunt Passive Power Filter (PPF) in Hybrid Series Active Power Filter (HSAPF) that employs a novel analytic methodology which is superior than FFT analysis. This novel approach consists of the estimation, detection and classification of the signals. The proposed method is applied to estimate, detect and classify the power quality (PQ) disturbance such as harmonics. This proposed work deals with three methods: the harmonic detection through wavelet transform method, the harmonic estimation by Kalman Filter algorithm and harmonic classification by decision tree method. From different type of mother wavelets in wavelet transform method, the db8 is selected as suitable mother wavelet because of its potency on transient response and crouched oscillation at frequency domain. In harmonic compensation process, the detected harmonic is compensated through Hybrid Series Active Power Filter (HSAPF) based on Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (IRPT). The efficacy of the proposed method is verified in MATLAB/SIMULINK domain and as well as with an experimental set up. The obtained results confirm the superiority of the proposed methodology than FFT analysis. This newly proposed PPF is used to make the conventional HSAPF more robust and stable.

  17. Performance evaluation of hybrid VLC using device cost and power over data throughput criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. C.; Tan, C. S.; Wong, H. Y.; Yahya, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) technology has attained its attention in both academic and industry lately. It is determined by the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL).It has great potential to gradually replace radio frequency (RF) wireless technology because it offers unregulated and unlicensed bandwidth to withstand future demand of indoor wireless access to real-time bandwidth-demanding applications. However, it was found to provide intrusive uplink channel that give rise to unpleasant irradiance from the user device which could interfere with the downlink channel of VLC and hence limit mobility to users as a result of small coverage (field of view of VLC).To address this potential problem, a Hybrid VLC system which integrates VLC (for downlink) and RF (for uplink) technology is proposed. It offers a non-intrusive RF back channel that provides high throughput VLC and maintains durability with conventional RF devices. To deploy Hybrid VLC system in the market, it must be energy and cost saving to attain its equivalent economical advantage by comparing to existing architecture that employs fluorescent or LED lights with RF technology. In this paper, performance evaluation on the proposed hybrid system was carried out in terms of device cost and power consumption against data throughput. Based on our simulation, Hybrid VLC system was found to reduce device cost by 3% and power consumption by 68% when compares to fluorescent lights with RF technology. Nevertheless, when it is compared to LED lights with RF technology, our proposed hybrid system is found to achieve device cost saving as high as 47% and reduced power consumption by 49%. Such promising results have demonstrated that Hybrid VLC system is a feasible solution and has paved the way for greater cost saving and energy efficient compares with the current RF architecture even with the increasing requirement of indoor area coverage.

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  19. Hybrid DE-SQP Method for Solving Combined Heat and Power Dynamic Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Elaiw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power dynamic economic dispatch (CHPDED plays a key role in economic operation of power systems. CHPDED determines the optimal heat and power schedule of committed generating units by minimizing the fuel cost under ramp rate constraints and other constraints. Due to complex characteristics, heuristic and evolutionary based optimization approaches have became effective tools to solve the CHPDED problem. This paper proposes hybrid differential evolution (DE and sequential quadratic programming (SQP to solve the CHPDED problem with nonsmooth and nonconvex cost function due to valve point effects. DE is used as a global optimizer and SQP is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution at the final. The proposed hybrid DE-SQP method has been tested and compared to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  20. A Hybrid Power Control Concept for PV Inverters with Reduced Thermal Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This letter proposes a hybrid power control concept for grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters. The control strategy is based on either a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control or a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control depending on the instantaneous available power from the PV panels....... The essence of the proposed concept lies in the selection of an appropriate power limit for the CPG control to achieve an improved thermal performance and an increased utilization factor of PV inverters,and thus to cater for a higher penetration level of PV systems with intermittent nature. A case study...... on a single-phase PV inverter under yearly operation is presented with analyses of the thermal loading, lifetime, and annual energy yield. It has revealed the trade-off factors to select the power limit and also verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control concept....

  1. A hybrid PSO-ANFIS approach for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid, as nowadays occurs in Portugal, poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Wind power prediction plays a key role in tackling these challenges. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new hybrid approach, combining particle swarm optimization and adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system, for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal. Significant improvements regarding forecasting accuracy are attainable using the proposed approach, in comparison with the results obtained with five other approaches. (author)

  2. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  3. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE at CTU in Prague. 

  4. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  5. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  6. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  7. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  8. Developing high-power hybrid resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuo; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Nan; Li, Yue; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, we propose hybrid-pumped resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers to realize high-average-power and high-pulse-energy 2-μm laser emissions. Based on numerical simulation, laser dynamics (pulse peak power, pulse energy, pulse duration, etc.) of this kind of laser system are investigated in detail. By taking advantages of the 793 nm continuous wave pump and the 1900 nm pulsed pump, performance of the laser emission can be significantly improved, with the highest average power of 28 W, peak power of 3.5 kW, pulse energy of 281 μJ, and narrowest pulse duration of 92 ns, all of which can be further optimized through designing the cavity parameters and the pumping circumstance. Compared with the pump pulses, two times improvement in pulse energy and average power has been achieved. This hybrid resonant gain-switched system has an all-fiber configuration and high efficiency (low heat load), and can be steadily extended into the cladding pump scheme, thus paving a new way to realize high power (>100 W average power) and high pulse energy (>1 mJ) 2 μm thulium fiber lasers.

  9. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  10. Optimal Power Flow Management Control for Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/Diesel generator (GCPWD) Hybrid System with Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, Bala; S., Manoharan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a Optimal Power Flow Management control for Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/ Diesel generator (GCPWD) Hybrid System with hybrid storage system. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine (WT) and diesel generator (DG) for continuous power flow management. A diesel generator is added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. The developed Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/ Diesel ...

  11. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  12. Large-scale multi-zone optimal power dispatch using hybrid hierarchical evolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjaree Pandit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid technique based on hierarchical evolution is proposed for large, non-convex, multi-zone economic dispatch (MZED problems considering all practical constraints. Evolutionary/swarm intelligence-based optimisation techniques are reported to be effective only for small/medium-sized power systems. The proposed hybrid hierarchical evolution (HHE algorithm is specifically developed for solving large systems. The HHE integrates the exploration and exploitation capabilities of particle swarm optimisation and differential evolution in a novel manner such that the search efficiency is improved substantially. Most hybrid techniques export or exchange features or operations from one algorithm to the other, but in HHE their entire individual features are retained. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on six-test systems having different sizes and complexity levels. Non-convex MZED solution for such large and complex systems has not yet been reported.

  13. Research on the Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Electric Variable Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Xu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric variable transmission is a new electromechanical energy conversion device structure, which is especially suitable as the driving force distribution device for hybrid electric vehicles. This paper focuses on the power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicles based on an electric variable transmission, and a kind of hierarchical control ideology is proposed. The control strategy is composed of four control levels, namely analysis of force requirement, operation mode switching, force distribution and coordinate control, which are designed respectively in this paper. Then a simulation model is built based on the notion of energetic macroscopic representation, and an experimental test bench is built. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, and it can be taken as a new theory and method for the study of hybrid electric vehicle based on electric variable transmission.

  14. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  16. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  17. Power control method on VSC-HVDC in a hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Multi-infeed HVDC (MIDC) system connected with VSC-HVDC links and LCC-HVDC links is a new structure in modern power systems, which can be called hybrid multi-infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system. The paper presents the voltage stability analysis of a HMIDC system modeled from a possible future Danish power...... stability of the system with induction machine loads. The proposed power control method based on a VSC power circle makes fully use of the VSC-HVDC capacity to support system voltage during fault situations. Simulation model of the studied HMIDC system is built in PSCAD. Simulation studies under different...... system and proposes a power control method to improve the system voltage stability. Dynamic loads are considered in the studied system and represented by induction machines. The paper analyses voltage recovery process of an induction machine during a fault and gives the necessary condition of the voltage...

  18. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  19. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  20. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  1. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1 Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2 how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs and prolong the service life of batteries; (3 how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs, have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS. The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H∞ current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP. Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach.

  2. Wind-hydrogen-biomass. The hybrid power plant of ENERTRAG AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miege, Andreas; Luschtinetz, T. [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany); Wenske, M.; Gamallo, F. [ENERTRAG AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ENERTRAG Hybrid Power Plant is designed around the following components: three wind turbines of 2 MW each, an electrolyser of 500 kW, a hydrogen storage system, and two CHP units of 350 kW each, able to run with variable mixtures of biogas and hydrogen. The use of the electrolyser - acting as a deferrable load, and running under variable power - and the possibility of reconverting the hydrogen again into electricity will allow a feeding-in of the produced electricity to the grid, free of any of the changing characteristics of the wind power. Besides of that renewable electricity, the Hybrid Power Plant will also be able of delivering hydrogen as a clean fuel for the transport sector, as well as oxygen and heat. The project will show that renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, will be able, in the future, of producing back-up power without any support of fossile sources; and also of feeding electricity to the grid as a part of the base-load demand. As a first step towards this direction, the project has the goal of assuring that the energy production of the three wind turbines will be in accordance to the 24-h-forecasted wind power values. (orig.)

  3. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  4. Operation Performance Evaluation of Power Grid Enterprise Using a Hybrid BWM-TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity market reform is in progress in China, and the operational performance of power grid enterprises are vital for its healthy and sustainable development in the current electricity market environment. In this paper, a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM framework for operational performance evaluation of a power grid enterprise is proposed from the perspective of sustainability. The latest MCDM method, namely the best-worst method (BWM was employed to determine the weights of all criteria, and the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS was applied to rank the operation performance of a power grid enterprise. The evaluation index system was built based on the concept of sustainability, which includes three criteria (namely economy, society, and environment and seven sub-criteria. Four power grid enterprises were selected to perform the empirical analysis, and the results indicate that power grid enterprise A1 has the best operation performance. The proposed hybrid BWM-TOPSIS-based framework for operation performance evaluation of a power grid enterprise is effective and practical.

  5. Development of an Optimal Power Control Scheme for Wave-Offshore Hybrid Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration technology of various distribution systems for improving renewable energy utilization has been receiving attention in the power system industry. The wave-offshore hybrid generation system (HGS, which has a capacity of over 10 MW, was recently developed by adopting several voltage source converters (VSC, while a control method for adopted power conversion systems has not yet been configured in spite of the unique system characteristics of the designated structure. This paper deals with a reactive power assignment method for the developed hybrid system to improve the power transfer efficiency of the entire system. Through the development and application processes for an optimization algorithm utilizing the real-time active power profiles of each generator, a feasibility confirmation of power transmission loss reduction was implemented. To find the practical effect of the proposed control scheme, the real system information regarding the demonstration process was applied from case studies. Also, an evaluation for the loss of the improvement rate was calculated.

  6. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  7. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  8. A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub

  9. Very long pulse high-RF power test of a lower hybrid frequency antenna module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goniche, M.; Brossaud, J.; Barral, C.; Berger-By, G.; Bibet, Ph.; Poli, S.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Seki, M.; Obara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1994-03-01

    Outgassing, induced by very long RF waves injection at high power density was studied in a module, able to be used for a lower hybrid frequency antenna. Good RF properties of the module are reported, however, resonance phenomena with strong absorption of RF power (15%) was observed at high temperature (T>400 deg C). A large outgassing data base is provided by the 75 shots cumulating 27 hours of RF injection. The comparison with previous experiments (Tore Supra and TdV prototype modules) confirm the effect of baking and results are consistent. Outgassing increases exponentially with -1/T, and a desorption model with an activation energy Ed {approx} 0.35 eV fits the data up to 400 deg C. In order to design vacuum pumping system for large lower hybrid frequency antenna, outgassing rates are given for different working temperatures. (author). 11 refs., 55 figs.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic, Wind turbine and Hydraulic Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Sami, S; D. Icaza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of the energy conversion equations describing the total power generated by a hybrid system of solar photovoltaic, wind turbine and hydraulic turbine. To validate this simulation model, the aforementioned equations were coded with MATLAB V13.2, compared to experimental data. The model is intended to be used as an optimization and design tool. A block diagram approach was used during the simulation with MATLAB. The model predicted results compared...

  11. Recent Work in Hybrid Radiation Transport Methods with Applications to Commercial Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Joel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This talk will begin with an overview of hybrid radiation transport methods followed by a discussion of the author’s work to advance current capabilities. The talk will then describe applications for these methods in commercial nuclear power reactor analyses and techniques for experimental validation. When discussing these analytical and experimental activities, the importance of technical standards such as those created and maintained by ASTM International will be demonstrated.

  12. Hybrid Invariance and Stability of a Feedback Linearizing Controller for Powered Prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Anne E.; Gregg, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of powered lower-limb prostheses has the potential to significantly improve amputees’ quality of life. By applying advanced control schemes, such as hybrid zero dynamics (HZD), to prostheses, more intelligent prostheses could be designed. Originally developed to control bipedal robots, HZD-based control specifies the motion of the actuated degrees of freedom using output functions to be zeroed, and the required torques are calculated using feedback linearization. Previous work...

  13. Control of a hybrid compensator in a power network by an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shaw

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the elimination of distortion in electrical power networks has led to the development of various compensator topologies. The increasing cost of electrical energy necessitates the cost-effective operation of any of these topologies. This paper considers the development of an artificial neural network based controller, trained by means of the backpropagation method, that ensures the cost-effective operation of the hybrid compensator consisting of various converters and filters.

  14. Optimization of hybrid PV/wind power system for remote telecom station

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S Subodh; Shrestha, JN; Neto, FJ; Ferreira, JAF; Adhikari, M

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns has given awareness on generation of renewable energy resources. Among the various renewable resources, hybrid solar and wind energy seems to be promising solutions to provide reliable power supply with improved system efficiency and reduced storage requirements for stand-alone applications. This paper presents a feasibility assessment and optimum size of photovoltaic (PV) array, wind turbine and battery bank for a standa...

  15. Cost optimization of distributed power generation in southern Norway, with focus on renewable hybrid system configurations.

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the levelized cost of energy for different grid-connected electrical system configurations, with focus on renewable hybrid configurations, situated in Ås, Norway. The analysis has been conducted with hourly data on the local energy resource basis, load demand from an average detached household, and grid power prices on both extraction and injection to the grid. Renewable technologies that have been considered are solar PV and wind turbine. The analysis has been performed ...

  16. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  17. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  18. Hybrid nanogenerators for low frequency vibration energy harvesting and self-powered wireless locating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Hulin; Wang, Jie; Xie, Yuhang; Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Jin, Long; Yan, Zhuocheng; Huang, Long; Pan, Taisong; Yang, Weiqing; Lin, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid energy harvesters based on different physical effects is fascinating, but a rational design for multiple energy harvesting is challenging. In this work, a spring-magnet oscillator-based triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (EMG) with a solar cell cap is proposed. A power was produced by a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an EMG independently or simultaneously by using a shared spring-magnet oscillator. The oscillator configuration enables versatile energy harvesting with the excellent size scalability and self-packaged structure which can perform well at low frequency ranging from 3.5 to 5 Hz. The solar cell cap mounted above the oscillator can harvest solar energy. Under vibrations at the frequency of 4 Hz, the TENG and the EMG produced maximum output power of 5.46 nW cm‑3 and 378.79 μW cm‑3, respectively. The generated electricity by the hybrid nanogenerator can be stored in a capacitor or Li-ion battery, which is capable of powering a wireless locator for real-time locating data reporting to a personal cell phone. The light-weight and handy hybrid nanogenerator can directly light a caution light or play as a portable flashlight by shaking hands at night.

  19. OPTIMAL WIND/PV/BIOMASS HYBRID POWER SYSTEM FOR FOREST WATCHTOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Dursun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design specifications of an optimal wind/PV/biomass hybrid power system to meet the energy demand of a forest watchtower in the Longoz Forests, located in the Yıldız Mountains region of forest-rich city of Kırklareli. Forest waste is used as a source of biomass. Hourly wind and solar data on Kırklareli for the years 2012-2014 is taken from General Directorate of Renewable Energy. Having thus collected the wind, solar, and biomass data, the HOMER software is used to model the hybrid power generation system. Taking into account the cost of the energy and total net present cost, the results of the study are then used to determine the optimal wind turbines, solar panels, biomass generators, converters, and the number of batteries. The optimal hybrid power generation system needed to meet the energy demand is then configured, and a precision analysis is done using wind speed and biomass price ($/t.

  20. Hybrid Active Filter with Variable Conductance for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Tzung-Lin; Wang, Yen-Ching; Li, Jian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    -tuned passive filter and an active filter in series connection, both dc voltage and kVA rating of the active filter are dramatically decreased compared with the pure shunt active filter. In real application, this feature is very attractive since the active power filter with fully power electronics is very...... expensive. A reasonable trade-off between filtering performances and cost is to use the hybrid active filter. Design consideration are presented and experimental results are provided to validate effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper discusses filtering performances on line impedance...

  1. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...

  2. A Power Supply System with ZVS and Current-Doubler Features for Hybrid Renewable Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Chau Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power supply system for hybrid renewable energy conversion is proposed, which can process PV (photovoltaic power and wind-turbine energy simultaneously for step-down voltage and high current applications. It is a dual-input converter and mainly contains a PV energy source, a wind turbine energy source, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS forward converter, and a current-doubler rectifier. The proposed power supply system has the following advantages: (1 PV-arrays and wind-energy sources can alternatively deliver power to the load during climate or season alteration; (2 maximum power point tracking (MPPT can be accomplished for both different kinds of renewable-energy sources; (3 ZVS and synchronous rectification techniques for the active switches of the forward converter are embedded so as to reduce switching and conducting losses; and (4 electricity isolation is naturally obtained. To achieve an optimally dynamic response and to increase control flexibility, a digital signal processor (DSP is investigated and presented to implement MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. Finally, a 240 W prototype power supply system with ZVS and current-doubler features to deal with PV power and wind energy is built and implemented. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed power supply system.

  3. Univariate Time Series Prediction of Solar Power Using a Hybrid Wavelet-ARMA-NARX Prediction Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Wang, Yubo; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Pota, Hemanshu; Gadh, Rajit

    2016-05-02

    This paper proposes a new hybrid method for super short-term solar power prediction. Solar output power usually has a complex, nonstationary, and nonlinear characteristic due to intermittent and time varying behavior of solar radiance. In addition, solar power dynamics is fast and is inertia less. An accurate super short-time prediction is required to compensate for the fluctuations and reduce the impact of solar power penetration on the power system. The objective is to predict one step-ahead solar power generation based only on historical solar power time series data. The proposed method incorporates discrete wavelet transform (DWT), Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), while the RNN architecture is based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive models with eXogenous inputs (NARX). The wavelet transform is utilized to decompose the solar power time series into a set of richer-behaved forming series for prediction. ARMA model is employed as a linear predictor while NARX is used as a nonlinear pattern recognition tool to estimate and compensate the error of wavelet-ARMA prediction. The proposed method is applied to the data captured from UCLA solar PV panels and the results are compared with some of the common and most recent solar power prediction methods. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and show a considerable improvement in the prediction precision.

  4. Investigation on characteristics and application of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin

    This thesis develops an overall methodology for investigating the characteristics and application of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems using both technical methodology and field experiment. The field experiment investigates the operating performances and characteristics of a hybrid solar-wind system and helps to validate the field application feasibility of the models developed in this thesis. By applying and integrating new technologies and new concepts, the Hybrid Solar-Wind System Optimization (HSWSO) methodology is developed according to the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) technique and the new concept of Levelised Cost of Energy (LCE). The HSWSO model is utilized to carry out system evaluations and to achieve optimal system configurations with two case studies. By applying the HSWSO model, the hybrid system can be sized technically and economically according to the system reliability requirements. The weighting relationships among three sizing parameters (the capacity of photovoltaic (PV) system, the rated power of wind system, and the capacity of battery bank) are investigated accordingly. The orientations of PV modules (gamma, beta) and the hub heights of wind tower are also studied as two factors influencing the sizing simulation results. A Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for renewable energy applications is proposed. By applying the new methodologies developed in this thesis, a local TMY is derived for solar-wind applications (utilized as the weather data input in the HSWSO model) by processing local long-term weather data. As one part of the integrated HSWSO model, the simulation model for hybrid solar-wind system is developed. System simulation mainly employs modeling of PV modules, modeling of wind turbine, and modeling of battery bank. Modeling PV modules includes two parts: modeling the maximum power output of PV modules, which is developed from the model describing the I--V characteristics of PV modules and validated by

  5. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  6. A Network Selection Algorithm Considering Power Consumption in Hybrid Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Inwhee; Kim, Won-Tae; Hong, Seokjoon

    In this paper, we propose a novel network selection algorithm considering power consumption in hybrid wireless networks for vertical handover. CDMA, WiBro, WLAN networks are candidate networks for this selection algorithm. This algorithm is composed of the power consumption prediction algorithm and the final network selection algorithm. The power consumption prediction algorithm estimates the expected lifetime of the mobile station based on the current battery level, traffic class and power consumption for each network interface card of the mobile station. If the expected lifetime of the mobile station in a certain network is not long enough compared the handover delay, this particular network will be removed from the candidate network list, thereby preventing unnecessary handovers in the preprocessing procedure. On the other hand, the final network selection algorithm consists of AHP (Analytic Hierarchical Process) and GRA (Grey Relational Analysis). The global factors of the network selection structure are QoS, cost and lifetime. If user preference is lifetime, our selection algorithm selects the network that offers longest service duration due to low power consumption. Also, we conduct some simulations using the OPNET simulation tool. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides longer lifetime in the hybrid wireless network environment.

  7. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  8. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). Thediscussed approach is applied in a case study on the power market in western Denmark. The optimum ESs are selected based on the highest net present value (NPV) out of many different combinations of ESs in terms of power rating and technologies. Due to its man...

  9. Optimizing a hybrid energy storage system for a virtual power plant for improved wind power generation. A case study for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej; Diosi, Robert; Stroe, Daniel; Teodorescu, Remus [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Energy Technology

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). The discussed approach is applied in a case study on the power market in western Denmark. The optimum ESs are selected based on the highest net present value (NPV) out of many different combinations of ESs in terms of power rating and technologies. Due to its many possible combinations a simulation model has been built which uses historical market data and also the latest available price data for ESs.

  10. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because of the controll......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...

  11. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  12. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  13. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  14. Strategy Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Smoothing Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing contribution of wind power plants, the reliability and security of modern power systems have become a huge challenge due to the uncertainty and intermittency of wind energy sources. In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS consisting of battery and supercapacitor is built to smooth the power fluctuations of wind power. A power allocation strategy is proposed to give full play to the respective advantages of the two energy storage components. In the proposed strategy, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of wind power fluctuations are absorbed by battery groups and supercapacitor groups, respectively. By inhibiting the low-frequency components of supercapacitor current, the times of charging-discharging of battery groups can be significantly reduced. A DC/AC converter is applied to achieve the power exchange between the HESS and the grid. Adjustment rules for regulating state-of-charge (SOC of energy storage elements are designed to avoid overcharge and deep discharge considering the safety and the high efficiency of the energy storage elements. Experimental results on the test platform verify the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation strategy in DC/AC converter and battery SOC adjustment rules for regulating SOC levels.

  15. Optimal sizing of battery storage for stand-alone hybrid (photo-voltaic + diesel) power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaahid, S. M.; Elhadidy, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    An important element of hybrid photo- voltaic(PV) + diesel sytem is battery storage. Size of battery storage plays a role in optimum operation of the hybrid system. Emphasis needs to be placed on this issue. In this perspective, hourly solar radiation data, for the period 1986 93 recorded at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to investigate the optimum size of battery storage capacity for hybrid (PV + diesel) power systems. Various sizing configurations have been simulated. The monthly average daily values of solar global radiation range from 3.61 to 7.96kWh/m2. As a case study, hybrid systems considered in the present analysis consist of 225m2 PV array area (panels/modules) supplemented with battery storage unit and diesel backup generators (to meet the load requirements of a typical residential building with annual electrical energy demand of 35,200kWh). The monthly average energy generated from the aforementioned hybrid system for different scenarios has been presented. More importantly, the study explores the influence of variation of battery storage capacity on hybrid power generation. The results exhibit a trade-off between size of the storage capacity and diesel power to be generated to cope with annual load distribution. Concurrently, the energy to be generated from the diesel generator and the number of operational hours of the diesel system to meet the load demand have been also addressed.The study shows that for optimum operation of diesel system, storage capacity equivalent to 12 18h of maximum monthly average hourly demand need to be used. It has been found that in the absence of battery bank, ˜58% of the load needs to be provided by the diesel system. However, use of 12h of battery storage (autonomy) reduces diesel energy generation by ˜49% and the number of hours of operation of the diesel system get reduced by about ˜82%. The findings of this study can be employed as a tool for sizing of battery storage for PV/diesel systems for other

  16. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  17. A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Power Reduction in Wireless Sensors for IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, Chacko John; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lian, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel data compression and transmission scheme for power reduction in Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensors. In the proposed scheme, data is compressed with both lossy and lossless techniques, so as to enable hybrid transmission mode, support adaptive data rate selection and save power in wireless transmission. Applying the method to electrocardiogram (ECG), the data is first compressed using a lossy compression technique with a high compression ratio (CR). The residual error between the original data and the decompressed lossy data is preserved using entropy coding, enabling a lossless restoration of the original data when required. Average CR of 2.1 × and 7.8 × were achieved for lossless and lossy compression respectively with MIT/BIH database. The power reduction is demonstrated using a Bluetooth transceiver and is found to be reduced to 18% for lossy and 53% for lossless transmission respectively. Options for hybrid transmission mode, adaptive rate selection and system level power reduction make the proposed scheme attractive for IoT wireless sensors in healthcare applications.

  18. Admixture mapping of quantitative traits in Populus hybrid zones: power and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtke, D; González-Martínez, S C; Macaya-Sanz, D; Lexer, C

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering the genetic architecture of species differences is of central importance for understanding the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. Admixture mapping can be used to identify the number and effect sizes of genes that contribute to the divergence of ecologically important traits, even in taxa that are not amenable to laboratory crosses because of their long generation time or other limitations. Here, we apply admixture mapping to naturally occurring hybrids between two ecologically divergent Populus species. We map quantitative trait loci for eight leaf morphological traits using 77 mapped microsatellite markers from all 19 chromosomes of Populus. We apply multivariate linear regression analysis allowing the modeling of additive and non-additive gene action and identify several candidate genomic regions associated with leaf morphology using an information-theoretic approach. We perform simulation studies to assess the power and limitations of admixture mapping of quantitative traits in natural hybrid populations for a variety of genetic architectures and modes of gene action. Our results indicate that (1) admixture mapping has considerable power to identify the genetic architecture of species differences if sample sizes and marker densities are sufficiently high, (2) modeling of non-additive gene action can help to elucidate the discrepancy between genotype and phenotype sometimes seen in interspecific hybrids, and (3) the genetic architecture of leaf morphological traits in the studied Populus species involves complementary and overdominant gene action, providing the basis for rapid adaptation of these ecologically important forest trees. PMID:23860234

  19. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-03-14

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg(-1)), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space.

  20. Optimal configuration assessments of hybrid renewable power supply for rural healthcare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanre Olatomiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed optimal configurations of hybrid renewable system for rural health clinic (RHC application in three grid-unconnected rural villages in Nigeria. The RHC consist of an emergency room, consulting room, nurse/injection room, male ward, female ward, a delivery room and a laboratory with average total daily energy consumption of 15.5 kWh and 2.75 kW peak demand. The assessment of configurations that optimally meet the daily load demand with zero loss of power supply probability (LPSP was carried out using HOMER software, by considering three energy resources; photovoltaic (PV, wind and diesel with battery energy storage. The result obtained revealed hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system as the most cost-effective configuration for powering rural health clinic in both Maiduguri and Enugu sites, while that of Iseyin site was found to be hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. In all the sites, the selected optimal configuration is far better than the conventional diesel stand-alone system in terms of cost and emission reduction.

  1. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  2. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg-1), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space.

  3. Mode transition coordinated control for a compound power-split hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Tong; Li, Mengna

    2017-03-01

    With a compound power-split transmission directly connected to the engine in hybrid cars, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in noticeable jerks when the car is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. This study designed a mode transition coordinated control strategy, and verified that strategy's effectiveness with both simulations and experiments. Firstly, the mode transition process was analyzed, and ride comfort issues during the mode transition process were demonstrated. Secondly, engine ripple torque was modeled using the measured cylinder pumping pressure when the engine was not in operation. The complete dynamic plant model of the power-split hybrid car was deduced, and its effectiveness was validated by a comparison of experimental and simulation results. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired engine torque, motor torque, and the moment of fuel injection. Active damping control with two degrees of freedom, based on reference output shaft speed estimation, was designed to mitigate driveline speed oscillations. Carrier torque estimation based on transmission kinematics and dynamics was used to suppress torque disturbance during engine cranking. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy effectively suppressed vehicle jerks and improved ride comfort during mode transition.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  5. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  6. Third generation hybrid drive. Transmission-based integration of power electronics; Dritte Generation Hybridantrieb. Getriebenahe Integration der Leistungselektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, Wolfgang [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (DE). Hybridantriebe (F und E); Lutz, Steffen [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany); Hensler, Alexander [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany); Munding, Andreas [Liebherr Elektronik GmbH, Lindau (Germany); Thoben, Markus [Infineon Technologies AG, Warstein (Germany); Zeidler, Dietmar [Kemet Electronics GmbH, Landsberg am Lech (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The power electronics components in today's hybrid vehicles are situated at different places in the vehicle - till now far away from harsh and hot surroundings. In order to develop an integrated solution near the transmission, ZF and BMW launched the research project 'Electric components for active power transmissions' (EfA). On the basis of an eight-speed full hybrid transmission and together with Infineon, Kemet, Liebherr, and the University of Technology of Chemnitz, they are developing a power electronics unit, which facilitates doubling the power density while increasing the operating temperature. The project EfA will be concluded in June 2011. (orig.)

  7. Selecting Green Supplier of Thermal Power Equipment by Using a Hybrid MCDM Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing worldwide awareness of environmental protection and sustainable development, green purchasing has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental and developmental sustainability. Thermal power is the main power generation form in China, and the green supplier selection is essential to the smooth and sustainable construction of thermal power plants. Therefore, selecting the proper green supplier of thermal power equipment is very important to the company’s sustainable development and the sustainability of China’s electric power industry. In this paper, a hybrid fuzzy multi-attribute decision making approach (fuzzy entropy-TOPSIS is proposed for selecting the best green supplier. The fuzzy set theory is applied to translate the linguistic preferences into triangular fuzzy numbers. The subjective criteria weights are determined by using decision makers’ superiority linguistic ratings and the objective ones are determined by combining the superiority linguistic ratings and fuzzy-entropy weighting method. The fuzzy TOPSIS is employed to generate an overall performance score for each green supplier. An empirical green supplier selection is conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed fuzzy entropy-TOPSIS approach. This proposed fuzzy entropy-TOPSIS approach can select the proper green supplier of thermal power equipment, which contributes to promoting the company’s sustainable development and the sustainability of China’s electric power industry to some extent.

  8. Optimization of a stand-alone Solar PV-Wind-DG Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation at Sagar Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. C.; Majumder, A.; Chakraborty, N.

    2010-10-01

    An estimation of a stand-alone solar PV and wind hybrid system for distributed power generation has been made based on the resources available at Sagar island, a remote area distant to grid operation. Optimization and sensitivity analysis has been made to evaluate the feasibility and size of the power generation unit. A comparison of the different modes of hybrid system has been studied. It has been estimated that Solar PV-Wind-DG hybrid system provides lesser per unit electricity cost. Capital investment is observed to be lesser when the system run with Wind-DG compared to Solar PV-DG.

  9. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  10. Solar thermal power & gas turbine hybrid design with molten salt storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Fernando; Wiesenberg, Ralf; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Taking into consideration the need to decelerate the global climatic change, power generation has to shift from burning fossil fuel to renewable energy source in short medium period of time. In this work, we are presenting a new model of a solar-gas natural hybrid power cycle with the main aim of decoupling the solar generation system from the gas turbine system. The objective is to have high solar power contribution compared to conventional ISCC plants [2], producing firm and dispatchable electricity at the same time. The decoupling is motivated by the low solar contribution reached by the ISCC, which is technically limited to maximum of 15%, [4]. In our case, we have implemented a solar tower with molten salts as working fluid. Central receiver systems get higher performance than others systems, like parabolic trough technology [1], due to the higher temperature achieved in the heat transferred fluid HTF, close to 560°C.

  11. Solution of wind integrated thermal generation system for environmental optimal power flow using hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.

  12. Shunt hybrid active power filter under nonideal voltage based on fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Papan; Mekhilef, Saad

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a synchronous reference frame (SRF) method based on a modified phase lock loop (PLL) circuit is developed for a three-phase four-wire shunt hybrid active power filter (APF). Its performance is analysed under unbalanced grid conditions. The dominant lower order harmonics as well as reactive power can be compensated by the passive elements, whereas the active part mitigates the remaining distortions and improves the power quality. As different control methods show contradictory performance, fuzzy logic controller is considered here for DC-link voltage regulation of the inverter. Extensive simulations of the proposed technique are carried out in a MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. A laboratory prototype has been built on dSPACE1104 platform to verify the feasibility of the suggested SHAPF controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  13. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12, Reed-Muller code (16, 11, Hamming code (7, 4 and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conventional and Modified Selective mapping techniques. The simulation results are validated through statistical properties, for proposed technique’s autocorrelation value is maximum shows reduction in PAPR. The symbol preference is the key idea to reduce PAPR based on Hamming distance. The simulation results are discussed in detail, in this article.

  14. A novel hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer with multi verse optimizer for global numerical optimization and Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Jangir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent trend of research is to hybridize two and more algorithms to obtain superior solution in the field of optimization problems. In this context, a new technique hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-Multi verse Optimizer (MVO is exercised on some unconstraint benchmark test functions and the most common problem of the modern power system named Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch (ORPD is optimized using the novel hybrid meta-heuristic optimization algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization-Multi Verse Optimizer (HPSO-MVO method. Hybrid PSO-MVO is combination of PSO used for exploitation phase and MVO for exploration phase in uncertain environment. Position and Speed of particle is modernised according to location of universes in each iteration. The hybrid PSO-MVO method has a fast convergence rate due to use of roulette wheel selection method. For the ORPD solution, standard IEEE-30 bus test system is used. The hybrid PSO-MVO method is implemented to solve the proposed problem. The problems considered in the ORPD are fuel cost reduction, Voltage profile improvement, Voltage stability enhancement, Active power loss minimization and Reactive power loss minimization. The results obtained with hybrid PSO-MVO method is compared with other techniques such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Multi Verse Optimizer (MVO. Analysis of competitive results obtained from HPSO-MVO validates its effectiveness compare to standard PSO and MVO algorithm.

  15. Performance Analysis of Isolated Hybrid Power Plant Model with Dynamic Load Conditions – Morning, Noon and Afternoon Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawati Rina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel Generator with Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions for supply electric demand to isolated area. The energy sources that can be used for hybrid system are such as photovoltaic, wind turbine, and biomass or biogas, because these sources are almost available in every isolated area. This research used a model of hybrid system from diesel generator and 1.28 kWp photovoltaic power plant. The reliability and some of power quality of this system tested by 1300VA house hold daily load characteristic effectively 24 hour. Power quality and some electricity parameters during transition mode for each resource will be analyzed. Furthermore the power quality analyze will be conducted and evaluated base on Electrical Engineers’ Association (EEA.

  16. Improvement of Transient Stability in a Hybrid Power Multi-System Using a Designed NIDC (Novel Intelligent Damping Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chia Ou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to apply a novel intelligent damping controller (NIDC for the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM to reduce the power fluctuations, voltage support and damping in a hybrid power multi-system. In this paper, we discuss the integration of an offshore wind farm (OWF and a seashore wave power farm (SWPF via a high-voltage, alternating current (HVAC electric power transmission line that connects the STATCOM and the 12-bus hybrid power multi-system. The hybrid multi-system consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and a micro-turbine generation (MTG. The proposed NIDC consists of a designed proportional–integral–derivative (PID linear controller, an adaptive critic network and a proposed functional link-based novel recurrent fuzzy neural network (FLNRFNN. Test results show that the proposed controller can achieve better damping characteristics and effectively stabilize the network under unstable conditions.

  17. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  18. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  19. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  20. Hybrid silicon mode-locked laser with improved RF power by impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossoun, Bassem; Derickson, Dennis; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Bowers, John

    2015-02-01

    We design and discuss an impedance matching solution for a hybrid silicon mode-locked laser diode (MLLD) to improve peak optical power coming from the device. In order to develop an impedance matching solution, a thorough measurement and analysis of the MLLD as a function of bias on each of the laser segments was carried out. A passive component impedance matching network was designed at the operating frequency of 20 GHz to optimize RF power delivery to the laser. The hybrid silicon laser was packaged together in a module including the impedance matching circuit. The impedance matching design resulted in a 6 dB (electrical) improvement in the detected modulation spectrum power, as well as approximately a 10 dB phase noise improvement, from the MLLD. Also, looking ahead to possible future work, we discuss a Step Recovery Diode (SRD) driven impulse generator, which wave-shapes the RF drive to achieve efficient injection. This novel technique addresses the time varying impedance of the absorber as the optical pulse passes through it, to provide optimum optical pulse shaping.

  1. An Optimal Power and Energy Management by Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serpi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimal power and energy management (OPEM for centralized hybrid energy storage systems (HESS in microgrids is presented in this paper. The proposed OPEM aims at providing multiple grid services by suitably exploiting the different power/energy features of electrochemical batteries (B and supercapacitors (S. The first part of the paper focuses on the design and analysis of the proposed OPEM, by highlighting the advantages of employing hand-designed solutions based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle rather than resorting to pre-defined optimization tools. Particularly, the B power profile is synthesized optimally over a given time horizon in order to provide both peak shaving and reduced grid energy buffering, while S is employed in order to compensate for short-term forecasting errors and to prevent B from handling sudden and high-frequency power fluctuations. Both the B and S power profiles are computed in real-time in order to benefit from more accurate forecasting, as well as to support each other. Then, the effectiveness of the proposed OPEM is tested through numerical simulations, which have been carried out based on real data from the German island of Borkum. Particularly, an extensive and detailed performance analysis is performed by comparing OPEM with a frequency-based management strategy (FBM in order to highlight the superior performance achievable by the proposed OPEM in terms of both power and energy management and HESS exploitation.

  2. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  3. Ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate an ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG, which consists of a metal strip, a silicon core, and a silicon oxide (SiO2 insulator layer between them. When light injected to an HPWG is absorbed by the metal strip, the temperature increases and the resistance of the metal strip changes accordingly due to the photothermal and thermal resistance effects of the metal. Therefore, the optical power variation can be monitored by measuring the resistance of the metal strip on the HPWG. To obtain the electrical signal for the resistance measurement conveniently, a Wheatstone bridge circuit is monolithically integrated with the HPWG on the same chip. As the HPWG has nanoscale light confinement, the present power monitor is as short as ~3 μm, which is the smallest photothermal power monitor reported until now. The compactness helps to improve the thermal efficiency and the response speed. For the present power monitor fabricated with simple fabrication processes, the measured responsivity is as high as about 17.7 mV/mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and the power dynamic range is as large as 35 dB.

  4. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  5. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... technologies (e.g., smart metering) and policy design....... metering). Finally, we shed light on the performance metrics of the energy system: reliability, economy, and efficiency. We illustrate our approach by using data from a city in Brazil and analyze the behavior of system’s key parameters. We close by suggesting possible implications for managing new...

  6. Optimization of Power Train and Control Strategy of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Maximum Energy Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osornio-Correa C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to increase fuel economy in Hybrid Electric Vehicles derived from physical characteristics of the vehicle, the powertrain and the control strategy is presented. A heuristic Control Map is created to analyze the restrictions and benefits of using either of the onboard power plants under different driving conditions. The control strategy follows the Control Map with a logic that responds to the Battery State of Charge. Finally, a case study demonstrates the increase in fuel economy and charge sustainability; here, the variables studied are submitted to a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Optimization.

  7. Design, control and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for small electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra...

  8. Techno-economical study of hybrid power system for a remote village in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (Sonelgaz), Bechar, 05 rue Mokadem Ahmed, Bechar (08000) (Algeria); Boudghene Stambouli, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran (Algeria); Draoui, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bechar (Algeria); Himri, S. [Department of Fundamental Sciences, University of Bechar (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trend of development is positive. One of the main strategic priorities of NEAL (New Energy Algeria), which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of 10-12% renewable energy sources in primary energy supply by 2010.This article presents techno-economic assessment for off-grid hybrid generation systems of a site in south western Algeria. The HOMER model is used to evaluate the energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reduction for this study. In the present scenario, for wind speed less than 5.0 m/s the existing diesel power plant is the only feasible solution over the range of fuel prices used in the simulation. The wind diesel hybrid system becomes feasible at a wind speed of 5.48 m/s or more and a fuel price of 0.162$/L or more. If the carbon tax is taken into consideration and subsidy is abolished, then it is expected that the hybrid system will become feasible. The maximum annual capacity shortage did not have any effect on the cost of energy, which may be accounted for by larger sizes of wind machines and diesel generators. (author)

  9. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  10. Power scaling of a hybrid microstructured Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Cody; Pulford, Benjamin; Ward, Benjamin; Dajani, Iyad; Ehrenreich, Thomas; Anderson, Brian; Kieu, Khanh; Sanchez, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid microstructured fibers, utilizing both air holes and high index cladding structures, provide important advantages over conventional fiber including robust fundamental mode operation with large core diameters (>30μm) and spectral filtering (i.e. amplified spontaneous emission and Raman suppression). This work investigates the capabilities of a hybrid fiber designed to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and modal instability (MI) by characterizing these effects in a counter-pumped amplifier configuration as well as interrogating SBS using a pump-probe Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) diagnostic suite. The fiber has a 35 μm annularly gain tailored core, the center doped with Yb and the second annulus comprised of un-doped fused silica, designed to optimize gain in the fundamental mode while limiting gain to higher order modes. A narrow-linewidth seed was amplified to an MI-limited 820 W, with near-diffraction-limited beam quality, an effective linewidth 1 GHz, and a pump conversion efficiency of 78%. Via a BGS pump-probe measurement system a high resolution spectra and corresponding gain coefficient were obtained. The primary gain peak, corresponding to the Yb doped region of the core, occurred at 15.9 GHz and had a gain coefficient of 1.92×10-11 m/W. A much weaker BGS response, due to the pure silica annulus, occurred at 16.3 GHz. This result demonstrates the feasibility of power scaling hybrid microstructured fiber amplifiers

  11. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  12. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this paper the first experimental results of the testing of the power train are presented, driving a drive cycle designed especially for this automated guided vehicle. Experimental results are compared to r...

  13. Demand Side Management for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Systems Based on Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederich Kupzog

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of Distributed Generation (DG, stand-alone Hybrid Power Systems (HPS are a suitable solution to provide energy to isolated facilities where the connection to a centralized grid is not affordable. The logical evolution of such systems involves the optimization of power resources and related control strategies, but also enhancements concerning the management of energy loads. This paper introduces Demand Side Management (DSM strategies specially designed for HPS. They are applied on a real and patented HPS that consists of PV panels, a diesel generator, an inverter and a set of batteries. DSM strategies are built up on a framework of distributed endpointdevices connected to a central control application where loads are identified according to their behavior. System network components, load definitions, the control application and DSM strategies are depicted. Finally, simulations show illustrative savings achieved by the application of some of the proposed strategies.

  14. Optimal Sizing and Operation of Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    for autonomous applications. Based on the island’s wind and solar potential, wind and solar systems appear as the most competitive solution while battery technologies provide the most feasible option for storing the excess energy. In the next, simulation models are developed in HOMER software. Various ratings....... Afterwards, steady-state analysis of the network is carried out considering typical cases of seasonal demand. The static model is developed in DIgSILENT PowerFactory software and the system’s behavior is investigated. In the following, the optimal placement for the wind, solar and storage units is discussed....... The main criterion for this evaluation is the improvement of steady-state voltage magnitude and minimization of power losses. The final part analyzes the hybrid system’s stability. An aggregated dynamic model is constructed based on built-in models from DIgSILENT library. The results highlight the battery...

  15. A hybrid firefly algorithm and pattern search technique for SSSC based power oscillation damping controller design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-FAPS technique is proposed for a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC-based power oscillation damping controller design. The proposed h-FAPS technique takes the advantage of global search capability of FA and local search facility of PS. In order to tackle the drawback of using the remote signal that may impact reliability of the controller, a modified signal equivalent to the remote speed deviation signal is constructed from the local measurements. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated in SMIB and multi-machine power system subjected to various transient disturbances. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with some recently published approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some recently reported approaches.

  16. A Direct Power Conversion Topology for Grid Integration of Hybrid AC/DC Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    . The reverse-boost mode is more relevant here since most renewable sources and energy storages have lower voltages than the grid. The eventual VMC developed uses an alternative nine-switch converter, rather than usual six-switch voltage-source converter, for providing six input terminals in total. One three......This paper proposes a multiple-input versatile matrix converter (VMC) for integrating hybrid ac/dc energy resources and storages to the power grid. The VMC is developed from the traditional indirect matrix converter but operates in the reverse-boost mode rather than in the forward-buck mode......-phase ac source and three dc sources, or other source combinations, can therefore be connected to the VMC. Powers from these sources are channeled to the three-phase utility grid through the VMC's current-source inverter. Their proper dispatches are guaranteed by the proposed control and modulation schemes...

  17. Dynamic Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Power Plant by Stochastic Hybrid Fault Tree Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Chiacchio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of renewable energies to the reduction of the impact of fossil fuels sources and especially energy supply in remote areas has occupied a role more and more important during last decades. The estimation of renewable power plants performances by means of deterministic models is usually limited by the innate variability of the energy resources. The accuracy of energy production forecasting results may be inadequate. An accurate feasibility analysis requires taking into account the randomness of the primary resource operations and the effect of component failures in the energy production process. This paper treats a novel approach to the estimation of energy production in a real photovoltaic power plant by means of dynamic reliability analysis based on Stochastic Hybrid Fault Tree Automaton (SHyFTA. The comparison between real data, deterministic model and SHyFTA model confirm how the latter better estimate energy production than deterministic model.

  18. Characterization and quantification of uncertainty in solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.

    Distributed power generation is one of the most powerful applications of fuel cell technology. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level, but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine the fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. The power plant in focus is the high pressure (HP)-low pressure (LP) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)/steam turbine (ST)/gas turbine (GT) configuration which is a part of the vision-21 program, which is a new approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fossil Energy has begun, for developing 21st century energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. The overall goal is to effectively eliminate—at competitive costs—environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels, for producing electricity and transportation fuels. In this design, coal is gasified in an entrained bed gasifier and the syn-gas produced is cleaned in a transport bed desulfurizer and passed over to cascaded SOFC modules (at two pressure levels). This module is integrated with a reheat GT cycle. The heat of the exhaust from the GT cycle is used to convert water to steam, which is eventually used in a steam bottoming cycle. Since this hybrid technology is new and futuristic, the system level models used for predicting the fuel cells' performance and for other modules like the desulfurizer have significant uncertainties in them. Also, the performance curves of the SOFC would differ depending on the materials used for the anode, cathode and electrolyte. The accurate characterization and quantification of these uncertainties is crucial for the validity of the model predictions and hence is the main focus of this paper. This work performs a two-level uncertainty analysis of the fuel cell module: uncertainty associated with (1) model and (2) material used for anode, cathode and

  19. On- and off-grid operation of hybrid renewable power plants: When are the economics favorable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Santana, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid renewable energy conversion systems offer a good alternative to conventional systems in locations where the extension of the electrical grid is difficult or not economical or where the cost of electricity is high. However, stand-alone operation implies net energy output restrictions (limited to exclusively serve the energy demand of a region), capacity oversizing and large storage facilities. In interconnected areas, on the other hand, the operational restrictions of the power stations change significantly and the efficiencies and costs of renewable technologies become more favorable. In this paper, the operation of three main renewable technologies (CSP, PV and wind) is studied assuming both hybrid and individual operation for both autonomous and inter-connected operation. The case study used is a Mediterranean island of ca. 3,000 inhabitants. Each system is optimized to fully cover the energy demand of the community. In addition, in the on-grid operation cases, it is required that the annual energy generated from the renewable sources is net positive (i.e., the island generates at least as much energy as it uses). It is found that when connected to the grid, hybridization of more than one technology is not required to satisfy the energy demand, as expected. Each of the renewable technologies investigated can satisfy the annual energy demand individually, without significant complications. In addition, the cost of electricity generated with the three studied technologies drops significantly for on-grid applications, when compared to off-grid operation. However, when compared to business-as-usual scenarios in both the on- and off-grid cases, both investigated hybrid and single-technology renewable scenarios are found to be economically viable. A sensitivity analysis reveals the limits of the acceptable costs that make the technologies favorable when compared to conventional alternatives.

  20. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  1. Swarm Intelligence-Based Hybrid Models for Short-Term Power Load Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence (SI is widely and successfully applied in the engineering field to solve practical optimization problems because various hybrid models, which are based on the SI algorithm and statistical models, are developed to further improve the predictive abilities. In this paper, hybrid intelligent forecasting models based on the cuckoo search (CS as well as the singular spectrum analysis (SSA, time series, and machine learning methods are proposed to conduct short-term power load prediction. The forecasting performance of the proposed models is augmented by a rolling multistep strategy over the prediction horizon. The test results are representative of the out-performance of the SSA and CS in tuning the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA and support vector regression (SVR in improving load forecasting, which indicates that both the SSA-based data denoising and SI-based intelligent optimization strategy can effectively improve the model’s predictive performance. Additionally, the proposed CS-SSA-SARIMA and CS-SSA-SVR models provide very impressive forecasting results, demonstrating their strong robustness and universal forecasting capacities in terms of short-term power load prediction 24 hours in advance.

  2. Dynamic Analysis and Design Optimization of Series Hydraulic Hybrid System through Power Bond Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of natural gas and crude oil resources has been declining over the years. In automobile sector, the consumption of crude oil is 63% of total crude oil production in the world. Hence, automobile industries are placing more emphasis on energy efficient hydraulic hybrid systems, which can replace their conventional transmission systems. Series hydraulic hybrid system (SHHS is a multidomain mechatronics system with two distinct power sources that includes prime mover and hydropneumatic accumulator. It replaces the conventional transmission system to drive the vehicle. The sizing of the subsystems in SHHS plays a major role in improving the energy efficiency of the vehicle. In this paper, a power bond graph approach is used to model the dynamics of the SHHS. The obtained simulation results indicate the energy flow during various modes of operations. It also includes the dynamic response of hydropneumatic accumulator, prime mover, and system output speed. Further, design optimization of the system is carried out to optimize the process parameters for maximizing the system energy efficiency. This leads to increase in fuel economy and environmentally friendly vehicle.

  3. Modelling of simple hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. H.; Ho, H. K.; Tian, Y.

    This paper presents the work on a simple, natural gas-fed, hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) power-generation system. The system consists of an internal-reforming SOFC (IRSOFC) stack, a combustor, a GT, two compressors and three recuperators. Two case studies are conducted with particular attention on the effects of operating pressure and fuel flow-rate on the performance of the components and overall system. Results show that an internal-reforming hybrid SOFC-GT system can achieve an electrical efficiency of more than 60% and a system efficiency (including waste heat recovery for co-generation) of more than 80%. It is also found that increasing the operating pressure will improve the system efficiency, whereas increasing the fuel flow-rate (while keeping the fuel utilisation rate unchanged) causes the system efficiency to decrease. In the latter case, the increase in system fuel consumption is relatively higher which removes the benefit of increase in SOFC stack and turbine power output.

  4. An innovative optimal power allocation strategy for fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhihong; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Bose, Anima [Institute of Sustainable Energy and Environment, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    An optimal design of a three-component hybrid fuel cell electric vehicle comprised of fuel cells, battery, and supercapacitors is presented. First, the benefits of using this hybrid combination are analyzed, and then the article describes an active power-flow control strategy from each energy source based on optimal control theory to meet the demand of different vehicle loads while optimizing total energy cost, battery life and other possible objectives at the same time. A cost function that minimizes the square error between the desired variable settings and the current sensed values is developed. A gain sequence developed compels the choice of power drawn from all devices to follow an optimal path, which makes trade-offs among different targets and minimizes the total energy spent. A new method is introduced to make the global optimization into a real-time based control. A model is also presented to simulate the individual energy storage systems and compare this invention to existing control strategies, the simulation results show that the total energy spent is well saved over the long driving cycles, also the fuel cell and batteries are kept operating in a healthy way. (author)

  5. Scheduled power tracking control of the wind-storage hybrid system based on the reinforcement learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ze

    2017-09-01

    In allusion to the intermittency and uncertainty of the wind electricity, energy storage and wind generator are combined into a hybrid system to improve the controllability of the output power. A scheduled power tracking control method is proposed based on the reinforcement learning theory and Q-learning algorithm. In this method, the state space of the environment is formed with two key factors, i.e. the state of charge of the energy storage and the difference value between the actual wind power and scheduled power, the feasible action is the output power of the energy storage, and the corresponding immediate rewarding function is designed to reflect the rationality of the control action. By interacting with the environment and learning from the immediate reward, the optimal control strategy is gradually formed. After that, it could be applied to the scheduled power tracking control of the hybrid system. Finally, the rationality and validity of the method are verified through simulation examples.

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  7. Very-short-term wind power prediction by a hybrid model with single- and multi-step approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Very-short-term wind power prediction (VSTWPP) has played an essential role for the operation of electric power systems. This paper aims at improving and applying a hybrid method of VSTWPP based on historical data. The hybrid method is combined by multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), which is intended for reducing prediction errors. The predicted values are obtained through two sub-processes:1) transform the time-series data of actual wind power into the power ratio, and then predict the power ratio;2) use the predicted power ratio to predict the wind power. Besides, the proposed method can include two prediction approaches: single-step prediction (SSP) and multi-step prediction (MSP). WPP is tested comparatively by auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model from the predicted values and errors. The validity of the proposed hybrid method is confirmed in terms of error analysis by using probability density function (PDF), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and means square error (MSE). Meanwhile, comparison of the correlation coefficients between the actual values and the predicted values for different prediction times and window has confirmed that MSP approach by using the hybrid model is the most accurate while comparing to SSP approach and ARMA. The MLR&LS is accurate and promising for solving problems in WPP.

  8. A Novel Evaluation Model for Hybrid Power System Based on Vague Set and Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because clean energy and traditional energy have different advantages and disadvantages, it is of great significance to evaluate comprehensive benefits for hybrid power systems. Based on thorough analysis of important characters on hybrid power systems, an index system including security, economic benefit, environmental benefit, and social benefit is established in this paper. Due to advantages of processing abundant uncertain and fuzzy information, vague set is used to determine the decision matrix. Convert vague decision matrix to real one by vague combination ruleand determine uncertain degrees of different indexes by grey incidence analysis, then the mass functions of different comment set in different indexes are obtained. Information can be fused in accordance with Dempster-Shafer (D-S combination rule and the evaluation result is got by vague set and D-S evidence theory. A simulation of hybrid power system including thermal power, wind power, and photovoltaic power in China is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed design scheme. It can be clearly seen that the uncertainties in decision making can be dramatically decreased compared with existing methods in the literature. The actual implementation results illustrate that the proposed index system and evaluation model based on vague set and D-S evidence theory are effective and practical to evaluate comprehensive benefit of hybrid power system.

  9. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem; Baseem Khan

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs) uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV) solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station loca...

  10. Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of Power Sharing Control Strategy Based Fuel Cell/Battery Assisted Hybrid Electric Vehicle System

    OpenAIRE

    MURUGESAN, KARTHIK; SENNIAPPAN, VIJAYACHITRA

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic modeling of Fuel cell/Battery assisted hybrid electric vehicle system is presented in this article and two suitable power sharing control strategies are integrated into the system with the objective of minimizing the fuel consumption and maximizing the battery life through its safe operating limit. This prominent goal is accomplished into the developed hybrid vehicle system by incorporating suitable control strategies without compromising the drivability of the vehicle. The proposed...

  11. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  12. Wind Power Ramp Events Prediction with Hybrid Machine Learning Regression Techniques and Reanalysis Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornejo-Bueno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Ramp Events (WPREs are large fluctuations of wind power in a short time interval, which lead to strong, undesirable variations in the electric power produced by a wind farm. Its accurate prediction is important in the effort of efficiently integrating wind energy in the electric system, without affecting considerably its stability, robustness and resilience. In this paper, we tackle the problem of predicting WPREs by applying Machine Learning (ML regression techniques. Our approach consists of using variables from atmospheric reanalysis data as predictive inputs for the learning machine, which opens the possibility of hybridizing numerical-physical weather models with ML techniques for WPREs prediction in real systems. Specifically, we have explored the feasibility of a number of state-of-the-art ML regression techniques, such as support vector regression, artificial neural networks (multi-layer perceptrons and extreme learning machines and Gaussian processes to solve the problem. Furthermore, the ERA-Interim reanalysis from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts is the one used in this paper because of its accuracy and high resolution (in both spatial and temporal domains. Aiming at validating the feasibility of our predicting approach, we have carried out an extensive experimental work using real data from three wind farms in Spain, discussing the performance of the different ML regression tested in this wind power ramp event prediction problem.

  13. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  14. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  15. Electrical Energy Forecasting and Optimal Allocation of ESS in a Hybrid Wind-Diesel Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution problem, traditional fossil energy is gradually being replaced by renewable energy in recent years. However, the introduction of renewable energy into power systems will lead to large voltage fluctuations and high capital costs. To solve these problems, an energy storage system (ESS is employed into a power system to reduce total costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, this paper proposes a two-stage method based on a back-propagation neural network (BPNN and hybrid multi-objective particle swarm optimization (HMOPSO to determine the optimal placements and sizes of ESSs in a transmission system. Owing to the uncertainties of renewable energy, a BPNN is utilized to forecast the outputs of the wind power and load demand based on historic data in the city of Madison, USA. Furthermore, power-voltage (P-V sensitivity analysis is conducted in this paper to improve the converge speed of the proposed algorithm, and continuous wind distribution is discretized by a three-point estimation method. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE 30-bus system is adopted to perform case studies. The simulation results of each case clearly demonstrate the necessity for optimal storage allocation and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicles: power sources, models, sustainability, infrastructure and the market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pistoia, G

    2010-01-01

    ... for simulation studies Velocity scheduling using traffic preview Hybrid vehicles with telematics Optimal management of hybrid vehicles with telematics Conclusions and future opportunities 1. 2. 3...

  17. Dynamic Stability Enhancement and Power Flow Control of a Hybrid Wind and Marine-Current Farm Using SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Shiang-Shong; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to achieve both power flow control and damping enhancement of a novel hybrid wind and marine-current farm (MCF) connected to a large power grid. The performance of the studied wind farm (WF...... be concluded from the simulated results that the proposed SMES unit combined with the designed damping controller is very effective to stabilize the studied combined WF and MCF under various wind speeds. The inherent fluctuations of the injected active power and reactive power of the WF and MCF to the power...

  18. An Application of Spectral Kurtosis to Separate Hybrid Power Quality Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José González de la Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the future smart grid, the detection of power quality events is a key issue for the power system monitoring. Voltage sags, swells, harmonics (variations and interruptions, which produce large losses for commercial and industrial consumers, are the main events to be considered due to the sensitivity of equipment to these electrical anomalies. The steady-state events are even more frequently accompanied by transients, the discrimination and localization being far more exigent and requiring advanced signal separating tools to be incorporated in the measurement equipment. This paper shows the event detection performance of the spectral kurtosis as a signal separating tool in the frequency domain. The disturbances under test are hybrid signals resulting from the coupling between amplitude defects and non-desired higher frequencies. Being a fourth-order spectrum, the kurtosis is confirmed as a noise-resistant tool that enhances impulsiveness, therefore characterizing the electrical anomalies. In the beginning of the analysis, the voltage sag is established as a reference; then, the disturbances (oscillatory transients and harmonics are coupled at the starting and ending instants of the sag, resulting in complex hybrid events. The results show that the spectral kurtosis enhances the detection Energies 2015, 8 9778 of both types of events (steady state and transients, which are outlined in a bump shape in the fourth-order frequency pattern and centered in the main carrier frequency. Indeed, while the oscillatory transients are associated with softer and lower-amplitude peaks, the harmonics correspond to crisper and higher ones. As these mixed electrical faults are very common in the actual power grid, the article postulates the higher-order spectra to be implemented in prospective online measurement instruments.

  19. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  20. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  1. Energy Management of a Hybrid-Power Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid-power gas engine-driven heat pump (HPGHP combines hybrid power technology with a gas engine heat pump. The engine in the power system is capable of operating constantly with high thermal efficiency and low emissions during different operating modes. In this paper, the mathematical models of various components is established, including the engine thermal efficiency map and the motor efficiency map. The comprehensive charging/discharging efficiency model and energy management optimization strategy model which is proposed to maximize the efficiency of instantaneous HPGHP system are established. Then, different charging/discharging torque limits are obtained. Finally, a novel gas engine economical zone control strategy which combined with the SOC of battery in real time is put forward. The main operating parameters of HPGHP system under energy management are simulated by Matlab/Simulink and validated by experimental data, such as engine and motor operating torque, fuel consumption rate and comprehensive efficiency, etc. The results show that during 3600 s’ run-time, the SOC value of battery packs varies between 0.58 and 0.705, the fuel consumption rate reaches minimum values of approximately 291.3 g/(kW h when the compressor speed is nearly 1550 rpm in mode D, the engine thermal efficiency and comprehensive efficiency reach maximum values of approximately 0.2727 and 0.2648 when the compressor speed is 1575 rpm and 1475 rpm, respectively, in mode D. In general, the motor efficiency can be maintained above 0.85 in either mode.

  2. A Causal and Real-Time Capable Power Management Algorithm for Off-Highway Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schalk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion systems allow for a reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of future off-highway applications. A challenging aspect of a hybridization is the larger number of system components that further increases both the complexity and the diversification of such systems. Hence, beside a standardization on the hardware side for off-highway systems, a high flexibility and modularity of the control schemes is required to employ them in as many different applications as possible. In this paper, a causal optimization-based power management algorithm is introduced to control the power split between engine and electric machine in a hybrid powertrain. The algorithm optimizes the power split to achieve the maximum power supply efficiency and, thereby, considers the energy cost for maintaining the battery charge. Furthermore, the power management provides an optional function to control the battery state of charge in such a way that a target value is attained. In a simulation case study, the potential and the benefits of the proposed power management for the hybrid powertrain—aiming at a reduction of the fuel consumption of a DMU (diesel multiple unit train operated on a representative track—will be shown.

  3. Development of energy management system based on a power sharing strategy for a fuel cell-battery-supercapacitor hybrid tramway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Ming; Ma, Lei

    2015-04-01

    A hybrid powertrain configuration based on a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC), a battery and a supercapacitor (SC) is designed without grid connection for the LF-LRV tramway. In order to avoid rapid changes of power demand and achieve high efficiency without degrading the mechanism performance, a power sharing strategy based on a combination of fuzzy logic control (FLC) and Haar wavelet transform (Haar-WT) is proposed for an energy management system of the hybrid tramway. The results demonstrate that the proposed energy management system is able to ensure the major positive portion of the low frequency components of power demand can be deals with the PEMFC. The battery can help provide a portion of the positive low frequency components of power demand to reduce the PEMFC burden while the SC bank can supply all the high frequency components which could damage the PEMFC membrane. Therefore, the energy management system of high-power hybrid tramway is able to guarantee a safe operating condition with transient free for the PEMFC and extend the lifetime of each power source. Finally, the comparisons with other control strategies verify that the proposed energy management system can achieve better energy efficiency of the overall hybrid tramway.

  4. A self-sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment system using solar-bio-hybrid power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Liao, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on system analysis of a self-sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment concept combining solar technologies, anaerobic digestion, and aerobic treatment to reclaim water. A solar bio-hybrid power generation unit was adopted to power the wastewater treatment. Concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) were combined with biogas energy from anaerobic digestion. Biogas is also used to store the extra energy generated by the hybrid power unit and ensure stable and continuous wastewater treatment. It was determined from the energy balance analysis that the PV-bio hybrid power unit is the preferred energy unit to realize the self-sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment. With short-term solar energy storage, the PV-bio-hybrid power unit in Phoenix, AZ requires solar collection area (4032m2) and biogas storage (35m3), while the same unit in Lansing, MI needs bigger solar collection area and biogas storage (5821m2 and 105m3, respectively) due to the cold climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proposal and Development of a High Voltage Variable Frequency Alternating Current Power System for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Taylor, Linda M.; Beach, Raymond F.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ultra-efficient commercial vehicles and the transition to low-carbon emission propulsion are seen as strategic thrust paths within NASA Aeronautics. A critical enabler to these paths comes in the form of hybrid electric propulsion systems. For megawatt-class systems, the best power system topology for these hybrid electric propulsion systems is debatable. Current proposals within NASA and the Aero community suggest using a combination of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) for power generation, transmission, and distribution. This paper proposes an alternative to the current thought model through the use of a primarily high voltage AC power system, supported by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project. This system relies heavily on the use of doubly-fed induction machines (DFIMs), which provide high power densities, minimal power conversion, and variable speed operation. The paper presents background on the activity along with the system architecture, development status, and preliminary results.

  6. Application of Hybrid HS and Tabu Search Algorithm for Optimal Location of FACTS Devices to Reduce Power Losses in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Masomi Zohrabad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Power networks continue to grow following the annual growth of energy demand. As constructing new energy generation facilities bears a high cost, minimizing power grid losses becomes essential to permit low cost energy transmission in larger distances and additional areas. This study aims to model an optimization problem for an IEEE 30-bus power grid using a Tabu search algorithm based on an improved hybrid Harmony Search (HS method to reduce overall grid losses. The proposed algorithm is applied to find the best location for the installation of a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC. The results obtained from installation of the UPFC in the grid are presented by displaying outputs.

  7. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-06-01

    The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

  8. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  9. Optimal Sizing of a Hybrid Grid-Connected Photovoltaic–Wind–Biomass Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES are a trendy alternative to enhance the renewable energy deployment worldwide. They effectively take advantage of scalability and flexibility of these energy sources, since combining two or more allows counteracting the weaknesses of a stochastic renewable energy source with the strengths of another or with the predictability of a non-renewable energy source. This work presents an optimization methodology for minimum life cycle cost of a HRES based on solar photovoltaic, wind and biomass power. Biomass power seeks to take advantage of locally available forest wood biomass in the form of wood chips to provide energy in periods when the PV and wind power generated are not enough to match the existing demand. The results show that a HRES combining the selected three sources of renewable energy could be installed in a rural township of about 1300 dwellings with an up-front investment of US $7.4 million, with a total life cycle cost of slightly more than US $30 million. Such a system would have benefits in terms of energy autonomy and environment quality improvement, as well as in term of job opportunity creation.

  10. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  11. Uncertainty analysis and design optimization of hybrid rocket motor powered vehicle for suborbital flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an uncertainty analysis and design optimization method and its applications on a hybrid rocket motor (HRM powered vehicle. The multidisciplinary design model of the rocket system is established and the design uncertainties are quantified. The sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties shows that the uncertainty generated from the error of fuel regression rate model has the most significant effect on the system performances. Then the differences between deterministic design optimization (DDO and uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO are discussed. Two newly formed uncertainty analysis methods, including the Kriging-based Monte Carlo simulation (KMCS and Kriging-based Taylor series approximation (KTSA, are carried out using a global approximation Kriging modeling method. Based on the system design model and the results of design uncertainty analysis, the design optimization of an HRM powered vehicle for suborbital flight is implemented using three design optimization methods: DDO, KMCS and KTSA. The comparisons indicate that the two UDO methods can enhance the design reliability and robustness. The researches and methods proposed in this paper can provide a better way for the general design of HRM powered vehicles.

  12. Feasibility of a Hydraulic Power Assist System for Use in Hybrid Neuroprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Foglyano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of using pressurized hydraulic fluid as a source of on-demand assistive power for hybrid neuroprosthesis combining exoskeleton with functional neuromuscular stimulation was explored. Hydraulic systems were selected as an alternative to electric motors for their high torque/mass ratio and ability to be located proximally on the exoskeleton and distribute power distally to assist in moving the joints. The power assist system (PAS was designed and constructed using off-the-shelf components to test the feasibility of using high pressure fluid from an accumulator to provide assistive torque to an exoskeletal hip joint. The PAS was able to provide 21 Nm of assistive torque at an input pressure of 3171 kPa with a response time of 93 ms resulting in 32° of hip flexion in an able-bodied test. The torque output was independent of initial position of the joint and was linearly related to pressure. Thus, accumulator pressure can be specified to provide assistive torque as needed in exoskeletal devices for walking or stair climbing beyond those possible either volitionally or with electrical stimulation alone.

  13. Wales, Alaska High Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System: Theory of Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouilhet, S.; Shirazi, M.

    2002-05-01

    To reduce the cost of rural power generation and the environmental impact of diesel fuel usage, the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA), Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA, a rural Alaskan utility), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), began a collaboration in late 1995 to implement a high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid power system in a village in northwest Alaska. The project was intended to be both a technology demonstration and a pilot for commercial replication of the system in other Alaskan villages. During the first several years of the project, NREL focused on the design and development of the electronic controls, the system control software, and the ancillary components (power converters, energy storage, electric dump loads, communications links, etc.) that would be required to integrate new wind turbines with the existing diesels in a reliable highly automated system. Meanwhile, AEA and KEA focused on project development activities, including wind resource assessment, site selection and permitting, community relationship building, and logistical planning. Ultimately, the village of Wales, Alaska, was chosen as the project site. Wales is a native Inupiat village of approximately 160 inhabitants, with an average electric load of about 75 kW.

  14. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  15. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  16. Aspect of Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Research Studies on Hybrid Pneumatic Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid Pneumatic Power System (HPPS has been developed for several years with the major aim of reducing the vehicle fuel consumption, environment pollution and enhancing the vehicle performance as well. Comparing with the conventional hybrid system, HPPS replaces the battery's electrochemical energy with a high-pressure air storage tank and enables the internal combustion engine (ICE to function at its sweet spot. Besides, the HPPS, which effectively merges both the high-pressure air flow from the storage tank and the recycled exhaust flow from the ICE, thereby increases the thermal efficiency of the ICE and transforms the merged flow energy into mechanical energy using a high-efficiency turbine. This paper focuses on the major research process into HPPSs, including overall dynamic simulation and experimental validation. By using the simulation tool ITI-Sim, this research demonstrates an experiment which can be operated precisely according to the requirements of various driving conditions under which a car actually runs on the road in accordance with the regulated running vehicle test mode. HPPS is expected to increase the performance of the entire system from 15% to 39%, and is likely to replace the traditional system in the coming years.

  17. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  18. A low power wide-band CMOS PLL frequency synthesizer for portable hybrid GNSS receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shimao; Yu Yunfeng; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin Ming, E-mail: xiaoshimao@casic.ac.c [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The design consideration and implementation of a CMOS frequency synthesizer for the portable hybrid global navigation satellite system are presented. The large tuning range is achieved by tuning curve compensation using an improved VCO resonant tank, which reduces the power consumption and obtains better phase noise performance. The circuit is validated by simulations and fabricated in a standard 0.18 {mu}m 1P6M CMOS process. Close-loop phase noise measured is lower than -95 dBc at 200 kHz offset while the measured tuning range is 21.5% from 1.47 to 1.83 GHz. The proposed synthesizer including source coupled logic prescaler consumes 6.2 mA current from 1.8 V supply. The whole silicon required is only 0.53 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Hybrid Invariance and Stability of a Feedback Linearizing Controller for Powered Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne E; Gregg, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    The development of powered lower-limb prostheses has the potential to significantly improve amputees' quality of life. By applying advanced control schemes, such as hybrid zero dynamics (HZD), to prostheses, more intelligent prostheses could be designed. Originally developed to control bipedal robots, HZD-based control specifies the motion of the actuated degrees of freedom using output functions to be zeroed, and the required torques are calculated using feedback linearization. Previous work showed that an HZD-like prosthesis controller can successfully control the stance period of gait. This paper shows that an HZD-based prosthesis controller can be used for the entire gait cycle and that feedback linearization can be performed using only information measured with on-board sensors. An analytic metric for orbital stability of a two-step periodic gait is developed. The results are illustrated in simulation.

  20. A Decoupling Control Method for Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter Based on Generalized Inverse System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decoupling control method based on generalized inverse system is presented to solve the problem of SHAPF (Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter possessing the characteristics of 2-input-2-output nonlinearity and strong coupling. Based on the analysis of operation principle, the mathematical model of SHAPF is firstly built, which is verified to be invertible using interactor algorithm; then the generalized inverse system of SHAPF is obtained to connect in series with the original system so that the composite system is decoupled under the generalized inverse system theory. The PI additional controller is finally designed to control the decoupled 1-order pseudolinear system to make it possible to adjust the performance of the subsystem. The simulation results demonstrated by MATLAB show that the presented generalized inverse system strategy can realise the dynamic decoupling of SHAPF. And the control system has fine dynamic and static performance.

  1. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a lineal mathematical model is proposed to schedule optimally the power references of the distributed energy resources in a grid-connected hybrid PVwind-battery microgrid. The optimization of the short term scheduling problem is addressed through a mixed-integer linear programming...... mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested...... by using a real-time simulation of the model and uploaded it in a digital control platform. The results show the economic benefit of the proposed optimal scheduling approach in two different scenarios....

  2. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  3. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  4. Modeling and simulation of stand-alone hybrid power system with fuzzy MPPT for remote load application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogaraj T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many parts of remote locations in the world are not electrified even in this Advanced Technology Era. To provide electricity in such remote places renewable hybrid energy systems are very much suitable. In this paper PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power System (HPS is considered to provide an economical and sustainable power to a remote load. HPS can supply the maximum power to the load at a particular operating point which is generally called as Maximum Power Point (MPP. Fuzzy Logic based MPPT (FLMPPT control method has been implemented for both Solar and Wind Power Systems. FLMPPT control technique is implemented to generate the optimal reference voltage for the first stage of DC-DC Boost converter in both the PV and Wind energy system. The HPS is tested with variable solar irradiation, temperature, and wind speed. The FLMPPT method is compared with P&O MPPT method. The proposed method provides a good maximum power operation of the hybrid system at all operating conditions. In order to combine both sources, the DC bus voltage is made constant by employing PI Controllers for the second stage of DC-DC Buck-Boost converter in both Solar and Wind Power Systems. Battery Bank is used to store excess power from Renewable Energy Sources (RES and to provide continuous power to load when the RES power is less than load power. A SPWM inverter is designed to convert DC power into AC to supply three phase load. An LC filter is also used at the output of inverter to get sinusoidal current from the PWM inverter. The entire system was modeled and simulated in Matlab/Simulink Environment. The results presented show the validation of the HPS design.

  5. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  6. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  7. Model-based optimal control of a hybrid power generation system consisting of photovoltaic arrays and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, P. L.; Sarimveis, H.; Palyvos, J. A.; Markatos, N. C. G.

    Hybrid renewable energy systems are expected to become competitive to conventional power generation systems in the near future and, thus, optimization of their operation is of particular interest. In this work, a hybrid power generation system is studied consisting of the following main components: photovoltaic array (PV), electrolyser, metal hydride tanks, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The key advantage of the hybrid system compared to stand-alone photovoltaic systems is that it can store efficiently solar energy by transforming it to hydrogen, which is the fuel supplied to the fuel cell. However, decision making regarding the operation of this system is a rather complicated task. A complete framework is proposed for managing such systems that is based on a rolling time horizon philosophy.

  8. DESIGN OF THE THREE-LEVEL MULTICRITERIAL STRATEGY OF HYBRID MARINE POWER PLANT CONTROL FOR A COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Budashko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficiency of hybrid ships power plants (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC by various criteria for energy management systems strategies. Methodology. Based on the classification system topologies SPP CPC for mechanical, electrical and hybrid types of motors schematic diagrams of management strategies for the criterion of minimum power consumption are defined. Changing the technical component of the traditional approach to building hybrid ships electric power systems (SEPS SPP CPC the principle of modifying the structure of SEPS is applied with the integration of additional static alternative power source as dynamic reserve, which allowed to meet modern requirements for energy efficiency, levels of vibration, noise and degradation effects produced to SPP CPC, in all areas of the energy for the transfer of power from energy to propellers. Modeling of power transmission of energy to propellers in MatLab/Simulink is conducted, using blocks of optimization library and definition of identity markers. Results. Major advantages and disadvantages SPP CPC depending on the topology of energy distribution systems are determined. According to the chosen structure system electricity characteristics were obtained in the process of power transmission SPP CPC and power systems and their control strategies in terms of increased efficiency and eliminate these drawbacks. And finally, mathematical apparatus for research in terms of the development of methods for designing and managing SPP hybrid CPC to reduced fuel consumption, emissions into the environment and improving maintainability, flexibility and comfort level are improved. Originality. The methodology for improving SPP CPC implementation by developing methods of identification markers mutually influencing processes in SPP CPC and the development of implementing these methods of settlement and information systems. Practical value. The method enables iterative optimization parameters SPP CPC, it

  9. Preliminary Modelling Results for an Otto Cycle/Stirling Cycle Hybrid-engine-based Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim; Feidt, Michel; Petrescu, Stoian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data and results for a system mathematical model for a proposed Otto Cycle / Stirling Cycle hybrid-engine-based power generation system. The system is a combined cycle system with the Stirling cycle machine operating as a bottoming cycle on the Otto cycle exhaust. The application considered is that of a stationary power generation scenario wherein the Stirling cycle engine operates as a waste heat recovery device on the exhaust stream of the Otto cycle engine. ...

  10. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa; Mustapha Koussa; Nourredine Said

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simu...

  11. Optimal reactive power and voltage control in distribution networks with distributed generators by fuzzy adaptive hybrid particle swarm optimisation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi

    2015-01-01

    A new and efficient methodology for optimal reactive power and voltage control of distribution networks with distributed generators based on fuzzy adaptive hybrid PSO (FAHPSO) is proposed. The objective is to minimize comprehensive cost, consisting of power loss and operation cost of transformers...... that the proposed method can search a more promising control schedule of all transformers, all capacitors and all distributed generators with less time consumption, compared with other listed artificial intelligent methods....

  12. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  13. A Fuzzy-Logic Power Management Strategy Based on Markov Random Prediction for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years; issues regarding the use of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in hybrid electric vehicles have been highlighted by the industry and in academic fields. This paper proposes a fuzzy-logic power management strategy based on Markov random prediction for an active parallel battery-UC HESS. The proposed power management strategy; the inputs for which are the vehicle speed; the current electric power demand and the predicted electric power demand; is used to distribute the electrical power between the battery bank and the UC bank. In this way; the battery bank power is limited to a certain range; and the peak and average charge/discharge power of the battery bank and overall loss incurred by the whole HESS are also reduced. Simulations and scaled-down experimental platforms are constructed to verify the proposed power management strategy. The simulations and experimental results demonstrate the advantages; feasibility and effectiveness of the fuzzy-logic power management strategy based on Markov random prediction.

  14. Application of Hybrid MOPSO Algorithm to Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem Considering Voltage Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel hybrid multiobjective particle swarm optimization (HMOPSO algorithm to solve the optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD problem. This problem is formulated as a challenging nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem considering three objectives, that is, power losses minimization, voltage profile improvement, and voltage stability enhancement simultaneously. In order to attain better convergence and diversity, this work presents the use of combing the classical MOPSO with Gaussian probability distribution, chaotic sequences, dynamic crowding distance, and self-adaptive mutation operator. Moreover, multiple effective strategies, such as mixed-variable handling approach, constraint handling technique, and stopping criteria, are employed. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the ORPD problem is validated on the standard IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems under nominal and contingency states. The obtained results are compared with classical MOPSO, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D, and other methods recently reported in the literature from the point of view of Pareto fronts, extreme, solutions and multiobjective performance metrics. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HMOPSO in solving the ORPD problem while strictly satisfying all the constraints.

  15. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON, a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  16. Stable, Robust Hybrid Zero Dynamics Control of Powered Lower-Limb Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne E; Gregg, Robert D

    2017-08-01

    To improve the quality of life for lower-limb amputees, powered prostheses are being developed. Advanced control schemes from the field of bipedal robots, such as hybrid zero dynamics (HZD), may provide great performance. HZD-based control specifies the motion of the actuated joints using output functions to be zeroed, and the required torques are calculated using input-output linearization. For one-step periodic gaits, there is an analytic metric of stability. To apply HZD-based control on a powered prosthesis, several modifications must be made. Because the prosthesis and amputee are only connected via the socket, the prosthesis controller does not have access to the full state of the biped, which decentralizes the form of the input-output linearization. The differences between the amputated and contralateral sides result in a two-step periodic gait, which requires the orbital stability metric to be extended. In addition, because human gait is variable, the prosthesis controller must be robust to continuous moderate perturbations. This robustness is proved using local input-to-state stability and demonstrated with simulations of an above-knee amputee model.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  19. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  20. Online Junction Temperature Cycle Recording of an IGBT Power Module in a Hybrid Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Denk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the lifetime calculation approach of IGBT power modules used in hybrid-electric powertrains suffers greatly from the inaccurate knowledge of application typical load-profiles. To verify the theoretical load-profiles with data from the field this paper presents a concept to record all junction temperature cycles of an IGBT power module during its operation in a test vehicle. For this purpose the IGBT junction temperature is measured with a modified gate driver that determines the temperature sensitive IGBT internal gate resistor by superimposing the negative gate voltage with a high-frequency identification signal. An integrated control unit manages the TJ measurement during the regular switching operation, the exchange of data with the system controller, and the automatic calibration of the sensor system. To calculate and store temperature cycles on a microcontroller an online Rainflow counting algorithm was developed. The special feature of this algorithm is a very accurate extraction of lifetime relevant information with a significantly reduced calculation and storage effort. Until now the recording concept could be realized and tested within a laboratory voltage source inverter. Currently the IGBT driver with integrated junction temperature measurement and the online cycle recording algorithm is integrated in the voltage source inverter of first test vehicles. Such research will provide representative load-profiles to verify and optimize the theoretical load-profiles used in today’s lifetime calculation.

  1. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a hybrid power system design that (1) produces minimum cost electric power, (2) minimizes the capital investment and operating cost, (3) permits capacity displacement, (4) and achieves utility acceptance for market penetration. We have met the first three of these objectives and therefore believe that the fourth, utility acceptance, will become a reality. These objectives have been met by utilizing the Martin Marietta concept that combines the alternate central receiver power system design and a high-temperature salt primary heat transfer fluid and thermal storage media system with a fossil-fired nonsolar energy source. Task 1 reviewed the requirements definition document and comments and recommendations were provided to DOE/San Francisco. Task 2 consisted of a market analysis to evaluate the potential market of solar hybrid power plants. Twenty-two utilities were selected within nine regions of the country. Both written and verbal correspondence was used to assess solar hybrid power plants with respect to the utilities' future requirements and plans. The parametric analysis of Task 3 evaluated a wide range of subsystem configurations and sizes. These analyses included subsystems from the solar standalone alternate central receiver power system using high-temperature molten salt and from fossil fuel nonsolar subsystems. Task 4, selection of the preferred commerical system configuration, utilized the parametric analyses developed in Task 3 to select system and subsystem configurations for the commercial plant design. Task 5 developed a conceptual design of the selected commercial plant configuration and assessed the related cost and performance. Task 6 assessed the economics and performance of the selected configuration as well as future potential improvements or limitations of the hybrid power plants.

  2. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  3. A Low Power RC-Coupled VHF Amplifier Designed for Fabrication by Hybrid Microcircuit Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, HYBRID CIRCUITS, MICROMINIATURIZATION , VERY HIGH FREQUENCY, MODULES(ELECTRONICS), TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS, RADIO RECEIVERS, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS.

  4. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy.

  5. Techno-economic analysis of hybrid power system sizing applied to small desalination plants for sustainable operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nagaraj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy are two inseparable commodities that govern the lives of humanity and promote civilization. Energy can be used to produce water in case of scarcity in water. Ironically most of the places that are water stressed are also energy stressed. The cost of extending grid power may be prohibitively high in those cases. Rural/remote locations like hills and islands multiply the problem to a larger magnitude. Use of renewable sources like solar, wind, biomass and other locally available energy sources is the only solution. But these renewable sources are of intermittent nature and have poor availability. Hence, it is practically difficult to produce water with a single source of energy. Naturally, combining two or more sources of energy, known as hybrid power system, is the next available option. This paper carries out a techno-economic analysis of various sizing combinations of systems with solar photo voltaic, wind energy and stored energy in batteries for production of drinking water from a brackish water source. The system can operate the RO plant whenever the power is available, produce drinking water and store in a tank. This paper analyses the model of the entire hybrid power system in MATLAB to simulate the performance of the hybrid power system for different combinations of capacities. Results of the analysis under various input conditions are analyzed.

  6. A Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Cuckoo Search Algorithm: A Case Study for Power Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiani Heng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power load forecasting always plays a considerable role in the management of a power system, as accurate forecasting provides a guarantee for the daily operation of the power grid. It has been widely demonstrated in forecasting that hybrid forecasts can improve forecast performance compared with individual forecasts. In this paper, a hybrid forecasting approach, comprising Empirical Mode Decomposition, CSA (Cuckoo Search Algorithm, and WNN (Wavelet Neural Network, is proposed. This approach constructs a more valid forecasting structure and more stable results than traditional ANN (Artificial Neural Network models such as BPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network, GABPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm, and WNN. To evaluate the forecasting performance of the proposed model, a half-hourly power load in New South Wales of Australia is used as a case study in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid model is not only simple but also able to satisfactorily approximate the actual power load and can be an effective tool in planning and dispatch for smart grids.

  7. Feasibility Study of Seawater Electrolysis for Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System for the Coastal Areas in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisiriwat, A.; Pirom, W.

    2017-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic cell and fuel cell are the practicable options to realize as a possible hybrid power system because the power of the sun cannot be utilized at night or cloudy days but hydrogen has been found as an ideal energy carrier for being transportable, storable, and converting energy though fuel cell. Hydrogen storage is chosen for its ability to obtain a clean energy option. Electrolysis, which is the simplest process to produce hydrogen, can be powered by the dc voltage from the photovoltaic cell instead of using the battery as power supply. This paper concentrates on a feasibility study of seawater electrolysis using photovoltaic power integrated fuel cell system for the coastal cities in Thailand. The proposed system composed of photovoltaic arrays, seawater electrolyzer and fuel cell is presented when the 10-kW of fuel cell electrical power is considered. The feasibility study of hydrogen production and energy analysis of this proposed system is also evaluated.

  8. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  9. Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) Relaxation Based Optimal Power Flow with Hybrid VSC-HVDC Transmission and Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    The detailed topology of renewable resource bases may have the impact on the optimal power flow of the VSC-HVDC transmission network. To address this issue, this paper develops an optimal power flow with the hybrid VSC-HVDC transmission and active distribution networks to optimally schedule...... the generation output and voltage regulation of both networks, which leads to a non-convex programming model. Furthermore, the non-convex power flow equations are based on the Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) relaxation approach. Thus, the proposed model can be relaxed to a SOCP that can be tractably solved...

  10. A Fuzzy-Based PI Controller for Power Management of a Grid-Connected PV-SOFC Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Sukumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar power generation is intermittent in nature. It is nearly impossible for a photovoltaic (PV system to supply power continuously and consistently to a varying load. Operating a controllable source like a fuel cell in parallel with PV can be a solution to supply power to variable loads. In order to coordinate the power supply from fuel cells and PVs, a power management system needs to be designed for the microgrid system. This paper presents a power management system for a grid-connected PV and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, considering variation in the load and solar radiation. The objective of the proposed system is to minimize the power drawn from the grid and operate the SOFC within a specific power range. Since the PV is operated at the maximum power point, the power management involves the control of SOFC active power where a proportional and integral (PI controller is used. The control parameters of the PI controller Kp (proportional constant and Ti (integral time constant are determined by the genetic algorithm (GA and simplex method. In addition, a fuzzy logic controller is also developed to generate appropriate control parameters for the PI controller. The performance of the controllers is evaluated by minimizing the integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE criterion. Simulation results showed that the fuzzy-based PI controller outperforms the PI controller tuned by the GA and simplex method in managing the power from the hybrid source effectively under variations of load and solar radiation.

  11. A hybrid filter to mitigate harmonics caused by nonlinear load and resonance caused by power factor correction capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, N. F.; Soomro, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Power factor correction capacitor (PFCC) is commonly installed in industrial applications for power factor correction (PFC). With the expanding use of non-linear equipment such as ASDs, power converters, etc., power factor (PF) improvement has become difficult due to the presence of harmonics. The resulting capacitive impedance of the PFCC may form a resonant circuit with the source inductive reactance at a certain frequency, which is likely to coincide with one of the harmonic frequency of the load. This condition will trigger large oscillatory currents and voltages that may stress the insulation and cause subsequent damage to the PFCC and equipment connected to the power system (PS). Besides, high PF cannot be achieved due to power distortion. This paper presents the design of a three-phase hybrid filter consisting of a single tuned passive filter (STPF) and shunt active power filter (SAPF) to mitigate harmonics and resonance in the PS through simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC software. SAPF was developed using p-q theory. The hybrid filter has resulted in significant improvement on both total harmonic distortion for voltage (THDV) and total demand distortion for current (TDDI) with maximum values of 2.93% and 9.84% respectively which were within the recommended IEEE 519-2014 standard limits. Regarding PF improvement, the combined filters have achieved PF close to desired PF at 0.95 for firing angle, α values up to 40°.

  12. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  13. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, R. M. J., E-mail: r.m.j.janssen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Endo, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Visser, P. J. de [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  14. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  15. Dynamic Power System Security Analysis Using a Hybrid PSO-APO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Teeparthi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and artificial physics optimization (HPSO-APO algorithm is proposed to solve the dynamic security constrained optimal power flow (DSCOPF problem for enhancing system security. The dynamic security assessment deals with contingency analysis which is carried out using a performance index. DSCOPF recommends preventive control actions like generator rescheduling to alleviate an existing credible contingency in the system while ensuring minimal operating cost. The OPF problem is a highly nonlinear differential one and becomes more complex when considering the rotor dynamics of the system. The APO algorithm has the capability to reach a near global optimum value. However, it suffers from convergence problem. On the other hand, PSO exhibits premature convergence characteristics, but it may get trapped at a local optima value. The proposed HPSO-APO algorithm combines both individual algorithm strengths, to get balance between global and local search capability. The proposed method has been evaluated on a standard IEEE six-generator, 30-bus system and a New England ten-generator, 39-bus test system. The proposed HPSO-APO algorithm gives an efficient and robust optimal solution of DSCOPF problem compared to standard PSO and APO methods.

  16. Structural health monitoring using a hybrid network of self-powered accelerometer and strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Amir H.; Hasni, Hassene; Jiao, Pengcheng; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a structural damage identification approach based on the analysis of the data from a hybrid network of self-powered accelerometer and strain sensors. Numerical and experimental studies are conducted on a plate with bolted connections to verify the method. Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)-5A ceramic discs and PZT-5H bimorph accelerometers are placed on the surface of the plate to measure the voltage changes due to damage progression. Damage is defined by loosening or removing one bolt at a time from the plate. The results show that the PZT accelerometers provide a fairly more consistent behavior than the PZT strain sensors. While some of the PZT strain sensors are not sensitive to the changes of the boundary condition, the bimorph accelerometers capture the mode changes from undamaged to missing bolt conditions. The results corresponding to the strain sensors are better indicator to the location of damage compared to the accelerometers. The characteristics of the overall structure can be monitored with even one accelerometer. On the other hand, several PZT strain sensors might be needed to localize the damage.

  17. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano - IFSertao-PE, BR407, km 8, 56314-520 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carioca, J.O.B. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Food Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, F.J.F. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system. (author)

  18. Performance analysis of different ORC configurations for thermal energy and LNG cold energy hybrid power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shujia; Xu, Fuquan; Lin, Kui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal energy and Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy hybrid power generation system. Performances of four different Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) configurations (the basic, the regenerative, the reheat and the regenerative-reheat ORCs) are studied based on the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Dry organic fluid R245fa is selected as the typical working fluid. Parameter analysis is also conducted in this paper. The results show that regeneration could not increase the thermal efficiency of the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. ORC with the reheat process could produce more specific net power output but it may also reduce the system thermal efficiency. The basic and the regenerative ORCs produce higher thermal efficiency while the regenerative-reheat ORC performs best in the exergy efficiency. A preheater is necessary for the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. And due to the presence of the preheater, there will be a step change of the system performance as the turbine inlet pressure rises.

  19. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  20. A new hybrid optimization algorithm CRO-DE for optimal coordination of overcurrent relays in complex power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zellagui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new hybrid global optimization algorithm based on Chemical Reaction based Optimization (CRO and Di¤erential evolution (DE algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization problems. This approach proposed for the optimal coordination and setting relays of directional overcurrent relays in complex power systems. In protection coordination problem, the objective function to be minimized is the sum of the operating time of all main relays. The optimization problem is subject to a number of constraints which are mainly focused on the operation of the backup relay, which should operate if a primary relay fails to respond to the fault near to it, Time Dial Setting (TDS, Plug Setting (PS and the minimum operating time of a relay. The hybrid global proposed optimization algorithm aims to minimize the total operating time of each protection relay. Two systems are used as case study to check the effeciency of the optimization algorithm which are IEEE 4-bus and IEEE 6-bus models. Results are obtained and presented for CRO and DE and hybrid CRO-DE algorithms. The obtained results for the studied cases are compared with those results obtained when using other optimization algorithms which are Teaching Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO, Chaotic Differential Evolution Algorithm (CDEA and Modiffied Differential Evolution Algorithm (MDEA, and Hybrid optimization algorithms (PSO-DE, IA-PSO, and BFOA-PSO. From analysing the obtained results, it has been concluded that hybrid CRO-DO algorithm provides the most optimum solution with the best convergence rate.

  1. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can...... systems can serve as a guideline for making similar studies in the context of different off-grid sites and more. Next, optimal scale up and design of hybrid power system for different off grid applications will be performed including comprehensive uncertainty analysis to facilitate robust and renewable...

  2. Optimal parameters for electric-power installation components of Hybrid car

    OpenAIRE

    Bashinov, A.; Panikarsky, A.; Boshenov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A conception for low-cost reconstruction of cars using hybrid drive was developed. Integrations of internal-combustion engine with electric motor fed from lead-acid storage battery and supercapacitor is the aim of the reconstruction. Such a way for modernization allows fast provide the output of hybrid cars in Ukraine in the framework of the program of energy storage technologies.

  3. A New Hybrid Model Based on Data Preprocessing and an Intelligent Optimization Algorithm for Electrical Power System Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of electrical power system cannot only benefit the reasonable distribution and management in energy resources, but also satisfy the increasing demand for electricity. The electrical power system construction is often a pivotal part in the national and regional economic development plan. This paper constructs a hybrid model, known as the E-MFA-BP model, that can forecast indices in the electrical power system, including wind speed, electrical load, and electricity price. Firstly, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition can be applied to eliminate the noise of original time series data. After data preprocessing, the back propagation neural network model is applied to carry out the forecasting. Owing to the instability of its structure, the modified firefly algorithm is employed to optimize the weight and threshold values of back propagation to obtain a hybrid model with higher forecasting quality. Three experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the model. Through comparison with other traditional well-known forecasting models, and models optimized by other optimization algorithms, the experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid model has the best forecasting performance.

  4. Modelling for part-load operation of solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. H.; Ho, H. K.; Tian, Y.

    This paper presents the work on part-load operation of a power generation system composed of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine (SOFC-GT) which operate on natural gas. The system consists of an internal reforming SOFC (IRSOFC) stack, an external combustor, two turbines, two compressors, two recuperators and one heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG). Based on experience in different levels of modelling of the fuel cell, fuel cell stack and integrated system and the inherent characteristics of a IRSOFC-GT hybrid power plant, a practical approach for simplifying part-load operation of the system is proposed. Simulation results show that an IRSOFC-GT hybrid system could achieve a net electrical efficiency and system efficiency (including waste heat recovery for steam generation) of greater than 60 and 80%, respectively, under full-load operation. Due to the complexity of the interaction of the components and safety requirements, the part-load performance of a IRSOFC-GT hybrid power plant is poorer than that under full-load operation.

  5. The Influence of Diesel Fuel Subsidies and Taxes on the Potential for Solar-Powered Hybrid Systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bertheau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources in African countries. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the economic advantages of photovoltaic-based hybrid systems over fossil fuel-based power generation. A simulation model is applied in order to calculate the cost advantage of hybrid systems compared to diesel-only systems for the entire continent on a long term basis by applying two scenarios: one based on world market diesel prices and the other one based on national diesel prices. The results indicate that average power generation costs per country can be reduced by up to 0.11 €/kWh considering world market diesel prices and by up to 0.48 €/kWh considering national diesel prices. Furthermore, the effect of diesel fuel subsidies and taxes on the renewable energy potential and the respective savings are examined. These findings may ameliorate the policy development according to fossil fuel subsidies and taxes and demonstrate the advantages of decentralized renewable hybrid systems especially in rural areas of Africa.

  6. Energy Management and Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in a Grid-Connected Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The charging infrastructure plays a key role in the healthy and rapid development of the electric vehicle industry. This paper presents an energy management and control system of an electric vehicle charging station. The charging station (CS is integrated to a grid-connected hybrid power system having a wind turbine maximum power point tracking (MPPT controlled subsystem, photovoltaic (PV MPPT controlled subsystem and a controlled solid oxide fuel cell with electrolyzer subsystem which are characterized as renewable energy sources. In this article, an energy management system is designed for charging and discharging of five different plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs simultaneously to fulfil the grid-to-vehicle (G2V, vehicle-to-grid (V2G, grid-to-battery storage system (G2BSS, battery storage system-to-grid (BSS2G, battery storage system-to-vehicle (BSS2V, vehicle-to-battery storage system (V2BSS and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V charging and discharging requirements of the charging station. A simulation test-bed in Matlab/Simulink is developed to evaluate and control adaptively the AC-DC-AC converter of non-renewable energy source, DC-DC converters of the storage system, DC-AC grid side inverter and the converters of the CS using adaptive proportional-integral-derivate (AdapPID control paradigm. The effectiveness of the AdapPID control strategy is validated through simulation results by comparing with conventional PID control scheme.

  7. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  8. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a PV/Battery Hybrid Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Golsorkhi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    , the operation of each unit is divided into five states and modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states. The frequency level is used as trigger for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions......This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. Unlike the previous methods in the literature, there is no need to communication among the units...

  9. A novel power control strategy of Modular Multi-level Converter in HVDC-AC hybrid transmission systems for passive networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Zhenda; Wu, Rui; Yang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    With the development of High Voltage DC Transmission (HVDC) technology, there will be more and more HVDC-AC hybrid transmission system in the world. A basic challenge in HVDC-AC hybrid transmission systems is to optimize the power sharing between DC and AC lines, which become more severe when sup...

  10. Multi-objective hybrid PSO-APO algorithm based security constrained optimal power flow with wind and thermal generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Teeparthi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new low level with teamwork heterogeneous hybrid particle swarm optimization and artificial physics optimization (HPSO-APO algorithm is proposed to solve the multi-objective security constrained optimal power flow (MO-SCOPF problem. Being engaged with the environmental and total production cost concerns, wind energy is highly penetrating to the main grid. The total production cost, active power losses and security index are considered as the objective functions. These are simultaneously optimized using the proposed algorithm for base case and contingency cases. Though PSO algorithm exhibits good convergence characteristic, fails to give near optimal solution. On the other hand, the APO algorithm shows the capability of improving diversity in search space and also to reach a near global optimum point, whereas, APO is prone to premature convergence. The proposed hybrid HPSO-APO algorithm combines both individual algorithm strengths, to get balance between global and local search capability. The APO algorithm is improving diversity in the search space of the PSO algorithm. The hybrid optimization algorithm is employed to alleviate the line overloads by generator rescheduling during contingencies. The standard IEEE 30-bus and Indian 75-bus practical test systems are considered to evaluate the robustness of the proposed method. The simulation results reveal that the proposed HPSO-APO method is more efficient and robust than the standard PSO and APO methods in terms of getting diverse Pareto optimal solutions. Hence, the proposed hybrid method can be used for the large interconnected power system to solve MO-SCOPF problem with integration of wind and thermal generators.

  11. High-performance cryogenic fractal 180° hybrid power divider with integrated directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladu, Adelaide; Montisci, Giorgio; Valente, Giuseppe; Navarrini, Alessandro; Marongiu, Pasqualino; Pisanu, Tonino; Mazzarella, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    A 180° hybrid and a directional coupler to be employed in the P-band cryogenic receiver of the Sardinia Radio Telescope are proposed in this work. An in-depth study of the issues related to the use of microwave components for cryogenic radio astronomy receivers is carried out to select the best suited technology and configuration. As a result, a planar fractal 180° hybrid configuration available in the literature has been optimized aiming to increase the operating bandwidth in order to comply with the design specifications of the application at hand. A coupled line directional coupler with weak coupling and high isolation, used to calibrate the receiver chain, is cascaded to the 180° hybrid and realized in the same layout. The final device, consisting of the 180° hybrid and the directional coupler, has been manufactured and tested at the cryogenic temperature of 20 K, showing a good agreement between experimental results and predicted performance.

  12. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  13. Prediction-based optimal power management in a fuel cell/battery plug-in hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    A prediction-based power management strategy is proposed for fuel cell/battery plug-in hybrid vehicles with the goal of improving overall system operating efficiency. The main feature of the proposed strategy is that, if the total amount of energy required to complete a particular drive cycle can be reliably predicted, then the energy stored in the onboard electrical storage system can be depleted in an optimal manner that permits the fuel cell to operate in its most efficient regime. The strategy has been implemented in a vehicle power-train simulator called LFM which was developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK software and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing it with a conventional control strategy. The proposed strategy is shown to provide significant improvement in average fuel cell system efficiency while reducing hydrogen consumption. It has been demonstrated with the LFM simulation that the prediction-based power management strategy can maintain a stable power request to the fuel cell thereby improving fuel cell durability, and that the battery is depleted to the desired state-of-charge at the end of the drive cycle. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted to study the effects of inaccurate predictions of the remaining portion of the drive cycle on hydrogen consumption and the final battery state-of-charge. Finally, the advantages of the proposed control strategy over the conventional strategy have been validated through implementation in the University of Delaware's fuel cell hybrid bus with operational data acquired from onboard sensors.

  14. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  15. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Li, Shan-Chien; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS). A new integration of print circuit board (PCB) technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG) concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  16. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiin-Kuen Fuh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS. A new integration of print circuit board (PCB technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  17. Neutronics and pumping power analyses on the Tokamak reactor for the fusion-biomass hybrid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibano, Kenzo, E-mail: kibano@gmail.com [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MCNP analyses on a Tokamak with LiPb-cooled components shows concentrations of nuclear heating at the in-board region in addition to the out-board region. • Required pumping power of LiPb coolants for the nuclear heating exponentially increases as fusion power increases. • Pumping power analysis for the divertor also indicates the increasing pumping power as the fusion power increases. -- Abstract: The authors aim to develop a fusion-biomass combined plant concept with a small power fusion reactor. A concern for the small power reactor is the coolant pumping power which may significantly decreases the apparent energy outcome. Thus pressure loss and corresponding pumping power were studied for a designed Tokamak reactor: GNOME. First, 3-D Monte-Carlo Neutron transport analysis for the reactor model with dual-coolant blankets was taken in order to simulate the tritium breeding ability and the distribution of nuclear heat. Considering calculated concentration of nuclear heat on the in-board blankets, pressure loss of the liquid LiPb at coolant pipes due to MHD and friction forces was analyzed as a function of fusion power. It was found that as the fusion power increases, the pressure loss and corresponding pumping power exponentially increase. Consequently, the proportion of the pumping power to the fusion power increases as the fusion power increases. In case of ∼360 MW fusion power operation, pumping power required for in-board cooling pipes was estimated as ∼1% of the fusion power.

  18. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective.

  19. Optimal Power Flow Modelling and Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Grids with Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop renewables based energy systems, the installation of the offshore wind power plants (WPPs) is globally encouraged. However, wind power generation is intermittent and uncertain. An accurate modelling and evaluation reduces investment and provide better operation. Hence, it is e...

  20. MnO2@KCu7S4 NWs hybrid compositions for high-power all-solid-state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a high-power all-solid-state supercapacitor based on a novel structure of MnO2@KCu7S4 NWs. The electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with large specific capacitance of 533 F g-1 and the maximum power density 2.02 kW kg-1, still hold 85% of the capacitance over 6000 cycles. Besides, we also explored the effect of temperature on the capacitance. When compared with capacitance at different temperatures, the specific capacity at 80 °C demonstrates significantly higher. Moreover, two supercapacitors in series can power 41 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) about 4 min. These results suggest that such MnO2@KCu7S4 hybrid composite is promising for next generation high-performance supercapacitors.

  1. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  2. Driving cycle suitable layout of permanent magnet synchronous machines for hybrid vehicles and electric powered vehicles; Fahrzyklusgerechte Auslegung von permanentmagneterregten Synchronmaschinen fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    An increasing environmental awareness and the prospect of a shortage of fossil resources will result in a development of efficient vehicles with a lower consumption of fuel. In addition to the hybrid electric vehicle, the electric powered vehicle increasingly is focused in the development of vehicles. A good efficiency is the most important demand on the electrical machine. The author of the book under consideration reports on exemplary operating point distributions for various vehicle concepts and user profiles. After comparing the most common types of machine in terms of the use in electrified powertrains, the permanent magnet synchronous machine is selected and discussed in detail. A table shows the advantages and disadvantages of all considered geometries and variations. Thus, a suitable combination of geometry for a given vehicle concept and its requirements are selected.

  3. Distributed AC power flow method for AC and AC-DC hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Power flow methods are one of the powerful tools used in the analysis of stable and reliable operation of the electric power systems. Conventional power flow methods ... Small scale fossil fuel based generation systems, renewable energy based sources, electric vehicles, battery and other types of storage systems etc. work ...

  4. The impact of hybrid energy storage on power quality, when high power pulsed DC loads are operated on a microgrid testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay Paul

    As the Navy's demands for high power transient loads evolves, so too does the need for alternative energy sources to back-up the more traditional power generation. Such applications in need of support include electrical grid backup and directed energy weapon systems such as electromagnetic launchers, laser systems, and high power microwave generators, among others. Among the alternative generation sources receiving considerable attention are energy storage devices such as rechargeable electrochemical batteries and capacitors. In such applications as those mentioned above, these energy storage devices offer the ability to serve a dual role as both a power source to the various loads as well high power loads themselves to the continual generation when the high power transient loads are in periods of downtime. With the recent developments in electrochemical energy storage, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) seem like the obvious choice, but previous research has shown that the elevated rates of charging can be detrimental to both the cycle life and the operational life span of the device. In order to preserve the batteries, their charge rate must be limited. One proposed method to accomplish the dual role task mentioned above, while preserving the life of the batteries, is by combining high energy density LIBs with high power density electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) using controllable power electronics to adjust the flow of power to and from each device. Such a configuration is typically referred to as hybrid energy storage module (HESM). While shipboard generators start up, the combined high energy density and high power density of the HESM provides the capability to source critical loads for an extended period of time at the high rates they demand. Once the generator is operationally efficient, the HESM can act as a high energy reservoir to harvest the energy from the generator while the loads are in short periods of inactivity

  5. Performance Analysis of FLC Controlled PV-Wind Hybrid Power System for dc Load with Real-Time Data in Matlab, Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power system is a combination of different but complementary energy generation systems based on renewable energies. The Hybrid power system harnesses most of the power from the environmental conditions, reduces the losses and repetitive maintenance, thus improving efficiency and reliability of the system. This is achieved by proper coordination control between the Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper focuses on the implementation of Photovoltaic - Wind hybrid power system with real-time data of environmental conditions. The continuous real-time values of the solar irradiation and wind speed are obtained from the weather monitoring system at the location. The PV will be the primary source of generation during the day and wind generation can act as power conditioning. The Hybrid model is implemented in Matlab Simulink and its performance is examined under variable environmental conditions with a variable resistive load. A scale down experiment set-up of PV-Wind hybrid system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed control logic. It has emerged from the simulation and experimental study that the hybrid system implemented with the real-time data maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of environmental conditions and load condition.

  6. Fuzzy Based Gain Scheduled PI Controller for an Isolated Wind Diesel Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Goutham Govind; Ali, S. Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Electrical power is the vital input for the economic development of any developing country. At their zenith, many excellent methods for the generation of power have been developed. The cost of supplying electrical power through grid to rural areas is becoming excessively high due to large investments in transmission and distribution lines, centralized power generating stations and line losses. For these reasons, the stand alone decentralized power generating stations with non– conventional en...

  7. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-08-01

    This research present a methodology to design a generalized overall unit control system for a fossil fuel power unit (FFPU), and develops a minimum prototype to demonstrate its feasibility. Toward the above goal, the associated research project was undertaken as a technology innovation process with its two ends identified as follows. First, it is recognized that the coordinated control strategies constitute the uppermost control level in current FFPUs, and so, are responsible for driving the boiler-turbine-generator set as a single entity. Second, a FFPU is envisioned as a complex process, subject to multiple changing operating conditions, that should perform as an intelligent system, for which an advanced integral control concept is needed. Therefore, as an outcome of the innovation process, a generalized unit control concept that extends the capabilities of current coordinated control schemes is proposed. This concept is presented as the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm, which establishes an open reference framework for the development of overall unit control schemes. The ICCS's system goals are identified using power plant process engineering concepts, and intelligent control systems engineering concepts are used to identify main tasks and to achieve system functional decomposition. A software engineering agency concept is used to identify and group agents according to their knowledge and purpose interactions. The resultant ICCS structure is an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchical system. The upper level, mainly characterized for knowledge-driven processes, performs the supervisory functions needed to provide self governing operation characteristics, while the lower level, mainly characterized for data-driven processes, performs the fast reactive behavior functions necessary for hybrid real-time control and protection. Developed through several stages, the ICCS-MP finally implements a two

  8. Implementing a Novel Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique in DSP via Simulink/MATLAB under Partially Shaded Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Hajighorbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT method to detect the global maximum power point (GMPP under partially shaded conditions (PSCs, which have more complex characteristics with multiple peak power points. The hybrid method can track the GMPP when a partial shadow occurs either before or after acquiring the MPP under uniform conditions. When PS occurs after obtaining the MPP during uniform conditions, the new operating point should be specified by the modified linear function, which reduces the searching zone of the GMPP and has a significant effect on reducing the reaching time of the GMPP. Simultaneously, the possible MPPs are scanned and stored when shifting the operating point to a new reference voltage. Finally, after determining the possible location of the GMPP, the GMPP is obtained using the modified P&O. Conversely, when PS occurs before obtaining the MPP, the referenced MPP should be specified. Thus, after recognizing the possible location of the GMPP, the modified P&O can be used to obtain the GMPP. The simulation and experimental implementations for the proposed algorithm are performed with different scenarios of shadowing under different irradiations, which clearly indicate that the proposed method is robust and has a fast tracking speed. Moreover, this work presents the load sizing method for PSCs to avoid controller failure when detecting the GMPP. Additionally, in this paper, the user-friendly method for programming the digital signal processing (DSP via Simulink/MATLAB is presented in detail.

  9. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  10. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  11. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems. PMID:24489488

  12. A hybrid DE–PS algorithm for load frequency control under deregulated power system with UPFC and RFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Modified Integral Derivative (MID controller is proposed for Load Frequency Control (LFC of multi-area multi-source power system in deregulated environment. The multi-source power system is having different sources of power generation such as thermal, hydro, wind and diesel generating units considering boiler dynamics for thermal plants, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. The superiority of proposed hybrid Differential Evolution and Pattern Search (hDE-PS optimized MID controller over GA and DE techniques is demonstrated. Further, the effectiveness of proposed hDE-PS optimized MID controller over Integral (I and Integral Derivative (ID controller is verified. Then, to further improve the system performance, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is placed in the tie-line and Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs are considered in the first area. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated at all possible power transactions that take place in a deregulated power market.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Renewable Hybrid Power System using Matlab Simulink Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modeling of a solar-wind-hydroelectric hybrid system in Matlab/Simulink environment. The application is useful for analysis and simulation of a real hybrid solar-wind-hydroelectric system connected to a public grid. Application is built on modular architecture to facilitate easy study of each component module influence. Blocks like wind model, solar model, hydroelectric model, energy conversion and load are implemented and the results of simulation are also presented. As an example, one of the most important studies is the behavior of hybrid system which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply. Application represents a useful tool in research activity and also in teaching

  14. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  15. Modeling, control and simulation of an autonomous wind turbine/photovoltaic/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onar, O. C.; Uzunoglu, M.; Alam, M. S.

    This paper focuses on the combination of wind turbine (WT), photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and ultra-capacitor (UC) systems for grid-independent applications. The dynamic behavior of the proposed hybrid system is tested under various wind speed, solar radiation and load demand conditions. The developed model and its control strategy exhibit excellent performance for the simulation of a complete day. In the simulation, the solar radiation and power demand data are based on real world measurements, while the wind speed data are quasi-real because it is simulated based on special wind speed generation algorithms.

  16. High-Power Hybrid Mode-Locked External Cavity Semiconductor Laser Using Tapered Amplifier with Large Tunability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt-Sody

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on hybrid mode-locked laser operation of a tapered semiconductor amplifier in an external ring cavity, generating pulses as short as 0.5 ps at 88.1 MHz with an average power of 60 mW. The mode locking is achieved through a combination of a multiple quantum well saturable absorber (>10% modulation depth and an RF current modulation. This designed laser has 20 nm tuning bandwidth in continuous wave and 10 nm tuning bandwidth in mode locking around 786 nm center wavelength at constant temperature.

  17. Research of Current Control Strategy of Hybrid Active Power Filter Based on Fuzzy Recursive Integral PI Control Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Liao, Daifa

    According to the current control characters of hybrid active power filter (HAPF), the current control model of HAPF is designed. The fuzzy recursive integral PI control algorithm is presented when it is compared to conventional PI control method. The control algorithm is applied to auto-regulate the proportional and integral parameters of PI. Thus, the robustness and response speed is enhanced; the dynamic performance of the HAPF device is improved. Under Matlab/Simulink background, a fuzzy recursive integral PI controller is designed and it is applied in a HAPF model in PSCAD/EMTDC. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this fuzzy recursive integral PI control algorithm.

  18. Battery monitoring in Mexican hybrid power systems; Monitoreo de las baterias en sistemas de potencia hibridos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Agredano, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Hybrid power systems for an autonomous power supply are based on different renewable and fossil energy sources. They are considered as a good option for the power supply of remote areas. In these systems an energy storage is a vital necessity and very often this storage will consist of batteries which are generally connected in series and parallel arrays, or both. In Mexico as in other countries, the most extensively use batteries used for this application are the stationary and electric car type deep cycle batteries. However the experience with them in these systems is generally not very good. One way to overcome this problem is to maintain a regular monitoring of installing monitoring equipment, in order to make preventive actions before a developing fault can have serious consequences and in this manner increase the practical lifetime of the batteries. Unfortunately, battery monitoring is not easy task because most of the hybrid power systems are installed in remote areas which makes it difficult and expensive. In Mexico it has been not possible to maintain a regular monitoring of all hybrid power systems installed, due to the high cost of this work and the lack of founds. The hybrid power systems installed in the state of Quintana Roo are the only systems that have been continuously monitored since their installation. This paper gives an overview of the hybrid power systems installed in Mexico, focusing in the battery banks, the way they are being monitored, the main parameters used to detect possible premature problems and the method used to evaluate the battery bank conditions. Finally some results from the battery banks monitoring activities are presented. [Espanol] Los sistemas de potencia hibridos para un suministro autonomo de energia a regiones remotas, estan basados en diferentes fuentes de energia fosiles y renovables. Estos son considerados como una buena opcion para el suministro de energia a areas remotas. En estos sistemas es una necesidad vital el

  19. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source of en...

  20. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  1. Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of a Steel–Concrete Hybrid Supporting Structure in Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a steel–concrete hybrid structure consisting of reinforced concrete (RC tubular columns and steel braced truss with A-shaped steel frames, which is a novel supporting structural system to house air-cooled condensers (ACC in large-capacity thermal power plants (TPPs. First, the finite element (FE modeling approach for this hybrid structure using the software ABAQUS was validated by a range of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The failure process, lateral displacement responses, changing rules of dynamic characteristic parameters and lateral stiffness with increase of peak ground acceleration (PGA were presented here. Then, nonlinear time-history analysis of the prototype structure was carried out. The dynamic characteristics, base shear force, lateral deformation capacity, stiffness deterioration and damage characteristics were investigated. Despite the structural complexity and irregularity, both experimental and numerical results indicate that the overall seismic performance of this steel–concrete hybrid supporting structure meets the seismic design requirements with respect to the high-intensity earthquakes.

  2. Power Flow Management in a High Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System with Short-Term Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouilhet, S. M.

    1999-07-29

    This paper is intended as an introduction to some of the control challenges faced by developers of high penetration wind-diesel systems, with a focus on the management of power flows in order to achieve precise regulation of frequency and voltage in the face of rapidly varying wind power input and load conditions. The control algorithms presented herein are being implemented in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) high penetration wind-diesel system controller that will be installed in the village of Wales, Alaska, in early 2000.

  3. Design of an Area-Efficient and Low-Power NoC Architecture Using a Hybrid Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Joo; Hwang, Sun Young

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid NoC structure and a dynamic job distribution algorithm which can reduce system area and power consumption by reducing packet drop rate for various multimedia applications. The proposed NoC adopts different network structures between sub-clusters. Network structure is determined by profiling application program so that packet drop rate can be minimized. The proposed job distribution algorithm assigns every job to the sub-cluster where packet drop rate can be minimized for each multimedia application program. The proposed scheme targets multimedia applications frequently used in modern embedded systems, such as MPEG4 and MP3 decoders, GPS positioning systems, and OFDM demodulators. Experimental results show that packet drop rate was reduced by 31.6% on the average, when compared to complex network structure topologies consisting of sub-clusters of same topology. Chip area and power consumption were reduced by 16.0% and 34.0%, respectively.

  4. Off-grid hybrid electric power supply system, using a combination of solar cells, small scale wind turbine and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, W.

    1994-03-01

    The design of an off-grid electric power supply system consisting of a small scale wind turbine, a combination of solar cells and batteries is described. The robust, small scale FC 4000 wind turbine, which needs little maintenance, can be used under varying climatic conditions. It is equipped with a permanent-magnet generator with an output of 1.5 kW. The generator`s rotor is directly coupled with the wind turbine`s rotor and is without a gearbox, so the frequency and output varies according to wind speed. The 12 m{sup 2} solar cell system consists of round modules embedded in glass and with an efficiency of 13%. The lead acid batteries are used when power consumption exceeds production and store energy for future use. Further adjustments are necessary in order to optimize the performance of this hybrid system. (AB)

  5. Hybrid NEMS-CMOS Architectures for Ultra Low Power Smart Systems : Architectures for Ultra Low Power Smart Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enachescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of inexpensive and powerful processors provides the means for the computation ecosystem to change its fundamental paradigm towards the Internet of Things (IoT) where ubiquitous nanosystems add intelligence to every object that surrounds us. The new trend for most of those systems is

  6. Wavelet decomposition and neuro-fuzzy hybrid system applied to short-term wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Jimenez, L.A.; Mendoza-Villena, M. [La Rioja Univ., Logrono (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Abebe, B. [Zaragoza Univ., Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-03-09

    Wind energy has become increasingly popular as a renewable energy source. However, the integration of wind farms in the electrical power systems presents several problems, including the chaotic fluctuation of wind flow which results in highly varied power generation from a wind farm. An accurate forecast of wind power generation has important consequences in the economic operation of the integrated power system. This paper presented a new statistical short-term wind power forecasting model based on wavelet decomposition and neuro-fuzzy systems optimized with a genetic algorithm. The paper discussed wavelet decomposition; the proposed wind power forecasting model; and computer results. The original time series, the mean electric power generated in a wind farm, was decomposing into wavelet coefficients that were utilized as inputs for the forecasting model. The forecasting results obtained with the final models were compared to those obtained with traditional forecasting models showing a better performance for all the forecasting horizons. 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Optimal Sizing Of An Off-Grid Small Hydro-Photovoltaic-Diesel Generator Hybrid Power System For A Distant Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebanji B.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an optimal sizing technique for an off-grid hybrid system consisting of Small Hydro SHP system Photovoltaic PV modules Battery BATT banks and Diesel Generator DG. The objective cost function Annualized Cost System and the Loss of Power Supply Probability LPSP were minimized with application of Genetic Algorithm GA in order to reduce the Cost of Energy COE generation. GA compared to other convectional optimization methods has the ability to attain global optimum easily. The decision variables are the number of small hydro turbines NSHP number of solar panels NPV number of battery banks NBATT and the capacity of DG PDG. The proposed method was applied to a typical rural village Itapaji-Ekiti in Nigeria. The monthly average solar irradiance data were converted into hourly solar irradiance data for uniformity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to identify the most important parameter influencing the optimized hybrid system. The optimal sizing result of the HPS is 954 kW of SHP 290 kW of PV panels 9500 sets of 600Ah battery strings and 350 kW of DG. The optimal Loss of Power Supply Probability LPSP is 0.0054 and the Renewable Fraction RF is 0.62 which is indeed a significant improvement on the environment and comparatively better than any other combinations in the system.

  8. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  9. High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinsuke; Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Sekiguchi, Shigeaki; Kurahashi, Teruo; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2012-12-17

    An Si/III-V hybrid laser oscillating at a single wavelength was developed for use in a large-scale Si optical I/O chip. The laser had an InP-based reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) chip integrated with an Si wavelength-selection-mirror chip in a flip-chip configuration. A low coupling loss of 1.55 dB at the Si-SOA interface was accomplished by both mode-field-matching between Si-SOA waveguides and accurately controlling the bonding position. The fabricated Si hybrid laser exhibited a very low threshold current of 9.4 mA, a high output power of 15.0 mW, and a high wall-plug efficiency of 7.6% at 20 °C. Moreover, the device maintained a high output power of >10 mW up to 60°C due to the high thermal conductance between the SOA chip and Si substrate. The short cavity length of the flip-chip bonded laser expanded the longitudinal mode spacing. This resulted in temperature-stable single longitudinal mode lasing and a low RIN level of <-130 dB/Hz.

  10. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  11. “Conyo talk”: the affirmation of hybrid identity and power in contemporary Philippine discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Garvida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine linguistic and cultural phenomenon “coño talk” (a mix of predominantly Spanish and English with tagalog is a type of discourse that purportedly identifies and differentiates people of ‘power’ from the common masses, and arose from the impact of Spanish and American colonization. This paper examines how web discussion forums embody these social tensions through ethnomethodological discourse analysis (Tate 2007 and Bhabha’s (1990 third space to demonstrate the patent cultural hybridity in the Philippine society. Analysis demonstrates how participants as conyo speakers position themselves, and discusses the socio-cultural implications of these presentations. Results show participants instinctively and/or intentionally use this type of discourse and position themselves to construct or establish their own identities. Implications for cultural hybridity and the constraining, facilitating or subjectification effects of this type of discourse on Philippine society are discussed

  12. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa; Mustapha Koussa; Nourredine Said

    2013-01-01

    The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study,...

  13. Hybrid photosynthesis-powering biocatalysts with solar energy captured by inorganic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The biological reduction of CO2 driven by sunlight via photosynthesis is a crucial process for life on earth. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to biomass by natural photosynthesis is low. This translates in bioproduction processes relying on natural photosynthesis that are inefficient energetically. Recently, hybrid photosynthetic technologies with the potential of significantly increasing the efficiency of solar energy conversion to products have been developed. In these systems, the reduction of CO2 into biofuels or other chemicals of interest by biocatalysts is driven by solar energy captured with inorganic devices such as photovoltaic cells or photoelectrodes. Here, we explore hybrid photosynthesis and examine the strategies being deployed to improve this biotechnology.

  14. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Search Method Using Temperature Measurements in Partial Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroczka Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels have a non-linear current-voltage characteristics to produce the maximum power at only one point called the maximum power point. In the case of the uniform illumination a single solar panel shows only one maximum power, which is also the global maximum power point. In the case an irregularly illuminated photovoltaic panel many local maxima on the power-voltage curve can be observed and only one of them is the global maximum. The proposed algorithm detects whether a solar panel is in the uniform insolation conditions. Then an appropriate strategy of tracking the maximum power point is taken using a decision algorithm. The proposed method is simulated in the environment created by the authors, which allows to stimulate photovoltaic panels in real conditions of lighting, temperature and shading.

  15. SOFT POWER AND THE HYBRID WAR AS ELEMENTS OF STRATEGY OF RUSSIA IN THE GEOPOLITICAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Xaribin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the characteristics of the concepts “soft power” and “hybrid war” which are popular terms in modern political studies. The author inspected the historic features of these concepts, the evolution of the state military strategies, starting with Clausewitz’ war strategy up to the current situation, where the military and information factors are equally important. Russian confrontation in the information wars of our time and the experience of using the elements of the hybrid war strategy have been thoroughly studied. The author provides practical recommendations for the improvement of Russia’s image, as well as for strengthening its positions in the international political system. Overall, the author concludes that Russia is now losing in the information war, however, there are prerequisites to reverse this negative trend, while using the positive experience of Russia’s “soft power” and the information wars. In addition, the author suggests using the tactics of “hybrid war” for defending Russia’s interests in the future.

  16. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  17. High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2013-09-19

    In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case

  18. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  19. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, H.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, a small scale hybrid solar heating, chilling and power generation system, including parabolic trough solar collector with cavity receiver, a helical screw expander and silica gel-water adsorption chiller, etc., was proposed and extensively investigated. The system has the merits of effecting the power generation cycle at lower temperature level with solar energy more efficiently and can provide both thermal energy and power for remote off-grid regions. A case study was carried out to evaluate an annual energy and exergy efficiency of the system under the climate of northwestern region of China. It is found that both the main energy and exergy loss take place at the parabolic trough collector, amount to 36.2% and 70.4%, respectively. Also found is that the studied system can have a higher solar energy conversion efficiency than the conventional solar thermal power generation system alone. The energy efficiency can be increased to 58.0% from 10.2%, and the exergy efficiency can be increased to 15.2% from 12.5%. Moreover, the economical analysis in terms of cost and payback period (PP) has been carried out. The study reveals that the proposed system the PP of the proposed system is about 18 years under present energy price conditions. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the interest rate decreases to 3% or energy price increase by 50%, PP will be less than 10 years. (author)

  20. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power part II. System packaging and operating route simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work assesses the feasibility of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid power systems for use as the prime mover in freight locomotives. The available space in a diesel engine-powered locomotive is compared to that required for an SOFC-GT system, inclusive of fuel processing systems necessary for the SOFC-GT. The SOFC-GT space requirement is found to be similar to current diesel engines, without consideration of the electrical balance of plant. Preliminary design of the system layout within the locomotive is carried out for illustration. Recent advances in SOFC technology and implications of future improvements are discussed as well. A previously-developed FORTRAN model of an SOFC-GT system is then augmented to simulate the kinematics and power notching of a train and its locomotives. The operation of the SOFC-GT-powered train is investigated along a representative route in Southern California, with simulations presented for diesel reformate as well as natural gas reformate and hydrogen as fuels. Operational parameters and difficulties are explored as are comparisons of expected system performance to modern diesel engines. It is found that even in the diesel case, the SOFC-GT system provides significant savings in fuel and CO2 emissions, making it an attractive option for the rail industry.

  1. 3D fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator for energy harvesting and as a self-powered pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhan; Lin, Zong-Hong; Cheng, Gang; Wen, Xiaonan; Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-28

    In the past years, scientists have shown that development of a power suit is no longer a dream by integrating the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) or triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with commercial carbon fiber cloth. However, there is still no design applying those two kinds of NG together to collect the mechanical energy more efficiently. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator (FBHNG) composed of TENG and PENG to collect the mechanical energy in the environment. The FBHNG is three-dimensional and can harvest the energy from all directions. The TENG is positioned in the core and covered with PENG as a coaxial core/shell structure. The PENG design here not only enhances the collection efficiency of mechanical energy by a single carbon fiber but also generates electric output when the TENG is not working. We also show the potential that the FBHNG can be weaved into a smart cloth to harvest the mechanical energy from human motions and act as a self-powered strain sensor. The instantaneous output power density of TENG and PENG can achieve 42.6 and 10.2 mW/m(2), respectively. And the rectified output of FBHNG has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive light-emitting diodes, which are also designed as a self-powered alert system.

  2. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  3. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts of Hybrid Giant Napier (Pennisetum Hydridum) Direct-fired Power Generation in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanfen; Fang, Hailin; Zhang, Hengjin; Yu, Zhaosheng; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    To meet with the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the feasibility of Hybrid Giant Napier (HGN) direct-fired power generation in this study. The entire life cycle is consisted of five stages (cultivation and harvesting, transportation, drying and comminuting, direct-fired power generation, constructing and decommissioning of biomass power plant). Analytical results revealed that to generate 10000kWh electricity, 10.925 t of customized HGN fuel (moisture content: 30 wt%) and 6659.430 MJ of energy were required. The total environmental impact potential was 0.927 PET2010 (person equivalents, targeted, in 2010) and the global warming (GW), acidification (AC), and nutrient (NE) emissions were 339.235 kg CO2-eq, 22.033 kg SO2-eq, and 25.486 kg NOx-eq respectively. The effect of AC was the most serious among all calculated category impacts. The energy requirements and environmental impacts were found to be sensitive to single yield, average transport distance, cutting frequency, and moisture content. The results indicated that HGN direct-fired power generation accorded well with Chinese energy planning; in addition, HGN proved to be a promising contribution to reducing non-renewable energy consumption and had encouraging prospects as a renewable energy plant.

  4. A Model-Driven Approach for Hybrid Power Estimation in Embedded Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Atitallah Rabie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As technology scales for increased circuit density and performance, the management of power consumption in system-on-chip (SoC is becoming critical. Today, having the appropriate electronic system level (ESL tools for power estimation in the design flow is mandatory. The main challenge for the design of such dedicated tools is to achieve a better tradeoff between accuracy and speed. This paper presents a consumption estimation approach allowing taking the consumption criterion into account early in the design flow during the system cosimulation. The originality of this approach is that it allows the power estimation for both white-box intellectual properties (IPs using annotated power models and black-box IPs using standalone power estimators. In order to obtain accurate power estimates, our simulations were performed at the cycle-accurate bit-accurate (CABA level, using SystemC. To make our approach fast and not tedious for users, the simulated architectures, including standalone power estimators, were generated automatically using a model driven engineering (MDE approach. Both annotated power models and standalone power estimators can be used together to estimate the consumption of the same architecture, which makes them complementary. The simulation results showed that the power estimates given by both estimation techniques for a hardware component are very close, with a difference that does not exceed 0.3%. This proves that, even when the IP code is not accessible or not modifiable, our approach allows obtaining quite accurate power estimates that early in the design flow thanks to the automation offered by the MDE approach.

  5. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  6. HYBRID EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE CONTROL IN POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soundarrajan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Power generating system has the responsibility to ensure that adequate power is delivered to the load, both reliably and economically. Any electrical system must be maintained at the desired operating level characterized by nominal frequency and voltage profile. But the ability of the power system to track the load is limited due to physical and technical consideration. Hence, a Power System Control is required to maintain a continuous balance between power generation and load demand. The quality of power supply is affected due to continuous and random changes in load during the operation of the power system. Load Frequency Controller (LFC and Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR play an important role in maintaining constant frequency and voltage in order to ensure the reliability of electric power. The fixed gain PID controllers used for this application fail to perform under varying load conditions and hence provide poor dynamic characteristics with large settling time, overshoot and oscillations. In this paper, Evolutionary Algorithms (EA like, Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO, Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO, and Stochastic Particle Swarm Optimization (SPSO are proposed to overcome the premature convergence problem in a standard PSO. These algorithms reduce transient oscillations and also increase the computational efficiency. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller adapt themselves appropriate to varying loads and hence provide better performance characteristics with respect to settling time, oscillations and overshoot.

  7. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  8. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  9. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  10. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  11. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV- wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  12. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  13. Study on solar and human power hybrid drive system applied to electric wheelchair; Dendosha isu ni tekiyosuru taiyo denchi jinriki hybrid kudo system ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y.; Uchijima, T.; Saijo, T. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    In order to control, with high efficiency, the solar and human power hybrid drive system, the solar cell capacity and condenser capacitance were studied for the brushless DC motor. As an energy storage source, condensers were used in parallel in lieu of battery. In the steady state, the energy generated by the solar cells is used for the driving, while its shortage is compensated from the condensers against the start-up and other cases of much energy required. If the condenser capacitance is small, the start-up is delayed. If it is extremely large, the required time is prolonged for the charging and discharging, the weight increases, and the follow-up performance falls. Judging from the working points (voltage and current) required for the solar cells during the rated operation, 13 modules gave an appropriate capacity, while the appropriate condenser capacitance was 2424 micron F. When a rotational frequency of 2500rpm was inputted, sufficiently smooth torque characteristics were given as start-up characteristics with a good follow-up performance and appropriate condenser capacitance. Judging from the working points during the rated operation, the solar cell capacity was also appropriate. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  15. Led spectral and power characteristics under hybrid PWM/AM dimming strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    In order to dim LEDs the pulse width modulation (PWM) or amplitude modulation (AM) dimming scheme is typically used. Previous studies show that these dimming schemes can have opposite effects on diodes peak wavelength shift. An experimental study was conducted to test the behavior of InGaN diodes...... and phosphor-converted white diodes under hybrid PWM/AM modulation. Feed forward control schemes that provide stable peak wavelength position during dimming and the ability to compensate the thermally induced color shifts and the decrease of the luminous flux are investigated....

  16. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  17. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  18. Supersonic plasma beams with controlled speed generated by the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, L.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Donoso, J. M.; Damba, J.; Tierno, S. P.; Alamillo-Gamboa, E.; Castillo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of supersonic ion beams from the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) are discussed. This simple concept of a DC powered plasma accelerator that only needs one electron source for both neutral gas ionization and ion beam neutralization is also examined. The plasma production and space charge neutralization processes are thus coupled in this plasma thruster that has a total DC power consumption of below 450 W, and uses xenon or argon gas as a propellant. The operation parameters of the plasma engine are studied in the laboratory in connection with the ion energy distribution function obtained with a retarding-field energy analyzer. The ALPHIE plasma beam expansion produces a mesothermal plasma flow with two-peaked ion energy distribution functions composed of low and high speed ion groups. The characteristic drift velocities of the fast ion groups, in the range 36.6-43.5 Km/s, are controlled by the acceleration voltage. These supersonic speeds are higher than the typical ion sound velocities of the low energy ion group produced by the expansion of the plasma jet. The temperatures of the slow ion population lead to ion Debye lengths longer than the electron Debye lengths. Furthermore, the electron impact ionization can coexist with collisional ionization by fast ions downstream the grids. Finally, the performance characteristics and comparisons with other plasma accelerator schemes are also discussed.

  19. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests.

  20. Estimation of CO2reduction by parallel hard-type power hybridization for gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible improvements in ICEVs by implementing fuzzy logic-based parallel hard-type power hybrid systems. Two types of conventional ICEVs (gasoline and diesel) and two types of HEVs (gasoline-electric, diesel electric) were generated using vehicle and powertrain simulation tools and a Matlab-Simulink application programming interface. For gasoline and gasoline-electric HEV vehicles, the prediction accuracy for four types of LDV models was validated by conducting comparative analysis with the chassis dynamometer and OBD test data. The predicted results show strong correlation with the test data. The operating points of internal combustion engines and electric motors are well controlled in the high efficiency region and battery SOC was well controlled within ±1.6%. However, for diesel vehicles, we generated virtual diesel-electric HEV vehicle because there is no available vehicles with similar engine and vehicle specifications with ICE vehicle. Using a fuzzy logic-based parallel hybrid system in conventional ICEVs demonstrated that HEVs showed superior performance in terms of fuel consumption and CO 2 emission in most driving modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Power System for an Emerging Island of South Korea: The Case of Yeongjong Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available South Korea, which has led in “green growth” since 2012, is now focusing on investigating new-growth engine industries such as the gaming industry and mega-resort development. Yeongjong Island is the most representative and promising location for nurturing the gaming industry, which has already generated more than 20 billion USD. However, the construction of mega resort clusters generates critical energy issues. Despite this potential problem, local governments and South Korea’s central government have not yet established a sustainable energy blueprint plan. Therefore, the objective of our research is to analyze and suggest an optimal hybrid renewable power system for Yeongjong Island by using empirical data (load data, climate data, equipment data, and economic variables. The results of the study academically show 100% of electricity in Yeongjong Island with renewable energy-oriented hybrid system technologically, economically, and socially feasible for the following reasons: First, the island’s renewable energy station has a lower cost and a shorter construction period than other energy stations. Second, the island’s renewable energy station produces no carbon dioxide and has no risk of other environmental pollution that may encounter resistance from local residents.

  2. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  3. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  4. High-power, hybrid Er:fiber/Tm:fiber frequency comb source in the 2 μm wavelength region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Florian; Diddams, Scott A

    2012-05-01

    We present a 2 μm frequency comb based on a reliable mode-locked Er:fiber laser with 100 MHz repetition rate. After shifting the spectrum of the amplified Er:fiber comb to longer wavelengths, a single-clad Tm/Ho:fiber is used as a self-pumped pre-amplifier to generate a coherent and broadband spectrum centered at 1.93 μm. Subsequently, a cladding-pumped Tm:fiber amplifier boosts the system to a maximum output power of 4.8 W at 1.96 μm. After compression in a compact grating compressor, our amplified Er:fiber/Tm:fiber hybrid system delivers as much as 2.9 W with a pulse duration of 141 fs. The system's comb properties are examined via heterodyne measurement.

  5. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  6. Air-Hybrid Distributed Bragg Reflector Structure for Improving the Light Output Power in AlGalnP-Based LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Sub; Ryu, Ho-Soung; Park, Sueng Ho; Jeong, Tak; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hyung Joo; Cho, Young Dae; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Baek, Jong Hyeob

    2015-07-01

    We investigated air gap-induced hybrid distributed Bragg reflectors (AH-DBRs) for use in high brightness and reliable AlGalnP-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). An air gap was inserted into the side of DBRs by selectively etching the Al(x),Ga1-xAs DBR structures. With the AH-DBR structures, the optical output power of LEDs was enhanced by 15% compared to LEDs having conventional DBRs, due to the effective reflection of obliquely incident light by the air gap structures. In addition, the electrical characteristics showed that the AH-DBR LED is a desirable structure for reducing the leakage current, as it suppresses unwanted surface recombinations.

  7. Hybrid neuro-fuzzy system for power generation control with environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Krishna Teerth; Pandit, Manjaree; Srivastava, Laxmi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science (M.I.T.S.), Race Course Road, Gola Ka Mandir, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh 474 005 (India)

    2008-11-15

    The real time controls at the central energy management centre in a power system, continuously track the load changes and endeavor to match the total power demand with total generation in such a manner that the operating cost is least. However due to the strict government regulations on environmental protection, operation at minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electrical power. The idea behind the environmentally constrained combined economic dispatch formulation is to estimate the optimal generation allocation to generating units in such a manner that fuel cost and harmful emission levels are both simultaneously minimized for a given load demand. Conventional optimization techniques are cumbersome for such complex optimization tasks and are not suitable for on-line use due to increased computational burden. This paper proposes a neuro-fuzzy power dispatch method where the uncertainty involved with power demand is modeled as a fuzzy variable. Then Levenberg-Marquardt neural network (LMNN) is used to evaluate the optimal generation schedules. This model trains almost hundred times faster that the popular BP neural network. The proposed method has been tested on two test systems and found to be suitable for on-line combined environmental economic dispatch. (author)

  8. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huijun, E-mail: huijun024@gmail.com [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Zhang, Mingju [Shanghai Aerospace Control Technology Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  9. Voltage sensitivity based reactive power control on VSC-HVDC in a wind farm connected hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    With increasing application of both Line Commutated Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (LCC-HVDC) systems and Voltage Source Converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) links, a new type of system structure named Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system is formed in the modern power systems. This paper...... presents the operation and control method of the wind farm connected HMIDC system. The wind power fluctuation takes large influence to the system voltages. In order to reduce the voltage fluctuation of LCC-HVDC infeed bus caused by the wind power variation, a voltage sensitivity-based reactive power...

  10. A Flexible Power Control Method of VSC-HVDC Link for the Enhancement of Effective Short-Circuit Ratio in a Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    With the emerging use of voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) links, the hybrid multi-infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system that includes the line commutated converter (LCC) HVDC and the VSC-HVDC links is becoming a promising power transmission structure in the modern power systems......, based on the calculation results, a flexible power control strategy for the VSC-HVDC link is developed to provide maximum reactive power support under grid faults. The theoretical analysis of the HMIDC system is based on the Danish transmission grid, evaluated through PSCAD simulations under different...... grid fault conditions. Simulation results are presented to validate the expected performance of the proposed method....

  11. Modular simulation of a hybrid power system with diesel, photovoltaic inverter and wind turbine generation

    OpenAIRE

    Klimis Ch. Karasavvas

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behavior and stability of an isolated electric power system, fed by a conventional energy plant and a re-newable energy system, is presented in this paper. Matlab/Simulink is the used software for simulating the whole system.

  12. Four-branch Star Hybrid Power Filter for Three-phase Four-wire Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks. The four-branch star (FBS) filtering topology presented in this work is characterized by a particular layout consisting of single-phase inductances and capacitors. Via this layout, a power filter,...

  13. A Novel Hybrid Model for Short-Term Forecasting in PV Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of solar power as a source of electricity has led to increased interest in forecasting its power output over short-time horizons. Short-term forecasts are needed for operational planning, switching sources, programming backup, reserve usage, and peak load matching. However, the output of a photovoltaic (PV system is influenced by irradiation, cloud cover, and other weather conditions. These factors make it difficult to conduct short-term PV output forecasting. In this paper, an experimental database of solar power output, solar irradiance, air, and module temperature data has been utilized. It includes data from the Green Energy Office Building in Malaysia, the Taichung Thermal Plant of Taipower, and National Penghu University. Based on the historical PV power and weather data provided in the experiment, all factors that influence photovoltaic-generated energy are discussed. Moreover, five types of forecasting modules were developed and utilized to predict the one-hour-ahead PV output. They include the ARIMA, SVM, ANN, ANFIS, and the combination models using GA algorithm. Forecasting results show the high precision and efficiency of this combination model. Therefore, the proposed model is suitable for ensuring the stable operation of a photovoltaic generation system.

  14. Modular simulation of a hybrid power system with diesel, photovoltaic inverter and wind turbine generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimis Ch. Karasavvas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior and stability of an isolated electric power system, fed by a conventional energy plant and a re-newable energy system, is presented in this paper. Matlab/Simulink is the used software for simulating the whole system.

  15. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power plant, Lassen County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of a proposed 50 MW (gross) electric power project located near Wendel, California about 25 miles east of Susanville was studied. The project would be the first commercial power plant to combine the use of geothermal energy and wood fuel for power production. Wood fuel consisting primarily of various forms of forest management residues would be processed and partially dehydrated with geothermal energy prior to combustion. Geothermal energy would also be used for boiler feedwater heating and combustion air preheating. The study defines the range of site-specific benefits and economics of using wood fuel and moderate temperature geothermal energy, both of which are abundant and often located in proximity at many locations in the western United States. The study results document conclusively that overall project economics can be very favorable and that in addition to providing an important source of electric power, many benefits to forest land managers, local communities, project developers and the state of the environment can be derived from the combined use of moderate temperature geothermal energy and wood fuel.

  16. OpenAnalogInput(): Hybrid Spaces, Self-Making and Power in the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda da Costa Portugal

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how the emergence of the Internet of Things and the embeddedness of sensors and networked connectivity onto things, physical spaces and biological bodies rearticulates embodied spaces, devises practices of self-making and forms of power in the governance of the self and society. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).…

  17. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to

  18. Study of Method for Designing the Power and the Capacitance of Fuel Cells and Electric Double-Layer Capacitors of Hybrid Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Kondo, Keiichiro

    A hybrid railway traction system with fuel cells (FCs) and electric double layer-capacitors (EDLCs) is discussed in this paper. This system can save FC costs and absorb the regenerative energy. A method for designing FCs and EDLCs on the basis of the output power and capacitance, respectively, has not been reported, even though their design is one of the most important technical issues encountered in the design of hybrid railway vehicles. Such design method is presented along with a train load profile and an energy management strategy. The design results obtained using the proposed method are verified by performing numerical simulations of a running train. These results reveal that the proposed method for designing the EDLCs and FCs on the basis of the capacitance and power, respectively, and by using a method for controlling the EDLC voltage is sufficiently effective in designing efficient EDLCs and FCs of hybrid railway traction systems.

  19. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

    2007-02-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem.

  20. Electricity/electronics in electric-powered vehicles and electric management III; Elektrik/Elektronik in Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen und elektrisches Energiemanagement III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Carsten; Sirch, Ottmar

    2012-07-01

    The concept of e-Mobility currently is on everyone's lips. Worldwide, manufacturers and suppliers work with high pressure on new concepts and vehicles. Hybrid vehicles pave the way for pure electric-powered vehicles. Due to the problems of energy saving, electric-powered vehicles will take a long time for an extensively utilization. In the book underconsideration, experts from research and practice report on the latest technologies.

  1. Experimental investigation into the fault response of superconducting hybrid electric propulsion electrical power system to a DC rail to rail fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, S.; Jones, C. E.; Munro, R.; Norman, P.; Galloway, S.; Venturumilli, S.; Sheng, J.; Yuan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid electric propulsion aircraft are proposed to improve overall aircraft efficiency, enabling future rising demands for air travel to be met. The development of appropriate electrical power systems to provide thrust for the aircraft is a significant challenge due to the much higher required power generation capacity levels and complexity of the aero-electrical power systems (AEPS). The efficiency and weight of the AEPS is critical to ensure that the benefits of hybrid propulsion are not mitigated by the electrical power train. Hence it is proposed that for larger aircraft (~200 passengers) superconducting power systems are used to meet target power densities. Central to the design of the hybrid propulsion AEPS is a robust and reliable electrical protection and fault management system. It is known from previous studies that the choice of protection system may have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the AEPS. Hence an informed design process which considers the key trades between choice of cable and protection requirements is needed. To date the fault response of a voltage source converter interfaced DC link rail to rail fault in a superconducting power system has only been investigated using simulation models validated by theoretical values from the literature. This paper will present the experimentally obtained fault response for a variety of different types of superconducting tape for a rail to rail DC fault. The paper will then use these as a platform to identify key trades between protection requirements and cable design, providing guidelines to enable future informed decisions to optimise hybrid propulsion electrical power system and protection design.

  2. Analysis of a novel autonomous marine hybrid power generation/energy storage system with a high-voltage direct current link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents both time-domain and frequency-domain simulated results of a novel marine hybrid renewable-energy power generation/energy storage system (PG/ESS) feeding isolated loads through an high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link. The studied marine PG subsystems comprise both offshore...

  3. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  4. Low power 1 × 4 polymer/SiO2 hybrid waveguide thermo-optic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guobing; Ji, Lanting; Gao, Yang; Liu, Rui; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yi, Yunji; Wang, Xibin; Chen, Changming; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2017-11-01

    A 1 × 4 thermo-optic switch based on polymer /SiO2 waveguide has been investigated. The input light can be routed to any of the four output ports by different metal heater control. An asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer is adopted to avoid pre-biasing. Silica bottom-cladding speeds up the process of material refractive index restoration and corresponding switching operation. Finite element method is used to optimize the optical design. The air trench formed on both sides of the active branch reduces the electrical power consumption by 20%. The experimental result demonstrates an extinction ratio of 20 dB at an electrical power consumption of 6 mW. The rise time and fall time are 160 and 80 μs, respectively. This work has promising potentials for optical network connections.

  5. A Hybrid Single-Carrier/Multicarrier Transmission Scheme with Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féty Luc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a flexible transmission scheme which easily allows to switch between cyclic-prefixed single-carrier (CP-SC and cyclic-prefixed multicarrier (CP-MC transmissions. This scheme takes advantage of the best characteristic of each scheme, namely, the low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of the CP-SC scheme and the robustness to channel selectivity of the CP-MC scheme. Moreover, we derive the optimum power allocation for the CP-SC transmission considering a zero-forcing (ZF and a minimum mean-square error (MMSE receiver. By taking the PAPR into account, we are able to make a better analysis of the overall system and the results show the advantage of the CP-SC-MMSE scheme for flat and mild selective channels due to their low PAPR and that the CP-MC scheme is more advantageous for a narrow range of channels with severe selectivity.

  6. A Hybrid Single-Carrier/Multicarrier Transmission Scheme with Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Féty

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a flexible transmission scheme which easily allows to switch between cyclic-prefixed single-carrier (CP-SC and cyclic-prefixed multicarrier (CP-MC transmissions. This scheme takes advantage of the best characteristic of each scheme, namely, the low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of the CP-SC scheme and the robustness to channel selectivity of the CP-MC scheme. Moreover, we derive the optimum power allocation for the CP-SC transmission considering a zero-forcing (ZF and a minimum mean-square error (MMSE receiver. By taking the PAPR into account, we are able to make a better analysis of the overall system and the results show the advantage of the CP-SC-MMSE scheme for flat and mild selective channels due to their low PAPR and that the CP-MC scheme is more advantageous for a narrow range of channels with severe selectivity.

  7. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Monthly technical progress report for the month of December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-17

    Levelized busbar energy costs for the sodium-cooled hybrid central receiver concept using both oil and coal as a fuel were developed as a function of the plant capacity factor and as a function of the solar multiple. The fuel escalation question was reviewed in detail on the basis of past historical data, and it was concluded that the lower escalation numbers that are provided in the requirements definition document appear to be more likely to represent the real situation. Subsystem-level trade studies were continued during this reporting period. A detailed investigation of the series/parallel arrangement of the sodium heater and solar receiver was conducted. The various performance, lifetime, and cost factors were determined for each arrangement for the receiver and nonsolar subsystems, respectively. Collector subsystem studies were continued. Revised cost algorithms that include levelized O and M costs for the heliostats were generated in order that they can be used in the field optimization. On the basis of the subsystem studies and the economic assessment work, a reference configuration was tentatively derived. This configuration does not require storage and uses a parallel arrangement of the receiver and the heater. At this time, a coal-fired heater seems to have a potential economic advantage under realistic assumptions for the escalation of coal relative to oil over the next decade or so.

  8. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems for remote power supply. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document include the papers of the RIER Workshop that was hold in Cancun, Mexico, on 21-25 April 1997. This Workshop was organized by the Non-Conventional Energy Unit of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), with the financial contributions from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Iberoamerican Network for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy (RIER) of the Program Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The purpose of this Workshop was to present works developed on the technology of Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid Systems, and to discuss both technical and non-technical factors that could foster or inhibit the widespread application this technology [Espanol] Este documento incluye los articulos tecnicos del taller de trabajo RIER, realizado en Cancun, Mexico, del 21 al 25 de abril de 1997. Este taller de trabajo fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), con la contribucion financiera del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) y de la Red de Trabajo Iberoamericana para la Electrificacion Rural con Energia Renovable (RIER) del programa Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). El proposito de este taller fue presentar trabajos desarrollados sobre la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos y de viento, y discutir los factores tecnicos y no tecnicos que pudieran fomentar o detener la amplia aplicacion de esta tecnologia

  9. An evaluation on the cost efficiency of wind and solar hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    Solar energy generation is intermittent due to the limitation of night time and weather, so batteries are normally used to stabilize the solar energy output in the distributed generation system. However, batteries are still expensive and have relatively short life span. The motivation of this research is to evaluate if wind energy can be a more cost efficient solution to replace battery storage. An algorithm is created to analyze the solar irradiance, wind speed and load data from two different cities, Atlantic City and San Diego. Then find the most cost efficient renewable energy solution for each city under different renewable energy penetration level. The result shows that the wind energy is not a good substitution for battery. The solar and wind hybrid system can reach higher renewable energy penetration level, but the cost of the system and the wasted energy percentage is also extremely high. In San Diego, the integration of wind energy does not bring any economic benefit to the solar system. In Atlantic City, where the wind energy resource is abundant, adding wind turbines to the solar battery system can lower the system cost while maintaining the same level of renewable energy penetration.

  10. Hybrid fs/ps CARS for Sooting and Particle-laden Flames [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Kathryn N. Gabet; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Kearney, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the application of ultrafast rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for temperature and relative oxygen concentration measurements in the plume emanating from a burning aluminized ammonium perchlorate propellant strand. Combustion of these metal-based propellants is a particularly hostile environment for laserbased diagnostics, with intense background luminosity, scattering and beam obstruction from hot metal particles that can be as large as several hundred microns in diameter. CARS spectra that were previously obtained using nanosecond pulsed lasers in an aluminumparticle- seeded flame are examined and are determined to be severely impacted by nonresonant background, presumably as a result of the plasma formed by particulateenhanced laser-induced breakdown. Introduction of fs/ps laser pulses enables CARS detection at reduced pulse energies, decreasing the likelihood of breakdown, while simultaneously providing time-gated elimination of any nonresonant background interference. Temperature probability densities and temperature/oxygen correlations were constructed from ensembles of several thousand single-laser-shot measurements from the fs/ps rotational CARS measurement volume positioned within 3 mm or less of the burning propellant surface. Preliminary results in canonical flames are presented using a hybrid fs/ps vibrational CARS system to demonstrate our progress towards acquiring vibrational CARS measurements for more accurate temperatures in the very high temperature propellant burns.

  11. The Language of Glove: Wireless gesture decoder with low-power and stretchable hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Timothy F.; Fach, Matthew E.; Miller, Rachel; Root, Samuel E.; Mercier, Patrick P.

    2017-01-01

    This communication describes a glove capable of wirelessly translating the American Sign Language (ASL) alphabet into text displayable on a computer or smartphone. The key components of the device are strain sensors comprising a piezoresistive composite of carbon particles embedded in a fluoroelastomer. These sensors are integrated with a wearable electronic module consisting of digitizers, a microcontroller, and a Bluetooth radio. Finite-element analysis predicts a peak strain on the sensors of 5% when the knuckles are fully bent. Fatigue studies suggest that the sensors successfully detect the articulation of the knuckles even when bent to their maximal degree 1,000 times. In concert with an accelerometer and pressure sensors, the glove is able to translate all 26 letters of the ASL alphabet. Lastly, data taken from the glove are used to control a virtual hand; this application suggests new ways in which stretchable and wearable electronics can enable humans to interface with virtual environments. Critically, this system was constructed of components costing less than $100 and did not require chemical synthesis or access to a cleanroom. It can thus be used as a test bed for materials scientists to evaluate the performance of new materials and flexible and stretchable hybrid electronics. PMID:28700603

  12. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  13. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem is formulated to rapidly and efficiently optimize both the control decision and parameters of the home battery energy storage system (BESS). Considering different time horizons of optimization, home BESS prices, types and control modes of PEVs, the parameters of home BESS and electric cost are systematically investigated. Based on the developed CP control law in home to vehicle (H2V) mode and vehicle to home (V2H) mode, the home with BESS does not buy electric energy from the grid during the electric price's peak periods.

  14. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  15. Assessment of quasi-linear effect of RF power spectrum for enabling lower hybrid current drive in reactor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.

  16. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  17. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  18. Self-feeding paper based biofuel cell/self-powered hybrid μ-supercapacitor integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Soavi, Francesca; Santoro, Carlo; Arbizzani, Catia; Serov, Alexey; Rojas-Carbonell, Santiago; Gupta, Gautam; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-12-15

    For the first time, a paper based enzymatic fuel cell is used as self-recharged supercapacitor. In this supercapacitive enzymatic fuel cell (SC-EFC), the supercapacitive features of the electrodes are exploited to demonstrate high power output under pulse operation. Glucose dehydrogenase-based anode and bilirubin oxidase-based cathode were assembled to a quasi-2D capillary-driven microfluidic system. Capillary flow guarantees the continuous supply of glucose, cofactor and electrolytes to the anodic enzyme and the gas-diffusional cathode design provides the passive supply of oxygen to the catalytic layer of the electrode. The paper-based cell was self-recharged under rest and discharged by high current pulses up to 4mAcm(-2). The supercapacitive behavior and low equivalent series resistance of the cell permitted to achieve up to a maximum power of 0.87mWcm(-2) (10.6mW) for pulses of 0.01s at 4mAcm(-2). This operation mode allowed the system to achieve at least one order of magnitude higher current/power generation compared to the steady state operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  20. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander J; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A

    2017-05-12

    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5-3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0-3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14 000 W kg-1, respectively.

  1. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander J.; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2017-05-01

    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5-3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0-3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14 000 W kg-1, respectively.

  2. A new hybrid nonlinear congruential number generator based on higher functional power of logistic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecen, Songul [Department of Computer Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Ave., Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)], E-mail: sxcecen@ualr.edu; Demirer, R. Murat [Department of Computer Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Ave., Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Istanbul Kultur University, Mathematics-Computer Department, Atakoy, Campus Bakirkoy 34156 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: mxdemirer@ualr.edu; Bayrak, Coskun [Department of Computer Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Ave., Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)], E-mail: cxbayrak@ualr.edu

    2009-10-30

    We propose a nonlinear congruential pseudorandom number generator consisting of summation of higher order composition of random logistic maps under certain congruential mappings. We change both bifurcation parameters of logistic maps in the interval of U=[3.5599,4) and coefficients of the polynomials in each higher order composition of terms up to degree d. This helped us to obtain a perfect random decorrelated generator which is infinite and aperiodic. It is observed from the simulation results that our new PRNG has good uniformity and power spectrum properties with very flat white noise characteristics. The results are interesting, new and may have applications in cryptography and in Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Mathematical model of an off-grid hybrid solar and wind power generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of an off-grid power generating system, coupled to a storage unit and to household appliances, is described by means of an analytic hydrodynamic analog. Following this analogy, by noticing that the effux rate from a leaking bucket is described, in terms of the liquid content, by Torricelli's formula, we denote as "Torricelli's smart consumer" a user being able to calibrate its energy consumption rate with respect to the energy level in the storage unit as if the hydrodynamic model would strictly apply. Simple solutions to the nonlinear dynamic problem associated to this type of smart consumer are found and generalization to other types of smart consumers are sought.

  4. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  5. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  6. Solving Bi-Objective Optimal Power Flow using Hybrid method of Biogeography-Based Optimization and Differential Evolution Algorithm: A case study of the Algerian Electrical Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafa Herbadji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid metaheuristique algorithm based on the hybridization of Biogeography-based optimization with the Differential Evolution for solving the optimal power flow problem with emission control. The biogeography-based optimization (BBO algorithm is strongly influenced by equilibrium theory of island biogeography, mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. Differential Evolution (DE is one of the best Evolutionary Algorithms for global optimization. The hybridization of these two methods is used to overcome traps of local optimal solutions and problems of time consumption. The objective of this paper is to minimize the total fuel cost of generation, total emission, total real power loss and also maintain an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real power, bus voltages and power flow of transmission lines. In the present work, BBO/DE has been applied to solve the optimal power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus test system and the Algerian electrical network 114 bus. The results obtained from this method show better performances compared with DE, BBO and other well known metaheuristique and evolutionary optimization methods.

  7. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  8. Simulation and Modeling of a Five -Level (NPC Inverter Fed by a Photovoltaic Generator and Integrated in a Hybrid Wind-PV Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezki,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A distributed hybrid coordinated wind photovoltaic (PV power system was proposed in this paper. As oil and coal reserves are being depleted whilst at the same time the energy demand is growing, it is important to consider alternative energy generating techniques. Today, the five-level (NPC inverter represents a good alternative for several industrial applications. To take advantage of the five-level inverter topology and the benefits of renewable energy represented by a photovoltaic generator, a new scheme of these controllers is proposed in this work. This paper outlines the design of a hybrid power system consisting of a solar photovoltaic (PV and a wind power system. The system is modeled in Matlab Simulink and tested for various conditions. The model and results are discussed in this paper.

  9. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  10. Analysis of the performance of a passive hybrid powerplant to power a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle for a high altitude mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Jordi; Sánchez, Fernando; Lozano, Antonio; Barroso, Jorge; Barreras, Félix

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the performance of a passive hybrid powerplant control system to be implemented in a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle capable to ascend up to the high troposphere (10,000 m). The powerplant is based on a high-temperature PEM fuel cell connected in parallel to a set of lithium-polymer batteries and regulated by two power diodes. Test performed in steady state demonstrates that the use of the hybrid system increases the efficiency of the stack by more than 7% because the voltage at the main DC bus is limited by the batteries. The robustness of the passive control system is proved in a long-term test in which random perturbations of ±15% are applied to the average power that would be demanded during the ascent flight. The hybridization of the stack with the batteries eliminates sudden peaks in the current generated by the stack, which are responsible for prompt degradation phenomena that drastically reduce its useful lifetime. The study demonstrates that with the passive hybrid powerplant it is possible to reach the target height with the gas storage system considered in the application, contrary to what happens with the simple power plant.

  11. A New Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System with Wind Turbine Generator and Photovoltaic Modules for a Small-Scale Radio Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shigeo; Yachi, Toshiaki; Tani, Tatsuo

    This paper proposes a new stand-alone hybrid power system with a wind turbine generator and photovoltaic modules for a small-scale radio base station. We studied the system characteristics by simulation of operation on Yonaguni Island, where wind speed exceeds 4.0m/s throughout the year, and average annual wind speed is about 7.0m/s. The results of simulation show that, to attain a system operation rate of 100%, the base station equipment requires a wind turbine generator output power of 8kW, a photovoltaic output power of 7.6kW, and 3-day backup storage batteries.

  12. Fast sol-gel synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4}/C for high power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninati, Sabina; Damen, Libero; Mastragostino, Marina [University of Bologna, Department of Metal Science, Electrochemistry and Chemical Techniques, Via San Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-12-01

    LiFePO{sub 4}/C of high purity grade was successfully synthesized by microwave accelerated sol-gel synthesis and showed excellent electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity and stability. This cathode material was characterized in battery configuration with a graphite counter electrode by USABC-DOE tests for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle. It yielded a non-conventional Ragone plot that represents complexity of battery functioning in power-assist HEV and shows that the pulse power capability and available energy of such a battery surpasses the DOE goal for such an application. (author)

  13. A direct power conversion topology for grid integrations of hybrid AC/DC resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    -switch converter can provide six input terminals for the connections of one three-phase ac source plus three dc sources to the grid. The three-phase utility grid is connected to the VMC's current source side. This configuration allows the input ac/dc sources' voltages lower than the grid voltage. The control...... and modulation schemes are proposed to extract the commanded current from the input ac/dc sources to the grid and guarantee high quality ac/dc inputs and ac output current waveforms with unity power factors. The proposed modulation scheme for sinusoidal outputs of the VMC is mathematically proved....... The experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the control and modulation schemes for the proposed VMC....

  14. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  15. Efficient Adjoint Computation of Hybrid Systems of Differential Algebraic Equations with Applications in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Shrirang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Anitescu, Mihai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Hong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Sensitivity analysis is an important tool to describe power system dynamic behavior in response to parameter variations. It is a central component in preventive and corrective control applications. The existing approaches for sensitivity calculations, namely, finite-difference and forward sensitivity analysis, require a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of sensitivity parameters. In this work, we investigate, implement, and test a discrete adjoint sensitivity approach whose computational effort is effectively independent of the number of sensitivity parameters. The proposed approach is highly efficient for calculating trajectory sensitivities of larger systems and is consistent, within machine precision, with the function whose sensitivity we are seeking. This is an essential feature for use in optimization applications. Moreover, our approach includes a consistent treatment of systems with switching, such as DC exciters, by deriving and implementing the adjoint jump conditions that arise from state and time-dependent discontinuities. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in comparison with the forward sensitivity analysis approach.

  16. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  17. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  18. Adaptive Hybrid Fuzzy-Proportional Plus Crisp-Integral Current Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Farahaida Abdul Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive hybrid fuzzy-proportional plus crisp-integral current control algorithm (CCA for regulating supply current and enhancing the operation of a shunt active power filter (SAPF is presented. It introduces a unique integration of fuzzy-proportional (Fuzzy-P and crisp-integral (Crisp-I current controllers. The Fuzzy-P current controller is developed to perform gain tuning procedure and proportional control action. This controller inherits the simplest configuration; it is constructed using a single-input single-output fuzzy rule configuration. Thus, an execution of few fuzzy rules is sufficient for the controller’s operation. Furthermore, the fuzzy rule is developed using the relationship of currents only. Hence, it simplifies the controller development. Meanwhile, the Crisp-I current controller is developed to perform integral control action using a controllable gain value; to improve the steady-state control mechanism. The gain value is modified and controlled using the Fuzzy-P current controller’s output variable. Therefore, the gain value will continuously be adjusted at every sample period (or throughout the SAPF operation. The effectiveness of the proposed CCA in regulating supply current is validated in both simulation and experimental work. All results have proven that the SAPF using the proposed CCA is capable to regulate supply current during steady-state and dynamic-state operations. At the same time, the SAPF is able to enhance its operation in compensating harmonic currents and reactive power. Furthermore, the implementation of the proposed CCA has resulted more stable dc-link voltage waveform.

  19. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.

  20. Map-Based Power-Split Strategy Design with Predictive Performance Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a map-based optimal energy management strategy is proposed to improve the consumption economy of a plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle. In the design of the maps, which provide both the torque split between engine and motor and the gear shift, not only the current vehicle speed and power demand, but also the optimality based on the predicted trajectory of vehicle dynamics are considered. To seek the optimality, the equivalent consumption, which trades off the fuel and electricity usages, is chosen as the cost function. Moreover, in order to decrease the model errors in the process of optimization conducted in the discrete time domain, the variational integrator is employed to calculate the evolution of the vehicle dynamics. To evaluate the proposed energy management strategy, the simulation results performed on a professional GT-Suit simulator are demonstrated and the comparison to a real-time optimization method is also given to show the advantage of the proposed off-line optimization approach.