WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind-dominated spartina patens

  1. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  2. Generation of Electricity Using Spartina Patens with Stainless Steel Current Collectors in a Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Deep

    At present, the global energy infrastructure is highly dependent on (i) non-renewable fossil fuels with significant emissions of greenhouse gasses (ii) green fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel with impact on current agricultural practices competing with food production for arable lands, fertilizers, also requiring additional energy input. Plant-based microbial fuel cell (PMFC) technology can be found as a promising alternative to produce electricity without any side effects with an advantage of using sunlight as an energy source. In the present study, we developed PMFCs using Spartina patens, a marshland grass, abundantly available in the coastal regions of the USA. Figure 1 is a schematic for a PMFC with the anode and cathode compartments where others have used carbon-based electrodes for current collection. In contrast, we attempted to utilize stainless steel wires with more surface area to enhance the current collection in the anode compartment as well as to increase the rate of reduction in the cathode chamber and thereby increase the amount of electricity produced. The study will give results on the periodic use of Spartina patens in PMFC along with the porous stainless steel electrodes which have never been employed in PMFCs before.

  3. Willapa - Spartina Eradication 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Willapa NWR and its partners continue the ongoing and successful program aimed at eradication of the nonnative cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) in Willapa...

  4. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  5. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continues to work toward the eradication of the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) from...

  6. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae, a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg was evaluated in acute (14 days and subacute (28 days assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and >5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17% and 200 mg/kg (25% showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity.

  7. Sea level rise, drought and the decline of Spartina patens in New England marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Already heavily impacted by coastal development, estuarine vegetated habitats (seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves) are increasingly affected by climate change via accelerated sea level rise, changes in the frequency and intensity of precipitation and storms, and warmer ocean...

  8. Excessive price reduction and extreme volatility in wind dominant electricity markets; solutions and emerging challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe; Mousavi, Omid Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    is developed. The paper indicates discriminatory pricing approach can be beneficial in high penetration of wind power because it alleviates high price variations and spikiness in one hand and prevents overmuch price reduction in wind dominant electricity markets on the other hand.......High intermittency in the nature of wind power emphasize conceptual revising in the mechanisms of electricity markets with high wind power penetration levels. This paper introduces overmuch price reduction and high price volatility as two adverse consequences in future wind dominant electricity...... markets. While high price volatility imposes elevated risk levels for both electricity suppliers and consumers, excessive price reduction of electricity is a disincentive for investment in new generation capacity and might jeopardizes system adequacy in long term. A comparative study between marginal...

  9. Analyse de la croissance chez Gymnogongrus patens (j

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LBBM

    Mots-clés : gymnogongrus patens, pigments, facteurs physicochimiques, ACP, côte atlantique marocaine. Abstract. Pigmentary analysis of the red algae Gymnogongrus patens (j. Agardh) on the. Moroccan Atlantic cost. The pigmentary of Gymnogongrus patens J. Agardh (Rhodophyta, Phyllophoracea) has been analyzed ...

  10. Comparative Study between Two Market Clearing Schemes in Wind Dominant Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    . According to the proposed agent-based approach, electricity market agents (here generation units) learn from their previous bidding experience to obtain maximum financial. A comparative study is then conducted to investigate the impact of mentioned pricing schemes on price volatility and average price level......High price volatility and excessive price reduction are introduced as two emerging problems in wind dominant electricity markets. In this study, an agent-based simulation methodology is employed to investigate the impact of two pricing mechanisms, uniform and pay-as-bid, on the mentioned problems...

  11. Genetic transformation of Physcomitrella patens mediated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inoculated into the wells of PP3 medium at 25°C under the continuous light energy of 30 mol m-2 s-1 from cool-white fluorescent lamps, they grew up to form many buds at ... PCR analysis showed that gene Cameleon YC2.1 in A. tumefaciens was transferred into all detected plants of P. patens and southern blotting analysis ...

  12. Immunity in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Simon

    Studies in flowering plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the immune system of the phylogenetically ancient moss Physcomitrella patens. Mosses represent some...... molecular patterns (MAMPs) including fungal chitin and bacterial MAMPs. The knock out of PpMPK4A renders the moss more susceptible to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola and fails to accumulate several defense related transcripts and ROS production upon treatment with fungal...... to MAMP-triggered immunity, and the moss may use other signaling components to respond to abiotic stresses. In addition, a Physcomitrella knock-out of a homolog of the autophagy related gene ATG5 provides the first analysis of autophagy in non-vascular plants. PpATG5 knock-out mutants show clear signs...

  13. Physcomitrella patens Activates Defense Responses against the Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Reboledo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss Physcomitrella patens is a suitable model plant to analyze the activation of defense mechanisms after pathogen assault. In this study, we show that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from symptomatic citrus fruit infects P. patens and cause disease symptoms evidenced by browning and maceration of tissues. After C. gloeosporioides infection, P. patens reinforces the cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and induces the expression of a Dirigent-protein-like encoding gene that could lead to the formation of lignin-like polymers. C. gloeosporioides-inoculated protonemal cells show cytoplasmic collapse, browning of chloroplasts and modifications of the cell wall. Chloroplasts relocate in cells of infected tissues toward the initially infected C. gloeosporioides cells. P. patens also induces the expression of the defense genes PAL and CHS after fungal colonization. P. patens reporter lines harboring the auxin-inducible promoter from soybean (GmGH3 fused to β-glucuronidase revealed an auxin response in protonemal tissues, cauloids and leaves of C. gloeosporioides-infected moss tissues, indicating the activation of auxin signaling. Thus, P. patens is an interesting plant to gain insight into defense mechanisms that have evolved in primitive land plants to cope with microbial pathogens.

  14. Willapa - Willapa Bay Early Season Spartina Mapping and Eradication (Phase 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  15. Responses of Spartina alterniflora to Multiple Stressors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats throughout the United States and elsewhere. Managers require good information on responses of wetlands to the combined stressors that these habitats experience, or may in the future as a result of climate change, and few studies have explored the effect of multiple stressors on wetlands. We conducted a 4-month mesocosm study to analyze the multiple stressor effects of precipitation changes, sea level rise, and eutrophication on the salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora. Pots containing plants in a soil matrix were positioned in tanks and received Narragansett Bay (RI) water. The mesocosms simulated three precipitation levels (ambient daily rain, biweekly storm, and drought); three elevation levels, low (15 cm below mean high water (MHW)), middle (MHW), and high (15 cm above MHW); and two nutrient enrichment levels (unenriched and nutrient-enriched bay water). Our results demonstrate storm and drought stressors led to significantly less above- and belowground biomass than those in ambient rain conditions. Plants that were flooded at the low elevation had less belowground biomass, fine roots, and S. alterniflora shoots. Nutrients had no detectable effect on total above- and belowground biomass, but the enriched pots had higher stem counts and more fine roots than unenriched pots, in addition to greater CO2 emission rates. However, the unenriched pots had significantly more co

  16. Analyse de la croissance chez Gymnogongrus patens (j

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LBBM

    Variation saisonnière de la composition chimique de carraghénophyte,. Gymnogongrus patens (J. Agardh) de la côte atlantique marocaine. Fatah EL OMARI* et Aziza MOURADI. Laboratoire de Biochimie, Biotechnologies et Environnement, Département de Biologie,. Université Ibn Tofail, BP 133 - 14000 Kénitra, Maroc ...

  17. Chitin-induced responses in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Simon; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Petersen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    A MAP kinase pathway below a chitin receptor in the moss Physcomitrella patens induces immune responses including rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, and cell wall depositions. The molecular mechanisms producing these three responses are currently unknown but warrant further...

  18. An Innate Immunity Pathway in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressendorff, Simon; Azevedo, Raquel; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Ponce de León, Inés; Olsen, Jakob V; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2016-06-01

    MAP kinase (MPK) cascades in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants are activated by developmental cues, abiotic stress, and pathogen infection. Much less is known of MPK functions in nonvascular land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens Here, we provide evidence for a signaling pathway in P. patens required for immunity triggered by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This pathway induces rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, cell wall depositions, and accumulation of defense-related transcripts. Two P. patens MPKs (MPK4a and MPK4b) are phosphorylated and activated in response to PAMPs. This activation in response to the fungal PAMP chitin requires a chitin receptor and one or more MAP kinase kinase kinases and MAP kinase kinases. Knockout lines of MPK4a appear wild type but have increased susceptibility to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassisicola Both PAMPs and osmotic stress activate some of the same MPKs in Arabidopsis. In contrast, abscisic acid treatment or osmotic stress of P. patens does not activate MPK4a or any other MPK, but activates at least one SnRK2 kinase. Signaling via MPK4a may therefore be specific to immunity, and the moss relies on other pathways to respond to osmotic stress. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdijk, Elysa J.R.; Keijzer, De Jeroen; Groot, De Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for

  20. Is Spartina anglica Hubbard wel een goede soort?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drok, W.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of the population of Spartina x townsendii s.l. occurring in the coastal area of the Southwest Netherlands. The analysis was carried out at the Delta Institute for Hydrobiological Research in Yerseke and the laboratory of Plant Taxonomy of the Agricultural

  1. Analyse de la croissance chez Gymnogongrus patens (j

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LBBM

    montrent que le taux d'azote total diminue au niveau des algues pendant leur forte croissance; période qui coïncide pour l'espèce Gymnogonrus patens avec la saison estivale où les concentrations des pigments photosynthétique sont faibles [12 ,40]. Zavodnik (1973ab) [41,42] a signalé chez Hypnea musciformis et. Fucus ...

  2. The Ecology of an Invasive Grass, Spartina alterniflora

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Heather G.

    2004-01-01

    There are a wide variety of ecological and genetic factors that influence the rate of population growth. As an invading species changes its habitat, varying selective regime may change it in turn. Spartina alterniflora Loisel has been introduced around the world and is a clonal estuarine weed of both environmental and economic concern. Recruitment by seed is a relatively uncommon event in the native range of this plant where fitness is enhanced by vegetative persistence. Invaded regions provi...

  3. Role of RNA interference (RNAi) in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Muhammad Asif

    2013-01-14

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that regulates genes by either transcriptional (TGS) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), required for genome maintenance and proper development of an organism. Small non-coding RNAs are the key players in RNAi and have been intensively studied in eukaryotes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs are synthesized from a short hairpin structure while siRNAs are derived from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). Both miRNA and siRNAs control the expression of cognate target RNAs by binding to reverse complementary sequences mediating cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. They also act on the DNA and cause epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. In the last years, the analysis of plant RNAi pathways was extended to the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, a non-flowering, non-vascular ancient land plant that diverged from the lineage of seed plants approximately 450 million years ago. Based on a number of characteristic features and its phylogenetic key position in land plant evolution P. patens emerged as a plant model species to address basic as well as applied topics in plant biology. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of RNAi in P. patens that shows functional overlap with RNAi pathways from seed plants, and also unique features specific to this species. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  4. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [ORNL; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Moon, Hong S [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Kapteyn, Jeremy [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University; Zhuang, Xiaofeng [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu [Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, National Institute for Biology, 38 Nishigounaka; Stewart, Neal C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Gang, David R. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.

  5. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akendengué, Blandine; Champy, Pierre; Nzamba, Joseph; Roblot, François; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bories, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Basic CH2Cl2 extract of the trunk bark of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae) exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata using an agar well-diffusion assay method. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of 8-hydroxysampangine. The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  6. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2016-01-01

    Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.

  7. Composition and structure of photosystem I in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Andreas; Petersen, Jørgen; Webber-Birungi, Miriam T.

    2013-01-01

    intact photosystem I (PSI) with its associated light-harvesting complex (LHCI) from the moss Physcomitrella patens and characterized its structure, polypeptide composition, and light-harvesting function using electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, biochemical, and physiological methods. It became...

  8. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons using molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO42- reduction rat...

  9. Effects of Spartina alterniflora Invasion on Soil Quality in Coastal Wetland of Beibu Gulf of South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daobo Wang

    Full Text Available Since Spartina alterniflora (simplified as Spartina has strong ecological competitiveness and rapid growth, it has been introduced and living in the coastal wetland regions of China for more than 30 years. Taking coastal wetland in the Beibu Gulf of south China as an example, the effects of Spartina invasion on soil quality were investigated to provide scientific basis for soil management.The soil quality of six different coastal wetlands, i.e. mangrove (vegetation coverage is above 95%, mangrove- Spartina ecotones (vegetation coverage is above 95%, sparse mangrove (vegetation coverage is 10%-20%, sparse mangrove- Spartina ecotones (vegetation coverage is about 80%, Spartina (vegetation coverage is about 80% and bare beach (no plants, were analyzed using the following indicators: pH, cation exchange capacity, contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, microbial carbon / organic carbon, and activities of urease, acid phosphatase, invertase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase.The results showed that compared to mangrove wetland, most indicators in the mangrove-Spartina wetland showed a decline tendency except pH value, and the contents of total phosphorus and organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial biomass nitrogen, and the activities of acid phosphatase and invertase were significantly reduced (P<0.05. Compared to sparse mangrove wetland and bare beach, the Spartina invasion wetland (sparse mangrove-Spartina wetland and Spartina wetland had higher contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and the activities of urease and acid phosphatase, so soil quality in the sparse mangrove wetland and bare beach was significantly improved. Factor Analysis and PCA also showed that: the quality of mangrove wetland soil is better than that of mangrove-Spartina ecotones

  10. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  11. The Moss Physcomitrella patens Is Hyperresistant to DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by γ-Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yokota

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the moss Physcomitrella patens cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation than animal cells. Protoplasts derived from P. patens protonemata were irradiated with γ-rays of 50–1000 gray (Gy. Clonogenicity of the protoplasts decreased in a γ-ray dose-dependent manner. The dose that decreased clonogenicity by half (LD50 was 277 Gy, which indicated that the moss protoplasts were 200-times more radioresistant than human cells. To investigate the mechanism of radioresistance in P. patens, we irradiated protoplasts on ice and initial double-strand break (DSB yields were measured using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay. Induced DSBs linearly increased dependent on the γ-ray dose and the DSB yield per Gb DNA per Gy was 2.2. The DSB yield in P. patens was half to one-third of those reported in mammals and yeasts, indicating that DSBs are difficult to induce in P. patens. The DSB yield per cell per LD50 dose in P. patens was 311, which is three- to six-times higher than those in mammals and yeasts, implying that P. patens is hyperresistant to DSBs. Physcomitrella patens is indicated to possess unique mechanisms to inhibit DSB induction and provide resistance to high numbers of DSBs.

  12. The Physcomitrella patens chloroplast proteome changes in response to protoplastation

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    Igor Fesenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant protoplasts are widely used for genetic manipulation and functional studies in transient expression systems. However, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in a cell response to the combined stress factors resulted from protoplast generation. Plants often face more than one type of stress at a time, and how plants respond to combined stress factors is therefore of great interest. Here, we used protoplasts of the moss Physcomitrella patens as a model to study the effects of short-term stress on the chloroplast proteome. Using label-free comparative quantitative proteomic analysis (SWATH-MS, we quantified 479 chloroplast proteins, 219 of which showed a more than 1.4-fold change in abundance in protoplasts. We additionally quantified 1451 chloroplast proteins using emPAI. We observed degradation of a significant portion of the chloroplast proteome following the first hour of stress imposed by the protoplast isolation process. Electron-transport chain (ETC components underwent the heaviest degradation, resulting in the decline of photosynthetic activity. We also compared the proteome changes to those in the transcriptional level of nuclear-encoded chloroplast genes. Globally, the levels of the quantified proteins and their corresponding mRNAs showed limited correlation. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and components of the outer chloroplast membrane showed decreases in both transcript and protein abundance. However, proteins like dehydroascorbate reductase 1 and 2-cys peroxiredoxin B responsible for ROS detoxification increased in abundance. Further, genes such as thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase were induced at the transcriptional level but down-regulated at the proteomic level. Together, our results demonstrate that the initial chloroplast reaction to stress is due changes at the proteomic level.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  14. Hypergravity of 10g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-10-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate (A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  15. Hypergravity of 10 g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-12-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10 g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate ( A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10 g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  16. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul

    2016-01-01

    enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  17. Elucidating the roles of MAP kinases in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanimirovic, Sabrina

    signals from such receptors by phosphorylating substrate proteins, which effectuate appropriate responses. By generating deletion lines of MPK genes in the simple, non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens, I provide interesting evidence that MPKs may be important in the understanding of evolutionary...

  18. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  19. Stable production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar; Peramuna, Anantha Vithakshana

    2017-01-01

    were engineered into the moss Physcomitrella patens via direct in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments. In vivo biosynthesis of artemisinin was obtained without further modifications. A high initial production of 0.21 mg/g dry weight artemisinin was observed after only three days of cultivation. Our...

  20. Soil Dynamics Following Fire in Juncus and Spartina Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1992-01-01

    We examined soil changes in the O-5 and 5-15 cm layers for one year after a fire in burned Juncus roemerianus and Spartina bakeri marshes and an unburned Juncus marsh. Each marsh was sampled (N = 25) preburn, immediately postburn, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postburn. All marshes were flooded at the time of the fire; water levels declined below the surface by 6 months but reflooded at 12 months after the fire. Soil samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K, available PO4-P, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), exchangeable NO3-N, NO2-N, and NH4-N. Changes due to burning were most pronounced in the surface (0-5 cm) layer. Soil pH increased 0.16-0.28 units immediately postburn but returned to preburn levels in 1 month. Organic matter increased by 1 month and remained elevated through 9 months after the fire. Calcium, Mg, K, and PO4-P all increased by 1 month after burning, and the increases persisted for 6 to 12 months. Conductivity increased in association with these cations. Burning released ions from organic matter as indicated by the increase in pH, conductivity, Ca, Mg, K, and PO4-P. NH4-N in burned marshes was elevated 6 months and NO3-N 12 months after burning. TKN showed seasonal variations but no clear fire-related changes. Nitrogen species were affected by the seasonally varying water levels as well as fire; these changes differed from those observed in many upland systems.

  1. Does the core circadian clock in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta comprise a single loop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedman Harald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endogenous circadian clock allows the organism to synchronize processes both to daily and seasonal changes. In plants, many metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, as well as photoperiodic responses, are under the control of a circadian clock. Comparative studies with the moss Physcomitrella patens provide the opportunity to study many aspects of land plant evolution. Here we present a comparative overview of clock-associated components and the circadian network in the moss P. patens. Results The moss P. patens has a set of conserved circadian core components that share genetic relationship and gene expression patterns with clock genes of vascular plants. These genes include Myb-like transcription factors PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b, pseudo-response regulators PpPRR1-4, and regulatory elements PpELF3, PpLUX and possibly PpELF4. However, the moss lacks homologs of AtTOC1, AtGI and the AtZTL-family of genes, which can be found in all vascular plants studied here. These three genes constitute essential components of two of the three integrated feed-back loops in the current model of the Arabidopsis circadian clock mechanism. Consequently, our results suggest instead a single loop circadian clock in the moss. Possibly as a result of this, temperature compensation of core clock gene expression appears to be decreased in P. patens. Conclusions This study is the first comparative overview of the circadian clock mechanism in a basal land plant, the moss P. patens. Our results indicate that the moss clock mechanism may represent an ancestral state in contrast to the more complex and partly duplicated structure of subsequent land plants. These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of circadian network topology.

  2. Plant traits and spread of the invasive salt marsh grass, Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel., widely recognised as an aggressive invader of estuaries and salt marshes around the world, was discovered growing in the temporarily open/closed Great Brak Estuary on the southern Cape coast of South Africa in 2004. This is the first record of this invasive plant in Africa as well as its first ...

  3. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of salt stress on the growth of Spartina alterniflora were investigated by imposing seven levels of salt stress (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 mM NaCl) on potted plants. The seedlings were grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse for six months. Optimal growth of S. alterniflora occurred at salinity levels of 100 ...

  4. Geratology and decomposition of Spartina versicolor in a brackish Mediterranean marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Margarita; Sanmartí, Neus

    2007-08-01

    Most studies on plant decomposition in salt marshes have been carried out in Spartina-dominated marshes in North America. In contrast, few have focused on marshes in Mediterranean systems. Moreover, research into litter decay in estuarine systems has been conducted with plant material collected before natural senescence and death. Here we followed the growth, senescence, leaf fall, and nutrient dynamics of Spartina versicolor to examine litter decay in a Mediterranean coastal system. We studied the dynamics of fungi, meiofauna and algae associated with detached S. versicolor litter, and the effect of the microenvironment (above and underneath wracks of dead Spartina) on decomposition. The exponential decay coefficient rate ( k, day -1) was higher for leaves attached to standing plants (0.0019) than after leaf abscission (0.0002-0.001). The decomposition rate of detached leaves was highly variable and depended on the position of the litter. The large differences in decomposition rates between the two experimental conditions indicate that the microenvironment affected the associated litter community during the initial phase of decay. Water availability and high temperatures over the sediment surface increased the density of meiofauna and epiphyton and decreased fungal biomass during the first 20 days of the experiment. Fungal biomass was at the lower end of reported values, probably as a result of the drier conditions and high salinity in the Mediterranean marsh. Spartina versicolor detritus acted as a nutrient sink by immobilizing large amounts of N and P for at least one year.

  5. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    , such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has...... and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination....

  6. The molecular and physiological responses of Physcomitrella patens to ultraviolet-B radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Luise; Rizzini, Luca; Stracke, Ralf; Ulm, Roman; Rensing, Stefan A

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation present in sunlight is an important trigger of photomorphogenic acclimation and stress responses in sessile land plants. Although numerous moss species grow in unshaded habitats, our understanding of their UV-B responses is very limited. The genome of the model moss Physcomitrella patens, which grows in sun-exposed open areas, encodes signaling and metabolic components that are implicated in the UV-B response in flowering plants. In this study, we describe the r...

  7. Differential contribution of individual dehydrin genes from Physcomitrella patens to salt and osmotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Cecilia; Salamó, Imma Pérez; Carballo, Valentina; Castro, Alexandra; Bentancor, Marcel; Borsani, Omar; Szabados, László; Vidal, Sabina

    2012-07-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens can withstand extreme environmental conditions including drought and salt stress. Tolerance to dehydration in mosses is thought to rely on efficient limitation of stress-induced cell damage and repair of cell injury upon stress relief. Dehydrin proteins (DHNs) are part of a conserved cell protecting mechanism in plants although their role in stress tolerance is not well understood. Four DHNs and two DHN-like proteins were identified in the predicted proteome of P. patens. Expression of PpDHNA and PpDHNB was induced by salt and osmotic stress and controlled by abscisic acid. Subcellular localization of the encoded proteins suggested that these dehydrins are localized in cytosol and accumulate near membranes during stress. Comparative analysis of dhnA and dhnB targeted knockout mutants of P. patens revealed that both genes play a role in cellular protection during salt and osmotic stress, although PpDHNA has a higher contribution to stress tolerance. Overexpression of PpDHNA and PpDHNB genes in transgenic Arabidopsis improved rosette and root growth in stress conditions, although PpDHNA was more efficient in this role. These results suggest that specific DHNs contribute considerably to the high stress tolerance of mosses and offer novel tools for genetic engineering stress tolerance of higher plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Transcriptome Atlas of Physcomitrella patens Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Carlos; Hernandez-Coronado, Marcela; Thamm, Anna; Catarino, Bruno; Wang, Mingyi; Dolan, Liam; Feijó, José A; Becker, Jörg D

    2016-02-01

    Identifying the genetic mechanisms that underpin the evolution of new organ and tissue systems is an aim of evolutionary developmental biology. Comparative functional genetic studies between angiosperms and bryophytes can define those genetic changes that were responsible for developmental innovations. Here, we report the generation of a transcriptome atlas covering most phases in the life cycle of the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, including detailed sporophyte developmental progression. We identified a comprehensive set of sporophyte-specific transcription factors, and found that many of these genes have homologs in angiosperms that function in developmental processes such as flowering and shoot branching. Deletion of the PpTCP5 transcription factor results in development of supernumerary sporangia attached to a single seta, suggesting that it negatively regulates branching in the moss sporophyte. Given that TCP genes repress branching in angiosperms, we suggest that this activity is ancient. Finally, comparison of P. patens and Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptomes led us to the identification of a conserved core of transcription factors expressed in tip-growing cells. We identified modifications in the expression patterns of these genes that could account for developmental differences between P. patens tip-growing cells and A. thaliana pollen tubes and root hairs. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physcomitrella patens activates reinforcement of the cell wall, programmed cell death and accumulation of evolutionary conserved defense signals...upon Botrytis cinerea infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is an evolutionarily basal model system suitable to analyze plant defense responses activated after pathogen assault. Upon infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea), several defense mechanisms are induced in P. patens, including the fortification of t...

  10. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill in East Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szczecińska

    Full Text Available Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005 and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90. These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to

  11. Population dynamics of Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill. in a new locality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciosek Marek Tadeusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new locality of Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill. in the Wyszków-Jegiel Forest District, in the southern part of Puszcza Biała (ATPOL EC79 is described. This locality is situated on an escarpment, at the edge of Peucedano-Pinetum fresh pine forest with elements of Serratulo-Pinetum mixed pine forest and Potentillo albae-Quercetum steppe oak forest. Good light conditions prevail in the place of plant occurrence. Studies carried out in 2008-2015 showed an increasing trend of P. patens population, though, recently, this population seems to be stable. The number of species accompanying the pasque-flower also increased in this time period. It was found based on the analysis of flora directly neighbouring the clumps of the pasque-flower. During 7 years, the number of taxa increased by 31.5% on plot I and by 25% on plot II. In the years 2011-2013, the pasque-flower was represented both by flowering (1-2 and vegetative individuals. Afterwards, the plant was present only in vegetative stage. The number of its leaves varied in time. The highest number of leaves - 14 per individual - was noted in 2014, and the lowest number (1 - in 2012. The reason for a decline in the number of plant clumps in the site Dalekie and, at the same time, the greatest threat was the excavation of sand from the escarpment. In 2012, this escarpment slid down and several clumps of the pasque-flower were destroyed. Forest management and digging up by wild boars were additional factors limiting the population. To preserve the site of P. patens, measures of active protection should be applied.

  12. High frequency of phenotypic deviations in Physcomitrella patens plants transformed with a gene-disruption library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte Julia

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The moss Physcomitrella patens is an attractive model system for plant biology and functional genome analysis. It shares many biological features with higher plants but has the unique advantage of an efficient homologous recombination system for its nuclear DNA. This allows precise genetic manipulations and targeted knockouts to study gene function, an approach that due to the very low frequency of targeted recombination events is not routinely possible in any higher plant. Results As an important prerequisite for a large-scale gene/function correlation study in this plant, we are establishing a collection of Physcomitrella patens transformants with insertion mutations in most expressed genes. A low-redundancy moss cDNA library was mutagenised in E. coli using a derivative of the transposon Tn1000. The resulting gene-disruption library was then used to transform Physcomitrella. Homologous recombination of the mutagenised cDNA with genomic coding sequences is expected to target insertion events preferentially to expressed genes. An immediate phenotypic analysis of transformants is made possible by the predominance of the haploid gametophytic state in the life cycle of the moss. Among the first 16,203 transformants analysed so far, we observed 2636 plants ( = 16.2% that differed from the wild-type in a variety of developmental, morphological and physiological characteristics. Conclusions The high proportion of phenotypic deviations and the wide range of abnormalities observed among the transformants suggests that mutagenesis by gene-disruption library transformation is a useful strategy to establish a highly diverse population of Physcomitrella patens mutants for functional genome analysis.

  13. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of gametophyte development in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lihong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression plays a pivotal role in controlling the development of multicellular plants. To explore the molecular mechanism of plant developmental-stage transition and cell-fate determination, a genome-wide analysis was undertaken of sequential developmental time-points and individual tissue types in the model moss Physcomitrella patens because of the short life cycle and relative structural simplicity of this plant. Results Gene expression was analyzed by digital gene expression tag profiling of samples taken from P. patens protonema at 3, 14 and 24 days, and from leafy shoot tissues at 30 days, after protoplast isolation, and from 14-day-old caulonemal and chloronemal tissues. In total, 4333 genes were identified as differentially displayed. Among these genes, 4129 were developmental-stage specific and 423 were preferentially expressed in either chloronemal or caulonemal tissues. Most of the differentially displayed genes were assigned to functions in organic substance and energy metabolism or macromolecule biosynthetic and catabolic processes based on gene ontology descriptions. In addition, some regulatory genes identified as candidates might be involved in controlling the developmental-stage transition and cell differentiation, namely MYB-like, HB-8, AL3, zinc finger family proteins, bHLH superfamily, GATA superfamily, GATA and bZIP transcription factors, protein kinases, genes related to protein/amino acid methylation, and auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin signaling pathways. Conclusions These genes that show highly dynamic changes in expression during development in P. patens are potential targets for further functional characterization and evolutionary developmental biology studies.

  14. Role of PP2C-mediated ABA signaling in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Yoichi; Komatsu, Kenji; Taji, Teruaki; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is found in a wide range of land plants, from mosses to angiosperms. However, our knowledge concerning the function of ABA is limited to some angiosperm plant species. We have shown that the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana share a conserved abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway mediated through ABI1-related type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis abi1-1, a dominant allele of ABI1 ...

  15. Giant peroxisomes in a moss (Physcomitrella patens) peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Mitsuya, Shiro; El-Shami, Mahmoud; Knight, Celia D; Cuming, Andrew C; Baker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 (PEX11) proteins are found in yeasts, mammals and plants, and play a role in peroxisome morphology and regulation of peroxisome division. The moss Physcomitrella patens has six PEX11 isoforms which fall into two subfamilies, similar to those found in monocots and dicots. We carried out targeted gene disruption of the Phypa_PEX11-1 gene and compared the morphological and cellular phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains. The mutant grew more slowly and the development of gametophores was retarded. Mutant chloronemal filaments contained large cellular structures which excluded all other cellular organelles. Expression of fluorescent reporter proteins revealed that the mutant strain had greatly enlarged peroxisomes up to 10 μm in diameter. Expression of a vacuolar membrane marker confirmed that the enlarged structures were not vacuoles, or peroxisomes sequestered within vacuoles as a result of pexophagy. Phypa_PEX11 targeted to peroxisome membranes could rescue the knock out phenotype and interacted with Fission1 on the peroxisome membrane. Moss PEX11 functions in peroxisome division similar to PEX11 in other organisms but the mutant phenotype is more extreme and environmentally determined, making P. patens a powerful system in which to address mechanisms of peroxisome proliferation and division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Berry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalacturonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogeneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

    2014-06-01

    Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Gene function analysis by artificial microRNAs in Physcomitrella patens.

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21 nt long small RNAs transcribed from endogenous MIR genes which form precursor RNAs with a characteristic hairpin structure. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. Artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) can be generated by exchanging the miRNA/miRNA sequence of endogenous MIR precursor genes, while maintaining the general pattern of matches and mismatches in the foldback. Thus, for functional gene analysis amiRNAs can be designed to target any gene of interest. During the last decade the moss Physcomitrella patens emerged as a model plant for functional gene analysis based on its unique ability to integrate DNA into the nuclear genome by homologous recombination which allows for the generation of targeted gene knockout mutants. In addition to this, we developed a protocol to express amiRNAs in P. patens that has particular advantages over the generation of knockout mutants and might be used to speed up reverse genetics approaches in this model species.

  19. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora : a novel pathosystem for live-cell imaging of subcellular defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdijk, Elysa J R; DE Keijzer, Jeroen; DE Groot, Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, K.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years...

  1. 4,5-Epoxide-1,6-dimethyl-1-vinylhexyl p-coumarate: A novel monoterpene derivative from Cleistopholis patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nuzillard

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel monoterpene derivative (1 and four known partially and total acetylated tri- and tetrarhamonoside dodecanyl ether derivatives: cleistrioside-2 (2 and cleistrioside-3 (3, cleistetroside-6 (4 and cleistetroside peracetate (5 have been isolated from the fruits of Cleistopholis patens.

  2. Antiplasmodial volatile extracts from Cleistopholis patens Engler & Diels and Uvariastrum pierreanum Engl. (Engl. & Diels) (Annonaceae) growing in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Ngouana, Vincent; Kemgne, Eugenie Aimée Madiesse; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Menut, Chantal; Bessiere, Jean Marie; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip Jon

    2011-05-01

    In a search for alternative treatment for malaria, plant-derived essential oils extracted from the stem barks and leaves of Cleistopholis patens and Uvariastrum pierreanum (Annonaceae) were evaluated in vitro for antiplasmodial activity against the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The oils were obtained from 500 g each of stem barks and leaves, respectively, by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus with the following yields: 0.23% and 0.19% for C. patens and 0.1% and 0.3% for U. pierreanum (w/w relative to dried material weight). Analysis of 10% (v/v) oil in hexane by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry identified only terpenoids in the oils, with over 81% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in C. patens extracts and U. pierreanum stem bark oil, while the leaf oil from the latter species was found to contain a majority of monoterpenes. For C. patens, the major components were α-copaene, δ-cadinene, and germacrene D for the stem bark oil and β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and germacrene B for the leaf oil. The stem bark oil of U. pierreanum was found to contain mainly β-bisabolene and α-bisabolol, while α- and β-pinenes were more abundant in the leaf extract. Concentrations of oils obtained by diluting 1-mg/mL stock solutions were tested against P. falciparum in culture. The oils were active, with IC(50) values of 9.19 and 15.19 μg/mL for the stem bark and leaf oils, respectively, of C. patens and 6.08 and 13.96 μg/mL, respectively, for those from U. pierreanum. These results indicate that essential oils may offer a promising alternative for the development of new antimalarials.

  3. Quantitative analysis of organelle distribution and dynamics in Physcomitrella patens protonemal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furt Fabienne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, the moss Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a powerful plant model system, amenable for genetic manipulations not possible in any other plant. This moss is particularly well suited for plant polarized cell growth studies, as in its protonemal phase, expansion is restricted to the tip of its cells. Based on pollen tube and root hair studies, it is well known that tip growth requires active secretion and high polarization of the cellular components. However, such information is still missing in Physcomitrella patens. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the participation of organelle organization in tip growth, it is essential to determine the distribution and the dynamics of the organelles in moss cells. Results We used fluorescent protein fusions to visualize and track Golgi dictyosomes, mitochondria, and peroxisomes in live protonemal cells. We also visualized and tracked chloroplasts based on chlorophyll auto-fluorescence. We showed that in protonemata all four organelles are distributed in a gradient from the tip of the apical cell to the base of the sub-apical cell. For example, the density of Golgi dictyosomes is 4.7 and 3.4 times higher at the tip than at the base in caulonemata and chloronemata respectively. While Golgi stacks are concentrated at the extreme tip of the caulonemata, chloroplasts and peroxisomes are totally excluded. Interestingly, caulonemata, which grow faster than chloronemata, also contain significantly more Golgi dictyosomes and fewer chloroplasts than chloronemata. Moreover, the motility analysis revealed that organelles in protonemata move with low persistency and average instantaneous speeds ranging from 29 to 75 nm/s, which are at least three orders of magnitude slower than those of pollen tube or root hair organelles. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study reports the first quantitative analysis of organelles in Physcomitrella patens and will make possible

  4. The relationship between silicon availability, and growth and silicon concentration of the salt marsh halophyte Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Van Soelen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of silicon concentrations of various halophytes from salt marshes in the S.W. Netherlands shows that the silicon concentration of Spartina anglica (Gramineae) is relatively high. To study the influence of dissolved Si concentrations on growth and plant tissue concentrations of S. anglica,

  5. The relationship between silicon availability, and growth and silicon concentration of the salt marsh halophyte Spartina anglica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; van Soelen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of silicon concentrations of various halophytes from salt marshes in the S.W. Netherlands shows that the silicon concentration of Spartina anglica (Gramineae) is relatively high. To study the influence of dissolved Si concentrations on growth and plant tissue concentrations of S. anglica,

  6. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China, for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

  7. GFDD4-1 Gene Expression in Physcomitrella patens and Homologous Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH RATNADEWI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of abiotic stress responsive genes have been identified from various plant species through reverse genetic strategy. A group of genes are involved in plant responses to stress; they are activated by diverse stress conditions and through different mechanisms. One single gene can be induced by several different stress factors; on the other hand, a number of genes can be up-regulated by a single factor. In Physcomitrella patens, through Northern hybridization, the transcript level of the gene GFDD4-I was detected to be markedly increased by ABA, dehydration and cold, but not by salinity and osmotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homologous gene to GFDD4-1 namely At2g47770, was confirmed to fulfill similar function as in P. patens: it is inducible by various abiotic stress treatments, i.e. ABA, dehydration, salinity, and cold. Inducible genes in response to abiotic stress factors may be responsible for plant tolerance to those factors.

  8. Long-term fate of glyphosate associated with repeated rodeo applications to control smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in Willapa Bay, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbride, K M; Paveglio, F L

    2001-02-01

    Cordgrasses (Spartina sp.) are exotic, invasive species that threaten to degrade the intertidal zones of estuaries along the West Coast of North America. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies primarily focus on the use of aerial and ground applications of Rodeo in conjunction with mowing, but IPM treatments over multiple years usually are necessary to control Spartina. Although information exists regarding the short-term fate and effects to marine biota of a single Rodeo application to control Spartina, little information is available regarding the fate and biotic effects associated with repeated Rodeo applications necessary for control. Consequently, we conducted a 3-year study to assess the short- and long-term fate and potential effects to marine biota associated with repeated applications of Rodeo to control smooth cordgrass in a southwestern Washington estuary. At each of three intertidal locations in Willapa Bay, we established plots on exposed mudflats and along the edge of a Spartina meadow that were hand sprayed with Rodeo (5% solution) and LI-700 (2% solution) during July 1997 and 1998. Glyphosate concentrations in sediment from mudflat plots declined 88% to 96% from 1 day posttreatment in 1997 to 1 year after the second Rodeo applications in 1999. In contrast, glyphosate concentrations in Spartina plots increased 231% to 591% from 1997 to 1999 because Spartina rhizomes likely did not readily metabolize or exude it. Comparison of concentrations from mudflat and Spartina plots with toxicity test values for marine biota indicates that under worst-case conditions short- and long-term detrimental effects to aquatic biota from repeated application of Rodeo for Spartina control would be highly unlikely.

  9. Polyphenol oxidases in Physcomitrella: functional PPO1 knockout modulates cytokinin-dependent developmentin the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-binding enzymes of the plant secondary metabolism that oxidize polyphenols to quinones. Although PPOs are nearly ubiquitous in seed plants, knowledge on their evolution and function in other plant groups is missing. This study reports on the PPO gene family in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G. asan example for an early divergent plant. The P. patens PPO multigene family comprises 13 paralogues. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that plant PPOs evolved with the colonization of land and that PPO duplications within the monophyletic P. patens paralogue clade occurred after the separation of the moss and seed plant lineages. PPO functionality was demonstrated for recombinant PPO6. P. patens was analysed for phenolic compounds and six substances were detected intracellularly by LC-MS analysis: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-cumaric acid, protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, caffeic acid, and an ester of caffeic acid. Targeted PPO1 knockout (d|ppo1) plants were generated and plants lacking PPO1 exhibited only ~30% of the wild-type PPO activity in the culture medium, thus suggesting extracellular localization of PPO1, which is in contrast to the mostly plastidic PPO localization in seed plants. Further, d|ppo1 lines formed significantly more gametophores with a reduced areal plant size, which could be related to an increase of endogenously produced cytokinins and indicates an impact of PPO1 on plant development. d|ppo1 plants were less tolerant towards applied 4-methylcatechol compared to the wild type, which suggests a role of extracellular PPO1 in establishing appropriate conditions by the removal of inhibitory extracellular phenolic compounds. PMID:22865913

  10. Combination of the Endogenous lhcsr1 Promoter and Codon Usage Optimization Boosts Protein Expression in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Hiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The moss Physcomitrella patens is used both as an evo-devo model and biotechnological production system for metabolites and pharmaceuticals. Strong in vivo expression of genes of interest is important for production of recombinant proteins, e.g., selectable markers, fluorescent proteins, or enzymes. In this regard, the choice of the promoter sequence as well as codon usage optimization are two important inside factors to consider in order to obtain optimum protein accumulation level. To reliably quantify fluorescence, we transfected protoplasts with promoter:GFP fusion constructs and measured fluorescence intensity of living protoplasts in a plate reader system. We used the red fluorescent protein mCherry under 2x 35S promoter control as second reporter to normalize for different transfection efficiencies. We derived a novel endogenous promoter and compared deletion variants with exogenous promoters. We used different codon-adapted green fluorescent protein (GFP genes to evaluate the influence of promoter choice and codon optimization on protein accumulation in P. patens, and show that the promoter of the gene of P. patens chlorophyll a/b binding protein lhcsr1 drives expression of GFP in protoplasts significantly (more than twofold better than the commonly used 2x 35S promoter or the rice actin1 promoter. We identified a shortened 677 bp version of the lhcsr1 promoter that retains full activity in protoplasts. The codon optimized GFP yields significantly (more than twofold stronger fluorescence signals and thus demonstrates that adjusting codon usage in P. patens can increase expression strength. In combination, new promotor and codon optimized GFP conveyed sixfold increased fluorescence signal.

  11. Moss Pathogenesis-Related-10 protein enhances resistance to Pythium irregulare in Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eCastro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to pathogen infection by activating signaling pathways leading to the accumulation of proteins with diverse roles in defense. Here, we addressed the functional role of PpPR-10, a pathogenesis-related (PR-10 gene, of the moss Physcomitrella patens, in response to biotic stress. PpPR-10 belongs to a multigene family and encodes a protein twice the usual size of PR-10 proteins due to the presence of two Bet v1 domains. Moss PR-10 genes are differentially regulated during development and inoculation with the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Specifically, PpPR-10 transcript levels increase significantly by treatments with elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, spores of B. cinerea, and the defense hormone salicylic acid. To characterize the role of PpPR-10 in plant defense against pathogens, we conducted overexpression analysis in P. patens and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of PpPR-10 in moss tissues increased resistance against the oomycete Pythium irregulare. PpPR-10 overexpressing moss plants developed less symptoms and decreased mycelium growth than wild type plants. In addition, PpPR-10 overexpressing plants constitutively produced cell wall depositions in protonemal tissue. Ectopic expression of PpPR-10 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased resistance against P. irregulare as well, evidenced by smaller lesions and less cellular damage compared to wild type plants. These results indicate that PpPR-10 is functionally active in the defense against the pathogen P. irregulare, in both P. patens and Arabidopsis, two evolutionary distant plants. Thus, P. patens can serve as an interesting source of genes to improve resistance against pathogen infection in flowering plants.

  12. Genome-wide expression analysis offers new insights into the origin and evolution of Physcomitrella patens stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2015-11-30

    Changes in the environment, such as those caused by climate change, can exert stress on plant growth, diversity and ultimately global food security. Thus, focused efforts to fully understand plant response to stress are urgently needed in order to develop strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Because Physcomitrella patens holds a key evolutionary position bridging the gap between green algae and higher plants, and because it exhibits a well-developed stress tolerance, it is an excellent model for such exploration. Here, we have used Physcomitrella patens to study genome-wide responses to abiotic stress through transcriptomic analysis by a high-throughput sequencing platform. We report a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics, defining profiles of elicited gene regulation responses to abiotic stress-associated hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), cold, drought, and salt treatments. We identified more than 20,000 genes expressed under each aforementioned stress treatments, of which 9,668 display differential expression in response to stress. The comparison of Physcomitrella patens stress regulated genes with unicellular algae, vascular and flowering plants revealed genomic delineation concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general gene family complexity and loss of genes associated with different functional groups.

  13. Effects of CuCl sub 2 on the germination response of two populations of the saltmarsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, D.C.; Kraus, M.L. (Felician College, Lodi, NJ (USA) Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission, Lyndhurst, NJ (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is the dominant vascular plant in tidal marshes along the east and gulf coasts in the United States. This plant's ability to survive in polluted estuaries has led many researchers to investigate its role in heavy metal uptake and export. Spartina seeds accumulate a variety of metals as well, although seed concentrations are generally lower than those found in leaf tissue. It has been demonstrated that some heavy metals affect germination in this plant (e.g. methyl Hg, Zn, and Pb), while others, such as Cu and Cd, in solution concentrations as high as 100 mg/L, do not affect the germination response. Despite this, S. alterniflora seedlings grown in Cu solution exhibit 100 percent mortality within 56 d.

  14. Sub-zero cold tolerance of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) and Miscanthus ? giganteus: candidate bioenergy crops for cool temperate climates

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, Patrick C.; Peixoto, Murilo de Melo; Lee, D. K.; Sage, Rowan F.

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus ? giganteus grown in cool temperate regions of North America and Europe can exhibit severe mortality in the year after planting, and poor frost tolerance of leaves. Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a productive C4 perennial grass native to North America, has been suggested as an alternative biofuel feedstock for colder regions; however, its cold tolerance relative to M. ? giganteus is uncertain. Here, we compare the cold tolerance thresholds for winter-dormant rhizomes and s...

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana IRX10 and two related proteins from psyllium and Physcomitrella patens are xylan xylosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Johnson, Nathan Robert; Wilkerson, Curtis Gene

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic mechanism that governs the synthesis of the xylan backbone polymer, a linear chain of xylose residues connected by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages, has remained elusive. Xylan is a major constituent of many kinds of plant cell walls, and genetic studies have identified multiple genes that affect xylan formation. In this study, we investigate several homologs of one of these previously identified xylan-related genes, IRX10 from Arabidopsis thaliana, by heterologous expression and in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase assay. We find that an IRX10 homolog from the moss Physcomitrella patens displays robust activity, and we show that the xylosidic linkage formed is a β-1,4 linkage, establishing this protein as a xylan β-1,4-xylosyltransferase. We also find lower but reproducible xylan xylosyltransferase activity with A. thaliana IRX10 and with a homolog from the dicot plant Plantago ovata, showing that xylan xylosyltransferase activity is conserved over large evolutionary distance for these proteins. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Monitoring the occurrence of patens foramen ovale in fattening swine breeds continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajan L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of foramen ovale patens (FOP was investigated in 96 hearts taken from the Slovak meat-type (SM, 38 hearts from Yorkshire (YO, 51 hearts from Slovak meat-type x Yorkshire (SM x YO, 43 hearts from Pietrain x Yorkshire (PN x YO and 45 hearts from Pietrain x Slovak meat-type (PN x SM breeds. The investigation was done at the Station for Research and Meat Quality Evaluation. We determined the presence of FOP only in the hearts collected from SM in 7 cases, which is 13.7% of the occurrence, and in the PN x SM in 4 cases (11.2%. We did not observe any occurrence of FOP in the other investigated breeds. All of the investigated positive cases of FOP were in the male breeds of the SM. In the cross breeds of PN x SM two positive cases of FOP were found in both sexes. As far as the size of the FOP is concerned, there have been documented 2mmdiameter in four cases and 3mmin three cases in the SM breeds. On the other hand, in the PN x SM cross breeds neither case had more than 2 mm in size. After camparing these results with our previous work, we decided further to investigate the occurrence of these heart defects at the line level of each meat breed.

  17. An ancestral stomatal patterning module revealed in the non-vascular land plant Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar C.; Kamisugi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The patterning of stomata plays a vital role in plant development and has emerged as a paradigm for the role of peptide signals in the spatial control of cellular differentiation. Research in Arabidopsis has identified a series of epidermal patterning factors (EPFs), which interact with an array of membrane-localised receptors and associated proteins (encoded by ERECTA and TMM genes) to control stomatal density and distribution. However, although it is well-established that stomata arose very early in the evolution of land plants, until now it has been unclear whether the established angiosperm stomatal patterning system represented by the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module reflects a conserved, universal mechanism in the plant kingdom. Here, we use molecular genetics to show that the moss Physcomitrella patens has conserved homologues of angiosperm EPF, TMM and at least one ERECTA gene that function together to permit the correct patterning of stomata and that, moreover, elements of the module retain function when transferred to Arabidopsis. Our data characterise the stomatal patterning system in an evolutionarily distinct branch of plants and support the hypothesis that the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module represents an ancient patterning system. PMID:27407102

  18. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has already been widely recognized as a viable alternative for industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals. For expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, and reconstruction of heterologous pathways, Physcomitrella has unique attributes that makes it a very promising biotechnological host. These features include a high native tolerance to terpenoids, a simple endogenous terpenoid profile, convenient genome editing using homologous recombination, and cultivation techniques that allow up-scaling from single cells in microtiter plates to industrial photo-bioreactors. Beyond its use for functional characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, engineered Physcomitrella can be a green biotechnological platform for production of terpenoids. Here, we describe two complementary and simple procedures for stable nuclear transformation of Physcomitrella with terpenoid biosynthetic genes, selection and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination.

  19. Proteome analysis of Physcomitrella patens exposed to progressive dehydration and rehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Suxia; Hu, Jia; Guo, Shilei; Wang, Jie; Cheng, Yali; Dang, Xinxing; Wu, Lili; He, Yikun

    2012-01-01

    Physcomitrella patens is an extremely dehydration-tolerant moss. However, the molecular basis of its responses to loss of cellular water remains unclear. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of dehydration- and rehydration-responsive proteins has been conducted using quantitative two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and traditional 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 216 differentially-expressed protein spots, 112 and 104 were dehydration- and rehydration-responsive proteins, respectively. The functional categories of the most differentially-expressed proteins were seed maturation, defence, protein synthesis and quality control, and energy production. Strikingly, most of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were expressed at a basal level under control conditions and their synthesis was strongly enhanced by dehydration, a pattern that was confirmed by RT-PCR. Actinoporins, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein, arabinogalactan protein, and phospholipase are the likely dominant players in the defence system. In addition, 24 proteins of unknown function were identified as novel dehydration- or rehydration-responsive proteins. Our data indicate that Physcomitrella adopts a rapid protein response mechanism to cope with dehydration in its leafy-shoot and basal expression levels of desiccation-tolerant proteins are rapidly upgraded at high levels under stress. This mechanism appears similar to that seen in angiosperm seeds. PMID:21994173

  20. Price volatility in wind dominant electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    electricity markets. High price volatility is unappreciated because it imposes high financial risk levels to both electricity consumers and producers. Additionally high price variations impede tracking price signals by consumers in future smart grid and jeopardize implementation of demand response concepts......High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources causes price volatility in future electricity markets. This is specially the case in European countries that plan high penetration levels. This highlights the necessity for revising market regulations and mechanisms in accordance....... The main contribution of this paper is to quantify volatility patterns of electricity price, as penetration level of wind power increases. Results explain a direct relationship between wind penetration and electricity price volatility in a quantitative manner....

  1. Two conserved oligosaccharyltransferase catalytic subunits required for N-glycosylation exist in Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luyi; Zhu, Xin; Chen, Jinmei; Yang, Deyue; Zhou, Changfang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the most crucial post-translational modifications, which is catalyzed in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in eukaryotic cells. Biochemical and genetic assay leads to the identification of the nine subunits (Ost 1-6, Stt3, Swp1 and Wbp1) of the yeast OST and in which Stt3p is proposed playing a central and conserved role in N-glycosylation. Two STT3 isoform genes, STT3A and STT3B, exist in the plant and mammal genomes. OST with different catalytic STT3 isoforms has different enzymatic properties in mammals. The mutation of STT3A in Arabidopsis thaliana causes a salt hypersensitive phenotype the inhibited root growth and swollen root tips suggesting protein N-glycosylation is indispensable for plant growth and development. Spartina alterniflora is widely used for shoreline protection and tidal marsh restoration due to the strong salt tolerance although the exact molecular mechanism is little known. To explore the possible biological roles of N-glycosylation in plant adaptive resistance to salinity stress, we cloned the STT3 genes from S. alterniflora and heterogenously expressed them in Arabidopsis mutant to observe the functional conservation. SaSTT3A and SaSTT3B genes were cloned from Spartina alterniflora. SaSTT3A genomic sequences spanned over 23 exons and 22 introns, while SaSTT3B had 6 exons and 5 introns. The gene structures of both genes were conserved among the analyzed plant species. Subcellular localization and transmembrane structure prediction revealed that these two genes had 13 and 11 transmembrane helices respectively. The functional complementation in which the cDNA of SaSTT3A and SaSTT3B driven by CaMV 35S promoter completely or partially rescued Arabidopsis stt3a-2 mutant salt-sensitive phenotype, indicating STT3A functions conservatively between glycophyte and halophyte and N-glycosylation might be involved in plant resistance to salinity. Two STT3

  2. Context-dependent effects of the loss of Spartina alterniflora on salt marsh invertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Caroline R.; Bishop, T. Dale; Hester, Mark W.; Alber, Merryl

    2015-09-01

    Sudden dieback of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora during 2000-2002 transformed once-vegetated areas to bare sediment in coastal Georgia and Louisiana. We investigated the effects of losing this foundation species on habitat provisioning for benthic epifauna, macroinfauna, and meiofauna in these distinct geographical regions. In GA, significant shifts in invertebrate community assemblages were observed between bare and reference (vegetated) plots, with abundances of all invertebrate groups and the diversity of macroinfauna lower in bare plots. In LA, community assemblages overlapped considerably in dieback and reference plots. Although epifaunal snails were significantly decreased in dieback plots, meiofauna were unexpectedly increased. Other invertebrates did not differ between plots. Supplemental transplanted plots allowed for direct evaluation of stem density effects on invertebrates. Stem density predicted abundances of all invertebrate groups in GA, and was positively correlated with increased soil moisture. In LA, elevation and soil moisture were good predictors of infauna but were not related to stem density. Differences between the states suggest that S. alterniflora may not provide equivalent ecosystem services in all salt marshes. Additional disturbances (drought, GA; hurricanes, LA) decreased infaunal density and taxon richness in 2008. However, in both states the reduction of macroinfauna was larger in bare than reference areas, suggesting that vegetation protected against further disturbance. Our results suggest that the role of S. alterniflora is context-dependent both in terms of geographic setting and the specific ecosystem service under consideration.

  3. Associations between macrobenthos and invasive cordgrass, Spartina anglica, in the Danish Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a survey to provide knowledge on mechanisms controlling spatial and temporal variability of macrobenthos in an intertidal Wadden Sea area partly covered by invasive Spartina anglica. Benthic macrofauna was collected seasonally at seven stations along a transect covering non-vegetated mudflat and vegetated marsh areas. Shannon diversity index was consistently higher for macrobenthos in the open mudflat compared to the marsh area. Infaunal species, like Arenicola marina, Tubificoides benedeni and Macoma balthica, were more abundant in the mudflat than the marsh, while the opposite was evident for epifaunal species, like Hydrobia ulvae and Littorina littorea. The infaunal crustacean, Corophium volutator, on the other hand, appeared particularly attracted to the mudflat-marsh boundary. The biomass of below-ground plant materials and macrodetritus was positively correlated with the total macrofaunal abundance, while the biomass of dead below-ground plant materials alone showed a significant negative correlation with infaunal abundance. Total macrofaunal abundance was highest during summer in the mudflat, while no seasonal pattern was evident in the marsh. The negative influence of S. anglica invasions on infaunal abundance may have serious implications for higher trophic levels, such as waterbirds, that forage in Wadden Sea areas and thus for the overall biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

  4. Latitudinal trends in Spartina alterniflora productivity and the response of coastal marshes to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Morris, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Marshes worldwide are actively degrading in response to increased sea level rise rates and reduced sediment delivery, though the growth rate of vegetation plays a critical role in determining their stability. We have compiled 56 measurements of above-ground annual productivity for Spartina alterniflora, the dominant macrophyte in North American coastal wetlands. Our compilation indicates a significant latitudinal gradient in productivity, which we interpret to be determined primarily by temperature and/or the length of growing season. Simple linear regression yields a 27 g m-2 yr -1 increase in productivity with an increase of mean annual temperature by one degree C. If temperatures warm 2?4 C over the next century, then marsh productivity may increase by 10?40%, though physiological research suggests that increases in the north could potentially be offset by some decreases in the south. This increase in productivity is roughly equivalent to estimates of marsh lost due to future sea level change. If a warming-induced stimulation of vegetation growth will enhance vertical accretion and limit erosion, then the combined effects of global change may be to increase the total productivity and ecosystem services of tidal wetlands, at least in Northern latitudes.

  5. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Vecino-Bueno, Inmaculada [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Feldman, Susana R. [Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y CIUNR, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The cordgrass Spartina argentinensis, which occurs in inland marshes of the Chaco-Pampean regions of Argentina, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Cr{sup 6+} from 0 to 20 mmol l{sup -1} on growth and photosynthetic apparatus of S. argentinensis by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium and phosphorous concentrations were also determined. S. argentinensis showed phytotoxicity at tiller concentration of 4 mg g{sup -1} Cr, and symptoms of stress at tiller concentration of 1.5 mg g{sup -1} Cr, as well as reductions in leaf gas exchange, in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, in photosynthetic pigment contents and in the uptake of essential nutrients. Reductions in net photosynthetic rate could be accounted for by non-stomatal limitations. Moreover, the bioaccumulator factors exceeded greatly the critical value (1.0) for all Cr treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has a higher ability to transfer Cr from roots to tillers at higher Cr concentrations. These results confirmed that S. argentinensis is a chromium hyperaccumulator and that it may be useful for restoring Cr-contaminated sites.

  6. Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Ana I. [IO - Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: aisousa@fc.ul.pt; Lillebo, Ana I. [CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cacador, Isabel [IO - Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pardal, Miguel A. [IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1 yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. - The crucial capacity of salt marshes to retain nitrogen, thus reducing eutrophication, greatly depends on the salt marsh maturity, rather than the estuarine system.

  7. Spectral Discrimination of the Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora at Multiple Phenological Stages in a Saltmarsh Wetland.

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    Zu-Tao Ouyang

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded the saltmarshes of the Yangtze River Estuary and brought negative effects to the ecosystem. Remote sensing technique has recently been used to monitor its distribution, but the similar morphology and canopy structure among S. alterniflora and its neighbor species make it difficult even with high-resolution images. Nevertheless, these species have divergence on phenological stages throughout the year, which cause distinguishing spectral characteristics among them and provide opportunities for discrimination. The field spectra of the S. alterniflora community as well as its major victims, native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter, were measured in 2009 and 2010 at multi-phenological stages in the Yangtze River Estuary, aiming to find the most appropriate periods for mapping S. alterniflora. Collected spectral data were analyzed separately for every stage firstly by re-sampling reflectance curves into continued 5-nm-wide hyper-spectral bands and then by re-sampling into broad multi-spectral bands - the same as the band ranges of the TM sensor, as well as calculating commonly used vegetation indices. The results showed that differences among saltmarsh communities' spectral characteristics were affected by their phenological stages. The germination and early vegetative growth stage and the flowering stage were probably the best timings to identify S. alterniflora. Vegetation indices like NDVI, ANVI, VNVI, and RVI are likely to enhance spectral separability and also make it possible to discriminate S. alterniflora at its withering stage.

  8. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration in the Yangtze River estuary, China.

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    Naishun Bu

    Full Text Available Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP, SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic variation in Spartina alterniflora following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Marta; Schrey, Aaron; Shayter, Ashley; Moss, Christina J; Richards, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Catastrophic events offer unique opportunities to study rapid population response to stress in natural settings. In concert with genetic variation, epigenetic mechanisms may allow populations to persist through severe environmental challenges. In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill devastated large portions of the coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. However, the foundational salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, showed high resilience to this strong environmental disturbance. Following the spill, we simultaneously examined the genetic and epigenetic structure of recovering populations of S. alterniflora to oil exposure. We quantified genetic and DNA methylation variation using amplified fragment length polymorphism and methylation sensitive fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) to test the hypothesis that response to oil exposure in S. alterniflora resulted in genetically and epigenetically based population differentiation. We found high genetic and epigenetic variation within and among sites and found significant genetic differentiation between contaminated and uncontaminated sites, which may reflect nonrandom mortality in response to oil exposure. Additionally, despite a lack of genomewide patterns in DNA methylation between contaminated and uncontaminated sites, we found five MS-AFLP loci (12% of polymorphic MS-AFLP loci) that were correlated with oil exposure. Overall, our findings support genetically based differentiation correlated with exposure to the oil spill in this system, but also suggest a potential role for epigenetic mechanisms in population differentiation.

  10. Meiotic pairing as an indicator of genome composition in polyploid prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey W; Kim, Sumin; Villamil, María B; Lee, D K; Rayburn, A Lane

    2017-04-01

    The existence of neopolyploidy in prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) has been documented. The neohexaploid was discovered coexisting with tetraploids in central Illinois, and has been reported to exhibit competitiveness in the natural environment. It is hypothesized that the natural tetraploid cytotype produced the hexaploid cytotype via production of unreduced gametes. Meiosis I chromosome pairing was observed in tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 60), and octoploid (2n = 8x = 80) accessions and the percentage of meiotic abnormality was determined. Significant differences in meiotic abnormality exist between tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid cytotypes. An elevated incidence of abnormal, predominantly trivalent pairing in the neohexaploid suggests that it may possess homologous chromosomes in sets of three, in contrast to the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes, which likely possess homologous chromosomes in sets of two. Abnormal chromosome pairing in the hexaploid may result in unequal allocation of chromosomes to daughter cells during later stages of meiosis. Chromosome pairing patterns in tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid cytotypes indicate genome compositions of AABB, AAABBB, and AABBA'A'B'B', respectively.

  11. Physcomitrella patens has kinase-LRR R gene homologs and interacting proteins.

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    Yusuke Tanigaki

    Full Text Available Plant disease resistance gene (R gene-like sequences were screened from the Physcomitrella patens genome. We found 603 kinase-like, 475 Nucleotide Binding Site (NBS-like and 8594 Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR-like sequences by homology searching using the respective domains of PpC24 (Accession No. BAD38895, which is a candidate kinase-NBS-LRR (kinase-NL type R-like gene, as a reference. The positions of these domains in the genome were compared and 17 kinase-NLs were predicted. We also found four TIR-NBS-LRR (TIR-NL sequences with homology to Arabidopsis TIR-NL (NM_001125847, but three out of the four TIR-NLs had tetratricopeptide repeats or a zinc finger domain in their predicted C-terminus. We also searched for kinase-LRR (KLR type sequences by homology with rice OsXa21 and Arabidopsis thaliana FLS2. As a result, 16 KLRs with similarity to OsXa21 were found. In phylogenetic analysis of these 16 KLRs, PpKLR36, PpKLR39, PpKLR40, and PpKLR43 formed a cluster with OsXa21. These four PpKLRs had deduced transmembrane domain sequences and expression of all four was confirmed. We also found 14 homologs of rice OsXB3, which is known to interact with OsXa21 and is involved in signal transduction. Protein-protein interaction was observed between the four PpKLRs and at least two of the XB3 homologs in Y2H analysis.

  12. The nitric oxide production in the moss Physcomitrella patens is mediated by nitrate reductase.

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    Rigoberto Medina-Andrés

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years multiple roles of the nitric oxide gas (•NO have been uncovered in plant growth, development and many physiological processes. In seed plants the enzymatic synthesis of •NO is mediated by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like activity performed by a still unknown enzyme(s and nitrate reductase (NR. In green algae the •NO production has been linked only to NR activity, although a NOS gene was reported for Ostreococcus tauri and O. lucimarinus, no other Viridiplantae species has such gene. As there is no information about •NO synthesis neither for non-vascular plants nor for non-seed vascular plants, the interesting question regarding the evolution of the enzymatic •NO production systems during land plant natural history remains open. To address this issue the endogenous •NO production by protonema was demonstrated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR. The •NO signal was almost eliminated in plants treated with sodium tungstate, which also reduced the NR activity, demonstrating that in P. patens NR activity is the main source for •NO production. The analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM confirmed endogenous NO production and showed that •NO signal is accumulated in the cytoplasm of protonema cells. The results presented here show for the first time the •NO production in a non-vascular plant and demonstrate that the NR-dependent enzymatic synthesis of •NO is common for embryophytes and green algae.

  13. Alternate Modes of Photosynthate Transport in the Alternating Generations of Physcomitrella patens

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    Kamesh C. Regmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a model moss system to investigate the evolution of various plant characters in early land plant lineages. Yet, there is merely a disparate body of ultrastructural and physiological evidence from other mosses to draw inferences about the modes of photosynthate transport in the alternating generations of Physcomitrella. We performed a series of ultrastructural, fluorescent tracing, physiological, and immunohistochemical experiments to elucidate a coherent model of photosynthate transport in this moss. Our ultrastructural observations revealed that Physcomitrella is an endohydric moss with water-conducting and putative food-conducting cells in the gametophytic stem and leaves. Movement of fluorescent tracer 5(6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate revealed that the mode of transport in the gametophytic generation is symplasmic and is mediated by plasmodesmata, while there is a diffusion barrier composed of transfer cells that separates the photoautotrophic gametophyte from the nutritionally dependent heterotrophic sporophyte. We posited that, analogous to what is found in apoplasmically phloem loading higher plants, the primary photosynthate sucrose, is actively imported into the transfer cells by sucrose/H+ symporters (SUTs that are, in turn, powered by P-type ATPases, and that the transfer cells harbor an ATP-conserving Sucrose Synthase (SUS pathway. Supporting our hypothesis was the finding that a protonophore (2,4-dinitrophenol and a SUT-specific inhibitor (diethyl pyrocarbonate reduced the uptake of radiolabeled sucrose into the sporangia. In situ immunolocalization of P-type ATPase, Sucrose Synthase, and Proton Pyrophosphatase – all key components of the SUS pathway – showed that these proteins were prominently localized in the transfer cells, providing further evidence consistent with our argument.

  14. Direct observation of the effects of cellulose synthesis inhibitors using live cell imaging of Cellulose Synthase (CESA) in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mai L; McCarthy, Thomas W; Sun, Hao; Wu, Shu-Zon; Norris, Joanna H; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Vidali, Luis; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W

    2018-01-15

    Results from live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged Cellulose Synthase (CESA) proteins in Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs) have enhanced our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis, including the mechanisms of action of cellulose synthesis inhibitors. However, this method has been applied only in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon thus far. Results from freeze fracture electron microscopy of protonemal filaments of the moss Funaria hygrometrica indicate that a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), fragments CSCs and clears them from the plasma membrane. This differs from Arabidopsis, in which DCB causes CSC accumulation in the plasma membrane and a different cellulose synthesis inhibitor, isoxaben, clears CSCs from the plasma membrane. In this study, live cell imaging of the moss Physcomitrella patens indicated that DCB and isoxaben have little effect on protonemal growth rates, and that only DCB causes tip rupture. Live cell imaging of mEGFP-PpCESA5 and mEGFP-PpCESA8 showed that DCB and isoxaben substantially reduced CSC movement, but had no measureable effect on CSC density in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that DCB and isoxaben have similar effects on CSC movement in P. patens and Arabidopsis, but have different effects on CSC intracellular trafficking, cell growth and cell integrity in these divergent plant lineages.

  15. Functional analyses of chitinases in the moss Physcomitrella patens: chitin oligosaccharide-induced gene expression and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaru, Saki; Tanaka, Ryusuke; Taira, Toki; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-12-01

    Plant chitinases play diverse roles including defense against pathogenic fungi. Using reverse-transcription quantitative PCR analysis, we found that six chitinase (PpChi) genes and two genes for chitin elicitor receptor kinases (PpCERKs) are expressed at considerable levels in the moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. The expressed PpChis belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 19 (class I: PpChi-Ia and -Ib; class II: PpChi-IIa and -IIc; and class IV: PpChi-IV) and to glycoside hydrolase family 18 (class V: PpChi-Vb). Treatment with chitin tetramer or hexamer increased the expression of class I and IV PpChi genes and decreased that of class II PpChi genes. Recombinant PpChi-Ia, PpChi-IV, and PpChi-Vb were characterized. PpChi-IV exhibited higher activity against chitin tetramer and pentamer than PpChi-Ia did. PpChi-Vb showed transglycosylation activity and PpChi-Ia inhibited fungal growth. These results suggest that chitinases of different classes play different roles in defense mechanism of moss plant against fungal pathogens.

  16. Digital gene expression profiling by 5'-end sequencing of cDNAs during reprogramming in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

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    Tomoaki Nishiyama

    Full Text Available Stem cells self-renew and repeatedly produce differentiated cells during development and growth. The differentiated cells can be converted into stem cells in some metazoans and land plants with appropriate treatments. After leaves of the moss Physcomitrella patens are excised, leaf cells reenter the cell cycle and commence tip growth, which is characteristic of stem cells called chloronema apical cells. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, a digital gene expression profiling method using mRNA 5'-end tags (5'-DGE was established. The 5'-DGE method produced reproducible data with a dynamic range of four orders that correlated well with qRT-PCR measurements. After the excision of leaves, the expression levels of 11% of the transcripts changed significantly within 6 h. Genes involved in stress responses and proteolysis were induced and those involved in metabolism, including photosynthesis, were reduced. The later processes of reprogramming involved photosynthesis recovery and higher macromolecule biosynthesis, including of RNA and proteins. Auxin and cytokinin signaling pathways, which are activated during stem cell formation via callus in flowering plants, are also activated during reprogramming in P. patens, although no exogenous phytohormone is applied in the moss system, suggesting that an intrinsic phytohormone regulatory system may be used in the moss.

  17. Performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte Spartina alterniflora treating mariculture effluent

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    Wilson Treger Zydowicz Sousa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical flow constructed wetlands, planted with and without Spartina alterniflora, were tested for the treatment of mariculture wastewater. Wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte produced reductions of 89 and 71% for inorganic solids, 82 and 96% for organic solids, 51 and 63% for total nitrogen, 82 and 92% for ammoniacal nitrogen, 64 and 59% for orthophosphate, and 81 and 89% for turbidity, respectively. Wetlands with S. alterniflora showed denitrification tendencies, while wetlands without S. alterniflora had higher oxygen levels leading to nitrification. The results suggest the fundamental role of oxygen controlling the purification processes as well as the potential of constructed wetlands to treat mariculture effluents.

  18. Grazing Scar Characteristics Impact Degree of Fungal Facilitation in Spartina alterniflora Leaves in a South American Salt Marsh

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    Ricardo Franco Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Grazing scars of burrowing crabs and Hemiptera insects were simulated on leaves of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Simulations of crab feeding generated two-fold higher fungal (ergosterol content in leaves in comparison to that generated by insect scar simulations (1.26 ±0.55 and 0.57 ±0.25 µg per cm², respectively. This study provided evidence that herbivory could facilitate microbial infection by fungi in dominant South American salt marsh plants and indicated that specific feeding mechanisms used by different herbivores might differentially impact the strength of this interaction.

  19. Heavy Metal Absorption Efficiency of two Species of Mosses (Physcomitrella patens and Funaria hygrometrica) Studied in Mercury Treated Culture under Laboratory Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abanti; Kumari, Sony; Dash, Saktisradha; Prasad Biswal, Durga; Kishore Dash, Aditya; Panigrahi, Kishore C. S.

    2017-08-01

    As an important component of ecosystems, mosses have a strong influence on the cycling of water, energy and nutrient. Given their sensitivity to environmental change, mosses can be used as bioindicators of water quality, air pollution, metal accumulation and climate change. In the present study, the growth, differentiation and heavy metal (Hg) absorption of two species of mosses like Physcomitrella patens and Funariahygrometrica were studied in solid cultures under laboratory conditions. It was observed that, the number of gametophores developed from single inoculated gametophores after 45 days of growth of F. hygrometrica was 11±2.0 in control where as it has decreased at higher concentrations, 4±1.5 in 1ppm of mercury treatment. P. patens also shows a similar trend. The heavy metal uptake of both the species of mosses was studied. It was observed that Hg content in pseudo leaves of P. patens ranged from 0.98 ppm to 2.76 ppm at different Hg treatment (0.1-1 ppm), whereas in F. hygrometrica it ranged from 0.78 ppm to 2.43 ppm under the same treatment condition. Comparing between the Hg content in pseudo-leaves and rhizoids of P. patens and F. hygrometrica, it was observed that the Hg content was elevated about 60-64% in rhizoids than that of pseudo-leaves at 0.1% treatment level, whereas it was increased almost up to 50% in other treatment level.

  20. Metabolic Engineering of the Moss Physcomitrella patens as a Green Cell Factory to Produce Terpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Xin

    )-β-santalol in P. patens, five different well-characterized cytochromes P450 from GenBank, CYP71A5 (geraniol-10-hydroxylase) from Nepeta racemosa, CYP76B6 (geraniol-8-oxidase) from Catharanthus roseus, CYP76C4 (geraniol 8-, 9-hydroxylase) from Arabidopsis thaliana, CYP71D20 (5-epi-aristolochene-1, 3-dihydroxylase...

  1. Effects of plant cover on the macrofauna of Spartina marshes in northern Brazil

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    Cesar França Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on macrofauna density and diversity, and the height and density of Spartina brasiliensis, were obtained from salt marsh beds of a tropical estuary in northern Brazil. Sampling was carried out at four distinct times of the year, during the wet and dry seasons and in the transition periods between these. Sampling was also carried out in salt marshes of three size classes, small, medium and large. Variables were analyzed in relation to time of year and salt marsh size class. Overall, 46 taxa were found, with polychaetes, isopods and the gastropod Neritina virginea dominating the fauna. Macrofauna density and diversity were positively correlated with culm density, indicating a possible role in protection from predation. All the three variables were higher during the transitional periods between the wet and dry seasons and seasonal changes in rainfall, salinity and light availability may influence mortality, food availability and settlement of the macrofauna. There was no effect of salt marsh size on either the macrofauna or the vegetation.Dados sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna em relação à altura e densidade de Spartina brasiliensis foram obtidos em bancos de marismas em um estuário tropical no norte do Brasil. A amostragem foi realizada quatro vezes durante um ano, nas estações chuvosa, seca e nos períodos de transição entre estas. A amostragem foi realizada em marismas de três classes de tamanho: pequeno, médio e grande. As variáveis foram analisadas em relação às estações do ano e das classes de tamanho das marismas. Um total de 46 táxons foram encontrados, com os poliquetos, isopodos e o gastropódo Neritina virginea dominando a fauna, resultados similares a estudos realizados em marismas no sul do Brasil. A densidade e a diversidade da macrofauna foram correlacionadas positivamente com a densidade de colmos da vegetação, indicando um possível papel da vegetação em proteção contra predação. Todas as

  2. Effects of the herbicide diuron on cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) reflectance and photosynthetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.L.; Carranza, A.; Kunzelman, J.; Datta, S.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early indicators of salt marsh plant stress are needed to detect stress before it is manifested as changes in biomass and coverage. We explored a variety of leaf-level spectral reflectance and fluorescence variables as indicators of stress in response to the herbicide diuron. Diuron, a Photosystem II inhibitor, is heavily used in areas adjacent to estuaries, but its ecological effects are just beginning to be recognized. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed Spartina foliosa, the native cordgrass in California salt marshes, to two levels of diuron. After plant exposure to diuron for 28 days, all spectral reflectance indices and virtually all fluorescence parameters indicated reduced pigment and photosynthetic function, verified as reduced CO2 assimilation. Diuron exposure was not evident, however, in plant morphometry, indicating that reflectance and fluorescence were effective indicators of sub-lethal diuron exposure. Several indices (spectral reflectance index ARI and fluorescence parameters EQY, Fo, and maximum rETR) were sensitive to diuron concentration. In field trials, most of the indices as well as biomass, % cover, and canopy height varied predictably and significantly across a pesticide gradient. In the field, ARI and Fo regressed most significantly and strongly with pesticide levels. The responses of ARI and Fo in both the laboratory and the field make these indices promising as sensitive, rapid, non-destructive indicators of responses of S. foliosa to herbicides in the field. These techniques are employed in remote sensing and could potentially provide a link between landscapes of stressed vegetation and the causative stressor(s), which is crucial for effective regulation of pollution. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  3. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed M; Lambert, Adam M; Rubio-Casal, Alfredo E; De Cires, Alfonso; Figueroa, Enrique M; Castillo, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels and in brackish

  4. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora

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    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels

  5. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass Spartina maritima to CO2 enrichment and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, E; Redondo-Gómez, S; Andrades-Moreno, L; Davy, A J

    2010-10-01

    Future climatic scenarios combine increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) and rising sea levels. Spartina maritima is a C(4) halophyte that is an important pioneer and ecosystem engineer in salt marshes of the Atlantic coast of southern Europe. A glasshouse experiment investigated the combined effects on its growth and photosynthetic apparatus of approximately doubling CO(2) concentration (from 380 to 700 μmol mol(-1)) at a range of salinity (0, 171 and 510 mM NaCl). We measured relative growth rates, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and total ash, Na(+), K(2+), Ca(2+) and N concentrations. Elevated CO(2) stimulated growth of S. maritima by c. 65% at all external salinities; this growth enhancement was associated with greater net photosynthetic rate (A) and improved leaf water relations. A increased despite a drop in stomatal conductance in response to 700 μmol mol(-1) CO(2). CO(2) and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (PSII) apparatus and the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Φ(PSII) values at midday decreased significantly with external salinity in plants grown at 380 μmol mol(-1) CO(2); and F(v)/F(m) and Φ(PSII) values were higher at 700 μmol mol(-1) CO(2) in presence of NaCl. Plant nutrient concentrations declined under elevated CO(2), which can be ascribed to the dilution effect caused by an increase in biomass. The results suggest that the productivity S. maritima and the ecosystem services it provides will increase in likely future climatic scenarios. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of seasonality and environmental gradients on Spartina alterniflora allometry and primary production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Troy D; Roberts, Brian J

    2017-11-01

    Predictions of how salt marsh primary production and carbon storage will respond to environmental change can be improved through detailed datasets documenting responses to real-world environmental variation. To address a shortage of detailed studies of natural variation, we examined drivers of Spartina alterniflora stem allometry and productivity in seven marshes across three regions in southern Louisiana. Live-stem allometry varied spatially and seasonally, generally with short stems weighing more (and tall stems weighing less) in the summer and fall, differences that persist even after correcting for flowering. Strong predictive relationships exist between allometry parameters representing emergent stem mass and mass accumulation rates, suggesting that S. alterniflora populations navigate a trade-off between larger mass at emergence and faster rates of biomass accumulation. Aboveground production and belowground production were calculated using five and four approaches, respectively. End-of-season aboveground biomass was a poor proxy for increment-based production measures. Aboveground production (Smalley) ranged from 390 to 3,350 g m-2 year-1 across all marshes and years. Belowground production (max-min) was on average three times higher than aboveground; total production ranged from 1,400 to 8,500 g m-2 year-1. Above- and belowground production were both positively correlated with dissolved nutrient concentrations and negatively correlated to salinity. Interannual variation in water quality is sufficient to drive above- and belowground productivity. The positive relationship between nutrients and belowground production indicates that inputs of nutrients and freshwater may increase salt marsh carbon storage and ecosystem resilience to sea level rise.

  8. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  9. Erwinia carotovora elicitors and Botrytis cinerea activate defense responses in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentancor Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea, could infect Physcomitrella, and ii whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1 or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193, could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1, resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193 produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1 or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B

  10. Interactions and consequences of silicon, nitrogen, and Fusarium palustre on herbivory and DMSP levels of Spartina alterniflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Magalí; Elmer, Wade

    2017-11-01

    Sudden Vegetation Dieback (SVD) has been associated with multiple factors affecting the health of Spartina alterniflora. These include altered nutrition (N, Si and various metals), herbivory from the purple marsh crab, and the association with a fungal pathogen (Fusarium palustre). A metabolite produced by Spartina alterniflora that has been associated with plant health is dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), but little information exist on how these biotic stressors and nutrition interact to affect DMSP levels. Understanding how these factors might be interrelated might provide insight into the etiology of SVD. Surveys of a marsh affected by SVD confirmed lower levels of DMSP and higher concentrations of Si and other metals were present in Sp. alterniflora when compared to plants from marsh that exhibited no signs of SVD. In repeated greenhouse experiments, the application of Si to Sp. alterniflora had no effect on DMSP concentrations. However, when plants were inoculated with the pathogenic fungus, Fusarium palustre, and then treated with Si, DMSP levels were elevated 27%. Inoculation alone had no effect on DMSP levels. Si application neither favor growth nor suppress the stunting effect of disease by F. palustre. Furthermore, grazing by Sesarma reticulatum, a herbivorous crab, was not affected by Si nutrition. Grazing was increased by nitrogen fertilization and inoculation with F. palustre. Deciphering the role of Si nutrition in Sp. alterniflora and dieback remains unresolved, but no evidence suggests enhancing Si nutrition would directly favor marsh health.

  11. Effect of the exotic plant Spartina alterniflora on macrobenthos communities in salt marshes of the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Guo, Li; Jin, Binsong; Wu, Jihua; Zheng, Guanghong

    2009-04-01

    The Yangtze River Estuary is an important eco-region of China; it has, however, been heavily infested with the invasive plant Spartina alterniflora. This study examined the benthic communities associated with the invasive S. alterniflora and two native plants ( Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis) at three tidal elevations to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of marsh plant invasions on intertidal macrofauna of the Yangtze River Estuary. Spartina alterniflora had significantly sparser and taller stems than S. mariqueter, whereas the traits of S. alterniflora and P. australis were relatively similar. A total of 23 macrofaunal taxa were recorded during this study and their mean density was 1885 ind. m -2. Numerically, gastropods and bivalves were the dominant group; together they constituted 95.72% of the total macrofaunal individuals. The differences in macrofaunal community structure were greater among different elevations than between native and exotic plants. The effects of plant types on species richness and densities of macroinvertebrates were generally weak. Densities of only one species ( Glaucomya chinensis) differed significantly between S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter marshes at the lower elevation. The tolerance of the macrobenthos to plant invasions thus depends on various factors, including habitats, species of macrofauna, and local plants.

  12. Concurrent bio-electricity and biomass production in three Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells using Spartina anglica, Arundinella anomala and Arundo donax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Kuhn, A.J.; Blok, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    In a Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) three plants were tested for concurrent biomass and bio-electricity production and maximization of power output. Spartina anglica and Arundinella anomala concurrently produced biomass and bio-electricity for six months consecutively. Average power production of

  13. Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) and the invasive M haplotype of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) along a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Brown, J. Jed; Nelson, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    An invasive variety of Phragmites australis (Poaceae, common reed), the M haplotype, has been implicated in the spread of this species into North American salt marshes that are normally dominated by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, smooth cordgrass). In some European marshes, on the other hand, Spartina spp. derived from S. alterniflora have spread into brackish P. australis marshes. In both cases, the non-native grass is thought to degrade the habitat value of the marsh for wildlife, and it is important to understand the physiological processes that lead to these species replacements. We compared the growth, salt tolerance, and osmotic adjustment of M haplotype P. australis and S. alterniflora along a salinity gradient in greenhouse experiments. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na+ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. This study illustrates how ecophysiological differences can shift the competitive advantage from one species to another along a stress gradient. Phragmites australis is spreading into North American coastal marshes that are experiencing reduced salinities, while Spartina spp. are spreading into northern European brackish marshes that are experiencing increased salinities as land use patterns change on the two continents.

  14. Provenance-by-environment interaction of reproductive traits in the invasion of Spartina alterniflora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Strong, Donald R; Pennings, Steven C; Zhang, Yihui

    2017-06-01

    Ecological invasions are facilitated by pre-adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, upon which evolution can act. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 yr is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. A previous study of S. alterniflora in China found strong latitudinal clines in vegetative and sexual traits and concluded that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity. Recent observations suggested provenance-by-environment interactions, and we employed common gardens at multiple latitudes as a test of this idea. Phenotypically, field plant height, which correlates strongly with biomass and other indices of vegetative performance in this species, showed a hump-shaped relationship across 10 sites, covering 19° of latitude; field seed set increased linearly with latitude. To assess the role of plasticity vs. genetic differentiation in these patterns, we grew plants from the ten field sites in three common gardens at low (20.9° N), mid (28.3° N), and high (38.0° N) latitudes to maturity, at 18 months. Plant height varied among common gardens, with the tallest plants at mid latitude, mirroring the field pattern, consistent with the previous study. Within the gardens, latitude of origin also affected plant height. Seed set varied among the gardens, with the greatest values at high latitudes, again mirroring the field pattern and indicating substantial plasticity. Evidence of evolution was found as increasing seed set with latitude among provenances within common gardens. However, the effect differed among common gardens, with the greatest slope in the high-latitude garden, lower slope in the mid-latitude garden, and no relationship in the low-latitude garden, indicating a provenance-by-environment interaction. The number of surviving plants also suggested a provenance-by-environment interaction; no relationship with latitude among provenances in the two southern gardens and increasing survival

  15. Genetic Considerations for the Restoration of Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) Within Its Native Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Steven E.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Edwards, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    In order to remain viable over many generations, plant populations require the ability to respond adaptively to a changing environment. Such adaptive potential is directly controlled by underlying genetic variation, which can be measured in terms of both heterozygosity at the individual level and clonal, or genotypic diversity at the population level. This report summarizes research relating to the importance of genetic diversity in the restoration of salt marsh smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, a dominant member of low elevation intertidal marshes throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coasts of North America. Recent research has indicated that S. alterniflora is a partially clonal species characterized by the recruitment of seedlings exclusively during the initial colonization phase of population establishment. A major consequence of this finding is that clonal diversity generally peaks rather early in the development of a restored marsh, depending on the rate of natural immigration and/or the clonal diversity of planting units, and then undergoes a steady decline over geological time spans because of stochastic mortality and intraspecific competition. Low levels of clonal diversity resulting from restricted immigration or clonally depauperate planting materials in turn places strict limits on opportunities for outcrossing in a species known to suffer from severe inbreeding depression. Low clonal diversity may further lead to declining levels of heterozyosity of individual clones, which directly affects competitive ability. In addition, the planting of genetically diverse plant materials should take into account the genetic and adaptive differentiation that takes place when plant populations are widely separated in space and/or dwell under varying sets of environmental conditions. Thus, steps should be taken to ensure that S. alterniflora clones developed for restorative plantings are both genetically diverse and sufficiently pre-adapted to

  16. Population structure and inbreeding vary with successional stage in created Spartina alterniflora marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Proffitt, C.E.; Ritland, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recruitment patterns in clonal plant populations are predicted to vary with seed dispersal capability and disturbance regime, such that species with small, widely dispersed seeds will become increasingly dominated by vegetative recruitment on disturbed areas following early colonization. Subsequent mortality due to competitive or stochastic effects is then predicted to cause a gradual decline in both clonal diversity and the ability of surviving clones to avoid geitonogamous mating and possible inbreeding depression. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing four adjacent populations of the salt marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, ranging in age from 2 to ???50 yr, by measuring fine-scale genetic structure at the level of both ramets and genets, and the rate of inbreeding. For this purpose, we sampled maternal tissue and seeds from discrete patches in the field and then genotyped both maternal and seedling tissue (germinated in a growth chamber) using standard molecular protocols. As predicted, we observed an increase in clonal diversity (measured as the complement of the Simpson Index corrected for finite sample sizes, 1-D) up to a maximum of 0.71 within 3-m2 patches at 16 yr, declining to 0.55 by ???50 yr. Local recruitment of seedlings was evident as genetic structure occurring at the level of patches, as measured by the fixation index, ??, which was inversely correlated with diversity (R2 > 0.90 at all patch scales). Outcrossing rates were positively associated with clonal diversity, with the highest level (89%) at an intermediate level of 1-D. The greatest selfing (32%) occurred in young (2-yr-old) patches with low diversity. Biparental inbreeding was minimal in all populations, never exceeding 1%. Inbreeding depression was inferred to be severe, as evidenced by near-zero adult inbreeding coefficients. These results suggest a possible fitness trade-off between clonal growth and the opportunity for outcrossing. We recommend that restoration

  17. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul

    2016-01-01

    Direct assembly of multiple linear DNA fragments via homologous recombination, a phenomenon known as in vivo assembly or transformation associated recombination, is used in biotechnology to assemble DNA constructs ranging in size from a few kilobases to full synthetic microbial genomes. It has al...... of high-value therapeutics. These proof-of-principle experiments pave the way for more complex and increasingly flexible approaches for large-scale metabolic engineering in plant biotechnology.......Direct assembly of multiple linear DNA fragments via homologous recombination, a phenomenon known as in vivo assembly or transformation associated recombination, is used in biotechnology to assemble DNA constructs ranging in size from a few kilobases to full synthetic microbial genomes. It has also...... enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  18. Nekton densities along Spartina alterniflora marsh-edge and adjacent shallow non-vegetated bottom in Carancahua Cove, Texas from 1982-03-03 to 1993-06-24 (NCEI Accession 0161172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains nekton counts used to quantify and compare densities along Spartina alterniflora marsh-edge and adjacent shallow non-vegetated bottom in...

  19. Perbandingan Efektivitas Daya Hambat Kotrimoksazol Generik dan Paten terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia coli sebagai Penyebab Infeksi Saluran Kemih secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Anggun Sari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi saluran kemih merupakan salah satu infeksi yang sering ditemukan setelah infeksi saluran napas. Penyebab terbanyak infeksi saluran kemih adalah Escherichia coli. Kotrimoksazol merupakan kombinasi dari dua obat yaitu trimetoprim dan sulfametoksazol serta salah satu contoh antibiotik yang merupakan first-line therapy untuk infeksi saluran kemih. Kotrimoksazol terbagi menjadi dua jenis obat yaitu obat generik dan paten. Akan tetapi, belakangan ini penggunaan obat generik mulai menurun di masyarakat dan masyarakat cenderung meragukan kualitasnya. Padahal masyarakat yang akan diuntungkan jika mengetahui mutu obat generik tidak kalah dengan obat paten. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan efektivitas daya hambat kotrimoksazol generik dan paten terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli sebagai penyebab infeksi saluran kemih secara in vitro. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik eksperimental dengan desain cross-sectional study. Penelitian ini menggunakan 19 sampel isolat bakteri dari pasien infeksi saluran kemih yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil yang ditentukan rumus minimal adequate sample size menggunakan metode difusi cakram dan dilihat perbandingan antara zona bebas kuman yang dibentuk oleh obat generik dan paten tersebut. Data yang diperoleh akan diolah secara statistik dengan uji hipotesis t-independent test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada 17 sampel tidak didapatkan zona bebas kuman baik pada kotrimoksazol generik atau paten. Sedangkan pada 2 sampel lainnya didapatkan zona bebas kuman pada kedua obat kotrimoksazol generik dan paten. Setelah dilakukan analisis statistik menggunakan SPSS dengan uji t-independent test didapatkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara sensitivitas bakteri Escherichia coli penyebab infeksi saluran kemih terhadap kotrimoksazol generik dan paten. Sedangkan resistensi yang terjadi pada 17 sampel lain diduga disebabkan penggunaan

  20. Drought stress obliterates the preference for ammonium as an N source in the C4 plant Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Kamel; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Abdelly, Chedly; Cruz, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    The C4 grass Spartina alterniflora is known for its unique salt tolerance and strong preference for ammonium (NH4+) as a nitrogen (N) source. We here examined whether Spartina's unique preference for NH4+ results in improved performance under drought stress. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were carried out to measure the effects of variable water availability and inorganic N sources on plant performance (growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant, and N metabolism). Drought strongly reduced leaf number and area, plant fresh and dry weight, and photosynthetic activity on all N sources, but the reduction was most pronounced on NH4+. Indeed, the growth advantage seen on NH4+ in the absence of drought, producing nearly double the biomass compared to growth on NO3-, was entirely obliterated under both intermediate and severe drought conditions (50 and 25% field capacity, respectively). Both fresh and dry weight became indistinguishable among N sources under drought. Major markers of the antioxidant capacity of the plant, the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, showed higher constitutive levels on NH4+. Catalase and glutathione reductase were specifically upregulated in NH4+-fed plants with increasing drought stress. This upregulation, however, failed to protect the plants from drought stress. Nitrogen metabolism was characterized by lower constitutive levels of glutamine synthetase in NH4+-fed plants, and a rise in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity under drought, accompanied by elevated proline levels in leaves. Our results support postulates on the important role of GDH induction, and its involvement in the synthesis of compatible solutes, under abiotic stress. We show that, despite this metabolic shift, S. alterniflora's sensitivity to drought does not benefit from growth on NH4+ and that the imposition of drought stress equalizes all N-source-related growth differences observed under non

  1. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Parra, Raquel; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Aroca, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Spartina densiflora is a C4 halophytic species that has proved to have a high invasive potential which derives from its physiological plasticity to environmental factors, such as salinity. It is found in coastal marshes of south-west Spain, growing over sediments with between 1 mmol l−1 and 70 mmol l−1 zinc. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the synergic effect of zinc from 0 mmol l−1 to 60 mmol l−1 at 0, 1, and 3% NaCl on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange, and its recovery after removing zinc. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total zinc, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen concentrations were also determined. Spartina densiflora showed the highest growth at 1 mmol l−1 zinc and 1% NaCl after 90 d of treatment; this enhanced growth was supported by the measurements of net photosynthetic rate (A). Furthermore, there was a stimulatory effect of salinity on accumulation of zinc in tillers of this species. Zinc concentrations >1 mmol l−1 reduced growth of S. densiflora, regardless of salinity treatments. This declining growth may be attributed to a decrease in A caused by diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, owing to the modification of the potassium/calcium ratio. Also, zinc and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (photosystem II) apparatus, partially mediated by the accumulation of H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage. However, salinity favoured the recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus to the toxic action of zinc, and enhanced the nutrient uptake. PMID:21841175

  2. Interspecific interactions between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora along a tidal gradient in the Dongtan wetland, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    Full Text Available The invasive species Spartina alterniora Loisel was introduced to the eastern coast of China in the 1970s and 1980s for the purposes of land reclamation and the prevention of soil erosion. The resulting interspecific competition had an important influence on the distribution of native vegetation, which makes studying the patterns and mechanisms of the interactions between Spartina alterniora Loisel and the native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud in this region very important. There have been some researches on the interspecific interactions between P. australis and S. alterniora in the Dongtan wetland of Chongming, east China, most of which has focused on the comparison of their physiological characteristics. In this paper, we conducted a neighbor removal experiment along a tidal gradient to evaluate the relative competitive abilities of the two species by calculating their relative neighbor effect (RNE index. We also looked at the influence of environmental stress and disturbance on the competitive abilities of the two species by comparing interaction strength (I among different tidal zones both for P. australis and S. alterniora. Finally, we measured physiological characteristics of the two species to assess the physiological mechanisms behind their different competitive abilities. Both negative and positive interactions were found between P. australis and S. alterniora along the environmental gradient. When the direction of the competitive intensity index for P. australis and S. alterniora was consistent, the competitive or facilitative effect of S. alterniora on P. australis was stronger than that of P. australis on S. alterniora. The interspecific interactions of P. australis and S. alterniora varied with environmental conditions, as well as with the method used, to measure interspecific interactions.

  3. Comparison of the effectiveness of ISJ and SSR markers and detection of outlier loci in conservation genetics of Pulsatilla patens populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska, Katarzyna; Szczecińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Research into the protection of rare and endangered plant species involves genetic analyses to determine their genetic variation and genetic structure. Various categories of genetic markers are used for this purpose. Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), are the most popular category of markers in population genetics research. In most cases, microsatellites account for a large part of the noncoding DNA and exert a neutral effect on the genome. Neutrality is a desirable feature in evaluations of genetic differences between populations, but it does not support analyses of a population's ability to adapt to a given environment or its evolutionary potential. Despite the numerous advantages of microsatellites, non-neutral markers may supply important information in conservation genetics research. They are used to evaluate adaptation to specific environmental conditions and a population's adaptive potential. The aim of this study was to compare the level of genetic variation in Pulsatilla patens populations revealed by neutral SSR markers and putatively adaptive ISJ markers (intron-exon splice junction). The experiment was conducted on 14 Polish populations of P. patens and three P. patens populations from the nearby region of Vitebsk in Belarus. A total of 345 individuals were examined. Analyses were performed with the use of eight SSR primers specific to P. patens and three ISJ primers. SSR markers revealed a higher level of genetic variation than ISJ markers (He = 0.609, He = 0.145, respectively). An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that, the overall genetic diversity between the analyzed populations defined by parameters FST and Φ PT for SSR (20%) and Φ PT for ISJ (21%) markers was similar. Analysis conducted in the Structure program divided analyzed populations into two groups (SSR loci) and three groups (ISJ markers). Mantel test revealed correlations between the geographic distance and genetic diversity of Polish

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of ISJ and SSR markers and detection of outlier loci in conservation genetics of Pulsatilla patens populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bilska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Research into the protection of rare and endangered plant species involves genetic analyses to determine their genetic variation and genetic structure. Various categories of genetic markers are used for this purpose. Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, are the most popular category of markers in population genetics research. In most cases, microsatellites account for a large part of the noncoding DNA and exert a neutral effect on the genome. Neutrality is a desirable feature in evaluations of genetic differences between populations, but it does not support analyses of a population’s ability to adapt to a given environment or its evolutionary potential. Despite the numerous advantages of microsatellites, non-neutral markers may supply important information in conservation genetics research. They are used to evaluate adaptation to specific environmental conditions and a population’s adaptive potential. The aim of this study was to compare the level of genetic variation in Pulsatilla patens populations revealed by neutral SSR markers and putatively adaptive ISJ markers (intron-exon splice junction. Methods The experiment was conducted on 14 Polish populations of P. patens and three P. patens populations from the nearby region of Vitebsk in Belarus. A total of 345 individuals were examined. Analyses were performed with the use of eight SSR primers specific to P. patens and three ISJ primers. Results SSR markers revealed a higher level of genetic variation than ISJ markers (He = 0.609, He = 0.145, respectively. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that, the overall genetic diversity between the analyzed populations defined by parameters FST and ΦPT for SSR (20% and ΦPT for ISJ (21% markers was similar. Analysis conducted in the Structure program divided analyzed populations into two groups (SSR loci and three groups (ISJ markers. Mantel test revealed correlations between the geographic distance

  5. Physcomitrella Patens Dehydrins (PpDHNA and PpDHNC Confer Salinity and Drought Tolerance to Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins (DHNs as a member of late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA proteins are involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Two dehydrins PpDHNA and PpDHNC were previously characterized from the moss Physcomitrella patens, which has been suggested to be an ideal model plant to study stress tolerance due to its adaptability to extreme environment. In this study, functions of these two genes were analyzed by heterologous expressions in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis revealed that overexpressing PpDHN dehydrin lines had stronger stress resistance than wild type and empty-vector control lines. These stress tolerance mainly due to the up-regulation of stress-related genes expression and mitigation to oxidative damage. The transgenic plants showed strong scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species(ROS, which was attributed to the enhancing of the content of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Further analysis showed that the contents of chlorophyll and proline tended to be the appropriate level (close to non-stress environment and the malondialdehyde (MDA were repressed in these transgenic plants after exposure to stress. All these results suggest the PpDHNA and PpDHNC played a crucial role in response to drought and salt stress.

  6. Zeaxanthin Binds to Light-Harvesting Complex Stress-Related Protein to Enhance Nonphotochemical Quenching in Physcomitrella patens[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnola, Alberta; Dall’Osto, Luca; Gerotto, Caterina; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) dissipates excess energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light. The moss Physcomitrella patens exhibits strong NPQ by both algal-type light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR)–dependent and plant-type S subunit of Photosystem II (PSBS)-dependent mechanisms. In this work, we studied the dependence of NPQ reactions on zeaxanthin, which is synthesized under light stress by violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) from preexisting violaxanthin. We produced vde knockout (KO) plants and showed they underwent a dramatic reduction in thermal dissipation ability and enhanced photoinhibition in excess light conditions. Multiple mutants (vde lhcsr KO and vde psbs KO) showed that zeaxanthin had a major influence on LHCSR-dependent NPQ, in contrast with previous reports in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The PSBS-dependent component of quenching was less dependent on zeaxanthin, despite the near-complete violaxanthin to zeaxanthin exchange in LHC proteins. Consistent with this, we provide biochemical evidence that native LHCSR protein binds zeaxanthin upon excess light stress. These findings suggest that zeaxanthin played an important role in the adaptation of modern plants to the enhanced levels of oxygen and excess light intensity of land environments. PMID:24014548

  7. Physcomitrella patens: a model to investigate the role of RAC/ROP GTPase signalling in tip growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, D Magnus; Svensson, Emma M; Kost, Benedikt

    2010-04-01

    Polarized cell expansion plays an important role in plant morphogenesis. Tip growth is a dramatic form of this process, which is widely used as a model to study its regulation by RAC/ROP GTPase signalling. During the dominant haploid phase of its life cycle, the moss Physcomitrella patens contains different types of cells that expand by tip growth. Physcomitrella is a highly attractive experimental system because its genome has been sequenced, and transgene integration by homologous recombination occurs in this plant at frequencies allowing effective gene targeting. Furthermore, together with the vascular spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii, whose genome has also been sequenced, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella provides an evolutionary link between green algae and angiosperms. BLAST searches established that the Physcomitrella and Selaginella genomes encode not only putative RAC/ROP GTPases, but also homologues of all known regulators of polarized RAC/ROP signalling, as well as of key effectors acting in signalling cascades downstream of RAC/ROP activity. Nucleotide sequence relationships within seven different families of Physcomitrella, Selaginella, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) genes with distinct functions in RAC/ROP signalling were characterized based on extensive maximum likelihood and Neighbor-Joining analyses. The results of these analyses are interpreted in the light of current knowledge concerning expression patterns and molecular functions of RAC/ROP signalling proteins in angiosperms. A key aim of this study is to facilitate the use of Physcomitrella as a model to investigate the molecular control of tip growth in plants.

  8. Death study of Spartina alteniflora in a phyto remediation process with landfarming soil; Estudo da mortalidade da Spartina alteniflora no processo de fitorremediacao em solo 'landfarming'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Thayna M. Brandao; Viana, Francine; Machado, Maria Isabel; Baisch, Paulo; Costa, Cesar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil pollution and its products is, nowadays, the major preoccupation of modern society, the environmentalists and, predominantly, the companies, because, beside loose money, the pollute companies can be pressed by the society and damage their image. Therefore, many techniques to repair oil impacted environments have being studied and improved. Into the most utilized techniques, phyto remediation, technique that uses vegetable species to make the process of degradation of oil organic and inorganic components faster, is a good alternative, because it's cheaper and the risk of second contamination is lower. In an acclimatized greenhouse, were transplanted in a landfarming soil, samples of a salt marsh specie, Spartina alteniflora, a very common specie in South of Brazil. The experiment had duration of 90 days and for about 20% of the samples died, three times the value of the control experiment. The conclusion of this paper is that even with high values of mortality, this salt marsh specie is very strong and can be use in remediation processes. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the anti-candidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of cleistopholis patens (fam. Annonaceae) on candida species isolated from stage II HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, David C; Momoh, Mumuni A; Esimone, Charles O

    2015-09-01

    Candida species (sp) is implicated in causing opportunistic disseminated mycotic complications in stage II HIV patients. Cleistopholis patens is a West African medicinal tree reported to have significant antifungal activity against C. albicans. This study aimed to determine the anti-candidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Cleistopholis patens against Candida species isolated from stage II HIV patients. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract and Nystatin®® was determined by agar dilution method. The killing rate studies of the plant extract and Nystatin® were also determined. The extract had activity against all Candida isolates, with the MIC against the five isolates ranging from 6.0 - 9.8 mg/ml. Nystatin® also demonstrated plausible activity against the isolates with MICs ranging from 0.3125 - 25 mg/ml. Candida albicans strain 2 was the most sensitive to both extract and Nystatin® with MIC values of 6 and 0.3125 mg/ml respectively. Candida krusei was the least sensitive with MIC values of 9.8 and 25 mg/ml for the extract and Nystatin® respectively. The killing rate values for the extract ranged from -0.029 to -0.091 min(-1) and that of Nystatin® ranged from -0.076 to -0.11216 min(-1). The results indicate that the methanolic extract of Cleistopholis patens is a promising clinical alternative besides Nystatin® in the treatment of infections caused by Candida species in stage II HIV patients.

  10. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Joesting

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics, but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of marine aquaculture solid waste as a nutrient source for the nursery production of two salt tolerant plants commonly used in coastal salt marsh restoration, Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass and Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush. Specifically, measurements of plant biomass and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus allocation were compared between plants fertilized with dried shrimp biofloc solids and unfertilized controls, as well as between plants fertilized with dried fish solids and unfertilized controls. In both experiments, S. alterniflora plants fertilized with marine aquaculture solids showed few significant differences from unfertilized controls, whereas fertilized J. roemerianus plants had significantly greater biomass and absorbed and incorporated more nutrients in plant tissue compared to unfertilized controls. These results suggest that J. roemerianus may be a suitable plant species for the remediation of marine aquaculture solid waste.

  11. Nitrogen Level Changes the Interactions between a Native (Scirpus triqueter) and an Exotic Species (Spartina anglica) in Coastal China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-li; Lei, Guang-chun; Zhi, Ying-biao; An, Shu-qing; Huang, He-ping; Ouyang, Yan; Zhao, Lei; Deng, Zi-fa; Liu, Yu-hong

    2011-01-01

    The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We measured biomass, leaf number and area, asexual reproduction and relative neighborhood effect (RNE) of the two species in both monoculture and mixture under three nitrogen levels (control, low and high). S. anglica showed significantly lower biomass accumulation, leaf number and asexual reproduction in mixture than in monoculture. The inter- and intra-specific RNE of S. anglica were all positive, and the inter-specific RNE was significantly higher than the intra-specific RNE in the control. For S. triqueter, inter- and intra-specific RNE were negative at the high nitrogen level but positive in the control and at the low nitrogen level. This indicates that S. triqueter exerted an asymmetric competitive advantage over S. anglica in the control and low nitrogen conditions; however, S. anglica facilitated growth of S. triqueter in high nitrogen conditions. Nitrogen level changed the interactions between the two species because S. triqueter better tolerated low nitrogen. Since S. anglica is increasingly confined to upper, more nitrogen-limited marsh areas in coastal China, increased competition from S. triqueter may help explain its decline. PMID:21998676

  12. Artificial topography changes the growth strategy of Spartina alterniflora, case study with wave exposure as a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hualong; Dai, Minyue; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Chaoqi; Xia, Kang; Yan, Chongling

    2017-11-17

    This paper reports findings about the growth of Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.) near an engineered coastal protection defences to discover the potential influences on vegetation growth from the artificial topography. Impacts of the artificial topography on the sediment element composition were detected by comparing the fixed effects caused by artificial topography and wave exposure using linear mixed models. Surficial sediments under the impacts of artificial topography contain elevated levels of biogenic elements and heavy metals, including C (and organic carbon), N, S, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb. The results showed that element enrichment caused by artificial topography reduced the vegetation sexual reproduction. Contrary to the potential inhibition caused by direct wave exposure, which was due to the biomass accumulation limit, the inhibition caused by artificial topography was related to the transition of growth strategy. The contents of Cu, Mn, N, Ni, S and As in the sediments were critical in considering the relationship between the change in the sediment element composition and the alteration in the plant growth. Our study emphasizes the importance of rethinking the impacts of coastal development projects, especially regarding the heterogeneity of sediment element composition and its ecological consequences.

  13. Responses of growth, antioxidants and gene expression in smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) to various levels of salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Abigail J; Xu, Jichen; Xu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is a major environmental factor limiting the productivity and quality of crop plants. While most cereal crops are salt-sensitive, several halophytic grasses are able to maintain their growth under saline conditions. Elucidating the mechanisms for salinity responses in halophytic grasses would contribute to the breeding of salt-tolerant cereal and turf species belonging to the Poaceae family. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is a dominant native halophytic grass in the Hackensack Meadowlands, the coastal salt marshes located in northeastern New Jersey. The goals of this study were to examine the growth pattern of S. alterniflora in a salinity gradient and identify an optimal range of salinity for its maximal growth. The regulation of its antioxidant system and gene expression under supraoptimal salinity conditions was also investigated. Our results showed that a salinity of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) (68 mM) was most favorable for the growth of S. alterniflora, followed by a non-salt environment. S. alterniflora responded to salts in the environment by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of stress-induced proteins such as ALDH, HVA22 and PEPC. The plant may tolerate salinity up to the concentration of sea water, but any salinity above 12 ppt retarded its growth and altered the expression of genes encoding critical proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Geochemical factors promoting die-back gap formation in colonizing patches of Spartina densiflora in an irregularly flooded marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Costa, Cesar S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Circular (RP) and ring-shape (RP) patches of vegetation in intertidal flats have been associated with the radial expansion of tussock growth forms and die-back gap in older central stands, respectively. RP formation has not yet been sufficiently explained. We accomplished a comparative geochemical study of CP and RP structures of Spartina densiflora within a single saltmarsh in a microtidal estuary (salinity. During high-water period dissolved H2S was frequently low in pore waters of S. densiflora structures due to reactive-Fe, which scavenge the sulfide from solution and form solid sulfides. During less flooded-brackish water period, pore water pH goes down below 4 inside the vegetated bordering areas of RP. In these locations the concentration of soluble sulfides dramatically increases up to 140 μM L-1. The high concentration of protons in pore water is the result of solid sulfides atmospheric oxidation to sulfuric acid. High dissolution of H2S, along with the low pH, creates a toxic environment for S. densiflora and die-back central gap formation in RP. CP structure was 5 cm higher in the intertidal than RP but shows frequent presence of a water layer, less severe oxidation of sulfides and limited building-up of toxic condition to plants. Development of S. densiflora RP probably indicates the uplift of sediment by this bioengineer grass and/or periodic lowering of the water surface below a certain critical level.

  15. Synergic effect of salinity and CO2 enrichment on growth and photosynthetic responses of the invasive cordgrass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Alvarez, Rosario; Cambrollé, Jesús; Gandullo, Jacinto; Figueroa, M Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Spartina densiflora is a C(4) halophytic species that has proved to have a high invasive potential which derives from its clonal growth and its physiological plasticity to environmental factors, such as salinity. A greenhouse experiment was designed to investigate the synergic effect of 380 and 700 ppm CO(2) at 0, 171, and 510 mM NaCl on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. PEPC activity and total ash, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were determined, as well as the C/N ratio. Elevated CO(2) stimulated growth of S. densiflora at 0 and 171 mM NaCl external salinity after 90 d of treatment. This growth enhancement was associated with a greater leaf area and improved leaf water relations rather than with variations in net photosynthetic rate (A). Despite the fact that stomatal conductance decreased in response to 700 ppm CO(2) after 30 d of treatment, A was not affected. This response of A to elevated CO(2) concentration might be explained by an enhanced PEPC carboxylation capacity. On the whole, plant nutrient concentrations declined under elevated CO(2), which can be ascribed to the dilution effect caused by an increase in biomass and the higher water content found at 700 ppm CO(2). Finally, CO(2) and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (PSII) apparatus and the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments.

  16. CHASE domain-containing receptors play an essential role in the cytokinin response of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Gruhn, Njuscha; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Gonneau, Martine; Nogué, Fabien; Heyl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    While the molecular basis for cytokinin action is quite well understood in flowering plants, little is known about the cytokinin signal transduction in early diverging land plants. The genome of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S. encodes three classical cytokinin receptors, the CHASE domain-containing histidine kinases, CHK1, CHK2, and CHK3. In a complementation assay with protoplasts of receptor-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in cytokinin binding assays, we found evidence that CHK1 and CHK2 receptors can function in cytokinin perception. Using gene targeting, we generated a collection of CHK knockout mutants comprising single (Δchk1, Δchk2, Δchk3), double (Δchk1,2, Δchk1,3, Δchk2,3), and triple (Δchk1,2,3) mutants. Mutants were characterized for their cytokinin response and differentiation capacities. While the wild type did not grow on high doses of cytokinin (1 µM benzyladenine), the Δchk1,2,3 mutant exhibited normal protonema growth. Bud induction assays showed that all three cytokinin receptors contribute to the triggering of budding, albeit to different extents. Furthermore, while the triple mutant showed no response in this bioassay, the remaining mutants displayed budding responses in a diverse manner to different types and concentrations of cytokinins. Determination of cytokinin levels in mutants showed no drastic changes for any of the cytokinins; thus, in contrast to Arabidopsis, revealing only small impacts of cytokinin signaling on homeostasis. In summary, our study provides a first insight into the molecular action of cytokinin in an early diverging land plant and demonstrates that CHK receptors play an essential role in bud induction and gametophore development. PMID:26596764

  17. CHASE domain-containing receptors play an essential role in the cytokinin response of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Gruhn, Njuscha; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Gonneau, Martine; Nogué, Fabien; Heyl, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    While the molecular basis for cytokinin action is quite well understood in flowering plants, little is known about the cytokinin signal transduction in early diverging land plants. The genome of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S. encodes three classical cytokinin receptors, the CHASE domain-containing histidine kinases, CHK1, CHK2, and CHK3. In a complementation assay with protoplasts of receptor-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in cytokinin binding assays, we found evidence that CHK1 and CHK2 receptors can function in cytokinin perception. Using gene targeting, we generated a collection of CHK knockout mutants comprising single (Δchk1, Δchk2, Δchk3), double (Δchk1,2, Δchk1,3, Δchk2,3), and triple (Δchk1,2,3) mutants. Mutants were characterized for their cytokinin response and differentiation capacities. While the wild type did not grow on high doses of cytokinin (1 µM benzyladenine), the Δchk1,2,3 mutant exhibited normal protonema growth. Bud induction assays showed that all three cytokinin receptors contribute to the triggering of budding, albeit to different extents. Furthermore, while the triple mutant showed no response in this bioassay, the remaining mutants displayed budding responses in a diverse manner to different types and concentrations of cytokinins. Determination of cytokinin levels in mutants showed no drastic changes for any of the cytokinins; thus, in contrast to Arabidopsis, revealing only small impacts of cytokinin signaling on homeostasis. In summary, our study provides a first insight into the molecular action of cytokinin in an early diverging land plant and demonstrates that CHK receptors play an essential role in bud induction and gametophore development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Spartina alterniflora invasion increases soil inorganic nitrogen pools through interactions with tidal subsidies in the Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong Hao; Fang, Chang Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia Kuan

    2011-03-01

    Invasive alien plants increase both plant N and soil inorganic N pools in many terrestrial ecosystems. This is believed to be the result of altered plant-soil-microbe feedbacks that accelerate N cycling. However, it may also be due to the greater ability of invasive species to uptake lateral N subsidies that can modify ecosystem N dynamics. We conducted manipulative field experiments to determine the impact of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) invasion on the N cycling of salt marsh ecosystems in the Yangtze Estuary, China. The results showed that the aboveground plant N and soil inorganic N pools in S. alterniflora marshes, 14.39 and 3.16 g N m(-2), were significantly higher than those in native common reed (Phragmites australis) marshes, 11.61 and 2.29 g N m(-2). These increases after invasion were explained by a significantly higher uptake of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) from tidal subsidies in S. alterniflora marshes (6.59 g N m(-2)) than from those in P. australis marshes (1.61 g N m(-2)), and not by soil organic N mineralization, which was not significantly different between S. alterniflora (6.45 g N m(-2)) and P. australis marshes (6.84 g N m(-2)) during the growing season. Our study indicated that the ecosystem engineering effects of S. alterniflora, which increases the interception of external N input, can be an alternative mechanism that increases plant N and soil inorganic N pools--especially in ecosystems with ample anthropogenic N subsidies, such as the coastal wetlands of China.

  19. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the communities of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine marsh sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemaneh eZeleke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant invasion on the microorganisms of soil sediments is very important for estuary ecology. The community structures of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB as a function of Spartina alterniflora invasion in Phragmites australis-vegetated sediments of the Dongtan wetland in the Yangtze River estuary, China, were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA and dissimilatory sulfite-reductase (dsrB genes. Sediment samples were collected from two replicate locations, and each location included three sampling stands each covered by monocultures of P. australis, S. alterniflora and both plants (transition stands, respectively. qPCR analysis revealed higher copy numbers of mcrA genes in sediments from S. alterniflora stands than P. australis stands (5- and 7.5-fold more in the spring and summer, respectively, which is consistent with the higher methane flux rates measured in the S. alterniflora stands (up to 8.01 ± 5.61 mg m-2 h-1. Similar trends were observed for SRB, and they were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanogens. Diversity indices indicated a lower diversity of methanogens in the S. alterniflora stands than the P. australis stands. In contrast, insignificant variations were observed in the diversity of SRB with the invasion. Although Methanomicrobiales and Methanococcales, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated in the salt marsh, Methanomicrobiales displayed a slight increase with the invasion and growth of S. alterniflora, whereas the later responded differently. Methanosarcina, the metabolically diverse methanogens, did not vary with the invasion of, but Methanosaeta, the exclusive acetate utilizers, appeared to increase with S. alterniflora invasion. In SRB, sequences closely related to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae dominated in the salt marsh, although they displayed minimal changes with the S

  20. Atmospheric CO2enrichment effect on the Cu-tolerance of the C4cordgrass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Jesús Alberto; Idaszkin, Yanina Lorena; Duarte, Bernardo; Baeta, Alexandra; Marques, João Carlos; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Caçador, Isabel; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of the co-occurrence of 400 and 700ppm CO 2 at 0, 15 and 45mM Cu on the Cu-tolerance of C 4 cordgrass species Spartina densiflora, by measuring growth, gas exchange, efficiency of PSII, pigments profiles, antioxidative enzyme activities and nutritional balance. Our results revealed that the rising atmospheric CO 2 mitigated growth reduction imposed by Cu in plants grown at 45mM Cu, leading to leaf Cu concentration bellow than 270mgKg -1 Cu, caused by an evident dilution effect. On the other hand, non-CO 2 enrichment plants showed leaf Cu concentration values up to 737.5mgKg -1 Cu. Furthermore, improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A N ). The beneficial effect of rising CO 2 on photosynthetic apparatus seems to be associated with a reduction of stomatal limitation imposed by Cu excess, which allowed these plants to maintain greater i WUE values. Also, plants grown at 45mM Cu and 700ppm CO 2 , showed higher ETR values and lower energy dissipation, which could be linked with an induction of Rubisco carboxylation and supported by the recorded amelioration of N imbalance. Furthermore, higher ETR values under CO 2 enrichment could lead to an additional consumption of reducing equivalents. Idea that was reflected in the lower values of ETR max /A N ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ascorbate peroxidase (APx), guaiacol peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under Cu excess, which could indicate a lower production of ROS species under elevated CO 2 concentration, due to a better use of absorbed energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the role of silicon in the Cu-tolerance of the C4 grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Gallé, Alexander; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Perdomo, Juan Alejandro; Galmés, Jeroni; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume

    2015-04-15

    An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of silicon supply (0 and 500 μM) on Spartina densiflora plants grown at two copper (Cu) concentrations: 0 and 15 mM. Growth parameters together with total concentrations of calcium, Cu, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and nitrogen were determined in roots and leaves. Photosynthetic traits were followed by measurement of leaf gas exchange, efficiency of PSII biochemistry, total content of photosynthetic pigments and concentration and carbamylation of Rubisco sites concentration ([Rubisco]). Respiration and oxygen isotope fractionation were measured in roots to study the in vivo activities of cytochrome oxidase (COX) and alternative oxidase (AOX) pathways, as well as AOX capacity. The results confirm that Si supply improves growth of S. densiflora under Cu stress. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate. Beneficial effect of Si on S. densiflora photosynthetic apparatus was associated with a reduction of the Cu impact on active Rubisco sites, as well as on the photochemical apparatus and chlorophyll concentration. Moreover, ameliorative effects of Si were associated with the avoidance of Cu translocation from roots to leaves. Finally in vivo activities of COX and AOX pathways were strongly inhibited in Cu-treated plants, and this reduction was not mitigated by Si-treatment. Therefore, Si appears to play an important role in Cu-tolerance of S. densiflora, not by avoiding its uptake by roots, but via some mechanism to avoid Cu translocation from roots to leaves, resulting in a general reduction of Cu-induced deleterious effects on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  3. Is denitrification driven by elevation or plant type at a Gulf coast Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora mixed saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, B.; Chanton, P. R.; Cherry, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Wetlands provide a crucial ecosystem service by reducing anthropogenic nitrogen released from industrial and agricultural sources. Understanding the mechanisms controlling nitrogen removal in marshes is critical as human populations increase and as marsh areas decrease. Marshes in the U.S. Gulf coast are primarily populated by Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus. Previous research has indicated that sulfide concentrations are lower in J roemerianus than in S alterniflora marshes. Higher sulfide concentrations could inhibit nitrogen removal by reducing nitrification-denitrification. However, it has yet to be determined if variability in sulfide concentration is a result of differences in elevation and inundation that impact redox conditions, or higher belowground biomass allocation by J roemerianus that ultimately results in more oxygen release to anoxic sediments. We, therefore, measured denitrification rates within an S alterniflora dominated marsh that is interspersed with J roemerianus to determine if variability in sulfide concentrations impact denitrification. We quantified denitrification with intact cores and sediment slurries and examined pore water geochemistry. J roemerianus sediment sulfide concentrations (3.6-419.4 μmol) were consistently lower than those measured in S alterniflora sediments (325.1-2246.6 μmol). NH4 flux was higher in J roemerianus cores and both NH4 and PO4 were present in higher concentration in pore water. Denitrification measured with IPT was higher in J roemerianus (21.0-81.2 μmol N2 m-2 hr-1) than in S alterniflora (14.7-52.1 μmol N2 m-2 hr-1). Potential denitrification in J roemerianus (0.5-128.1 nmole N cm-3 hr-1) was generally higher than in S alterniflora (4.1-34.2 nmole N cm-3 hr-1). By affecting sediment redox conditions, plant type rather than elevation appears to drive patterns of denitrification in this marsh. The imapct of sea level rise on vegetation distribution and nitrogen removal capacity for these

  4. The invasive ergot Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae recently established in the European Wadden Sea on common cord grass is genetically homogeneous and the sclerotia contain high amounts of ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boestfleisch, Ch.; Drotleff, A.M.; Ternes, W.; Nehring, S.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Papenbrock, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2015), s. 445-461 ISSN 0929-1873 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) * Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae * Epimers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2015

  5. Geomorphic influences on the contribution of vegetation to soil C accumulation and accretion in Spartina alterniflora marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey-Quirk, Tracy; Unger, Viktoria

    2018-01-01

    Salt marshes are important hotspots of long-term belowground carbon (C) storage, where plant biomass and allochthonous C can be preserved in the soil for thousands of years. However, C accumulation rates, as well as the sources of C, may differ depending on environmental conditions influencing plant productivity, allochthonous C deposition, and C preservation. For this study, we examined the relationship between belowground root growth, turnover, decay, above- and belowground biomass, and previously reported longer-term rates of total, labile, and refractory organic C accumulation and accretion in Spartina alterniflora-dominated marshes across two mid-Atlantic, US estuaries. Tidal range, long-term rates of mineral sedimentation, C accumulation, and accretion were higher and salinities were lower in marshes of the coastal plain estuary (Delaware Bay) than in the coastal lagoon (Barnegat Bay). We expected that the conditions promoting high rates of C accumulation would also promote high plant productivity and greater biomass. We further tested the influence of environmental conditions on belowground growth (roots + rhizomes), decomposition, and biomass of S. alterniflora. The relationship between plant biomass and C accumulation rate differed between estuaries. In the sediment-limited coastal lagoon, rates of total, labile, and refractory organic C accumulation were directly and positively related to above- and belowground biomass. Here, less flooding and a higher mineral sedimentation rate promoted greater above- and belowground biomass and, in turn, higher soil C accumulation and accretion rates. In the coastal plain estuary, the C accumulation rate was related only to aboveground biomass, which was positively related to the rate of labile C accumulation. Soil profiles indicated that live root and rhizome biomass was positively associated with labile C density for most marshes, yet high labile C densities below the live root zone and in marshes with high mineral

  6. The potassium transporters HAK2 and HAK3 localize to endomembranes in Physcomitrella patens. HAK2 is required in some stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Rosario; Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; González-Melendi, Pablo; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2013-09-01

    The function of HAK transporters in high-affinity K+ uptake in plants is well established; this study aims to demonstrate that some transporters of the same family play important roles in endomembranes. The PpHAK2-PpHAK4 genes of Physcomitrella patens encode three transporters of high sequence similarity. Quantitative PCR showed that PpHAK2 and PpHAK3 transcripts are expressed at approximately the same level as the PpACT5 gene, while the expression of PpHAK4 seems to be restricted to specific conditions that have not been determined. KHA1 is an endomembrane K+/H+ antiporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the expression of the PpHAK2 cDNA, but not that of PpHAK3, suppressed the defect of a kha1 mutant. Transient expression of the PpHAK2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PpHAK3-GFP fusion proteins in P. patens protoplasts localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, respectively. To determine the function of PpHAK2 and PpHAK3 in planta, we constructed ΔPphak2 and ΔPphak2 ΔPphak3 plants. ΔPphak2 plants were normal under all of the conditions tested except under K+ starvation or at acidic pH in the presence of acetic acid, whereupon they die. The defect observed under K+ starvation was suppressed by the presence of Na+. We propose that PpHAK2 may encode either a K(+)-H(+) symporter or a K+/H+ antiporter that mediates the transfer of H+ from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to the cytosol. PpHAK2 may be a model of the second function of HAK transporters in plant cells. The disruption of the PpHAK3 gene in ΔPphak2 plants showed no effect.

  7. Efectos de la invasión de "Spartina patens" (Aiton) Muhl. (Orden: Cyperales; Familia: Poaceae) sobre la ecología, las características edáficas y los flujos de carbono de tres marismas del litoral de Galicia: predicciones en un escenario de cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual De Pedro, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Las marismas son ambientes litorales de transición entre los ecosistemas terrestre y marino. Estas fronteras ecológicas están caracterizadas por intensos procesos de intercambio de materia y energía. Son uno de los ecosistemas más productivos del mundo, ya que secuestran grandes cantidades de dióxido de carbono de la atmósfera (CO2, el principal gas de efecto invernadero) y lo transforman en carbono orgánico. Debido a que menos del 5% se exporta en forma de carbono inorgánic...

  8. Diversity and Ecological Characterization of Sporulating Higher Filamentous Marine Fungi Associated with Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in Two Portuguese Salt Marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Maria da Luz; Carvalho, Luís; Pang, Ka-Lai; Barata, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Fungal communities associated with early stages of decomposition of Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald were assessed in two geographically distinct salt marshes in Portugal by direct observation of fungal sporulating structures. Twenty-three fungal taxa were identified from 390 plant samples, 11 of which were common to both study sites. Natantispora retorquens, Byssothecium obiones, Phaeosphaeria spartinicola, Phoma sp. 1 and Stagonospora sp. were the most frequent fungal taxa in the studied communities. The fungal species Anthostomella spissitecta, Camarosporium roumeguerii, Coniothyrium obiones, Decorospora gaudefroyi, Halosarpheia trullifera, Leptosphaeria marina and Stagonospora haliclysta were recorded for the first time on S. maritima plants; with the exception of C. roumeguerii and L. marina, all of these species were also new records for Portugal. The differences between species composition of the communities associated with S. maritima were attributed to differences in abiotic conditions of the salt marshes. Although the fungal taxa were distributed differently along the host plants, common species to both fungal communities were found on the same relative position, e.g. B. obiones, Lulworthia sp. and N. retorquens occurred on the basal plant portions, Buergenerula spartinae, Dictyosporium pelagicum and Phoma sp. 1 on the middle plant portions and P. spartinicola and Stagonospora sp. on the top plant portions. The distinct vertical distribution patterns reflected species-specific salinity requirements and flooding tolerance, but specially substrate preferences. The most frequent fungi in both communities also exhibited wider distribution ranges and produced a higher number of fruiting structures, suggesting a more active key role in the decay process of S. maritima.

  9. Protein encoding genes in an ancient plant: analysis of codon usage, retained genes and splice sites in a moss, Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The moss Physcomitrella patens is an emerging plant model system due to its high rate of homologous recombination, haploidy, simple body plan, physiological properties as well as phylogenetic position. Available EST data was clustered and assembled, and provided the basis for a genome-wide analysis of protein encoding genes. Results We have clustered and assembled Physcomitrella patens EST and CDS data in order to represent the transcriptome of this non-seed plant. Clustering of the publicly available data and subsequent prediction resulted in a total of 19,081 non-redundant ORF. Of these putative transcripts, approximately 30% have a homolog in both rice and Arabidopsis transcriptome. More than 130 transcripts are not present in seed plants but can be found in other kingdoms. These potential "retained genes" might have been lost during seed plant evolution. Functional annotation of these genes reveals unequal distribution among taxonomic groups and intriguing putative functions such as cytotoxicity and nucleic acid repair. Whereas introns in the moss are larger on average than in the seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana, position and amount of introns are approximately the same. Contrary to Arabidopsis, where CDS contain on average 44% G/C, in Physcomitrella the average G/C content is 50%. Interestingly, moss orthologs of Arabidopsis genes show a significant drift of codon fraction usage, towards the seed plant. While averaged codon bias is the same in Physcomitrella and Arabidopsis, the distribution pattern is different, with 15% of moss genes being unbiased. Species-specific, sensitive and selective splice site prediction for Physcomitrella has been developed using a dataset of 368 donor and acceptor sites, utilizing a support vector machine. The prediction accuracy is better than those achieved with tools trained on Arabidopsis data. Conclusion Analysis of the moss transcriptome displays differences in gene structure, codon

  10. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.yotsui@riken.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Serada, Satoshi, E-mail: serada@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji, E-mail: tnaka@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Saruhashi, Masashi, E-mail: s13db001@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Taji, Teruaki, E-mail: t3teruak@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Hayashi, Takahisa, E-mail: t4hayash@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Quatrano, Ralph S., E-mail: rsq@wustl.edu [Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130-4899 (United States); Sakata, Yoichi, E-mail: sakata@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  11. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sean R; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry W; Grimwood, Jane; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rensing, Stefan A; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Wong, Gane K-S; Edwards, Thomas A; Cuming, Andrew C

    2016-06-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. A Single-Target Mitochondrial RNA Editing Factor of Funaria hygrometrica Can Fully Reconstitute RNA Editing at Two Sites in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Oldenkott, Bastian; Hiss, Manuel; Trinh, Phuong Le; Knoop, Volker; Rensing, Stefan A

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key factors for site-specific RNA editing, converting cytidines into uridines in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. All editing factors in the model moss Physcomitrella patens have a C-terminal DYW domain with similarity to cytidine deaminase. However, numerous editing factors in flowering plants lack such a terminal DYW domain, questioning its immediate role in the pyrimidine base conversion process. Here we further investigate the Physcomitrella DYW-type PPR protein PPR_78, responsible for mitochondrial editing sites cox1eU755SL and rps14eU137SL. Complementation assays with truncated proteins demonstrate that the DYW domain is essential for full PPR_78 editing functionality. The DYW domain can be replaced, however, with its counterpart from another editing factor, PPR_79. The PPR_78 ortholog of the related moss Funaria hygrometrica fully complements the Physcomitrella mutant for editing at both sites, although the editing site in rps14 is lacking in Funaria. Editing factor orthologs in different taxa may thus retain editing capacity for multiple sites despite the absence of editing requirement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Strigolactone biosynthesis is evolutionarily conserved, regulated by phosphate starvation and contributes to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in a moss, Physcomitrella patens

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Eva L.

    2017-03-06

    In seed plants, strigolactones (SLs) regulate architecture and induce mycorrhizal symbiosis in response to environmental cues. SLs are formed by combined activity of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) 7 and 8 from 9-cis-β-carotene, leading to carlactone that is converted by cytochromes P450 (clade 711; MAX1 in Arabidopsis) into various SLs. As Physcomitrella patens possesses CCD7 and CCD8 homologs but lacks MAX1, we investigated if PpCCD7 together with PpCCD8 form carlactone and how deletion of these enzymes influences growth and interactions with the environment. We investigated the enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 and PpCCD8 in vitro, identified the formed products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS, and generated and analysed ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 mutants. We defined enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 as a stereospecific 9-cis-CCD and PpCCD8 as a carlactone synthase. ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 lines showed enhanced caulonema growth, which was revertible by adding the SL analogue GR24 or carlactone. Wild-type (WT) exudates induced seed germination in Orobanche ramosa. This activity was increased upon phosphate starvation and abolished in exudates of both mutants. Furthermore, both mutants showed increased susceptibility to phytopathogenic fungi. Our study reveals the deep evolutionary conservation of SL biosynthesis, SL function, and its regulation by biotic and abiotic cues.

  14. MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN65 is essential for maintenance of phragmoplast bipolarity and formation of the cell plate in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosetsu, Ken; de Keijzer, Jeroen; Janson, Marcel E; Goshima, Gohta

    2013-11-01

    The phragmoplast, a plant-specific apparatus that mediates cytokinesis, mainly consists of microtubules (MTs) arranged in a bipolar fashion, such that their plus ends interdigitate at the equator. Membrane vesicles are thought to move along the MTs toward the equator and fuse to form the cell plate. Although several genes required for phragmoplast MT organization have been identified, the mechanisms that maintain the bipolarity of phragmoplasts remain poorly understood. Here, we show that engaging phragmoplast MTs in a bipolar fashion in protonemal cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens requires the conserved MT cross-linking protein MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN65 (MAP65). Simultaneous knockdown of the three MAP65s expressed in those cells severely compromised MT interdigitation at the phragmoplast equator after anaphase onset, resulting in the collapse of the phragmoplast in telophase. Cytokinetic vesicles initially localized to the anaphase midzone as normal but failed to further accumulate in the next several minutes, although the bipolarity of the MT array was preserved. Our data indicate that the presence of bipolar MT arrays is insufficient for vesicle accumulation at the equator and further suggest that MAP65-mediated MT interdigitation is a prerequisite for maintenance of bipolarity of the phragmoplast and accumulation and/or fusion of cell plate-destined vesicles at the equatorial plane.

  15. MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN65 Is Essential for Maintenance of Phragmoplast Bipolarity and Formation of the Cell Plate in Physcomitrella patens[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosetsu, Ken; de Keijzer, Jeroen; Janson, Marcel E.; Goshima, Gohta

    2013-01-01

    The phragmoplast, a plant-specific apparatus that mediates cytokinesis, mainly consists of microtubules (MTs) arranged in a bipolar fashion, such that their plus ends interdigitate at the equator. Membrane vesicles are thought to move along the MTs toward the equator and fuse to form the cell plate. Although several genes required for phragmoplast MT organization have been identified, the mechanisms that maintain the bipolarity of phragmoplasts remain poorly understood. Here, we show that engaging phragmoplast MTs in a bipolar fashion in protonemal cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens requires the conserved MT cross-linking protein MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN65 (MAP65). Simultaneous knockdown of the three MAP65s expressed in those cells severely compromised MT interdigitation at the phragmoplast equator after anaphase onset, resulting in the collapse of the phragmoplast in telophase. Cytokinetic vesicles initially localized to the anaphase midzone as normal but failed to further accumulate in the next several minutes, although the bipolarity of the MT array was preserved. Our data indicate that the presence of bipolar MT arrays is insufficient for vesicle accumulation at the equator and further suggest that MAP65-mediated MT interdigitation is a prerequisite for maintenance of bipolarity of the phragmoplast and accumulation and/or fusion of cell plate–destined vesicles at the equatorial plane. PMID:24272487

  16. Actin-related protein2/3 complex component ARPC1 is required for proper cell morphogenesis and polarized cell growth in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Phillip A; Pan, Aihong; Quatrano, Ralph S

    2005-08-01

    The actin-related protein2/3 (Arp2/3) complex functions as a regulator of actin filament dynamics in a wide array of eukaryotic cells. Here, we focus on the role of the Arp2/3 complex subunit ARPC1 in elongating tip cells of protonemal filaments of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Using RNA interference (RNAi) to generate loss-of-function mutants, we show dramatic defects in cell morphology manifested as short, irregularly shaped cells with abnormal division patterns. The arpc1 RNAi plants lack the rapidly elongating caulonemal cell type found in wild-type protonemal tissue. The absence of this cell type prevents normal bud formation even in response to cytokinin treatment and results in filamentous colonies lacking leafy gametophores. In addition, arpc1 protoplasts show an increased sensitivity to osmotic shock and are defective in their ability to properly establish a polarized outgrowth during regeneration from a single cell. This failure of arpc1 protoplasts to undergo proper tip growth is rescued by ARPC1 overexpression and is phenocopied in wild-type protoplasts treated with Latrunculin B, a potent inhibitor of actin polymerization. We show in moss that ARPC1, and by inference the Arp2/3 complex, plays a critical role in controlling polarized growth and cell division patterning through its regulation of actin dynamics at the cell apex.

  17. Aspectos anatômicos e adaptativos das partes vegetativas de Spartina densiflora Brong. (Gramineae da marisma do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos-RS Anatomic and adaptatives aspects of the vegetatives parts of Spartina densiflora Brong. (Gramineae from salt marshes of the Patos lagoon estuary - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Perazzolo

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Spartina densiflora Brong. é uma gramínea típica das marismas doestuário da lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A espécie apresenta adaptações morfoanatômicas em relação à salinidade, inundação e condições anaeróbicas que caracterizam este ambiente estressante. As adaptações xeromórficas e halofíticas desta espécie são a presença de estômatos protegidos por papilas; alta lignificação nas folhas, rizoma e raízes; enrolamento foliar e glândulas secretoras de sal. Como adaptação à sobrevivência ao solo anaeróbico, a espécie apresenta espaços intercelulares nas folhas, rizoma e raízes.Spartina densiflora Brong. is a typical grass in salt marshes of the Patos lagoon estuary, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species shows morphological adaptations in relation to salinity, flooding and, anaerobic soils, characteristic for this stressful environment. The principal xerophytic and halophytic adaptations observed in this species are lenghwise curling of the leaves with stomates protected by papilla; increased lignification in the leaves, rhyzomes, roots and salt glands spread. The presence of intercellular spaces in the leaves, rhyzomes and roots is an adaptation that permits the plants survival in anaerobic soils.

  18. Aerobic decolorization, degradation and detoxification of azo dyes by a newly isolated salt-tolerant yeast Scheffersomyces spartinae TLHS-SF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; He, Muyang; Song, Li; Fu, Xinmei; Shi, Shengnan

    2016-03-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of a salt-tolerant yeast capable of degrading and detoxifying azo dyes were investigated in this study. Possible degradation pathway of Acid Scarlet 3R was proposed through analyzing metabolic intermediates using UV-Vis and HPLC-MS methods. Furthermore, the Microtox test was performed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the dye before and after biodegradation. The results showed that a salt-tolerant yeast named TLHS-SF1 was isolated and identified as Scheffersomyces spartinae basing on 26S rDNA analysis. The optimal decolorization and growth parameters were: sucrose 2 g L(-1), (NH4)2SO4 0.6 g L(-1), yeast extract 0.08 g L(-1), NaCl ⩽ 30 g L(-1), 160 rmin(-1), 30 °C and pH 5.0-6.0. More than 90% of 80 mg L(-1) 3R could be decolorized within 16 h under the optimal conditions. 3R was possibly degraded successively through azo-reduction, deamination and desulfonation pathways, and its acute toxicity obviously decreased by strain TLHS-SF1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of short-term invasion of Spartina alterniflora and the subsequent restoration of native mangroves on the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianxiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Liming; Cui, Xiaowei; Ning, Cunxin; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-10-01

    The exotic cordgrass Spartina alterniflora has severely invaded the mangrove wetlands in southern China and ecological restoration using native mangroves was conducted in an attempt to control this invasive species. In this study, the contents and pools of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were quantified to investigate the invasive effects of S. alterniflora and then to evaluate whether the ecological restoration of native mangrove could reverse those effects. S. alterniflora only showed significantly higher organic carbon content in the surface 0-10 cm of soil than in the uninvaded mudflat. The high δ13C values in the surface soil of the invaded habitat demonstrated that S. alterniflora contributed 42.6-62.2% of the organic carbon. The SOC for invasive S. alterniflora and newly restored mangroves (4 years and 14 years) was not enhanced in comparison to the unvegetated mudflat. S. alterniflora significantly increased the surface soil TN content, but decreased the available phosphorus content and TP density. The TN densities increased gradually with the mangrove restoration, while the TP densities were only slightly influenced. The results suggested that short-term invasion of S. alterniflora and subsequent mangrove restoration did not alter SOC or TN pool sizes, but S. alterniflora was shown to affect the potential carbon storage capacity produced by the mangroves in the Zhangjiang Estuary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological effects of Spartina anglica on the macro-invertebrate infauna of the mud flats at Bull Island, Dublin Bay, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Otte

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Spartina anglica (C. E. Hubbard is a relatively new invasive perennial grass species in Ireland. It is well adapted to the intertidal mudflat environment and forms mono-specific swards. There have been concerns about its potential to impact negatively the ecosystems of mud flats and salt marshes. This ongoing project investigates the ecological effects of S. anglica, and its control, on the mudflats and saltmarsh at Bull Island, and the implications for management of S. anglica. The diversity and density of the macro-invertebrate infauna and some physical factors of the sediment were compared in: a clumps of S. anglica, b areas vegetated by Salicornia spp., c an adjacent area of bare mud, and d an unvegetated area. Presence of S. anglica had a significant effect on the density and diversity of macro-invertebrate infauna species. The results suggest that clumps of S. anglica can provide a habitat that supports a macro-invertebrate infauna as abundant and species rich as areas vegetated by Salicornia spp.

  1. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by higher concentration of PHE treatments, while polyphenol oxidase activities were prohibited more than 10 % in non-rhizophere sediment. Compared with the control, PHE treatments had also significantly (P < 0.05) lower total microbial biomass; especially for gram-negative bacteria, this decrease was more than 24 %. However, the PYR treatments had little effect on the dehydrogenase, polyphenol oxidase, and total phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) biomass. The greatest abundance of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  2. Concurrent bio-electricity and biomass production in three Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells using Spartina anglica, Arundinella anomala and Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, M; Strik, D P B T B; Hamelers, H V M; Kuhn, A J; Blok, C; Buisman, C J N

    2010-05-01

    In a Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) three plants were tested for concurrent biomass and bio-electricity production and maximization of power output. Spartina anglica and Arundinella anomala concurrently produced biomass and bio-electricity for six months consecutively. Average power production of the P-MFC with S. anglica during 13weeks was 16% of the theoretical maximum power and 8% during 7weeks for A. anomala. The P-MFC with Arundo donax, did not produce electricity with a stable output, due to break down of the system. The highest obtained power density in a P-MFC was 222mW/m(2) membrane surface area with S. anglica, over twice as high as the highest reported power density in a P-MFC. High biomass yields were obtained in all P-MFC's, with a high root:shoot ratio, probably caused nutrient availability and anaerobia in the soil. Power output maximization via adjusting load on the system lead to unstable performance of the P-MFC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strigolactone biosynthesis is evolutionarily conserved, regulated by phosphate starvation and contributes to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in a moss, Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eva L; Alder, Adrian; Hunn, Stefan; Ferguson, Jenny; Lehtonen, Mikko T; Scheler, Bjoern; Kerres, Klaus L; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Safavi-Rizi, Vajiheh; Nordzieke, Steffen; Balakrishna, Aparna; Baz, Lina; Avalos, Javier; Valkonen, Jari P T; Reski, Ralf; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    In seed plants, strigolactones (SLs) regulate architecture and induce mycorrhizal symbiosis in response to environmental cues. SLs are formed by combined activity of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) 7 and 8 from 9-cis-β-carotene, leading to carlactone that is converted by cytochromes P450 (clade 711; MAX1 in Arabidopsis) into various SLs. As Physcomitrella patens possesses CCD7 and CCD8 homologs but lacks MAX1, we investigated if PpCCD7 together with PpCCD8 form carlactone and how deletion of these enzymes influences growth and interactions with the environment. We investigated the enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 and PpCCD8 in vitro, identified the formed products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS, and generated and analysed ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 mutants. We defined enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 as a stereospecific 9-cis-CCD and PpCCD8 as a carlactone synthase. ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 lines showed enhanced caulonema growth, which was revertible by adding the SL analogue GR24 or carlactone. Wild-type (WT) exudates induced seed germination in Orobanche ramosa. This activity was increased upon phosphate starvation and abolished in exudates of both mutants. Furthermore, both mutants showed increased susceptibility to phytopathogenic fungi. Our study reveals the deep evolutionary conservation of SL biosynthesis, SL function, and its regulation by biotic and abiotic cues. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The PpCMT chromomethylase affects cell growth and interacts with the homolog of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangwal, Meenakshi; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kapoor, Meenu

    2014-02-01

    Chromomethylases (CMTs) are plant-specific cytosine DNA methyltransferases that are involved in maintenance of CpNpG methylation. In seed plants, histone methylation and interaction of CMT with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1) is essential for recruitment of CMT to target sites. LHP1 has been characterized as a putative component of the POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 (PRC1) in plants, and functions downstream of PRC2 to maintain genes in repressed state for orchestrated development. In the present study, we show that targeted disruption of PpCMT results in an approximately 50% reduction in global cytosine methylation levels. This affects growth of apical cells, predominantly growth of side branch initials emerging from chloronema cells. In some places, these cells develop thick walls with plasmolyzed cellular contents. Transcript accumulation patterns of genes involved in apical cell extension and metabolism of hemicelluloses, such as xyloglucans, in the primary cell walls decreased many fold in ppcmt mutant lines, as determined by real-time PCR. Using yeast two-hybrid method and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we show that PpCMT and PpLHP1 interact through their chromo domains, while PpLHP1 homodimerizes through its chromo shadow domain. The results presented in this study provide insight into the role of the single chromomethylase, PpCMT, in proliferation of protonema filaments, and shed light on the evolutionary conservation of proteins interacting with these methylases in the early land plant, Physcomitrella patens. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hacia una metodología de gestión de la especie invasora Spartina densiflora Brongn.: estado de invasión, avances ecofisiológicos y control

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Naranjo, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    La presente Tesis Doctoral se ha desarrollado teniendo en cuenta los tres objetivos que se marcan como fundamentales para la correcta gestión de una especie invasora (Hedger et al., 2003; Consejería de Media Ambiente, 2006). Así, el primer objetivo de esta Tesis Doctoral es analizar la situación actual del estado de la invasión de Spartina densiflora en las marismas del Golfo de Cádiz integradas d entro de la Red de Espacios Naturales de Andalucía (RENPA). Para la consecución de este primer o...

  6. Integrating multiple vegetation indices via an artificial neural network model for estimating the leaf chlorophyll content of Spartina alterniflora under interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Yuyan; Wang, Jiapeng; Tao, Zhu; Gao, Wei

    2017-10-31

    The invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native species Phragmites australis display a significant co-occurrence zonation pattern and this co-exist region exerts most competitive situations between these two species, competing for the limited space, directly influencing the co-exist distribution in the future. However, these two species have different growth ratios in this area, which increase the difficulty to detect the distribution situation directly by remote sensing. As chlorophyll content is a key indicator of plant growth and physiological status, the objective of this study was to reduce the effect of interspecies competition when estimating Cab content; we evaluated 79 published representative indices to determine the optimal indices for estimating the chlorophyll a and b (Cab) content. After performing a sensitivity analysis for all 79 spectral indices, five spectral indices were selected and integrated using an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the Cab content of different competition ratios: the Gitelson ratio green index, the transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index/optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index, the modified normalized difference vegetation index, the chlorophyll fluorescence index, and the Vogelmann chlorophyll index. The ANN method yielded better results (R 2 = 0.7110 and RMSE = 8.3829 μg cm-2) on average than the best single spectral index (R 2 = 0.6319 and RMSE = 9.3535 μg cm-2), representing an increase of 10.78% in R 2 and a decrease of 10.38% in RMSE. Our results indicated that integrating multiple vegetation indices with an ANN can alleviate the impact of interspecies competition and achieve higher estimation accuracy than the traditional approach using a single index.

  7. Sub-zero cold tolerance of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) and Miscanthus × giganteus: candidate bioenergy crops for cool temperate climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Patrick C; Peixoto, Murilo de Melo; Lee, D K; Sage, Rowan F

    2015-07-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus grown in cool temperate regions of North America and Europe can exhibit severe mortality in the year after planting, and poor frost tolerance of leaves. Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a productive C4 perennial grass native to North America, has been suggested as an alternative biofuel feedstock for colder regions; however, its cold tolerance relative to M. × giganteus is uncertain. Here, we compare the cold tolerance thresholds for winter-dormant rhizomes and spring/summer leaves of M. × giganteus and three accessions of S. pectinata. All genotypes were planted at a field site in Ontario, Canada. In November and February, the temperatures corresponding to 50% rhizome mortality (LT(50)) were near -24°C for S. pectinata and -4°C for M. × giganteus. In late April, the LT50 of rhizomes rose to -10°C for S. pectinata but remained near -4°C for M. × giganteus. Twenty percent of the M. × giganteus rhizomes collected in late April were dead while S. pectinata rhizomes showed no signs of winter injury. Photosynthesis and electrolyte leakage measurements in spring and summer demonstrate that S. pectinata leaves have greater frost tolerance in the field. For example, S. pectinata leaves remained viable above -9°C while the mortality threshold was near -5°C for M. × giganteus. These results indicate M. × giganteus will be unsuitable for production in continental interiors of cool-temperate climate zones unless freezing and frost tolerance are improved. By contrast, S. pectinata has the freezing and frost tolerance required for a higher-latitude bioenergy crop. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Co-Regulations of Spartina alterniflora Invasion and Exogenous Nitrogen Loading on Soil N2O Efflux in Subtropical Mangrove Mesocosms.

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    Dai Jia

    Full Text Available Both plant invasion and nitrogen (N enrichment should have significant impact on mangrove ecosystems in coastal regions around the world. However, how N2O efflux in mangrove wetlands responds to these environmental changes has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a mesocosm experiment with native mangrove species Kandelia obovata, invasive salt marsh species Spartina alterniflora, and their mixture in a simulated tide rotation system with or without nitrogen addition. In the treatments without N addition, the N2O effluxes were relatively low and there were no significant variations among the three vegetation types. A pulse loading of exogenous ammonium nitrogen increased N2O effluxes from soils but the stimulatory effect gradually diminished over time, suggesting that frequent measurements are necessary to accurately understand the behavior of N-induced response of N2O emissions. With the N addition, the N2O effluxes from the invasive S. alterniflora were lower than that from native K. obovata mesocosms. This result may be attributed to higher growth of S. alterniflora consuming most of the available nitrogen in soils, and thus inhibiting N2O production. We concluded that N loading significantly increased N2O effluxes, while the invasion of S. alterniflora reduced N2O effluxes response to N loading in this simulated mangrove ecosystem. Thus, both plant invasion and excessive N loading can co-regulate soil N2O emissions from mangrove wetlands, which should be considered when projecting future N2O effluxes from this type of coastal wetland.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of pectin-related gene families in Physcomitrella patens and nine other plant species yields evolutionary insights into cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Thomas W; Der, Joshua P; Honaas, Loren A; dePamphilis, Claude W; Anderson, Charles T

    2014-03-26

    Pectins are acidic sugar-containing polysaccharides that are universally conserved components of the primary cell walls of plants and modulate both tip and diffuse cell growth. However, many of their specific functions and the evolution of the genes responsible for producing and modifying them are incompletely understood. The moss Physcomitrella patens is emerging as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell walls. To identify deeply conserved pectin-related genes in Physcomitrella, we generated phylogenetic trees for 16 pectin-related gene families using sequences from ten plant genomes and analyzed the evolutionary relationships within these families. Contrary to our initial hypothesis that a single ancestral gene was present for each pectin-related gene family in the common ancestor of land plants, five of the 16 gene families, including homogalacturonan galacturonosyltransferases, polygalacturonases, pectin methylesterases, homogalacturonan methyltransferases, and pectate lyase-like proteins, show evidence of multiple members in the early land plant that gave rise to the mosses and vascular plants. Seven of the gene families, the UDP-rhamnose synthases, UDP-glucuronic acid epimerases, homogalacturonan galacturonosyltransferase-like proteins, β-1,4-galactan β-1,4-galactosyltransferases, rhamnogalacturonan II xylosyltransferases, and pectin acetylesterases appear to have had a single member in the common ancestor of land plants. We detected no Physcomitrella members in the xylogalacturonan xylosyltransferase, rhamnogalacturonan I arabinosyltransferase, pectin methylesterase inhibitor, or polygalacturonase inhibitor protein families. Several gene families related to the production and modification of pectins in plants appear to have multiple members that are conserved as far back as the common ancestor of mosses and vascular plants. The presence of multiple members of these families even before the divergence of other important cell wall-related genes

  10. Cytokinins in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens: Analyses of Activity, Distribution, and Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase Overexpression Reveal the Role of Extracellular Cytokinins1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Núñez, Marta Fernández; Blaschke, Hanna; Dobrev, Petre I.; Novák, Ondrej; Motyka, Václav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to establish the cytokinin profile of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G.; of 40 analyzed cytokinins, 20 were detected. cis-Zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine-5′-monophosphate (iPRMP), and trans-zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside were the most abundant intracellular cytokinins. In addition, the aromatic cytokinins N6-benzyladenosine (BAR), N6-benzyladenine, meta-, and ortho-topolin were detected. Unexpectedly, the most abundant extracellular cytokinin was the nucleotide iPRMP, and its identity was confirmed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The effects of overexpressing a heterologous cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC 1.4.3.18/1.5.99.12) gene (AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) on the intracellular and extracellular distribution of cytokinins was assessed. In cultures of CKX-transformed plants, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurements showed that there were pronounced reductions in the extracellular concentrations of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), but their intracellular cytokinin concentrations were only slightly affected. In vitro and in vivo measured CKX activity was shown to be strongly increased in the transformants. Major phenotypic changes observed in the CKX-overexpressing plants included reduced and retarded budding, absence of sexual reproduction, and abnormal protonema cells. In bud-induction bioassays with wild-type Physcomitrella, the nucleotides iPRMP, trans-zeatin-riboside-5′-monophosphate, BAR monophosphate, and the cis-zeatin forms cZ and cZR had no detectable effects, while the activities displayed by other selected cytokinins were in the following order: iP > tZ > N6-benzyladenine > BAR > iPR > tZR > meta-topolin > dihydrozeatin > ortho-topolin. The results on wild type and CKX transgenics suggest that extracellular iP and i

  11. Cytokinins in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens: analyses of activity, distribution, and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase overexpression reveal the role of extracellular cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Núñez, Marta Fernández; Blaschke, Hanna; Dobrev, Petre I; Novák, Ondrej; Motyka, Václav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-11-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to establish the cytokinin profile of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G.; of 40 analyzed cytokinins, 20 were detected. cis-Zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside, N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenosine-5'-monophosphate (iPRMP), and trans-zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside were the most abundant intracellular cytokinins. In addition, the aromatic cytokinins N(6)-benzyladenosine (BAR), N(6)-benzyladenine, meta-, and ortho-topolin were detected. Unexpectedly, the most abundant extracellular cytokinin was the nucleotide iPRMP, and its identity was confirmed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The effects of overexpressing a heterologous cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC 1.4.3.18/1.5.99.12) gene (AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) on the intracellular and extracellular distribution of cytokinins was assessed. In cultures of CKX-transformed plants, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurements showed that there were pronounced reductions in the extracellular concentrations of N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), but their intracellular cytokinin concentrations were only slightly affected. In vitro and in vivo measured CKX activity was shown to be strongly increased in the transformants. Major phenotypic changes observed in the CKX-overexpressing plants included reduced and retarded budding, absence of sexual reproduction, and abnormal protonema cells. In bud-induction bioassays with wild-type Physcomitrella, the nucleotides iPRMP, trans-zeatin-riboside-5'-monophosphate, BAR monophosphate, and the cis-zeatin forms cZ and cZR had no detectable effects, while the activities displayed by other selected cytokinins were in the following order: iP > tZ > N(6)-benzyladenine > BAR > iPR > tZR > meta-topolin > dihydrozeatin > ortho-topolin. The results on wild type and CKX transgenics suggest that

  12. Aislamiento y caracterización de la fracción hexánica de las hojas de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. con actividad antifúngica Isolation and characterization of hexane fraction from Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob leaves with antifungal action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Manzano Santana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la medicina folclórica ecuatoriana, utiliza las cocciones de las hojas de Vernonanthura pathens (Kunth H. Rob, para combatir entre otras, paludismo, dolores pre y posparto, estomacales, erupciones de piel, diarreas y parásitos. Objetivos: examinar la presencia de actividad antifúngica en fracciones obtenidas de un extracto metanólico de las hojas de V. patens. Métodos: el extracto metanólico de hojas se fraccionó por columna cromatográfica empleando los siguientes sistemas de disolventes: hexano, hexano/acetato de etilo, acetato de etilo y acetato de etilo/metanol. La actividad antifúngica se midió mediante la técnica de difusión en agar con medio (potato dextrosa agar PDA, en pocillos de 5 mm de diámetro, adicionando 20 µL de las fracciones en concentraciones de 100 y 200 µg/mL disueltas en dimetilsulfóxido. La fracción activa fue analizada para su identificación estructural por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. Resultados: de las fracciones obtenidas solo presentó actividad antifúngica la fracción de hexano al 100 %, con porcentajes de inhibición del 57,6 y 80,2 % frente a Penicillium notatum, y 64,8 y 81,5 % frente a Fusaryum oxysporum, a los quince días de incubación. Se propusieron las estructuras de 29 compuestos como constituyentes de la fracción hexánica, los que en su mayoría, son hidrocarburos. Conclusiones: se comprobó la presencia de actividad antifúngica en la fracción de hexano al 100 %, lo que puede incrementar el arsenal de usos medicinales de la planta estudiada y enriquecer la medicina folclórica ecuatoriana.Introduction: the Ecuadorian folk medicine uses the coction from Vernonanthura pathens (Rob H. Kunth leaves to treat, malaria, pain before and after childbirth, stomachache, skin rashes, diarrheas and parasitism. Objectives: to examine the presence of antifungal activity in fractions obtained from a methanol extract from V. patens leaves. Methods: the methanol

  13. Spartina alterniflora alters ecosystem DMS and CH4 emissions and their relationship along interacting tidal and vegetation gradients within a coastal salt marsh in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxin; Wang, Jinshu

    2017-10-01

    Invasive Spartina alterniflora accumulates organic carbon rapidly and can utilize a wide range of potential precursors for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production, as well as a wide variety of methanogenic substrates. Therefore, we predicted that S. alterniflora invasion would alter the relationships between DMS and methane (CH4) fluxes along the interacting gradients of tidal influence and vegetation, as well as the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of DMS and CH4. In this study, we used static flux chambers to measure DMS and CH4 fluxes in August (growing season) and December (non-growing season) of 2013, along creek and vegetation transects in an Eastern Chinese coastal salt marsh. S. alterniflora invasion dramatically increased DMS and CH4 emission rates by 3.8-513.0 and 2.0-127.1 times the emission rates within non-vegetated regions and regions populated with native species, respectively, and significantly altered the spatial distribution of DMS and CH4 emissions. We also observed a substantial amount of variation in the DMS and CH4 fluxes along the elevation gradient in the salt marsh studied. A significant relationship between DMS and CH4 fluxes was observed, with the CH4 flux passively related to the DMS flux. The correlation between CH4 and DMS emissions along the vegetation transects was more significant than along the tidal creek. In the S. alterniflora salt marsh, the relationship between DMS and CH4 fluxes was more significant than within any other salt marsh. Additionally, CH4 emissions within the S. alterniflora salt marsh were more sensitive to the variation in DMS emissions than within any other vegetation zone. The spatial variability in the relationship observed between DMS and CH4 fluxes appears to be at least partly due to the alteration of substrates involved in DMS and CH4 by S. alterniflora invasion. In the S. alterniflora salt marsh, methanogenesis was more likely to be derived from non-competitive substrates than competitive substrates, but within

  14. Exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion alters ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    Coastal salt marshes are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in mitigating global warming. To evaluate the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on global warming potential (GWP) in Chinese coastal areas, we measured CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil organic carbon sequestration rates along a transect of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province, China, including open water; bare tidal flat; and invasive S. alterniflora, native Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis marshes. Annual CH4 emissions were estimated as 2.81, 4.16, 4.88, 10.79, and 16.98 kg CH4 ha(-1) for open water, bare tidal flat, and P. australis, S. salsa, and S. alterniflora marshes, respectively, indicating that S. alterniflora invasion increased CH4 emissions by 57-505%. In contrast, negative N2O fluxes were found to be significantly and negatively correlated (P marshes. Annual N2O emissions were 0.24, 0.38, and 0.56 kg N2O ha(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat and S. salsa marsh, respectively, compared with -0.51 kg N2O ha(-1) for S. alterniflora marsh and -0.25 kg N2O ha(-1) for P. australis marsh. The carbon sequestration rate of S. alterniflora marsh amounted to 3.16 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the top 100 cm soil profile, a value that was 2.63- to 8.78-fold higher than in native plant marshes. The estimated GWP was 1.78, -0.60, -4.09, and -1.14 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat, P. australis marsh and S. salsa marsh, respectively, but dropped to -11.30 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicate that although S. alterniflora invasion stimulates CH4 emissions, it can efficiently mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2 and N2O along the coast of China. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A stress inducible SUMO conjugating enzyme gene (SaSce9 from a grass halophyte Spartina alterniflora enhances salinity and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Karan Ratna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SUMO (Small Ubiquitin related Modifier conjugation is a post translational regulatory process found in all eukaryotes, mediated by SUMO activating enzyme, SUMO conjugating enzyme, and SUMO ligase for the attachment of SUMO to its target protein. Although the mechanism for regulation of SUMO conjugation pathway genes under abiotic stress has been studied to certain extent, the role of SUMO conjugating enzyme in improving abiotic stress tolerance to plant is largely unexplored. Here, we have characterized a SUMO conjugating enzyme gene ‘SaSce9’ from a halophytic grass Spartina alterniflora and investigated its role in imparting abiotic stress tolerance. Results SaSce9 gene encodes for a polypeptide of 162 amino acids with a molecular weight of ~18 kD and isoelectric point 8.43. Amino acid sequence comparisons of SaSce9 with its orthologs from other plant species showed high degree (~85-93% of structural conservation among each other. Complementation analysis using yeast SCE mutant, Ubc9, revealed functional conservation of SaSce9 between yeast and S. alterniflora. SaSce9 transcript was inducible by salinity, drought, cold, and exogenously supplied ABA both in leaves and roots of S. alterniflora. Constitutive overexpression of SaSce9 in Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium mediated transformation improved salinity and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis. SaSce9 overexpressing Arabidopsis plants retained more chlorophyll and proline both under salinity and drought stress. SaSce9 transgenic plants accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen under salinity stress. Expression analysis of stress responsive genes in SaSce9 Arabidopsis plants revealed the increased expression of antioxidant genes, AtSOD and AtCAT, ion antiporter genes, AtNHX1 and AtSOS1, a gene involved in proline biosynthesis, AtP5CS, and a gene involved in ABA dependent signaling pathway, AtRD22. Conclusions These results highlight the prospect of improving abiotic

  16. A determination of the optimum time of year for remotely classifying marsh vegetation from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. [Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A technique was used to determine the optimum time for classifying marsh vegetation from computer-processed LANDSAT MSS data. The technique depended on the analysis of data derived from supervised pattern recognition by maximum likelihood theory. A dispersion index, created by the ratio of separability among the class spectral means to variability within the classes, defined the optimum classification time. Data compared from seven LANDSAT passes acquired over the same area of Louisiana marsh indicated that June and September were optimum marsh mapping times to collectively classify Baccharis halimifolia, Spartina patens, Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemericanus, and Distichlis spicata. The same technique was used to determine the optimum classification time for individual species. April appeared to be the best month to map Juncus roemericanus; May, Spartina alterniflora; June, Baccharis halimifolia; and September, Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. This information is important, for instance, when a single species is recognized to indicate a particular environmental condition.

  17. Protective role of terpenes and polyphenols from three species of Oregano (Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri and Hedeoma patens) on the suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-López, Nayely; Nair, Vimal; Bang, Woo Young; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Heredia, J Basilio

    2016-07-01

    Mexican oregano infusions have been traditionally used in México for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases, such as respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches and rheumatism, among others. Nevertheless, there is limited information regarding the phenolic compounds, terpenes and composition as well as biological activity of Mexican oregano. To determine the phenolic and terpene composition and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of three species of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens (LG), Lippia palmeri (LP) and Hedeoma patens (HP)) in order to provide a scientific basis for their use. We obtained methanol and chloroform extracts from dried oregano leaves of each species. We used LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS to determine the phenolic and terpene profiles of the leaves, respectively. We evaluated anti-inflammatory potential by measuring the effect of Mexican oregano extracts on some pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) using lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and evaluating cyclooxygenase activity (COX-1, COX-2). Nine phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and 22 terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) were detected in LG, LP and HP. We studied extracts from LG, LP and HP, and fractions from LG and LP in order to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. The phenolic and terpene extracts from LG, LP and HP exhibited significant inhibitory effect on ROS and NO production and mitochondrial activity in LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Nitric oxide production was also diminished by the terpene LG fraction LGF2 and the LP fractions LPF1, LPF2 and LPF3, confirming that both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are active compounds of oregano. Furthermore, the total extracts of LG, LP and HP exhibited non-selective inhibitions against the activity of the cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2. Our results suggest that Lippia graveolens

  18. Fire effects on a Spartina densiflora salt marsh in the floodplain of the Paraná River, Argentina Efectos del fuego en una marisma de Spartina densiflora en la planicie de inundación del río Paraná, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORA MADANES

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of fire on the structural attributes of a Spartina densiflora salt marsh. The study was carried out from November 1995, spring (N95S to December 1996, late spring (D96LS. In November 1995, we installed 37 permanent plots. In January 1996, 32 of the plots were accidentally burned (B and the remaining were not burned (NB. Vegetation on each plot was sampled seasonally, plant species were identified and cover-abundance was estimated. We analyzed and compared seasonal variations in plant species richness, diversity, composition and cover-abundance in burned and non-burned plots. In addition, we analyzed variations in biological types (forbs, graminoids and types of life cycles (annuals, perennials in B and NB plots before and after the fire .Principal Component Analysis (PC A was performed on cover-abundance data for each treatment and sampling date. We included coded dummy variables for each date and treatment as supplementary variables. Results indicated that S. densiflora was the dominant species and Limonium brasiliensis and Dipsacum fullonum were the accompanying species for all treatments and sampling dates. Thirty out of 47 species were present before the fire (N95S. All species in NB plots were also recorded in B plots, and 15 species were exclusively found in B plots. The increases in species richness and diversity observed in B plots after the fire were higher than those in NB plots at the same sampling dates. When comparing the B plots before and after the fire, perennials decreased in cover-abundance and increased in richness, while both attributes increased for annuals; the same pattern was followed by forbs, and graminoids decreased in cover abundance and showed almost similar values of richness. PCA results showed that NB plots were subject to smooth temporal changes in composition and cover abundance, and that B plots underwent greater changes. In D96LS, B and NB plots exhibited a different spatial distribution

  19. Habitat heterogeneity: importance of salt marsh pools and high marsh surfaces to fish production in two Gulf of Maine salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. MacKenzie; M. Dionne

    2008-01-01

    Both permanent high marsh pools and the intertidal surfaces of Spartina patens high marshes in southern Maine, USA, proved to be important habitat for resident mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus production. Manipulations of fish movement onto high marsh Surfaces revealed similar growth rates and production among fish that were (1) restricted to pools, (2) had access to...

  20. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Tidal Fringe Wetlands Along the Mississippi and Alabama Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Eleocharis spp Ipomoea sagittata Pontederia cordata Sagittaria spp. Spartina patens...X X OBL Polygonaceae Polygonum setaceum Bog smartweed X X FACW Pontederiaceae Pontederia cordata Pickerelweed X...Marshes1 Scientific Name Common Name Wetland Indicator Status Ampelopsis arborea Peppervine FAC+ Ampelopsis cordata Heart-leaf peppervine FAC

  1. Growth and photosynthesis responses of two co-occurring marsh grasses to inundation and varied nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    For southern New England tidal marshes, the late twentieth century decline of Spartina patens has been attributed to increased flooding associated with accelerated sea level rise and nitrogen over-enrichment from cultural eutrophication, either singly or in combination. The obje...

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 168017359 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omitrella patens subsp. patens MCTGIPYRTLPRCCNSSGIELGAMKVRVIASAEPEVDAVHTTVRSSLCSELAIASRCRWRSEEFLDGPHKGWIVHPICDMA...ITVWETRQCDGERSMTGIELGAMKVRVIASAEPEVDAVHTTVRSSLCSELAIASRCRWRSEEFLDGPHKGWIVHPICDMAITVWETRQCDGESAFGGSGGVCGETLGAKTFHLGRACI ...

  3. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    helvola 1 4 6 SaZicornia virginica 1 I I GnaphaZliw’? purpureum I -- 4-.Carduus spp. I-- Baccharis halirnifol-ja10 Irisine rhizomatosa 0 1 Sabatia...capillifoliwn 10 9 -- Toxicodendron rachcans 6 3 68 Eupatorium serotinum 6 3 -- Spartina patens 4 3 -- Mijrica cerifera 4 7 11 Erigeron spp. 4 4 -- So tidago...Rwnex verticillatus -- 1 -- * Steltaria media I-1- Pyrrhopappus caroliniana I-1- N Lactuca canadensis -- 1 Eupatorium capillifoliwn - 1 -- Cenothera

  4. Regulation of odd-numbered fatty acid content plays an important part in the metabolism of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea spp. adapted to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hlavsa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, JAN (2017), s. 94-101 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane lipid-composition * amino-acids * gene-expression * salinity stress * leaf senescence * spartina-patens * low-temperature * cadmium stress * plants * tolerance * Environmental stress * Heavy metals * Phylogenetic profiling of fatty acids * Phytoremediation * Senescence * Thlaspi species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  5. Analyse de la croissance de Gymnogongrus patens Agardh de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    [24] - T. Chopin, G. Sharp, E. Belyea, R. Semple and D. Jones. “Open-water aquaculture of red alga Chondrus crispus in Prince Edward Island Canada”. Hydrobiologia. 398/399 (1999) 417-425. [25] - H. J. Bixler. “Recent developements in manifacturing and marketing carrageenan”. Hydrobiologia. 326/327 (1996) 35-57.

  6. Analyse de la croissance chez Gymnogongrus patens (j

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LBBM

    enregistrés chez plusieurs algues rouges telles que Chondrus crispus [48], Euchema isiforme [49], Gracilaria multipartita[50] et Gelidium sesquipedale [51]. Cette variation peut être liée aux facteurs écologiques en particulier aux conditions d'éclairement et l'enrichissement de l'eau en sels nutritifs. Chez les algues rouges, ...

  7. Protein Kinase Signalling in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo de Silva, Raquel

    Adaptation to environmental cues trigger a plethora of intracellular pathways capable of maintaining homeostasis. Receptors in the plasma membrane and in the cytosol recognize extracellular or intracellular signals initiating defense against pathogens or stress-adaptation. MAPK cascade are one of...... in the moss Physcomitrella patens” and one draft manuscript summarizing our data regarding the phenotypic analysis of Ppmekk1 knockouts....

  8. Remote Sensing in Archeology: Classifying Bajos of the Paten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This project focuses on the adaptation of human populations to their environments from prehistoric times to the present. It emphasizes interdisciplinary research to develop ecological baselines through the use of remotely sensed imagery, in situ field work, and the modeling of human population dynamics. It utilizes cultural and biological data from dated archaeological sites to assess the subsistence and settlement patterns of human societies in response to changing climatic and environmental conditions. The utilization of remote sensing techniques in archaeology is relatively new, exciting, and opens many doors.

  9. Analyse de la croissance de Gymnogongrus patens Agardh de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'influence des facteurs environnementaux (température, salinité, nitrates, et phosphates) sur l'évolution de la croissance a été étudiée par des analyses en composantes principales (ACP). L'analyse quantitative en composantes principales a montré une variation saisonnière des trois paramètres de croissance. Ainsi, les ...

  10. Ecophysiological responses of the salt marsh grass Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the inland site, soil water potential (ø), electrical conductivity of the soil, total cations, and the concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P, were significantly higher than those of the streamside site, while CO2 exchange, quantum yield of PSII, ETR through PSII, and intrinsic photochemical efficiency of PSII were significantly ...

  11. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  12. Post-IR IRSL290 dating of K-rich feldspar sand grains in a wind-dominated system on Sardinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, S.; Sechi, D.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    block sand-sized grains for quartz SAR-OSL and K-feldspar pIRIR dating were collected. The natural quartz SAR-OSL sample lies below the saturation limit of the dose response curve (De ... with the quartz result. A further test on older samples was carried out on the sedimentary succession at Bue Marino cave, which includes a sandy wind-blown unit, enclosed between two calcareous crusts. U-series dates of crusts constrain the aeolianite formation between ∼130 and ∼86 ka. The quartz SAR-OSL signals....... The pIRIR290 ages indicate an offset up to ∼1000 years. We can conclude that the pIRIR290 method on sand-sized K-feldspar grains shows great promise for samples at or beyond the quartz OSL age limit but should not be applied to Late Holocene or modern deposits....

  13. Environmental conditions in the Namskaket Marsh Area, Orleans, Massachusetts: A summary of studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1989–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2016-09-23

    Namskaket Marsh and its tidal creek system are potential receptors for a treated wastewater plume originating from a septage treatment facility in the northwest part of Orleans, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. From 1989 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and local partners, conducted a series of studies in the Namskaket Marsh area to characterize the potential effects of the plume on the marsh and its tidal creek system. Studies included characterizing the baseline vegetation and salinity distribution in the marsh, monitoring the movement of the wastewater plume downgradient of the septage treatment facility, and sampling nutrient concentrations in the tidal creek system during a baseline period prior to the arrival of the plume at the marsh boundary. The Inner Namskaket Marsh baseline vegetation survey in 1995 found it to be dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed, 44 percent of vegetative cover), Spartina patens (salt marsh hay, 17 percent), and Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass, 9 percent). Phragmites occurrence was correlated with shallow pore-water salinity in the marsh peat and was largely confined to areas with salinities less than 4 parts per thousand. Baseline, ebb-tide nutrient concentrations at the tidal creek sampling stations during 1994–96 showed strong seasonal variations for ammonium, likely associated with the seasonal cycle of growth and senescence for the dominant salt marsh grasses (S. alterniflora and S. patens). The seasonal cycle for nitrate was generally less pronounced.

  14. Burrowing and foraging activity of marsh crabs under different ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England salt marshes are susceptible to degradation and habitat loss as a result of increased periods of inundation as sea levels rise. Increased inundation may exacerbate marsh degradation that can result from crab burrowing and foraging. Most studies to date have focused on how crab burrowing and foraging can impact the dominant low marsh plant species, Spartina alterniflora. Here we used a mesocosm experiment to examine the relationship of foraging and burrowing activity in two dominant New England crab species, Sesarma reticulatum and Uca pugilator, and the combined effect of inundation, on the dominant high marsh plant species Spartina patens using a 3 × 2 factorial design with three crab treatments (Sesarma, Uca, control) at two levels of inundation (low, high). Plants were labeled with a nitrogen (N) stable isotope tracer to estimate plant consumption by the two crab species. At both levels of inundation, we found that S. reticulatum had a significant negative impact on both above- and below-ground biomass by physically clipping and uprooting the plants, whereas U. pugilator had no significant impact. Low inundation treatments for both crab species had significantly greater aboveground biomass than high inundation. Stable N isotope tracer levels were roughly the same for both S. reticulatum and U. pugilator tissue, suggesting that the impact of S. reticulatum on S. patens was not through consumption of the plants. Overall, our results suggest the pot

  15. Ecophysiological constraints of two invasive plant species under a saline gradient: Halophytes versus glycophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, B.; Santos, D.; Marques, J. C.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh environments are harsh environments where salinity comprises one of the most important species distribution shaping factor, presenting sediment salinities from 0 to 855 mM (0-50 ppt). Invasive species have often a high colonizing potential, due to its high plasticity and adaptation ability. Spartina patens is an invasive species already spread along several Mediterranean countries, like France and Spain. Cyperus longus is typically a freshwater species that has been spreading across the Mediterranean. In order to evaluate the ecophysiological fitness of these species, mesocosmos trials were performed subjecting both species to increasing realistic salinity levels and their photochemical and biochemical feedback was evaluated. Both species presented very different behaviours. S. patens appears to be insensitive to salt stress, mostly due to elevated proline concentrations in its leaves allowing it to maintain its osmotic balance, and thus preventing the damaging of its photochemical mechanisms. C. longus, on the other hand, was highly affected by elevated salt levels mostly due to the lack of osmotic balance driven by an incapacity to counteract the elevated ionic strength of the external medium by osmocompatible solutes. S. patens is physiologically highly adapted to saline environments and thus is capable to colonize all the marsh saline environments, while C. longus appears to be an opportunistic invader colonizing the marsh during periods of lower salinities typical from rainy seasons.

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 111195 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein Physcomitrella patens MKSAQAMGSTLMVAALLSCVVMPSEAGRALLTYGTPTTYTPPTTYTPPTTDTPPTTYTPPTTYTPPITYTPPTTYTPPTTYTPPTTDTPPTTYTPPTTYTPP...TTYTPPTTYTPPTTDTPPTTYTPPTTDTPPTTYTPPTTYTPPTTYTPPTTYTPPTPQSPPYTPPSPPSGGY

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 653340 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein, partial Physcomitrella patens PKPKTGGDCEGCADTSELKPPKPDVLGALDTPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGV...LEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPNAGVLEAPK

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 728319 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Physcomitrella patens MASAEQLVLELIVPEQRENALLDLSKKREAFPDLAPILWHSCGTIAALLQEIVSIYPMLSPPTLTAGASNRVCNALALLQCVASHPDTRALFLNAHIPL...YLYPFLNTVSKTRPFEYLRLTSLGVIGALVKVDDTEVINFLLSTEIIPLCLRTMEMGSELSKTVATF...IVQKILLDDVGLAYICATAERFFAVSAVLANMVQMLAEQPSVRLLKHIIRCYLRLSDNPRACEALKNCLPELLQNGTFNNCLRDDLTTRRWLNQLMMNVGQQMHPQRVPSGMQGAGIPLEQLLSGQ

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 645177 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available itrella patens MVIKNEDLIVKKIRQSRKRIERSQVRNLLRNEQQRKLKRIHRQSWIKPWLHACRYIRAYPEANRHLIFQKYIPLEKLPRALAKNLVNRPGFLLIPL...GRDADYINKRLSVTLSNSMTTGGPTVPIAVQMGTVSDRTTSVAPLPTFRGFPSADPDQHFSQFLTACVANNGRTEDICNCQGHGHLVTECPSPSQVLDKCTFCGGKHLTANCWNLQRQQQFSNPTMIPL

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 641101 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Physcomitrella patens MVIKNENLTTKRIKQSKERTERSQKYIPLKKLPRTLARSIANSRAYLLKPLTESKEGTEELGIPLGIFPIGDTFDSNKTGSEDRH...RTMSMVPLLTFRVGATMISSQASYPISTWSEIGSIYLRILDYSANLSVNSQGAVNAIPLQNIPPTTAVPYSLYSPYQKVVPAKELSSETGPKDPNKALLITLTMKMEELAIILAKDKKKRHKPTNMRPNV

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 641018 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Physcomitrella patens MHACRHIQSYSEDDRPLIFQKYIPLKKLLRALVGSVANSPANLSKPLTKNEEGTEELSIPLGIFSIGNFFDPNKTGSEDRHKSLA...VTPLPTFWGLSVGATMIPSQGGYQMTNWNDASGSYLGRNDYGTIPQGIVDAIPLQAIPPSSSHPYAPYSAYQKPIPTKELPNSLVSRDPNESLLLTLTKKMDELAVNLTKDKEKRHKPTNMRPNV

  2. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community

  3. 102 Croissance et capacité réproductive de Gymnogongrus patens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    De nombreuses études ont montré que la croissance, la reproduction et le développement des algues sont liés principalement à des ..... Mars : L'algue est de consistance lisse, de couleur rouge foncé, la base du thalle est peu ramifie. Les ..... “Algunos datos de intrés en la recoleccion de Gelidium sesquipedale”. Publ. Tec.

  4. Stable Production of the Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti; Beyraghdar Kashkooli, A.; Peramuna, Anantha V.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.; Simonsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a real and constant danger to nearly half of the world’s population of 7.4 billion people. In 2015, 212 million cases were reported along with 429,000 estimated deaths. The World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combinatorial therapies, and the artemisinin for this purpose

  5. Metabolic engineering of the diterpenoid sclareol in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Xiwu

    Plant terpenoids play indispensable roles in primary metabolism as the vital constituents in photosynthesis (chlorophylls, carotenoids and plastoquinones), respiration (ubiquinone) and development regulation (gibberellins, abscisic acid, cytokinin and brassinosteroids). They are also the membrane...

  6. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  7. Orbital experiment ``Gravisensor'': phototropic reactions of the moss Physcomitrella patens to different types of LED lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Skripnikov, Alexander; Zyablova, Natalya; Mukhoyan, Makar; Emelianov, Grigory

    The experiment was conducted on Russian Biological Satelite Bion-M #1 19.04-19.05 2013. Five transparent plastic cultural flasks were placed in five light isolated sections of Biocont-B2 cylindrical container with inner diameter of 120 mm and height of 230 mm. In four sections the flasks could be illuminated by top or side LED with wavelength of 458 nm, 630 nm, 730 nm, and white (color temperature 5000º К, peaks 453, 559 nm). Photon flux in each variant was 15 umol/(m2c). In the fifth section the flask with the shoots was in conditions of constant dark. Each section was equipped with its own video camera module. Cameras, video recorder and lighting were managed by micro controller. 12 days before launch, 5 tips of the moss shoots were explanted at each of the five flasks on the agar medium with nutrient components and were cultivated under white fluorescent lamps at 12 hour photo period till the launch. After entering the orbit and during next 14 days of flight top LEDs were turned on above the flasks. Then for the following 14 days of flight the side LEDs of similar wavelength were turned on. The moss gametophores were cultivated at 12-h photoperiod. During the experiment on an hourly basis a video recording of the moss was performed. Similar equipment was used for ground control. After the experiment video files were used to produce separate time-lapse films for each flask using AviSynth program. In flight the shoots demonstrated the maximum growth speed with far red lighting and slower speed with white lighting. With blue and red lighting after switching to side light stimuli the growth of shoots almost stopped. In the dark the shoots continued to grow until the 13 day after launch of the satellite, then their growth stopped. In ground control the relation of growth rate with various LEDs remained basically the same, with the exception of side blue lighting, where the shoots demonstrated considerable vertical growth. In flight the angle of inclination towards the light source was maximal (about 90º) with white lighting, and somewhat smaller with 730 nm. Under red and blue light the angle of phototropic inclination was difficult to measure due to poor growth of the shoots.In ground control the growth rate under blue light was several times higher, than in flight and final degree of inclination of the shoot tip came to about 10º. In ground control under side red lighting the growth was weak, while demonstrating a pronounced phototropic bend of 90º. In ground control in the dark a vertical growth of one shoot was observed with the rate somewhat larger, than in flight variant. Data on the dynamics of inclination of experimental and control plants are presented. The acquired data will be used to analyse the mechanisms of phototropic growth changes of moss shoots.

  8. Artemisinin production in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira

    from the Chinese medicinal herb, Artemisia annua L. is the best anti-malaria treatment, as it is highly effective against multiple drug-resistant strains of malaria. However, the production of artemisinin in A. annua is limited due to the low yields obtained from the farmed herbs. In the present study...

  9. Stable production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar; Peramuna, Anantha Vithakshana

    2017-01-01

    for this purpose is mainly isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. However, the plant supply of artemisinin is irregular, leading to fluctuation in prices. Here we report the development of a simple, sustainable, and scalable production platform of artemisinin. The five genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis...

  10. Metabolic engineering of the diterpenoid sclareol in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Xiwu

    , repelling fungal and bacterial pathogens, or acting as phytoalexins that involve in defense against herbivores and surrounding inter/intra species. Some terpenoids are aromatic to humans, making them commercially important in perfumery and cosmetics industry. The diterpenoid sclareol is the typical...... precursor for chemical synthesis of substitutes of the precious ambergris, which is highly prized for the pleasant sweet and earthy scent historically. However, the natural provision and price of sclareol fluctuates enormously by the varied yield and quality from its producer plant clary sage (Salvia...

  11. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Zakaria, Iffah Izzati; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2012-01-01

    PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products). These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site. PMID:22949824

  12. Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ecology of irregularly flooded salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: a community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, J.P.

    1984-12-01

    The salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico are distinguished by irregular flooding, low energy wave and tidal action, and long periods of exposure. The plant community is most often dominated by black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), the species of focus in this synthesis. Distinct marsh zones include those dominated by Juncus and Spartina alterniflora at low elevations, sparsely vegetated salt flats, and higher elevation salt meadows of Juncus and Spartina patens. A diverse microbial and algal assemblage is also present. A diverse fauna has adapted to the physical rigors of these marshes. Zooplankton are dominated by the larvae of fiddler crabs and other decapods. The meiofauna consist primarily of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods. Macroinvertebrates are represented by crustaceans (especially mollusks and crabs), annelids, and insects. Grass shrimp, blue crabs, and other crustaceans are seasonally abundant in marsh creeks, as are a number of resident and migratory fish species. Birds comprise one of the larger herbivore groups and are also significant at higher tropic levels as top carnivores. Muskrat and nutria are important mammals. 43 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  15. Hybridization between invasive Spartina Densiflora (Poaceae) and native S. Foliosa in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid evolution in contemporary time can result when related species, brought together through human-aided introduction, hybridize. The evolutionary consequences of post introduction hybridization range from allopolyploid speciation to extinction of species through genetic amalg...

  16. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... levels of salt stress (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 mM NaCl) on potted plants. The seedlings were grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse for six months. Optimal growth of S. alterniflora occurred at salinity levels of 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Seedlings grew less in freshwater conditions than in the 100.

  17. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Invasive Species Mapping and Monitoring - Spartina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plant species are ubiquitous in the Northwest and cover large areas of the Refuge. If new invasions can be contained early, large infestations can often be...

  18. Maximizing Empower on a Human-dominated Planet: The Role of Exotic Spartina (Eco Eng.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy signature of the Earth has changed dramatically over the past 250 years as a result of the development of technologies to use fossil fuels for human purposes. This change has resulted in the self-organization of modern industrial societies and their concomitant process...

  19. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active

  20. A Generic Modeling Approach to Biomass Dynamics of Sagittaria latifolia and Spartina alterniflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    would be expected to affect the distribution and production of emergent macrophytes (Gosselink and Turner 1978). Sagittaria latifolia (Broadleaf...sensitivity and validated against field data for both species. Both species have the capacity to persist in eutrophic , shallow water bodies with fluctuating...R. M. Smart, R. L. Chen, and D. G. McFarland. 1988. Interactions between macrophyte growth and sediment nutrient availability. Technical Report A-88

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp_patens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2...e+patens%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t=NS ...

  2. Isolation of a novel PP2C gene from rice and its response to abiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... Pp: Physcomitrella patens; Pps: Physcomitrella patens subsp. Patens; Mt: Medicago truncatula; Ps: Picea sitchensis; Mc: Mesembryanthemum crystallinum; Mb: Musa balbisiana; Dm: Drosophila melanogaster; Dv: Drosophila virilis; Tad: Trichoplax adhaerens; Ta: Triticum aestivum; Cr: Capsella rubella; Bd:.

  3. Direct observation of the effects of cellulose synthesis inhibitors using live cell imaging of Cellulose Synthase (CESA) in Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Mai L.; McCarthy, Thomas W.; Sun, Hao; Wu, Shu-Zon; Norris, Joanna H.; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Vidali, Luis; Anderson, Charles T.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2018-01-01

    Results from live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged Cellulose Synthase (CESA) proteins in Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs) have enhanced our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis, including the mechanisms of action of cellulose synthesis inhibitors. However, this method has been applied only in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon thus far. Results from freeze fracture electron microscopy of protonemal filaments of the moss Funaria hygrometrica indicate that a cellulose s...

  4. Perspectives on Using Physcomitrella  Patens as an Alternative Production Platform for Thapsigargin and Other Terpenoid Drug Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Toft Simonsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the potential future demand for terpenoids used as drugs, a new production platform is currently being established in our laboratory. The moss Physcomitrella has been chosen as the candidate organism for production of drug candidates based on terpenoids derived from plants, with a primary focus on the sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin. This drug candidate and other candidates/drugs with sesquiterpene skeleton are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Furthermore, they are not available in sufficient amounts from their original plant. The requirement for a new production system to meet the potential market demand for these compounds is not only obvious, but also essential if sufficient quantities of the drug candidates are to be available for the potential therapeutic use.

  5. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Localization of an evolutionarily conserved protein proton pyrophosphatase in evolutionarily distant plants oryza sativa and physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton Pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) is a highly evolutionarily conserved protein that is prevalent in the plant kingdom. One of the salient features of H+-PPase expression pattern, at least in vascular plants like Arabidopsis, is its conspicuous localization in both actively dividing cells and the phl...

  7. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical

  8. An analysis of wetland productivity and biomass in Coastal Louisiana: Current base line data and knowledge gaps for the development of spatially explicit models for restoration and rehabilitation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Elliton, C.; Visser, J.; Narra, S.; Simard, M.; Snedden, G.; Stagg, C. L.; Wang, H.; Castañeda-Moya, E.

    2016-02-01

    Wetland above and below net primary productivity (NPP) and biomass (BM) are two critical ecosystem properties to evaluate vegetation successional trajectories in restoration and rehabilitation (R/R) programs. Enhancing sediment deposition and changes in salinity regimes are major environmental drivers that significantly determine vegetation establishment and species composition. In costal Louisiana, wetland restoration and rehabilitation (R/R)programs aim to slow down wetland loss and improve vegetation coverage by diverting freshwater and sediments from the Mississippi River into areas where wetlands loss rates are high. Although vegetation establishment and coverage are considered key performance measures (PMs) to evaluate R/R success, few studies have explicitly established NPP and BM targets due to the lack of long-term studies to analyze spatiotemporal patterns. To contribute to the development of vegetation PMs in restoration projects, we evaluated BM and NPP data and assessed statistical measures of central tendency and dispersion, field methodology, and number of studies per wetland class and species across coastal Louisiana from 1974-2014. Mean NPP ranged from 400 (±250) to 8500 (±500) gdw/m2/yr and showed significant differences among wetland types independently of salinity regime. Peak BM at the end of the growing season was distinct among wetlands communities dominated by grasses, particularly between freshwater (1200 g/m2 ± 300) and brackish/saline marshes (700 g/m2 ±250). Productivity studies have been focused on few species including Panicum virgatum, Scirpus americanus, Spartina patens, Juncus roemerianus, Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora, Sagittaria falcate, Taxodium distichum, Nyssa aquatic, Acer rubrum. The BM/NPP analysis and database compilation will be used to inform the development and integration of functional performance measures in ecological models (statistical, dynamic and cellular automata) to forecast wetland R/R scenarios

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in CO2 exchange in a salt marsh dominated estuary (PIE LTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Morris, J. T.; Hopkinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are important carbon sinks, but large uncertainties about current rates of carbon exchange with the atmosphere and the ocean remain. These need to be constrained for a better assessment of changes in long-term drivers such as sea level and climate. At the Plum Island Ecosystems LTER, we are expecting a transition from the current Spartina patens dominated high marsh to a more frequently flooded Spartina alterniflora dominated low marsh with increasing sea level. We have set up two eddy covariance sites, one in a high marsh (starting in 2013) and one in a low marsh (starting in 2015) to study net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration (ET). We use a broad-band NDVI to monitor phenology at both sites, which is tightly coupled to the CO2 fluxes. While the temporal dynamics do not vary much between the years, the magnitude in NDVI and CO2 fluxes does: For the high marsh site, we observe lower NDVI (and smaller overall net CO2 uptake) in years with low rainfall during the growing season, e.g. in 2014 and likely in 2016. In 2014, a low rainfall period occurred at the beginning of the growing season, during which ET was slightly higher than in other years, which likely increased soil salinity. In 2016, the period of low rainfall has extended much longer into the growing season (on-going) which seems to have an overall stronger effect (i.e. decrease) on low marsh net CO2 uptake than on the high marsh. We will discuss our findings in the context of salt marsh hydrology and carbon cycling in high and low marsh.

  10. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Joesting; R. Blaylock; P. Biber; A. Ray

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics), but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was t...

  11. BIDIRECTIONAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION (BRDF) CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOOTH CORDGRASS (SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA) OBTAINED USING A SANDMEIER FIELD GONIOMETER. (R826944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Effects of Substrate Salinity on Early Seedling survival and Growth of Scirpus robustus Pursh and Spartina alterniflora Loisel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooted aquatic plants are being used increasingly as test species in estuarine sediment toxicity evaluations. Effects of naturally occurring substrate constituents on most potential test species however, are not well understood even though their effects could impact the data int...

  13. Intraspecific and phenotypic variation in salinity responses of invasive Spartina densiflora from Pacific estuaries of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity and tidal inundation induce physiological stress in vascular plant species and influence their distribution and productivity in estuarine wetlands. Plants in these wetlands are subjected to climate change and magnified physiological stresses as these key abiotic processes increase with sea...

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638130 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens MRYCSSLTPNTLGNLTSLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNELGNLTSLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNELGNITSLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNEL...GNLTSLIEFDISDCSSLTSLPNELGNLTSLTTLNMTYCSSLTSLPNKLGNLTSLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNELGNLTSLTTLNMR...YCSSLTSLPNELGNLTSLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNELGNLTSLTTFNISGYCSSLTSLPNELGNLTSLTTLYRRYCSSLISLPNELDNLTSLIEFDISDCSSLTLLPNELGNLTSLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNKLGNITTLTTLNMRYCSSLTSLPNTLGNLTSLTTLNMRYCS

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 114758 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available trella patens MAQRICIAIVLLLCFSGVSAQFTPDCQAAAISLASCYSYASGPATTPPSDCCAPLRQVNANNPDCVCQALANVGTSTAVNATKVRALPSDCGITVDYARCPGSATPPPSAGTPP...MTSPPMGSTPPSMTPPMGSTPPSIAPPMGSTPPSMAPPTGSTPPSTAPPMGSTPPSTAPPMGSTPPSTAPPMGSTPP...SMAPPMGSMPPSMAPPMGSMPPSMAPPMGSMPPSMAPPMGSMPPSLAPPMGSTPPSVAPPMGSTPPSLAPPMGSTPPSMAPSMAPPMGSTPPAMAPSSGETPP...AMSPPSPPSGAVSPAPIMTPPSGGTPPAPTVAPSSGEMPPTPSGSMPSPPPESSPMAPSSGATPPGSSPTSPSEAPGSVNPSPANSPIGATNPPVTSPEAPGPVAPSNNAASMGASWTVGVAAAVALLRFL

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638125 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens SLISLPNDLANLSSLTRLDLSDCSSLTSLSNDLTNLSSLTRLDFSGCSSLTSLTNDLTNLSSLTRLDFSGCSSLTSLTNDLTNL...GCLYLTSLTNDLINLASLIKLHLSGCCSRLLSLPNDLKNLSFLTTLNFSGSSSLISLPNDLANLSSLTTLYFSSCSRLITLRNDFVNLFSLRSLYLSGCLNLTSLPNDLAN...LSSSTTLYFSSCSRLISLTNDLANLSSWTSLYFSGFSRLISLTNDLKNLSSWKTLNFSGSSSLISLPNDLANLSSLTTLYFSSCSRLTTFLPKNLRNLSTLRRLG...LKGCSSLACLPNKLPNLFSLIELNLSGCSSLIQLPNDLVNLSFLRTLNLHHCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLTTLDLSDCSSLISLPKELANLSSFTTLNLYHCLSLISLSNELANLSSLIMLNLSGCSSLIKL

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638120 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens TNLNSLKTLNMSGCSSLISFPNELENLSSLKNIYLKNCSNLTRLPNKLTNLSVLEELDLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLTRLDLSGCSSLIILLNELAN...ISSLKKLYLNNCSNLTRLPNKLTKLFSLEGIFLHHCSSLTSLPNELAHLSSLIELDLGGCLSLTSLPNELAN...LSSLKKLNLSGCSSLISLPNELANISSLDELYLNGCLSLISLPNELANLSSLKKLYLNNCFSLTRLPNKLAYLSSLIELDLGGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLKRL...NLSGCSNLTRSPNEFANLSSLKKLHLSGCSSLTSLPNELANISSLDELYLSGCSSLTSLPNELANISSLLRLDLNDCSSLTSLQNKLENLSSLKELNLSGCSNLTNLPKELAN...FSSLTRLKHNLSGCSNLISLPNELENLSSLEDLNLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSFERLYLSSCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLERLYLSGCSSLTSLPNGLENLSSLKVLYFNGYSSLTSLPNKLANLSSLKKFYLNNCSSLTSLPNKFTN

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638121 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens MSGFSSLTSLPNELVNLSSLEELVLSDCLSLTSLPNELANLSSLTILDLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLTILDLSGCSSLTSLSNELAN...LSSLTTLDLSGCSSLISLPNELTNLSFLEELVLSGCSSLTSLPNELVNLSSLKMLDLNGCSNLISLPNELANLSFLTILDLSGCFSLISLPNELAN...LSSLEVLVLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLKALYLIGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLEELVLSGCSSLTSLSNELANLSSLRRLNLSGCFSLISLPNELAN...LYSLKFLVLSGCSSLTSLPNELVNLSSLEELIMSGFSSLTTLPNELTNLSSLEELVLSGCSSLISLPNELTNLSSLKMLDLNGCSSLISLPNELTNLSSLTRLDLNGCSSLKSLPNELAN...LSYLTRLNLSGCSCLTSLPNELANLSFLTRLDLSGCSSLTSLPNELTNLSFLTTLDLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLKMLDLNGCSSLIILPNELANLSFLTRLNLSGCLSLISLPNELANLSSL

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638146 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens MSKEWTNITSLKTLDMSGCSSLTSLPNELANLFSLEELYLNGCSSLINLPNELVNLSYLRKLDLSYCSSLTILPNKLANISSLQ...SLYLNSCSRLISLPNELTNLYTLEALHLSDCLSLTHLPNECTNLSSLKELVLSGCSSLISFPNELANLSFLTRLNLSGCSSLKSLPNELAN...LSSLKAFYLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLIILDLSGCSTLTSLPNKLKNLFSLTRLDLSGCSSLASLPNELANLSSLTSLNLSHCSRLTSLPNELANLSSLTILNLSCCSSLTSLPNEFANLSSLTILDLSGCS

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638143 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens LPNELLNLSSLKRLSLRGYSSLTSLPNELANLSSLKELYLRDCSSLRSLPNELANLSSLTTLDLNGCSSLTSLPNDLVNLSSLKRLFLKGCSNLTSLSNELAN...LSSLEELNLRNCLSLASLPNELANLSSLITLDLSGCSSLVSLPNELANLSSLKRLSLRGCSSLTSSSNKLAN...LSSLTTLDLSGCSSLTSLPNVLANLSSLEELNLSNCSSLARLPNELTNLSSLTVLYLSGCLSLTSLPNELANLSSVNELYFRDCSSLISFLPNELVNL...SSLTRLDLSGYLRLTNLPNELTNLSSLTAPSLSGCSSLTSLPKEMANLAILSILDLSGCLRLTSLPNELGNPSSLIILNLNSCSSLTSLAN

  1. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. [Progress report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, B.G.; Arp, W.J.; Balduman, L.

    1990-12-31

    Research during 1988--89 focused on several new aspects of the response of the salt marsh ecosystem to elevated CO{sub 2}. In previous years we gave highest priority to studies of the effect of CO{sub 2} on biomass production into above and below-ground tissues, nitrogen content, light response of photosynthesis of single leaves, leaf water potential and carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange between the plant canopy and the ambient air. Result from the work in 87 and 88 had shown that the C3 plant, Scirpus olneyi, responded vigorously to elevated CO{sub 2} but the two C4 species, Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata did not. The responses of photosynthesis were also reflected in the canopy and ecosystem processes. Thus our emphasis shifted from determining the growth responses to exploring photosynthesis in greater detail. The main questions were: does acclimation to high CO{sub 2} involve reduction of some aspect of photosynthesis either at the single leaf level or in canopy structure? How much more carbon will be accumulated in a high CO{sub 2} than under present CO{sub 2} concentration? Our results give us partial answers to these questions but since the long term aspect of CO{sub 2} stimulation remains the most important one, it is unlikely that we can do more than add some pieces of data to a continuing debate in the ecological community regarding the eventual effect of CO{sub 2} on ecosystems.

  2. Composition of breeding bird communities in Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes: Effects of winter burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh managers along the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain frequently use winter burns to alter marsh vegetation and improve habitat quality for wintering waterfowl. However, effects of these burns on marsh avifauna are not well documented. We recorded abundances of breeding bird species and vegetation structure in burned and unburned control marshes during one breeding season before (1996) and two breeding seasons after (1997, 1998) experimental winter burns. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis to assess the extent and direction of changes in bird community compositions of burned and unburned control marshes and to investigate the influence of vegetation structure on bird community composition. Overall, we found that Seaside Sparrows (Emberizidae: Ammodramus maritimus [Wilson]) and Red-winged Blackbirds and Boat-tailed Grackles (Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus [L.] and Quiscalus major Vieillot, respectively) comprised > 85% of observed birds. In burned marshes during the first breeding season following experimental burns (1997), icterid abundance increased while Seaside Sparrow abundance decreased relative to pre-burn (1996) conditions. This pattern was reversed during the second breeding season post-burn. No obvious patterns of change in avian abundance were detected in unburned control marshes over the 3-year period. Qualitative changes in breeding bird community composition were related to effects of winter burning on percent cover of dead vegetation and Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.

  3. Salt marsh as Culex salinarius larval habitat in coastal New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Campbell, Scott R; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2008-09-01

    Culex salinarius is considered one of the most likely bridge vectors involved in the human transmission cycle of West Nile virus (WNV) and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in the northeastern USA. The larval habitats of this species in the coastal region of New York State are currently poorly known. Between 2005 and 2007, a larval survey was carried out to identify and characterize possible larval habitats in Suffolk County, encompassing natural and man-made freshwater wetlands, artificial containers, and salt marshes. Only relatively undisturbed salt marsh yielded Cx. salinarius larvae in considerable numbers from several sites over a period of 2 years. The immature stages of this species were found associated with Spartina patens and S. alterniflora of the upper marsh at salinities ranging from 4.3 to 18.8 parts per thousand. Both heavily impacted and relatively undisturbed salt marshes produced several hundreds of adult Cx. salinarius per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap per night, an order of magnitude higher than CDC light traps deployed at upland sites. The ability of Cx. salinarius to use both heavily impacted and relatively undisturbed salt marshes for reproduction has significant repercussions for marsh restoration and vector control practices.

  4. Full-waveform and discrete-return lidar in salt marsh environments: An assessment of biophysical parameters, vertical uncertatinty, and nonparametric dem correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey N.

    High-resolution and high-accuracy elevation data sets of coastal salt marsh environments are necessary to support restoration and other management initiatives, such as adaptation to sea level rise. Lidar (light detection and ranging) data may serve this need by enabling efficient acquisition of detailed elevation data from an airborne platform. However, previous research has revealed that lidar data tend to have lower vertical accuracy (i.e., greater uncertainty) in salt marshes than in other environments. The increase in vertical uncertainty in lidar data of salt marshes can be attributed primarily to low, dense-growing salt marsh vegetation. Unfortunately, this increased vertical uncertainty often renders lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEM) ineffective for analysis of topographic features controlling tidal inundation frequency and ecology. This study aims to address these challenges by providing a detailed assessment of the factors influencing lidar-derived elevation uncertainty in marshes. The information gained from this assessment is then used to: 1) test the ability to predict marsh vegetation biophysical parameters from lidar-derived metrics, and 2) develop a method for improving salt marsh DEM accuracy. Discrete-return and full-waveform lidar, along with RTK GNSS (Real-time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System) reference data, were acquired for four salt marsh systems characterized by four major taxa (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata, and Salicornia spp.) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. These data were used to: 1) develop an innovative combination of full-waveform lidar and field methods to assess the vertical distribution of aboveground biomass as well as its light blocking properties; 2) investigate lidar elevation bias and standard deviation using varying interpolation and filtering methods; 3) evaluate the effects of seasonality (temporal differences between peak growth and senescent conditions) using lidar data

  5. Microtubule-associated protein65 is essential for maintenance of Phragmoplast bipolarity and formation of the cell plate in Physcomitrella patens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosetsu, K.; Keijzer, de J.; Janson, M.E.; Goshima, G.

    2013-01-01

    The phragmoplast, a plant-specific apparatus that mediates cytokinesis, mainly consists of microtubules (MTs) arranged in a bipolar fashion, such that their plus ends interdigitate at the equator. Membrane vesicles are thought to move along the MTs toward the equator and fuse to form the cell plate.

  6. Metabolic Engineering of the Moss Physcomitrella patens as a Green Cell Factory to Produce Terpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Xin

    ) from Nicotiana tabacum and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) from Lactuca sativa, were also tested, but they showed no catalytic activity towards β-santalene based on the preliminary HS-SPME-GCMS analysis and further investigations such as liquid extraction by ethyl acetate are needed to draw a solid...

  7. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N 2O, CH 4 and respiratory CO 2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO 3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m -2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N 2O and CH 4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N 2O in July 2009 averaged -33 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N 2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N 2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N 2O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N 2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N 2O and CH 4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  8. Long-Term Spartina alterniflora biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry and marsh elevation in North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC: 1984-2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The salt marsh in the North Inlet estuary was sampled approximately monthly for estimates of biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry, and salt marsh elevation....

  9. Responses to salinity in invasive cordgrass hybrids and their parental species (Spartina) in a scenario of sea level rise and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Salinity is one of the main abiotic factors in salt marshes. Studies rooted to analyzed salinity tolerance of halophytes may help to relate their physiological tolerances with distribution limits in the field. Climate change-induced sea level rise and higher temperatures...

  10. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  11. Effects of Disturbance Associated With Seismic Exploration for Oil and Gas Reserves in Coastal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  12. Facilitative and competitive interaction components among New England salt marsh plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Rand, Tatyana A; Emery, Nancy C; Bertness, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific interactions can be broken down into facilitative and competitive components. The net interaction between two organisms is simply the sum of these counteracting elements. Disentangling the positive and negative components of species interactions is a critical step in advancing our understanding of how the interaction between organisms shift along physical and biotic gradients. We performed a manipulative field experiment to quantify the positive and negative components of the interactions between a perennial forb, Aster tenuifolius, and three dominant, matrix-forming grasses and rushes in a New England salt marsh. Specifically, we asked whether positive and negative interaction components: (1) are unique or redundant across three matrix-forming species (two grasses; Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens, and one rush; Juncus gerardi), and (2) change across Aster life stages (seedling, juvenile, and adult). For adult Aster the strength of the facilitative component of the matrix-forb interaction was stronger than the competitive component for two of the three matrix species, leading to net positive interactions. There was no statistically significant variation among matrix species in their net or component effects. We found little difference in the effects of J. gerardi on Aster at later life-history stages; interaction component strengths did not differ between juveniles and adults. However, mortality of seedlings in neighbor removal plots was 100%, indicating a particularly strong and critical facilitative effect of matrix species on this forb during the earliest life stages. Overall, our results indicate that matrix forming grasses and rushes have important, yet largely redundant, positive net effects on Aster performance across its life cycle. Studies that untangle various components of interactions and their contingencies are critical to both expanding our basic understanding of community organization, and predicting how natural

  13. Ecología y fisiología comparadas de Spartina maritima y Spartina densiflora en marismas mareales mediterráneas. Aplicaciones al control y la prevención de la erosión en las Marismas del Odiel

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Segura, Jesús Manuel

    2001-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha observado una fuerte erosión en las marismas situadas en el estuario de los ríos Odiel y Tinto (Huelva). Esta erosión es muy aparente, a simple vista, por la caída de grandes bloques de sedimento desde taludes verticales desarrollados a lo largo de los principales canales, dentro de la red de drenaje marismeña. Esta erosión está poniendo en peligro áreas de gran valor e cológico y socio-económico en estas marismas, como la Reserva Integral de la Isla de En medio. Par...

  14. AcEST: DK950376 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gase 2 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae Align length 137 Score (bit) 124.0 E-value 5.0e-27 Report ... ligase 1 OS=Populus jacki... 110 8e-23 >tr|B7SBA8|B7SBA8_PHYPA 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 2 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magda...OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4CL1 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 585 Score =

  15. AcEST: DK954758 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BA8_PHYPA 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 2 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae Align length 148 Score ...te:coenzyme A ligase 2 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4CL2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 583 Score = 142...1 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4CL1 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 585 Score = 135 bits (340), Expect =

  16. High tides and rising seas: potential effects on estuarine waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Greenberg, Russell; Maldonado, Jesus; Droege, Sam; McDonald, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    breeding range in the mid-Atlantic and their saltmarsh specialization. At a scale of 1?2 decades, vegetation changes (saltmeadow cordgrass [Spartina patens] and salt grass [Distichlis spicata] converting to smooth cordgrass [Spartina alternifl ora]), interior pond expansion and erosion of marshes will reduce nesting habitat for many of these species, but may enhance feeding habitat of migrant shorebirds and/or migrant or wintering waterfowl. At scales of 50?100 yr, reversion of marsh island complexes to open water may enhance populations of open-bay waterfowl, e.g., Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) and Canvasback (Aythya valisneria), but reduce nesting habitats dramatically for the above named marsh-nesting species, may reduce estuarine productivity by loss of the detrital food web and nursery habitat for fish and invertebrates, and cause redistribution of waterfowl, shorebirds, and other species. Such scenarios are more likely to occur in the mid- and north Atlantic regions since these estuaries are lower in sediment delivery on average than those in the Southeast. A simple hypothetical example from New Jersey is presented where waterbirds are forced to shift from submerged natural marshes to nearby impoundments, resulting in roughly a 10-fold increase in density. Whether prey fauna are sufficiently abundant to support this level of increase remains an open question, but extreme densities in confined habitats would exacerbate competition, increase disease risk, and possibly increase predation.

  17. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (open water habitat vs. 11% of

  18. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  19. Comparison of wetland structural characteristics between created and natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K.R.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of dredge material is a well-known technique for creating or restoring salt marshes that is expected to become more common along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the future. However, the effectiveness of this restoration method is still questioned. Wetland structural characteristics were compared between four created and three natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA. The created marshes, formed by the pumping of dredge material into formerly open water areas, represent a chronosequence, ranging in age from 3 to 19 years. Vegetation and soil structural factors were compared to determine whether the created marshes become more similar over time to the natural salt marshes. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1997, 2000, and 2002 using the line-intercept technique. Site elevations were measured in 2000. Organic matter (OM) was measured in 1996 and 2002, while bulk density and soil particle-size distribution were determined in 2002 only. The natural marshes were dominated by Spartina alterniflora, as were the oldest created marshes; these marshes had the lowest mean site elevations ( 35 cm NGVD) and became dominated by high marsh (S. patens, Distichlis spicata) and shrub (Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens) species. The higher elevation marsh seems to be following a different plant successional trajectory than the other marshes, indicating a relationship between marsh elevation and species composition. The soils in both the created and natural marshes contain high levels of clays (30-65 %), with sand comprising < 1 % of the soil distribution. OM was significantly greater and bulk density significantly lower in two of the natural marshes when compared to the created marshes. The oldest created marsh had significantly greater OM than the younger created marshes, but it may still take several decades before equivalency is reached with the natural marshes. Vegetation structural characteristics in the created marshes take only a few years to become similar

  20. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range/Heterogeneidade da composição elementar e abundância natural de isótopos estáveis de C e N no solo e folhas dos manguezais no extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa Atlântica ocidental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M M P Tognella; M L G Soares; E Cuevas; E Medina

    2016-01-01

    .... Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora...

  1. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tognella, M. M. P; Soares, M. L. G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E

    2016-01-01

    .... Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora...

  2. AcEST: DK950383 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lla paten... 52 2e-05 tr|A9NNE4|A9NNE4_PICSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=...Picea... 51 5e-05 tr|A9TMJ3|A9TMJ3_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 50 9e-05 tr|Q0DX03|Q0D

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFN848 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s cylindrus cDNA clone Antarctic 5', mRNA sequence. 113 3e-38 3 AX537016 |AX537016.1 Sequence 617 from Paten...e-66 7 CF245450 |CF245450.1 Fcylcold195 Fragilariopsis cylindrus SMART cDNA library (Clontech) Fragilariopsi

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFJ339 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2.1 Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 593 e-165 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Game...ence. 70 5e-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA seq

  5. AcEST: DK959679 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4CL2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 583 Score = 131 bits (330), Expect = 3... 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 4 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4C

  6. AcEST: DK951569 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YGMTEAGPVLA 334 >tr|B7SBA9|B7SBA9_PHYPA 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 3 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magda... 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 2 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4CL2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 583 S

  7. A neighboring plant species creates associational refuge for consumer and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A Randall

    2012-06-01

    Examples of plant-animal and plant-plant associational defenses are common across a variety of systems, yet the potential for them to occur in concert has not been explored. In salt marshes in the Gulf of Mexico, the marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) is an abundant and conspicuous member of the community, climbing up the stems of marsh plants to remain out of the water at high tide. Though Littoraria are thought to primarily utilize stems of marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora as a source of food and refuge, Littoraria were more abundant in mixed assemblages of Spartina and Juncus roemerianus than in Spartina-only areas at the same tidal height. Mesocosm experiments confirmed that Juncus provided a refuge for Littoraria, with predation by Callinectes sapidus (but not Melongena corona) reduced when Juncus was present. However, Littoraria's utilization of Juncus as well as the effectiveness of Juncus as a refuge depended strongly on plant height: when Juncus was experimentally clipped to a shorter height than Spartina, snail abundance on Spartina and snail predation by crabs increased. Interestingly, this plant animal refuge led to a corresponding refuge for Spartina from Littoraria: Spartina plants lost less biomass to snail grazing when growing with Juncus in mesocosm and field experiments, and Spartina plants in natural assemblages were taller when growing with Juncus than when growing alone, even in the presence of abundant snails. This example highlights the potential importance of plant plant and plant-animal associational refuges in competitive plant assemblages.

  8. Organic carbon isotope systematics of coastal marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Lubberts, R.K.; Van de Plassche, O.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of nitrogen, organic carbon and delta(13)C are presented for Spartina-dominated marsh sediments from a mineral marsh in SW Netherlands and from a peaty marsh in Massachusetts, U.S.A. delta(13)C Of organic carbon in the peaty marsh sediments is similar to that of Spartina material,

  9. Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations of structure (cover type) and location (distance from shore) as: Spartina edge (<1m from shore), Spartina 3 m from...

  10. Contrasting effects of spatial heterogeneity and environmental stochasticity on population dynamics of a perennial wildflower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crone, Elizabeth E; Griffith, Alden

    2016-01-01

    ... (spatial heterogeneity) are less clearly defined. I evaluated the effects of spatial and temporal variation on the population dynamics of Pulsatilla patens , pasqueflower, a perennial prairie forb. I conducted a 10...

  11. Genetic transformation of moss plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akpobome uruemuesiri

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living ... processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple ..... indole-3-acetic acid in gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 638155 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Physcomitrella patens LANLSYLKKLDLRYCSSSISLPNELKNLSSLTILDLSGCSSLKSLPNELINLSSLEELDLNGYSSLTCLPNELVNLFSLTRLNLRGCSSLTSLSNELAN...SLPNELAKLSSLTSLDLSDCSSLTSLPNELVNLSFLTRLHLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLSSLTILDLSGCSSLTSLPNELANLFF ...04260:603 ... 3214:603 ... 114656:603 ... 3215:603 3216:603 ... 3217:603 ... 3218:603 ... predicted protein, partia

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 789400 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 04260:276 ... 3214:276 ... 114656:276 ... 3215:276 3216:276 ... 3217:276 ... 3218:276 ... predicted protein, partial Physcomitrella patens VIFLGHVVSFEDMCIDEDKVKAIEDWPTLADASEVCSFLGLLRYYYHFV

  14. (FIE) gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    week old seedlings. ... long day conditions (16/8 h light/dark cycle). Cloning of GmFIE. Arabidopsis FIE (Genbank ... Arabidopsis, potato, rice, Physcomitrella patens and Micromonas pusilla. RNA extraction, first-strand cDNA ...

  15. Archboldia, a new Verbenaceous genus from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Archboldia, nov. gen. — Frutices; folia opposita; inflorescentiae terminales, paniculato-corymbosae, e cymis compositae; calyx plus minusve patens, infundibuliformis, 5-lobatus; corolla exserta, ventricoso-cylindrica, utrinque glabra, aetinomorpha, breviter 5-lobata; stamina 4 alternipetalia,

  16. Plasma Membrane Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Calcium Channels Control Land Plant Thermal Sensing and Acquired Thermotolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrija Finka; America Farinia Henriquez Cuendet; Frans J.M. Maathuis; Younousse Saidi; Pierre Goloubinoff

    2012-01-01

    .... Here, we found that the cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel (CNGC) CNGCb gene from Physcomitrella patens and its Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog CNGC2, encode a component of cyclic nucleotide gated Ca²...

  17. AcEST: DK956160 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available astX Result : TrEMBL tr_hit_id A9TMJ1 Definition tr|A9TMJ1|A9TMJ1_PHYPA Gamma tub...done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A9TMJ1|A9TMJ...simulans GN=GD21771... 295 1e-78 >tr|A9TMJ1|A9TMJ1_PHYPA Gamma tubulin OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. paten

  18. AcEST: DK961319 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 52 3e-05 tr|A9NNE4|A9NNE4_PICSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 51 7e-05 tr|A9TMJ...3|A9TMJ3_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 50 1e-04 tr|Q0DX03|Q0DX03_O

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHG368 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available J171852.1 Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Game...06O01.1 PROTEIN. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 70 5e-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Libra

  20. Palm Beach County FL 2007 Seagrass GIS Maps and Trends Analysis (NODC Accession 0061752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of Palm Beach County seagrasses, mangrove habitat, oyster reef, and spartina. The mapped area is the Lake Worth Lagoon...

  1. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  2. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  3. Large-scale 3-D experiments of wave and current interaction with real vegetation. Part 2: Experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J.L.; Losada, I.J.; Ondiviela, B.; Trinogga, J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the influence of different flow and vegetation parameters on the wave attenuation providedby two contrasting salt marsh species: Puccinellia maritima and Spartina anglica. Differentwater depths and waveparameters (height and period) are considered for both regular and irregular

  4. Oyster Reef Projects 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We used a quantitative sampling device to compare nekton use among high-relief live oyster reef, vegetated marsh edge Spartina alterniflora, and nonvegetated bottom...

  5. Quickly-released peroxidase of moss in defense against fungal invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Mikko T; Akita, Motomu; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Ahola-Iivarinen, Elina; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Somervuo, Panu; Thelander, Mattias; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Mosses (Bryophyta) are nonvascular plants that constitute a large part of the photosynthesizing biomass and carbon storage on Earth. Little is known about how this important portion of flora maintains its health status. This study assessed whether the moss, Physcomitrella patens, responds to treatment with chitosan, a fungal cell wall-derived compound inducing defense against fungal pathogens in vascular plants. Application of chitosan to liquid culture of P. patens caused a rapid increase in peroxidase activity in the medium. For identification of the peroxidase(s), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)/MS, other methods and the whole-genome sequence of P. patens were utilized. Peroxidase gene knock-out mutants were made and inoculated with fungi. The peroxidase activity resulted from a single secreted class III peroxidase (Prx34) which belonged to a P. patens specific phylogenetic cluster in analysis of the 45 putative class III peroxidases of P. patens and those of Arabidopsis and rice. Saprophytic and pathogenic fungi isolated from another moss killed the Prx34 knockout mutants but did not damage wild-type P. patens. The data point out the first specific host factor that is pivotal for pathogen defense in a nonvascular plant. Furthermore, results provide conclusive evidence that class III peroxidases in plants are needed in defense against hostile invasion by fungi.

  6. Mangrove expansion into salt marshes alters associated faunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Delbert L.; Sanchez, James A.; Diskin, Meredith; Trettin, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is altering the distribution of foundation species, with potential effects on organisms that inhabit these environments and changes to valuable ecosystem functions. In the Gulf of Mexico, black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) are expanding northward into salt marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora (hereafter Spartina). Salt marshes are essential habitats for many organisms, including ecologically and economically important species such as blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Penaeid shrimp (e.g., Penaeus aztecus), which may be affected by vegetation changes. Black mangroves occupied higher tidal elevations than Spartina, and Spartina was present only at its lowest tidal elevations in sites when mangroves were established. We compared nekton and infaunal communities within monoculture stands of Spartina that were bordered by mangroves to nearby areas where mangroves had not yet become established. Nekton and infaunal communities were significantly different in Spartina stands bordered by mangroves, even though salinity and temperature were not different. Overall abundance and biomass of nekton and infauna was significantly higher in marshes without mangroves, although crabs and fish were more abundant in mangrove areas. Black mangrove expansion as well as other ongoing vegetation shifts will continue in a warming climate. Understanding how these changes affect associated species is necessary for management, mitigation, and conservation.

  7. A robust noise reduction technique for time resolved CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Williamson, Eric E; Kotsenas, Amy L; DeLone, David R; Manduca, Armando; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-01-01

    To develop a noise reduction method for time resolved CT data, especially those with significant patient motion. PArtial TEmporal Nonlocal (PATEN) means is a technique that uses the redundant information in time-resolved CT data to achieve noise reduction. In this method, partial temporal profiles are used to determine the similarity (or weight) between pixels, and the similarity search makes use of both spatial and temporal information, providing robustness to patient motion. The performance of the PATEN filter was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated with nine cardiac CT patient data sets and five CT brain perfusion patient data sets. In cardiac CT, PATEN was applied to reduce noise primarily in the reduced-dose phases created with electrocardiographic (ECG) pulsing. CT number accuracy and noise reduction were evaluated in both full-dose phases and reduced-dose phases between filtered backprojection images and PATEN filtered images. In CT brain perfusion, simulated quarter dose data were obtained by adding noise to the raw data of a routine dose scan. PATEN was applied to the simulated low-dose images. Image noise, time-intensity profile accuracy, and perfusion parameter maps were compared among low-dose, low-dose+PATEN filter, and full-dose images. The noise reduction performance of PATEN was compared to a previously proposed noise reduction method, time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filtering. In 4D cardiac CT, after PATEN filtering, the image noise in the reduced-dose phases was greatly reduced, making anatomical structures easier to identify. The mean decreases in noise values between the original and PATEN images were 11.0% and 53.8% for the full and reduced-dose phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively. TIPS could not achieve effective noise reduction. In CT brain perfusion, PATEN achieved a 55.8%-66.3% decrease in image noise in the low-dose images. The contrast to noise ratio in the axial images was increased and was comparable to

  8. Effects of prescribed burning on marsh-elevation change and the risk of wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Grace, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Marsh-elevation change is the net effect of biophysical processes controlling inputs versus losses of soil volume. In many marshes, accumulation of organic matter is an important contributor to soil volume and vertical land building. In this study, we examined how prescribed burning, a common marsh-management practice, may affect elevation dynamics in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, Texas by altering organic-matter accumulation. Experimental plots were established in a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens, a grass found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic marshes. Experimental plots were subjected to burning and nutrient-addition treatments and monitored for 3.5 years (April 2005 – November 2008). Half of the plots were burned once in 2006; half of the plots were fertilized seasonally with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Before and after the burns, seasonal measurements were made of soil physicochemistry, vegetation structure, standing and fallen plant biomass, aboveground and belowground production, decomposition, and accretion and elevation change (measured with Surface Elevation Tables (SET)). Movements in different soil strata (surface, root zone, subroot zone) were evaluated to identify which processes were contributing to elevation change. Because several hurricanes occurred during the study period, we also assessed how these storms affected elevation change rates. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1. The main drivers of elevation change were accretion on the marsh surface and subsurface movement below the root zone, but the relative influence of these processes varied temporally. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike (September 2008), the main driver was subsurface movement; after the hurricane, both accretion and subsurface movement were important. 2. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike, rates of elevation gain and accretion above a marker horizon were higher in burned plots compared to nonburned plots, whereas

  9. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  10. STEM CELL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ITS PROTECTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Suryo Utomo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the possibility of patenting stem cells under the Indonesian patent law by focusing on two essential issues: (a what approaches should be chosen by the Indonesian government to protect stem cell research under the Indonesian Patent Act and non-patent regulations? and (b what types of stem cells can be protected under the Indonesian Patent Act? In order to provide comparative perspectives, this paper discusses the experience and policies of the US, German and South Korean governments in protecting stem cell research under their patent acts. Penelitian ini mendiskusikan kemungkinan mematenkan sel punca dalam hukum paten di Indonesia dengan memfokuskan pada dua isu pokok: (a Pendekatan apa yang sebaiknya dipilih oleh pemerintahan Indonesia untuk melindungi penelitian sel punca dalam hukum paten Indonesia dan peraturan non paten? (b Tipe sel punca apa yang dapat dilindungi dalam hukum paten Indonesia? Untuk mencakupi pendekatan melalui perbandingan dengan luar negeri, penelitian ini membahas pengalaman dan kebijakan di pemerintahan AS, Jerman, dan Korea Selatan dalam melindungi penelitan sel punca dalam hukum paten masing-masing negara.

  11. Ein unbekanntes Meisterwerk altdeutscher Glaskunst: Hans Wertingers gläserne Hostienschale von 1498

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreny, Fritz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This hitherto unknown glass paten with églomisé painting, dated 1498 and measuring 36 cm in diameter, depicts the meeting of Abraham and Melchisedek. The painting can be attributed to Hans Wertinger, an artist from Landshut, who is well known for his paintings and stained glass. The recently discovered paten is executed in a refined églomisé technique with painting, scratching-out and with underlayers of gold and silver leaf, making it one of the earliest and finest examples of this technique, not only for Bavarian early Renaissance art but worldwide. The paten thus sheds fresh light on Wertinger as it shows him as an highly trained artist who worked also with bravura in the art of verre églomisé.

  12. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens .

  13. Interactive effects of vegetation and sediment properties on erosion of salt marshes in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, V B; Bouma, T J; van Belzen, J; Van Colen, C; Airoldi, L

    2017-10-01

    We investigated how lateral erosion control, measured by novel photogrammetry techniques, is modified by the presence of Spartina spp. vegetation, sediment grain size, and the nutrient status of salt marshes across 230 km of the Italian Northern Adriatic coastline. Spartina spp. vegetation reduced erosion across our study sites. The effect was more pronounced in sandy soils, where erosion was reduced by 80% compared to 17% in silty soils. Erosion resistance was also enhanced by Spartina spp. root biomass. In the absence of vegetation, erosion resistance was enhanced by silt content, with mean erosion 72% lower in silty vs. sandy soils. We found no relevant relationships with nutrient status, likely due to overall high nutrient concentrations and low C:N ratios across all sites. Our results contribute to quantifying coastal protection ecosystem services provided by salt marshes in both sandy and silty sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Karşıyaka Prevalance and Awareness of Hypertension Study (KARHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Pekel

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension prevalances in our study were similar to the PatenT 2 trial prevalances, which were 46 % for the middle age group and 78% for the geriatric age group. Compared to PatenT 2 data, the rate of hypertension awareness (54.7% vs 72.3% and the rate of being under treatment (47.5% vs 69.4% were higher. The rate of controlled hypertension was a little bit higher (28.7 % vs 34.7% in our group, whereas control rates in aware and treated groups were similar (53.9 % and 50.1 % in both studies.

  15. Reply to Comment by Xu et al. on "Sr-Nd isotope composition and clay mineral assemblages in eolian dust from the central Philippine Sea over the last 600 kyr: Implications for the transport mechanism of Asian dust" by Seo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Inah; Lee, Yong Il; Yoo, Chan Min; Kim, Hyung Jeek; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2016-12-01

    Against Xu et al. (2016), who argued that East Asian Desert (EAD) dust that traveled on East Asian Winter Monsoon winds dominates over Central Asian Desert (CAD) dust in the Philippine Sea with presentation of additional data, we reconfirm Seo et al.'s (2014) conclusion that CAD dust carried on the Prevailing Westerlies and Trade Winds dominates over EAD dust in overall dust budget of the central Philippine Sea. The relative contribution of dust from EADs and CADs using clay mineral composition should be evaluated with elimination of mineralogical contribution from the volcanic end-member which is enriched in kaolinite and overestimate the contribution of EAD dust.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11922-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t US 6933145. 42 0.082 5 ( DJ358587 ) METHODS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEN... 36 0.084 4 ( DJ35...8563 ) METHODS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEN... 36 0.084 4 ( CS114306 ) Sequence 1064 from Paten

  17. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Azochil, Axochitl, Ahuejotes, Flor de agua, Palo de agua. 12 Hamelia patens Jacq. Rubiaceae. Coral, Trompetilla, Jicarillo. 13 Swietenia humilis Zucc. Meliaceae. Zopilote, Cóbano, Palo de zopilote. 14 Stemmadenia bella Miers. Apocynaceae. 15 Rupechtia fusca. Polygonaceae. Guayabillo, Azulillo.

  18. Karyotype studies in some species of the family annonaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of various accessions of Annona muricata, Greenwayodendron suaveolens and Cleistopholis patens were collected from the wet forest, dry forest and derived savanna areas of Nigeria to determine their karyotype. Each of the species has a chromosome number of n = 7 (2n = 14). A pair of satellited chromosomes ...

  19. Page 1 Ife.Journal of Sciencevol. 9, no.2(2007) 161 KARYOTYPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were collected from the wet forest, dry forest and derived savanna areas of Nigeria to determine their karyotype. Each of the species has a chromosome number of n = 7 (2n = 14). A pair of satellited chromosomes was observed in the genome of Greenwayodendron suaveolens and Cleistopholis patens. The centromeric ...

  20. AcEST: DK959273 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 99 3e-19 tr|A9TMJ2|A9TMJ2_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella ...FMRPNS 119 Query: 632 GILTPGETVLLNIVKFIEP 688 G+L P E+++ +VK+IEP Sbjct: 120 GVLAPNESIIATVVKYIEP 138 >tr|A9TMJ2|A9TMJ

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLA567 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone DKEY-200G10 in ... 46 0.11 3 ( BD460300 ) Diagnosis of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle. 46 0.24 1 ...( BD452222 ) Diagnosis of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle. 46 0.24 1 ( AX348621 ) Sequence 79 from Paten

  2. AcEST: DK956477 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 98 3e-19 tr|Q01BA1|Q01BA1_OSTTA Cytoskeleton...ELSSRMPESTRPLLRHIEALQESMTMRTEAWNGVERSLD 60 Query: 581 ARLQ 592 +RLQ Sbjct: 61 SRLQ 64 >tr|Q01BA1|Q01BA1_OSTTA Cytoskeleton

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15589-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 105 3e-27 2 ( AA550189 ) 1305m3 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falc... 70 3e-27 3 ( ES492294 ) BIG_AF_109 Brine...CBAX Physcomitrella patens subsp. pa... 58 1e-26 5 ( ES492327 ) BIG_AF_142 Brine Shrimp diapaused embryos (c

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14470-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one) Synthetic construct gene for Raich... 199 2e-49 GN080137_1( GN080137 |pid:none) Sequence 740 from Paten...7 |pid:none) Synthetic construct gene for Raich... 194 3e-48 BT045529_1( BT045529 |pid:none) Salmo salar clo

  5. Evaluation of the anti-candidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical Microbiology Unit of Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences ... albicans. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the anti-candidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Cleistopholis patens ... method. The killing rate studies of the plant extract and Nystatin® were also determined.

  6. AcEST: BP915694 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in OS=Physcomitrella paten... 139 8e-32 tr|B2ZHM6|B2ZHM6_PINBU Dehydroascorbate reductase OS=Pinus bunge... ...16 >tr|B2ZHM6|B2ZHM6_PINBU Dehydroascorbate reductase OS=Pinus bungeana PE=2 SV=1 Length = 215 Score = 138 b

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFI675 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 591 e-165 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Game... mRNA sequence. 62 1e-05 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFI417 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tens subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametop...08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFL429 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ens subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametoph... sequence. 70 5e-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRN

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFN505 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 593 e-165 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyt...equence. 70 5e-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFH828 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Game...ila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehy

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFH766 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available atens subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gameto...-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula rurali

  13. Dicty_cDB: AFL265 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available atens subsp. patens cDNA clone:pph30f12, 3' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Game...NA sequence. 70 6e-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, m

  14. AcEST: BP914528 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A2BFT9|A2BFT9_DANRE Novel protein similar to vertebrate sorti... 34 4.9 tr|Q1RPS7|Q1RPS7_PHYPA Impaired sucr...LQDQSINRHLVY 875 >tr|Q1RPS7|Q1RPS7_PHYPA Impaired sucrose induction 1-like protein OS=Physcomitrella patens

  15. How Search in Science Impacts on the Value of Inventions at Early and Late Stages in the R&D cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    . The patents filed on these inventions offer, through their citations to prior art, a fine-grained view of the role of science along the R&D cycle. Applying a unique text-mining algorithm we categorize a set of 1,058 patens from Scandinavian drug discovery firms into six types of drug-related inventions. Tests...

  16. AcEST: DK950086 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 96 2e-18 tr|Q13X91|Q13X91_BURXL Putative unchar...KLELLSPVVIDGEDEIRNQRVL 532 F LP+ +HS+WYI+PKLE LSPVVI D R VL Sbjct: 752 FADLPLHKHSKWYIIPKLEWLSPVVIPRSDAARCAHVL 789 >tr|Q13X91|Q13X

  17. AcEST: DK952737 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available trella paten... 269 1e-70 tr|Q38HU4|Q38HU4_SOLTU Thaliana 60S ribosomal protein L7 (At2g44... 268 2e-70 tr|A...5 YVTYGYPNLKTVRELIYKRGYGKLNKSRTALTDNSIIEEALGKYGIICIEDLIHEIYTVG 194 >tr|Q38HU4|Q38HU4_SOLTU Thaliana 60S ribo

  18. AcEST: DK949874 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |A9TJB0_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 335 1e-90 tr|Q38HU4|Q38HU4_SOLTU Thaliana 60S rib...NH++E GDA Sbjct: 195 PHFKEANNFLWPFKLSAPLGGLTKKRNHYVEHGDA 229 >tr|Q38HU4|Q38HU4_SOLTU Thaliana 60S ribosomal

  19. AcEST: DK949832 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available itrella paten... 330 7e-89 tr|Q38HU4|Q38HU4_SOLTU Thaliana 60S ribosomal protein ...ANNFLWPFKLSAPLGGLTKKRNHYVE 225 >tr|Q38HU4|Q38HU4_SOLTU Thaliana 60S ribosomal protein L7 (At2g44120) OS=Sola

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12490-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntification, isolation and produc... 42 3.6 2 ( CS711013 ) Sequence 3553 from Paten... Genes in Prokaryotes. 42 3.6 2 ( DD121120 ) STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS. 42 3.6 2 ( DD088845 ) A method for ide

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHR512 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-30 AF016833_1( AF016833 |pid:none) Homo sapiens maltase-glucoamylase ... 131 4e-29 AB057452_1( AB057452...subsp. paten... 129 2e-28 ( O43451 ) RecName: Full=Maltase-glucoamylase, intestinal; Include... 129 2e-28

  2. Modeling the Impact of Spatial Structure on Growth Dynamics of Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James T.; Johnson, Mark P.; Walshe, Ray

    2013-07-01

    Invasive nonindigenous plant species can have potentially serious detrimental effects on local ecosystems and, as a result, costly control efforts often have to be put in place to protect habitats. An example of an invasive problem on a global scale involves the salt marsh grass species from the genus Spartina. The spread of Spartina anglica in Europe and Asia has drawn much concern due to its ability to convert coastal habitats into cord-grass monocultures and to alter the native food webs. However, the patterns of invasion of Spartina species are amenable to spatially-explicit modeling strategies that take into account both temporal and spatio-temporal processes. In this study, an agent-based model of Spartina growth on a simulated mud flat environment was developed in order to study the effects of spatial pattern and initial seedling placement on the invasion dynamics of the population. The spatial pattern of an invasion plays a key role in the rate of spread of the species and understanding this can lead to significant cost savings when designing efficient control strategies. We present here a model framework that can be used to explicitly represent complex spatial and temporal patterns of invasion in order to be able to predict quantitatively the impact of these factors on invasion dynamics. This would be a useful tool for assessing eradication strategies and choosing optimal control solutions in order to be able to minimize future control costs.

  3. Marsh soil responses to tidal water nitrogen additions contribute to creek bank fracturing and slumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale dissolved nutrient enrichment can cause a reduction in belowground biomass, increased water content of soils, and increased microbial decomposition, which has been linked with slumping of low marsh Spartina vegetation into creeks, and ultimately marsh loss. Our study ...

  4. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Habitat Development at Upland and Wetland Dredged Material Disposal Sites 1974-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    callicarpa English plantain Plantago lanceolata European beachgrass Aivophila arenaria Evening primrose Oenothera biennis Everlasting Gnaphaliuz sp...virginicus Seashore mallow Kosteletzkya virginica Seaside goldenrod Solidago seuipervirens Sea watch Angelica lucida Sedge Carex spp. Sensitive fern Onoclea...Sleepy catchfly Silone antirrhina Slender rush Juncus tonuis Slough grass Spartina pectinata Slough sedge Carex obnupta 5 Small white morning glory

  5. Crabs mediate interactions between native and invasive salt marsh plants: a mesocosm study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil disturbance has been widely recognized as an important factor influencing the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Although soil reworkers were shown to increase habitat complexity and raise the risk of plant invasion, their role in regulating the interactions between native and invasive species remains unclear. We proposed that crab activities, via improving soil nitrogen availability, may indirectly affect the interactions between invasive Spartina alterniflora and native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter in salt marsh ecosystems. We conducted a two-year mesocosm experiment consisting of five species combinations, i.e., monocultures of three species and pair-wise mixtures of invasive and native species, with crabs being either present or absent for each combination. We found that crabs could mitigate soil nitrogen depletion in the mesocosm over the two years. Plant performance of all species, at both the ramet-level (height and biomass per ramet and plot-level (density, total above- and belowground biomass, were promoted by crab activities. These plants responded to crab disturbance primarily by clonal propagation, as plot-level performance was more sensitive to crabs than ramet-level. Moreover, crab activities altered the competition between Spartina and native plants in favor of the former, since Spartina was more promoted than native plants by crab activities. Our results suggested that crab activities may increase the competition ability of Spartina over native Phragmites and Scirpus through alleviating soil nitrogen limitation.

  6. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, F.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Otero, X.L.; Buurman, P.

    2013-01-01

    To characterise soil humic acids (HAs) extracted from Spanish marshes formed under different vegetation types (Spartina maritima (GSp), Juncus maritimus (GJc), Phragmites australis (GPh), and Scirpus maritimus (VSc)), soil depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm), physiographic position (low and high

  7. LINKS BETWEEN MARSH, NONVEGETATED, AND SEAGRASS HABITATS IN A PRISTINE VIRGINIA SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: We describe habitat linkages in a narrow, contiguous marsh-nonvegetated seagrass system as is found bordering many undeveloped shorelines. Nekton were quantitatively sampled in eight spatial/tidal subhabitats on a Spartina-nonvegetated- Ruppia gradient using 1.75 m2 dro...

  8. Elders Point East Marsh Island Restoration Monitoring Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-21

    existing vegetated areas and the sheltered and exposed mudflats out to the 1974 footprint of marsh coverage (USACE-NYD 2007). The restoration of...11 2.2 Vegetation ...21 2.2.4 Height of Spartina alterniflora ..................................................................................... 22 2.2.5 Vegetation

  9. Intelligent Data Fusion for Wide-Area Assessment of UXO Contamination. SERDP Project MM-1510. 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Ustin, S.L.; Hastings, A.’ “Use of lidar to study changes associated with Spartina invasion in San Francisco Bay marshes,” Remote Sensing of...massive stony coral colonies on patch reefs in the northern Florida reef tract,” Remote Sensing of Environment 104(1), 31-42, (2006) 26. Rivas , M.B

  10. Relative importance of macrophyte leaves for nitrogen uptake from flood water in tidal salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Stapel, J.; Van der Heiden, J.; Koutstaal, B.P.; Van Soelen, J.; Van IJzerloo, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen limits plant growth in most salt marshes. As foliar N-uptake makes a significant contribution to the overall N-requirements of submerged plant species such as (e.g.) seagrasses, we tested if foliar N-uptake was also significant in Spartina anglica Hubbard, a species that dominates the

  11. Effects of cadmium stress on growth, metal accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study quantifying the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd bioaccumulation and organic acids of Spartina alterniflora was conducted. The experiment consisted of three levels of exogenous Cd2+ concentrations: 0, 50, and 200 mg/kg. Total Cd and water-soluble Cd were determined. Plant height, tiller number ...

  12. A case for re-inventory of Australia’s plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyde, K.D.; Chomnunti, P.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Damm, U.; Ko Ko, T.W.; Shivas, R.G.; Summerell, B.A.; Tan, Y.P.

    2010-01-01

    Several filamentous oomycete species of the genus Halophytophthora have recently been described from marine environments, mostly from subtropical and tropical ecosystems. During a survey of oomycetes from leaf litter of Spartina alterniflora in salt marshes of southeastern Georgia, isolates of four

  13. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  14. Caractérisation ornithologique des habitats naturels de la lagune de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Merja Zerga lagoon is significant as a stopover site for Trans-Sahara migrants, an over-wintering site for ducks and waders, as well as a breeding site nesting refuge for some rare species in Morocco. The lagoon contains a mosaic of habitats: sandbars, tidal mudflats, meadows with Spartina, meadows with Salicornia, ...

  15. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the impact of sudden stratosphere warming in the upper mesosphere-lower thermosphere regions using satellite and HF radar - [Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbatha, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available . The mean zonal wind (from SANAE HF radar) at the MLT shows reversal in approximately 7 days before the reversal at 10 hPa (from NCEP). This indicates that there was a downwards propagation of circulation disturbance. Westerly zonal winds dominate the winter...

  17. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  18. Water use characteristics of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) communities along an ecotone with marsh at a northern geographical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Hester, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are expanding into warm temperate-zone salt marsh communities in several locations globally. Although scientists have discovered that expansion might have modest effects on ecosystem functioning, water use characteristics have not been assessed relative to this transition. We measured early growing season sapflow (Js) and leaf transpiration (Tr) in Avicennia germinans at a latitudinal limit along the northern Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana, United States) under both flooded and drained states and used these data to scale vegetation water use responses in comparison with Spartina alterniflora. We discovered strong convergence when using either Js or Tr for determining individual tree water use, indicating tight connection between transpiration and xylem water movement in small Avicennia trees. When Tr data were combined with leaf area indices for the region with the use of three separate approaches, we determined that Avicennia stands use approximately 1·0–1·3 mm d–1 less water than Spartina marsh. Differences were only significant with the use of two of the three approaches, but are suggestive of net conservation of water as Avicennia expands into Spartina marshes at this location. Average Js for Avicennia trees was not influenced by flooding, but maximum Js was greater when sites were flooded. Avicennia and Spartina closest to open water (shoreline) used more water than interior locations of the same assemblages by an average of 1·3 mm d−1. Lower water use by Avicennia may indicate a greater overall resilience to drought relative to Spartina, such that aperiodic drought may interact with warmer winter temperatures to facilitate expansion of Avicennia in some years.

  19. AcEST: BP920320 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000135_F09 495 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000135_F09. BP920320 - Show BP920320...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000135_F09. Accession BP920320 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ort ATP-binding protein phnC 2 OS=Haloarcula marismortui Align length 42 Score (bit) 30.0 E-value 6.0 Report... of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920320...Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens Align length 31 Score (bit) 43.1 E-value 0.007 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-20

  20. The decision to germinate is regulated by divergent molecular networks in spores and seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesty, Eleanor F.; Saidi, Younousse; Moody, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal is a key step in land plant life cycles, usually via formation of spores or seeds. Regulation of spore- or seed-germination allows control over the timing of transition from one generation to the next, enabling plant dispersal. A combination of environmental and genetic factors determines...... when seed germination occurs. Endogenous hormones mediate this decision in response to the environment. Less is known about how spore germination is controlled in earlier-evolving nonseed plants. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the environmental and hormonal regulation of spore germination...... in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Aphanoregma patens). Our data suggest that the environmental signals regulating germination are conserved, but also that downstream hormone integration pathways mediating these responses in seeds were acquired after the evolution of the bryophyte lineage. Moreover...

  1. AcEST: DK960820 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hole genome... 398 e-109 tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate pr... 398 e-109 tr|A5...PA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 396 e-109 tr|Q8GSN3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat sh...TFDVSLLT 217 >tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate prote...GSN2|Q8GSN2_CUCMA Cell-autonomous heat shock cognate protei... 392 e-107 tr|Q84QJ3|Q84QJ3_TOBAC Heat shock p...rella paten... 392 e-108 tr|Q9M4E6|Q9M4E6_CUCSA Heat shock protein 70 OS=Cucumis sativus ... 392 e-107 tr|Q8

  2. AcEST: DK959671 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available paten... 171 5e-41 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein OS=Brassica camp... 169 1e-40 tr|Q94KH9|...Q94KH9_AVIMR Aluminium induced protein OS=Avicennia ma... 169 1e-40 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced ...e-40 tr|A9TLC6|A9TLC6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 167 4e-40 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum...-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 167 7e-40 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum

  3. AcEST: DK957399 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 171 5e-41 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein...S=Avicennia ma... 169 1e-40 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 169 2e-40 tr...otein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 167 4e-40 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee...... 167 7e-40 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 163 8e-39 tr|Q2QXS4|Q2QXS4_

  4. AcEST: DK961426 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 55 3e-06 tr|A9NNE4|A9NNE4_PICSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 53 1e-05 tr|A9TMJ3|A9TMJ...+ K++ D S G+VCY+NE GE++CEG DEGPH Sbjct: 57 EAVKVYQDASRGIVCYRNEYGELICEGYDEGPH 89 >tr|A9TMJ3|A9TMJ3_PHYPA Pred

  5. Widespread impact of horizontal gene transfer on plant colonization of land

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    In complex multicellular eukaryotes such as animals and plants, horizontal gene transfer is commonly considered rare with very limited evolutionary significance. Here we show that horizontal gene transfer is a dynamic process occurring frequently in the early evolution of land plants. Our genome analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens identified 57 families of nuclear genes that were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses. Many of these gene families were transferred to the ancestors ...

  6. Horizontal gene transfer in the innovation and adaptation of land plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Huang, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been well documented in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, but its role in plants and animals remains elusive. In a recent study, we showed that at least 57 families of nuclear genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses and that HGT played a critical role in plant colonization of land. In this paper, we categorize all acquired genes based on their putative functions and biological processes, and further addr...

  7. AcEST: BP918937 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nase OS=Physcomitrella patens PE=... 141 2e-32 tr|A7PS81|A7PS81_VITVI Lipoxygenase OS=Vitis vinifera GN=GSVIVT0... 140 2e-32 tr|A7PS8...0|A7PS80_VITVI Lipoxygenase OS=Vitis vinifera GN=GSVIVT0... 140 4e-32 tr|Q43190|Q43

  8. Plant Cytokinesis: Terminology for Structures and Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smertenko, A.; Assaad, F.F.; Baluška, F.; Bezanilla, M.; Buschmann, B.; Drakakaki, G.; Hauser, M.T.; Janson, M.; Mineyuki, Y.; Moore, I.; Mueller, S.; Murata, T.; Otegui, M.S.; Panteris, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Schmit, A. C.; Šamaj, J.; Samuels, L.; Staehelin, L. A.; Van Damme, D.; Wasteneys, G.; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2017), s. 885-894 ISSN 0962-8924 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cell plate formation * microtubule-associated protein * dividing root-cells * preprophase-band formation * cortical division zone * trans-golgi network * physcomitrella-patens * arabidopsis-thaliana * somatic cytokinesis * tobacco by-2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 15.333, year: 2016

  9. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  10. Plant nuclear gene knockout reveals a role in plastid division for the homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ancestral tubulin

    OpenAIRE

    Strepp, René; Scholz, Sirkka; Kruse, Sven; Speth, Volker; Reski, Ralf

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the division of eukaryotic cell organelles and up to now neither in animals nor in plants has a gene product been shown to mediate this process. A cDNA encoding a homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ancestral tubulin, was isolated from the eukaryote Physcomitrella patens and used to disrupt efficiently the genomic locus in this terrestrial seedless plant. Seven out of 51 transgenics obtained were knockout plants generated by homologous recombination; ...

  11. AcEST: BP921152 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophan rich sensory protein 2 OS=Phys... 171 2e-41 tr|A9TYZ1|A9TYZ1_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella... paten... 169 7e-41 tr|A5X6F5|A5X6F5_PHYPA Tryptophan rich sensory protein 3 OS=Phys... 169 7e-41 tr|A6UHW7|

  12. Activation of shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins and auxin pathways in Pectobacterium carotovorum elicitors-treated moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso eAlvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed complex defense mechanisms to cope with microbial pathogens. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, leading to the activation of defense. While substantial progress has been made in understanding the activation of plant defense by PAMPs and DAMPs recognition in tracheophytes, far less information exists on related processes in early divergent plants like mosses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that were induced in P. patens in response to elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using a cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. A total of 239 unigenes were identified, including genes involved in defense responses related to the shikimate, phenylpropanoid and oxylipin pathways. The expression levels of selected genes related to these pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, confirming their rapid induction by P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. In addition, P. patens induced cell wall reinforcement after elicitor treatment by incorporation of phenolic compounds, callose deposition, and elevated expression of Dirigent-like encoding genes. Small molecule defense markers and phytohormones such as cinnamic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and auxin levels all increased in elicitor-treated moss tissues. In contrast, salicylic acid levels decreased while abscisic acid levels remained unchanged. P. patens reporter lines harboring an auxin-inducible promoter fused to β-glucuronidase revealed GUS activity in protonemal and gametophores tissues treated with elicitors of P.c. carotovorum, consistent with a localized activation of auxin signaling. These results indicate that P. patens activates the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins and auxin pathways upon treatment with P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors.

  13. AcEST: BP915874 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 154 2e-36 tr|A9RQK6|A9RQK6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 154 3e-36 tr|Q9ZNY4|Q9ZNY4_SOLTU Mitochondrial energy...A 90 Query: 180 YEACKRVL 157 Y+ K +L Sbjct: 91 YDTMKTIL 98 >tr|Q9ZNY4|Q9ZNY4_SOLTU Mitochondrial energy tran

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHH383 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3e-26 AF016833_1( AF016833 |pid:none) Homo sapiens maltase-glucoamylase ... 121 6e-26 ( Q43763 ) RecName:...subsp. paten... 120 1e-25 ( O43451 ) RecName: Full=Maltase-glucoamylase, intestinal; Include... 119 2e-25...musculus sucrase-isomaltase mR... 119 3e-25 L25926_1( L25926 |pid:none) Rat sucrase-isomaltase (SI) mRNA, comp

  15. [Treatment of marine-aquaculture effluent by the multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-jianz; Luo, An-cheng

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland to treat the wastewater of marine cultured Penaeus vannamei and to determine the suitable process for the local aquaculture wastewater pollution characteristics. In this study, MSL system and four constructed wetland systems with Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system were evaluated for their potentials of pollutants removal capacity. The results showed the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)+ -N) and nitrate (NO-(3) -N) by MSL system were 80. 38% ± 2. 14% , 68. 14% ± 3.51% , 40.79% ± 3. 10% , 42. 68% ± 2.90% and 54. 19% ± 5. 15% , respectively. Additionally, the ability of pollutants removal of other four wetland systems decreased in the order: Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system.

  16. Screening of the Salt Tolerant Plants for High Salinity Wastewater Treatment by the Artificial Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Ke-chun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanggu, as the core area in Binhai New Area, is currently one of the fastest developing areas in Tianjin City. Because of the saline alkali soil and other natural conditions, wastewater reuse is restricted by high salinity. The removal of high concentration chloride by Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa, Artemisia anethifolia Weber, Iris wilsonii, Salicornia europaea, and Spartina anglica in light polluted water was compared by the simulation experiment of artificial wetland. The plants with stronger removal ability were selected and the ecosystem condition with maximum removal rate was determined. The results showed that the removal effect of chloride by salt-tolerant plants in artificial wetland was: Phragmites australis>Suaeda salsa>Artemisia anethifolia>Iris wilsonii>Salicornia europaea>Spartina anglica. The removal efficiency reached balance after four days. This study provided a scientific basis for the high salinity wastewater treatment by artificial wetland.

  17. [Morphologic and AFLP analysis of relationships between tulip species Tulipa biebersteiniana (Liliaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlunina, N A; Polezhaeva, M A; Permiakova, M V

    2013-04-01

    In populations of four species of tulips, (Tulipa biebersteiniana, T. patens, T. scytica and T. riparia) from the Volgograd, Kurgansk, Orenburg, and Chelyabinsk regions and the Republic of Bashkortostan, genetic diversity was studied by means of morphological and AFLP analysis. A morphological analysis of seven quantitative and two qualitative criteria was carried out. Three selective EcoRI/MseI primer pairs allowed one to genotype 81 individuals from 13 tulip populations with 87 loci. The low level of variability by AFLP loci were revealed in all species, including T. biebersteiniana (P = 20.41%, UH(e) = 0.075), T. patens (26.97%, 0.082), T. scytica (27.53%, 0.086), and T. riparia (27.72%, 0.096). According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion that characterizes the differences between the four Tulip species was lower (F(CT) = 0.235) than between populations within species (F(ST) = 0.439). Tulipa patens is well differentiated by means of Nei's distances, coordination, and analysis in the STRUCTURE program. An analysis in the STRUCTURE revealed four genetic groups of tulips that are not completely in accordance with the analyzed species. This acknowledges the presence of complicated genetic process in the tulip population.

  18. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  19. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  20. Wetland Use by Waterbirds That Winter in Coastal Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges ( Carex spp. and Cyperus spp.), bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), and cordgrasses (Spartina spp.). Palustrine wetlands are the...bottom mud wetlands. Ruddy turnstones { Arenaria interpres) used 10 wetland types that represented 47.0% of the available wetland habitat. Density (F...Black turnstone ( Arenaria melanocephala) abundance in California was thought to be influenced by algae (Page et al. 1979). Dowitchers, red knots

  1. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass j S(tara virztdi Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail PII Spartina pectinata Prairie cord...Pentagenia 2BB Spr 8. 3Family Heptageniidae Genus Stenonema 1AA Spr 7. UAA Su 64. LBB Su 37. Family Potamanthidae Genus Potc?, anthus 2BB Spr 8. JAA Spr 9. 2AA

  2. Use of Vegetation in Delineating Wetland Borders in Upper Missouri River Basin; North-Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    The 7.5- to 8.0-m dichtomy marks the end of the distribution of Scirpus fluviatilis, Stachys palustris, Mentha .4 arvensis and ruderals growing on the...psris** Sparganium eurycarpurn *Lactuca serio* Spartina petlnta* Lemna sP- Stachys palusris Lycoptis americanus Typa ansustifolia Lycopus asper Urtica...Moilotuis app.(alba (L.) and officinalis (L.) Desr.) MRSP. 40 Kentha arvensis L. MEARV 60 Milrailis nytgie (Kichx.") MacK. MINYC 5 W wr3a cu ata CTorr

  3. Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

    2010-10-01

    Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (food source for bivalves.

  4. Linking Leaf Chlorophyll Fluorescence Properties to Physiological Responses for Stress Detection in Coastal Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed), Poaceae , is an invasive perennial grass that has formed numerous large colonies, fringing freshwater and...were obtained from a nursery using local seed stock. Seedlings were transplanted into 2-l plastic pots and acclimated for at least 4 weeks prior to...EP, Guntenspergen GR, Brown JJ, Nelson SG (2006) Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora ( Poaceae ) and the invasive M

  5. Report on Flood Control Alternatives, Crow River at Rockford, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    millefolium. FF,M A Nettle Urtica dioica H C Cord grass Spartina pectinata FF C RegasElymus canadensis M C Burdock Arctium. minus FH, EF C -Cocklebur...measure the effectiveness of the other alternative solutions. The alternative solutions investigated included the following: Nonstructural No action...the Prenaration of an appropriate floodplain zoning ordinance. This ordinance should be effective in meeting the oblective of reducing the potential

  6. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  7. Economical Treatment of Dredged Material to Facilitate Beneficial Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    and the smallest -400 mesh. Size fractions were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn. Samples were separated into 5 size fractions for...Sagittaria latifolia) • Prairie Cord Grass (Spartina pectinata) • Blue Flag Iris (Iris shrevei) • Monkey Flower (Mimulus ringens) • Common Rush (Juncus...structural fill. 2009 World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference, May 407, 2009, Lexington, KY. http://www.flyash.info BioGenesis Washing BGW, LLC, and MHW

  8. Land Building Models: Uncertainty in and Sensitivity to Input Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Science (69):370-380. Parker, G., C. Paola, K. X. Whipple, and D. Mohrig. 1998. Alluvial fans formed by channelized fluvial sheet flow. I: Theory...simulates the evolution of a prograding fan -shaped delta advancing into open water. This model is an extension of a tool developed for managing the...with depth in a pair of cores collected from a non-fresh Spartina alterniflora-dominated stable marsh site. The profile clearly reflects the dynamic

  9. Two-Dimensional Depth-Averaged Circulation Model CMS-M2D: Version 3.0, Report 2, Sediment Transport and Morphology Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...direction for unstratified atmospheric conditions. A general law for the vertical wind profile is given by (Charnock 1955; Hsu 1988): * 0 lnz W ZW Z...A. (1998). Hydrodynamics of wind-dominated, shallow embayments. Ph.D. dissertation, Division of Marine and Enviromental Systems, Florida

  10. [Analysis of typical mangrove spectral reflectance characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Liu, Qing; Li, De-Yi; Zhao, Dong-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Acquisition of mangrove spectrum properties and detecting the sensitive bands provide technology basis for inverse modeling and estimation by remote sensing for various indexes of mangrove. The typical mangroves of Guangxi Shankou Mangrove Reserve were taken for study objects, the standard spectrum curves of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Savigny, Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia candel, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Spartina anglica and mudflat were gained by denoising analysis of field-measured spectrum curves acquired by ASD FieldSpec 2. Analyzing the spectral characteristics and their differences, the authors found that the spectrum curves for various kinds of mangrove are coincident, the bands that appeared with reflection peaks and reflection valleys are basically identical, the within-class differentiated characteristics are comparatively small, the spectrum characteristics of mangroves are obviously different with Spartina anglica and mudflat. In order to gain the quantitative description for within-class differentiated characteristics of mangrove, space distance method, correlation coefficient method and spectral angle mapping method were used to calculate the within-class differentiated characteristics. The division accuracy of correlation coefficient method is higher than spectral angle mapping method which is higher than space distance method, and the result indicates that the spectrum differences of within-class mangrove and Spartina anglica are relatively small with correlation coefficients more than 0.995, and spectrum curve angle cosine values more than 0.95.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15302-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 99-D19_F. 50 0.22 1 ( DL083629 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications. 36 0....41 2 ( DL081580 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications. 36 0.44 2 ( AX417048 ) Sequence 4039 from Paten...AC113149 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 11 clone RP11-555O6 map 1... 38 0.50 2 ( DL084053 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications.... 36 0.58 2 ( DL082259 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications. 36 0.58 2 ( AX415491

  12. Ecological-photosynthetic system for the treatment of swine wastewater in farm; Proceso ecologico-fotosintetico para la depuracion de purines en grajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Alvarez Mateos, P.; Carta Escobar, F.; Romero guzman, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A. [Instituto de la Grasa. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The Ecological-Photosynthetic System (Paten n. 8901368, C.S.I.C.) is a low cost process of operational simplicity; his only energetic source is solar radiation. It is based on the ecological development of different communities of microorganisms in order to avoid negative interactions between them, immobilized on clayey support. The present work went in pursuit of the study of an integral biological plant in a piggery farm, from October of 1993 to June of 1995. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating waste water from small farms. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish

    2014-01-01

    , a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids; however, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification...... of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL‐motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here, we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin...

  14. Horizontal gene transfer in the innovation and adaptation of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Huang, Jinling

    2013-05-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been well documented in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, but its role in plants and animals remains elusive. In a recent study, we showed that at least 57 families of nuclear genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses and that HGT played a critical role in plant colonization of land. In this paper, we categorize all acquired genes based on their putative functions and biological processes, and further address the importance of HGT in plant innovation and evolution.

  15. Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with the Invasive Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Two Native Plants in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2017-01-01

    The potential role of soil fungi in the invasion of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius-BP) in Florida is not known; although the low biotic resistance of Florida soils is often invoked to explain the prevalence of many invasive species. To gain an initial insight into BP's mycorrhizal associations, this study examined the rhizobiome of BP and two native plants (Hamelia patens and Bidens alba) across six locations. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of the target plants and bulk soil was characterized by spore morphotyping. Sequence analysis of metagenomic DNA from lateral roots/rhizosphere of BP (n = 52) and a native shrub H. patens (n = 37) on the same parcel yielded other fungal associates. Overall, the total population of AMF associated with BP was about two folds greater than that of the two native plants (p = 0.0001) growing on the same site. The dominant AMF under Schinus were members of the common Glomus and Rhizophagus spp. By contrast, the most prevalent AMF in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of the two Florida native plants, Acaulospora spp (29%) was sharply diminished (9%) under BP rhizosphere. Analysis of the ITS2 sequences also showed that Schinus rhizosphere had a high relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (76.5%) compared to the native H. patens (2.6%), with the species Lactifluus hygrophoroides (Basidiomycota) being the most prevalent at 61.5% (p < 0.05). Unlike the native plants where pathogenic fungi like Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., and Neofusicoccum andium were present (8.1% for H. patens), only one potentially pathogenic fungal taxon was detected (3.9%) under BP. The striking disparity in the relative abundance of AMF and other fungal types between BP and the native species is quite significant. Fungal symbionts could aide plant invasion via resource-use efficiency and other poorly defined mechanisms of protection from pathogens in their invaded range. This report exposes a potentially significant

  16. Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with the Invasive Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius and Two Native Plants in South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwadiuto Esiobu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of soil fungi in the invasion of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius—BP in Florida is not known; although the low biotic resistance of Florida soils is often invoked to explain the prevalence of many invasive species. To gain an initial insight into BP's mycorrhizal associations, this study examined the rhizobiome of BP and two native plants (Hamelia patens and Bidens alba across six locations. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF associated with the roots of the target plants and bulk soil was characterized by spore morphotyping. Sequence analysis of metagenomic DNA from lateral roots/rhizosphere of BP (n = 52 and a native shrub H. patens (n = 37 on the same parcel yielded other fungal associates. Overall, the total population of AMF associated with BP was about two folds greater than that of the two native plants (p = 0.0001 growing on the same site. The dominant AMF under Schinus were members of the common Glomus and Rhizophagus spp. By contrast, the most prevalent AMF in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of the two Florida native plants, Acaulospora spp (29% was sharply diminished (9% under BP rhizosphere. Analysis of the ITS2 sequences also showed that Schinus rhizosphere had a high relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (76.5% compared to the native H. patens (2.6%, with the species Lactifluus hygrophoroides (Basidiomycota being the most prevalent at 61.5% (p < 0.05. Unlike the native plants where pathogenic fungi like Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., and Neofusicoccum andium were present (8.1% for H. patens, only one potentially pathogenic fungal taxon was detected (3.9% under BP. The striking disparity in the relative abundance of AMF and other fungal types between BP and the native species is quite significant. Fungal symbionts could aide plant invasion via resource-use efficiency and other poorly defined mechanisms of protection from pathogens in their invaded range. This report exposes a potentially

  17. High-throughput mapping of cell-wall polymers within and between plants using novel microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; Sørensen, Iben; Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena

    2007-01-01

    We describe here a methodology that enables the occurrence of cell-wall glycans to be systematically mapped throughout plants in a semi-quantitative high-throughput fashion. The technique (comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, or CoMPP) integrates the sequential extraction of glycans from...... analysis of mutant and wild-type plants, as demonstrated here for the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants fra8, mur1 and mur3. CoMPP was also applied to Physcomitrella patens cell walls and was validated by carbohydrate linkage analysis. These data provide new insights into the structure and functions of plant...

  18. AcEST: BP911757 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein 4 OS=Schizosaccharomyces pombe Align length 26 Score (bit) 31.2 E-value 1.7 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-...48,809,765 total letters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences p...=Schizosaccharomyces pombe GN=utp4 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 710 Score = 31.2 bits (69), Expect = 1.7 Identities = ...atens subsp. patens Align length 23 Score (bit) 47.0 E-value 2.0e-10 Report BLAST...,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done Score

  19. AcEST: DK956186 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15 2e-84 tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate pr... 314 ...173 >tr|Q8GSN3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate protein 70 OS=...|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate pr... 315 2e-84 tr|Q67BD0|Q67BD0_TOBAC Heat shock prote...0A3|A9S0A3_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 315 1e-84 tr|Q8GSN3

  20. AcEST: DK956869 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 150 2e-35 tr|A9TW48|A9TW48_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 150 2e-35 tr|A9QTH2|A9QTH2_9ROSI DnaJ OS=Viola...H2|A9QTH2_9ROSI DnaJ OS=Viola baoshanensis PE=2 SV=1 Length = 417 Score = 150 bits (380), Expect = 2e-35 Ide...+ DQYGEDALKEGM GGGGG NPFD Sbjct: 61 LSDPEKRDLYDQYGEDALKEGMGGGGGGHNPFD 93 >tr|A9QT

  1. AcEST: DK952008 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 1 OS=Physcomitrella patens GN=P... 236 6e-62 sp|P33529|PHY_MOUSC Phytochrome OS=Mougeotia scalaris GN=PHY...>sp|P33529|PHY_MOUSC Phytochrome OS=Mougeotia scalaris GN=PHY PE=2 SV=2 Length = 1124 Score = 216 bits (551)...t) OS=Pinus sylvest... 229 9e-59 tr|Q3V8G6|Q3V8G6_MOUSC Phytochrome OS=Mougeotia scala

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11796-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available er RHA801 Helianth... 40 0.015 2 ( CL898629 ) abg49f04.y1 Soybean random, unfiltered genomic li... 38 0.015 ...ien cDNA librar... 36 0.056 2 ( CL899504 ) abg54d05.x1 Soybean random, unfiltered genomic li... 38 0.056 2 (... CL887686 ) abf86b06.y1 Soybean random, unfiltered genomic li... 36 0.056 2 ( CL8...96852 ) abg40b03.x1 Soybean random, unfiltered genomic li... 36 0.056 2 >( EA356980 ) Sequence 29 from paten

  3. AcEST: DK955136 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 197 4e-49 tr|Q5MCR8|Q5MCR8_9ASTR Aluminum-induced protein OS=Codo...=Picea... 197 5e-49 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein OS=Brassica camp... 196 6e-49 tr|O64438|... protein OS=Ara... 194 2e-48 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced OS=Brassica ...rotein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 189 1e-46 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum-induc

  4. [Spatial variation of soil moisture/salinity and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions in Yancheng coastal wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Bing; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; An, Jing; Xue, Xing-Yu; Hou, Ming-Hang

    2013-02-01

    Taking the core part of Yancheng national nature reserve as the study area, according to soil sampling analysis of coastal wetlands in April and May 2011 land the 2011 ETM + remote sensing image, the spatial difference characteristic of coastal wetlands soil moisture and salinity, and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions, were investigated with the model of correspondence analysis (CCA), linear regression simulation and geo-statistical method. The results showed: Firstly, the average level of the soil moisture was fluctuating between 36.820% and 46.333% , and the soil salinity was between 0.347% and 1.328% , in a more detailed sense, the Spartina swamp was the highest, followed by the mudflats swamp, the Suaeda salsa swamp, and the Reed marsh. Secondly, the spatial variation of soil moisture was consistent with that of the salinity, and the degree of variation in the east-west direction was greater than that in the north-south. The maximum soil moisture and salinity were found in the southwest Spartina swamp. The minimum was in the Reed swamp. The soil moisture and salinity were divided into 5 levels, from I to V. Level IV occupied the highest proportion, which were 36.156% and 28.531% , respectively. Finally, different landscape types with the combination of soil moisture and salinity showed a common feature that the moisture and salinity were from both high to low. The soil moisture value of Reed marshes was lower than 40.116% and the salinity value was lower than 0. 676% . The soil moisture value of Suaeda salsa marshes was between 38. 162% and 46. 403% and the salinity value was between 0.417% and 1.295%. The soil moisture value of Spartina swamp was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 1.090%. The soil moisture value of beach was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 0.677%.

  5. Colonization, succession, and nutrition of macrobenthic assemblages in a restored wetland at Tijuana Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman, Serena M.; Levin, Lisa A.; Currin, Carolyn; Forder, Charlotte

    2004-08-01

    Modes of colonization, the successional trajectory, and trophic recovery of a macrofaunal community were analyzed over 19 months in the Friendship marsh, a 20-acre restored wetland in Tijuana Estuary, California. Traditional techniques for quantifying macrofaunal communities were combined with emerging stable isotopic approaches for evaluation of trophic recovery, making comparisons with a nearby natural Spartina foliosa habitat. Life history-based predictions successfully identified major colonization modes, although most taxa employed a variety of tactics for colonizing the restored marsh. The presence of S. foliosa did not seem to affect macrofaunal colonization or succession at the scale of this study. However, soil organic matter content in the restored marsh was positively correlated with insect densities, and high initial salinities may have limited the success of early colonists. Total macrofaunal densities recovered to natural marsh levels after 14 months and diversity, measured as species richness and the Shannon index ( H'), was comparable to the natural marsh by 19 months. Some compositional disparities between the natural and created communities persisted after 19 months, including lower percentages of surface-feeding polychaetes ( Polydora spp.) and higher percentages of dipteran insects and turbellarians in the Friendship marsh. As surficial structural similarity of infaunal communities between the Friendship and natural habitat was achieved, isotopic analyses revealed a simultaneous trajectory towards recovery of trophic structure. Enriched δ 13C signatures of benthic microalgae and infauna, observed in the restored marsh shortly after establishment compared to natural Spartina habitat, recovered after 19 months. However, the depletion in δ 15N signatures of macrofauna in the Friendship marsh indicated consumption of microalgae, particularly nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, while macroalgae and Spartina made a larger contribution to macrofaunal

  6. Role of three different plants on simultaneous salt and nutrient reduction from saline synthetic wastewater in lab-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João M; Cassoni, A C; Danko, Anthony S; Fiúza, António; Borges, Maria-Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Constructed Wetlands (CWs) can be a valuable technology to treat high salinity wastewaters but it is not known their potential for removal of both nutrients and salt, and the type of plants to use. This study evaluated the effect of three plants on salt reduction and simultaneous nutrient removal in CWs microcosms with expanded clay and in hydroponic conditions. Initial values of the synthetic wastewater tested were EC=15dSm-1, SAR=151; NH4+-N=24mgL-1; PO43--P=30mgL-1 and NO3--N=34mgL-1. With expanded clay CW removal efficiency for NH4+-N was 21, 88 and 85%, while for NO3--N, it was 4, 56 and 68% for Spartina maritima, Juncus maritimus and Arundo donax, respectively. PO43--P was adsorbed completely in the expanded clay. However, in hydroponic system, removal efficiencies for NH4+-N were 53 and 50%, while PO43--P removal was 89 and -14% for Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, respectively. Nutrient removal in planted microcosms was statistically higher than unplanted controls for NH4+-N and PO43--P. However, salt removal was apparent in the hydroponic system only after 23days of HRT, despite clear salt excretion visible in both Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus. This study demonstrates the potential of two halophytic plants for saline wastewater treatment. However, salt removal in such a scenario could not be well documented and might prove to be impractical in future work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrous Ferric Oxides in Sediment Catalyze Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species during Sulfide Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah A. Murphy; Shengnan Meng; Benson M. Solomon; Dewamunnage M.C. Dias; Timothy J. Shaw; John L Ferry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This article describes the formation of reactive oxygen species as a result of the oxidation of dissolved sulfide by Fe(III)-containing sediments suspended in oxygenated seawater over the pH range 7.00 and 8.25. Sediment samples were obtained from across the coastal littoral zone in South Carolina, US, at locations from the beach edge to the forested edge of a Spartina dominated estuarine salt marsh and suspended in aerated seawater. Reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrog...

  8. Kultūros šokas – neišvengiamas reiškinys globalizėjančiame pasaulyje

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaškevičiūtė-Akiki, Dovilė

    2011-01-01

    XX a. pabaiga – XXI a. pradžia pažymima kaip pasaulio globalizacijos periodas. Globalizacijos procesą stipriai įtakoja ir labai spartina naujų technologijų atsiradimas, naujų komunikacijos formų kūrimas ir naudojimas, taip pat pasaulio piliečių žingeidumas, smalsumas, troškimas save realizuoti kitoje aplinkoje bei eksploatuoti išteklius, kuriais disponuoja kitos šalys. Globalizacijos proceso pasekoje randasi tokie reiškiniai kaip migracija, pasaulinių tinklų kūrimas, gamybos bei produktų stan...

  9. Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera da zona entre-marés e fundos rasos dos estados de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera from the lotertidal zone and shallow botioms or the States or São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setúbal Pires

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with twelve species of Sphaeromatidae from several substrata in the intertidal and shallow infralittoral zone in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, Brazil. Sand, stones, empty tests of barnacles, empty tubes of polychaete, byssus of mussels, oyster beds, macroscopic algae and sea grass (Spartina alterniflora were collected and analysed. The following nomenclatural changes have been made: Pseudosphaeroma jakobii and Exosphaeroma platense are synonymyzed with Cassidinidea tuberculata; Pseudosphaeroma rhombofrontalis is placed in the genus Tholozodium; Paradynoides brasiliensis antonii with D. tropica. A key to species, the geographical distribution and notes on the habitat of the species are also furnished.

  10. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  11. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  12. Wood Anatomy in Several Genera of Nigerian Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Olusanya OLATUNJI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristic of the wood of Annona muricata, A. senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, A. glauca, A. squamosa, Cleistopholis patens, Monodora tenuifolia and Greenwayodendron suaviolis were investigated in search of their stable taxonomic attribute. Thirty-two wood samples were collected from eight species of Annonnaceae (four specimens each. Fixation of the most healthy and fresh wood of each species was done using 500 ml of FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid and dehydrated in a series of ethanol while infiltration was done using tertiary-butyl-alcohol prepared in accordance with Johansen’s method. The sectioning was carried out with a rotary microtome and the slide containing the wood samples were examined using power shots s70 camera attached to computer. The results revealed several interesting wood anatomical features such as the presence of numerous fibre, ray cells, vessels, absence of axial parenchyma in some species, growth ring ranges from distinct to indistinct. Rays are composed of upright cells in A. muricata, fibre tracheid are also uncommon in A. muricata but common in G. suaviolis. Axial parenchyma are common in A. glauca and A. squamosa but absent in other species. The wood structure of A. glauca and A. squamosa are similar to that of C. patens, but the absence of axial parenchyma distinguished it from them. The results are important in understanding the relationships between and within the species.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE REQUERIMIENTOS NUTRICIONALES EN VIVERO DE ESPECIES TROPICALES EMPLEADAS EN SILVICULTURA URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrés Herrera Ramírez

    Full Text Available La fertilización es determinante del crecimiento y desarrollo de árboles urbanos. Por ello, estudiamos, mediante la técnica del elemento faltante, los requerimientos nutricionales de cinco especies tropicales usadas en silvicultura urbana (Tabebuia chrysantha, Margaritaria nobilis, Hamelia patens, Apeiba aspera, Cupania americana. Se encontró algunas especies sensibles a la deficiencia de nitrógeno y otras a la deficiencia de azufre. El grupo de T. chrysanta, M. nobilis y H. patens mostró alta sensibilidad a la deficiencia de nitrógeno, mientras que C. americana y A. aspera presentaron sensibilidad a la deficiencia de azufre, representada en menor crecimiento promedio para todas las variables evaluadas: altura, diámetro en el cuello de la raíz, materia seca radical y materia seca aérea. Las representaciones HJ-Biplot, utilizadas para caracterizar la respuesta por especie a cada tratamiento en todas las unidades experimentales, evidenciaron los bajos rendimientos en crecimiento para las deficiencias en nitrógeno y azufre. El desbalance de bases calcio/magnesio y magnesio/potasio afectó el crecimiento en altura de todas las especies, evidenciado en los altos crecimientos obtenidos para los tratamientos deficientes en calcio y magnesio. Debido a esto, las fórmulas nutricionales utilizadas en vivero deben reajustarse a las exigencias individuales de las especies, para producir mejores árboles para la ciudad.

  14. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.

  15. Electrical output of bryophyte microbial fuel cell systems is sufficient to power a radio or an environmental sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ross J.; Felder, Fabienne; Cooper, Matt B.; Royles, Jessica; Harrison, Susan T. L.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbial fuel cells are a recently developed technology that exploits photosynthesis in vascular plants by harnessing solar energy and generating electrical power. In this study, the model moss species Physcomitrella patens, and other environmental samples of mosses, have been used to develop a non-vascular bryophyte microbial fuel cell (bryoMFC). A novel three-dimensional anodic matrix was successfully created and characterized and was further tested in a bryoMFC to determine the capacity of mosses to generate electrical power. The importance of anodophilic microorganisms in the bryoMFC was also determined. It was found that the non-sterile bryoMFCs operated with P. patens delivered over an order of magnitude higher peak power output (2.6 ± 0.6 µW m−2) than bryoMFCs kept in near-sterile conditions (0.2 ± 0.1 µW m−2). These results confirm the importance of the microbial populations for delivering electrons to the anode in a bryoMFC. When the bryoMFCs were operated with environmental samples of moss (non-sterile) the peak power output reached 6.7 ± 0.6 mW m−2. The bryoMFCs operated with environmental samples of moss were able to power a commercial radio receiver or an environmental sensor (LCD desktop weather station). PMID:27853542

  16. Chloroplast genome sequence of the moss Tortula ruralis: gene content, polymorphism, and structural arrangement relative to other green plant chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Paul G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tortula ruralis, a widely distributed species in the moss family Pottiaceae, is increasingly used as a model organism for the study of desiccation tolerance and mechanisms of cellular repair. In this paper, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of T. ruralis, only the second published chloroplast genome for a moss, and the first for a vegetatively desiccation-tolerant plant. Results The Tortula chloroplast genome is ~123,500 bp, and differs in a number of ways from that of Physcomitrella patens, the first published moss chloroplast genome. For example, Tortula lacks the ~71 kb inversion found in the large single copy region of the Physcomitrella genome and other members of the Funariales. Also, the Tortula chloroplast genome lacks petN, a gene found in all known land plant plastid genomes. In addition, an unusual case of nucleotide polymorphism was discovered. Conclusions Although the chloroplast genome of Tortula ruralis differs from that of the only other sequenced moss, Physcomitrella patens, we have yet to determine the biological significance of the differences. The polymorphisms we have uncovered in the sequencing of the genome offer a rare possibility (for mosses of the generation of DNA markers for fine-level phylogenetic studies, or to investigate individual variation within populations.

  17. A new system for fast and quantitative analysis of heterologous gene expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, J; Dubos, C; Xu, W; Le Gourrierec, J; Kelemen, Z; Charlot, F; Nogué, F; Lepiniec, L; Dubreucq, B

    2012-01-01

    • Large-scale analysis of transcription factor-cis-acting element interactions in plants, or the dissection of complex transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, requires rapid, robust and reliable systems for the quantification of gene expression. • Here, we describe a new system for transient expression analysis of transcription factors, which takes advantage of the fast and easy production and transfection of Physcomitrella patens protoplasts, coupled to flow cytometry quantification of a fluorescent protein (green fluorescent protein). Two small-sized and high-copy Gateway® vectors were specifically designed, although standard binary vectors can also be employed. • As a proof of concept, the regulation of BANYULS (BAN), a key structural gene involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, was used. In P. patens, BAN expression is activated by a complex composed of three proteins (TT2/AtMYB123, TT8/bHLH042 and TTG1), and is inhibited by MYBL2, a transcriptional repressor, as in Arabidopsis. Using this approach, two new regulatory sequences that are necessary and sufficient for specific BAN expression in proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells were identified. • This one hybrid-like plant system was successfully employed to quantitatively assess the transcriptional activity of four regulatory proteins, and to identify their target recognition sites on the BAN promoter. © 2011 INRA. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Green targeting predictor and ambiguous targeting predictor 2: the pitfalls of plant protein targeting prediction and of transient protein expression in heterologous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Janina; Liegmann, Oliver; Krause, Kirsten; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-12-01

    The challenges of plant protein targeting prediction are the existence of dual subcellular targets and the bias of experimentally confirmed data towards few and mostly nonplant model species. To assess whether training with proteins from evolutionarily distant species has a negative impact on prediction accuracy, we developed the Green Targeting Predictor tool, which was trained with a species-specific data set for Physcomitrella patens. Its performance was compared with that of the same tool trained with a mixed data set. In addition, we updated the Ambiguous Targeting Predictor. We found that predictions deviated from in vivo observations predominantly for proteins diverging within the green lineage, as well as for dual targeted proteins. To evaluate the usefulness of heterologous expression systems, selected proteins were subjected to localization studies in P. patens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Four out of six proteins that show dual targeting in the original plant system were located only in a single compartment in one or both heterologous systems. We conclude that targeting signals of divergent plant species exhibit differences, calling for custom in silico and in vivo approaches when aiming to unravel the actual distribution patterns of proteins within a plant cell. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. AcEST: DK960561 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ive uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 211 4e-53 tr|Q5MCR8|Q5MCR8_9ASTR Aluminum-induced protein OS=Codonop...sis la... 209 2e-52 tr|A9SVZ6|A9SVZ6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 209 2e-52 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum...ureus PE=2 SV=1 207 4e-52 tr|B4YYA6|B4YYA6_THEHA ST7-5-2 OS=Thellungiella halophila PE=2 SV=1 207 6e-52 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Alumin...C6|A9TLC6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 200 6e-50 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum-induc...um-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 206 8e-52 tr|A9TL

  20. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  1. Tidal groundwater flow and its ecological effects in a brackish marsh at the mouth of a large sub-tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Li, Hailong; Wilson, Alicia M.; Xia, Yuqiang; Wan, Li; Zheng, Chunmiao; Ma, Qian; Wang, Chaoyue; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2017-12-01

    Soil saturation is thought to be an important control on plant zonation in intertidal wetlands, but quantitative studies linking saturation and plant zonation in real marsh systems are few. We conducted a combined field and modeling study to examine the potential links between groundwater flow and ecological zonation in a brackish marsh in the Yangtze River estuary. The intertidal marsh transect contained two plant zones (Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora) and an unvegetated mud flat adjacent to the estuary. Numerical simulations were conducted to quantify soil saturation index (SSI, ratio of saturated time to the whole observation period) for analyzing plant zonation. Models considered multiple factors, including aquifer stratification, anisotropy, evapotranspiration, surface topography (particularly slope breaks), seepage face formation and tidal loading. Simulations revealed that the average SSI over the rhizosphere depth from 0.0 m to 0.3 m increased abruptly by 11.4% at the interface of the two plant zones, and by another 10.5% at the riverward boundary of the vegetated zone. The significant increase of SSI was not caused by slope breaks but seepage face was responsible for the riverward increase of SSI. Given known differences between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in their tolerances to anoxic conditions, the subsurface saturated/unsaturated conditions quantified by SSI are most probably responsible for the observed plant zonation.

  2. Integration of vegetation inventory data and ALOS image for vegetation classification in Yancheng coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunmei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Wang, Yanfei; Jin, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Systematic mapping and monitoring of wetland landscape are of fundamental importance for wetland development and management. To accurately classify wetland in Yancheng coastal wetland, ground investigation was conducted in 2006. Integrated with ground investigation, the wetland was classified into 8 categories such as Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Farm land, Phragmites Australis, Artemisia halodendron Turcz, Bare beach, Salt field, Fish & shrimp pond, and Sea water. A total of three decision trees were successfully produced. The first represented broad divisions of vegetation (in fact, at this stage, it just can be called vegetated cover like) and non-vegetation, and the second two represented more detailed vegetation classes and non-vegetation classes. To construct the decision trees, NDVI and principal component analysis were used as the evaluation factors. The thresholds were built combining with ground investigation and spectral property. Firstly, almost all kinds of vegetable were divided out of non-vegetation by NDVI. Secondly, the different species of vegetation were distinguished and some vegetated cover like was eliminated out of vegetation. Phragmites Australis belt, Artemisia halodendron Turcz belt, Spartina alterniflora Loisel belt and bare beach belt were distributed regularly from land to sea.

  3. The role of certain infauna and vascular plants in the mediation of redox reactions in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms by which certain animals and plants affect redox processes in sediments was examined by studying three environments: (1) subtidal sediments dominated by the deposit-feeding polychaete Heteromastus filiformis; (2) a saltmarsh inhabited by the tall form of Spartina alterniflora; and (3) tropical carbonate sediments inhabited by three species of seagrasses. S-35-sulfide production rates were compared to pool sizes of dissolved sulfide and dissolved iron. In all of the sediments studied, rates of sulfide reduction were enhanced by macroorganisms while the rate of turnover of dissolved sulfide increased. The polychaete enhanced microbial activity and redox cycling primarily by subducting particles of organic matter and oxidized iron during sediment reworking. The Spartina species enhanced anaerobic activity by transporting primarily dissolved organic matter and oxidants. Although the final result of both animal and plant activities was the enhancement of sub-surface cycling of sulfur and iron, decreased dissolved sulfide and increased dissolved iron concentrations, the mechanisms which produced these results differed dramatically.

  4. Comparison of saline tolerance among genetically similar species of Fusarium and Meloidogyne recovered from marine and terrestrial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.

  5. Genes Sufficient for Synthesizing Peptidoglycan are Retained in Gymnosperm Genomes, and MurE from Larix gmelinii can Rescue the Albino Phenotype of Arabidopsis MurE Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaofei; Li, Ningning; Kudo, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wenbo; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2017-03-01

    The endosymbiotic theory states that plastids are derived from a single cyanobacterial ancestor that possessed a cell wall. Peptidoglycan (PG), the main component of the bacteria cell wall, gradually degraded during plastid evolution. PG-synthesizing Mur genes have been found to be retained in the genomes of basal streptophyte plants, although many of them have been lost from the genomes of angiosperms. The enzyme encoded by bacterial MurE genes catalyzes the formation of the UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc) tripeptide in bacterial PG biosynthesis. Knockout of the MurE gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens resulted in defects of chloroplast division, whereas T-DNA-tagged mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana for MurE revealed inhibition of chloroplast development but not of plastid division, suggesting that AtMurE is functionally divergent from the bacterial and moss MurE proteins. Here, we could identify 10 homologs of bacterial Mur genes, including MurE, in the recently sequenced genomes of Picea abies and Pinus taeda, suggesting the retention of the plastid PG system in gymnosperms. To investigate the function of gymnosperm MurE, we isolated an ortholog of MurE from the larch, Larix gmelinii (LgMurE) and confirmed its presence as a single copy per genome, as well as its abundant expression in the leaves of larch seedlings. Analysis with a fusion protein combining green fluorescent protein and LgMurE suggested that it localizes in chloroplasts. Cross-species complementation assay with MurE mutants of A. thaliana and P. patens showed that the expression of LgMurE cDNA completely rescued the albefaction defects in A. thaliana but did not rescue the macrochloroplast phenotype in P. patens. The evolution of plastid PG and the mechanism behind the functional divergence of MurE genes are discussed in the context of information about plant genomes at different evolutionary stages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of

  6. Stress and subsidy effects of seagrass wrack duration, frequency, and magnitude on salt marsh community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Torrance C; Kimbro, David L; Hughes, Anne Randall

    2017-07-01

    Environmental perturbations can strongly affect community processes and ecosystem functions by acting primarily as a subsidy that increases productivity, a stress that decreases productivity, or both, with the predominant effect potentially shifting from subsidy to stress as the overall intensity of the perturbation increases. While perturbations are often considered along a single axis of intensity, they consist of multiple components (e.g., magnitude, frequency, and duration) that may not have equivalent stress and/or subsidy effects. Thus, different combinations of perturbation components may elicit community and ecosystem responses that differ in strength and/or direction (i.e., stress or subsidy) even if they reflect a similar overall perturbation intensity. To assess the independent and interactive effects of perturbation components, we experimentally manipulated the magnitude, frequency, and duration of wrack deposition, a common stress-subsidy in a variety of coastal systems. The effects of wrack perturbation on salt marsh community and ecosystem properties were assessed both in the short-term (at the end of a 12-week experimental manipulation) and long-term (6 months after the end of the experiment). In the short-term, plants and associated benthic invertebrates exhibited primarily stress-based responses to wrack perturbation. The extent of these stress effects on density of the dominant plant Spartina alterniflora, total plant percent cover, invertebrate abundance, and sediment oxygen availability were largely determined by perturbation duration. Yet, higher nitrogen content of Spartina, which indicates a subsidy effect of wrack, was influenced primarily by perturbation magnitude in the short-term. In the longer term, perturbation magnitude determined the extent of both stress and subsidy effects of wrack perturbation, with lower subordinate plant percent cover and snail density, and higher Spartina nitrogen content in high wrack biomass treatments

  7. Influence of fertilisation with sewage sludge-derived preparation on selected soil properties and prairie cordgrass yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa, Ewa; Mrowiec, Maciej; Lach, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using a fertilizer obtained from waste substances on selected physical and chemical properties of soil and biomass yield Spartina pectinate. The fertilizer used for soil (C) fertilisation contained sewage sludge (SS), waste soil fractions of brown coal (BC), brown coal ash (BCA) enriched with mineral potassium (K) fertilizer (C+SS+BC+BCA+K). The composition of the preparation was developed by the authors and adjusted to the quality of the fertilised soil and the individual characteristics of the plant. It was assumed that the preparation should replace expensive conventional fertilisation methods, allow for management of waste substances and improve soil properties, leading to a high yield of Spartina pectinata used as energy crop. The plants were grown on the soil from the Huta Częstochowa steelworks effect zone. The soil was light, with acid reaction (pH KCl =5.5), with small contents of such contaminants as Cd and Zn and elevated Pb content. Based on a three-year pot experiment, the paper presents the results of the examinations concerning the effect of fertilisation on soil pH, hydrolytic acidity, sorptive properties, content of humic acids, organic coal and total nitrogen in soil and crop yielding. The effect of the use of the fertilizer (C+SS+BC+BCA+K) was compared with the use of the sludge (C+SS), sludge with mineral fertilizers (C+SS+NPK), mixture of brown coal and mineral fertilizers (C+BC+NPK) and effect of only mineral fertilizers (C+NPK). Fertilisation with (C+SS+BC+BCA+K) led to the increase in soil pH from 5.5 to 6.0, which is considered sufficient for light soils. The fertilised soil was characterized by sorption capacity of ca. 5.8 cmol(+)/kg, and, after fertilisation with O+W+P, reached the value of ca. 8.0 cmol(+)kg-1. Consequently the soil can be regarded as of good quality in terms of its capability to store nutrients. The C:N ratio was also extended from 11:1 (control soil) to 14:1 (C

  8. AcEST: BP918494 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available haracterized protein OS=Zea m... 90 3e-20 tr|Q6QB11|Q6QB11_ORYSJ Little protein 1 (Putative uncharacterize.....52 S G+P C QCGTR NPC Sbjct: 3 SGGMPFCVQCGTRDNPC 19 >tr|B4UWC1|B4UWC1_ARAHY Little protein 1 OS=Arachis hypog...12/14 (85%) Frame = +3 Query: 111 VPLCWQCGTRQNPC 152 VP+C QCGTR NPC Sbjct: 4 VPVCVQCGTRSNPC 17 >tr|Q6QB11|Q6QB11_ORYSJ Little...tr|B4UWC1|B4UWC1_ARAHY Little protein 1 OS=Arachis hypogaea PE=4... 94 2e-20 tr|A...yscomitrella paten... 91 1e-20 tr|A9NPQ2|A9NPQ2_PICSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 90 1e-20

  9. AcEST: DK951845 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tative uncharacterized protein OS=Oryza... 48 4e-04 tr|B5T005|B5T005_LOLPR Ice recrystallization...RISALRVPAAGLIGAIPPNTLGRLVSLQV 136 >tr|Q56B90|Q56B90_WHEAT Ice recrystallization inhibition protein 1 OS=Trit...CGNWTGVTCSGDGS---RVVALRLPGLGLSGPVPRGTLGRLTALQV 98 >tr|B5T005|B5T005_LOLPR Ice recrystallization inhibition p...6B90|Q56B90_WHEAT Ice recrystallization inhibition protein ... 53 2e-05 tr|Q10LW3|Q10LW3_ORYSJ Os03g0332900 ...ryza... 48 4e-04 tr|A9TI46|A9TI46_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 48 6e-04 tr|Q56B89|Q56B89_WHEAT Ice recrystalliz

  10. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  12. Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.

    2013-09-03

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one- pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin-binding domain. Despite their functional similarities, the plant CNGC family members appear to have different conserved amino acid motifs within corresponding functional domains than animal and bacterial CNGCs do. Here we describe the development and application of methods employing plant CNGC-specific sequence motifs as diagnostic tools to identify novel candidate channels in different plants. These methods are used to evaluate the validity of annotations of putative orthologs of CNGCs from plant genomes. The methods detail how to employ regular expressions of conserved amino acids in functional domains of annotated CNGCs and together with Web tools such as PHI-BLAST and ScanProsite to identify novel candidate CNGCs in species including Physcomitrella patens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  13. A DYW-protein knockout in Physcomitrella affects two closely spaced mitochondrial editing sites and causes a severe developmental phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Kindgren, Peter; Zehrmann, Anja

    2013-01-01

    RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins carrying a carboxy-terminal DYW domain similar to cytidine deaminases have been characterized as site-specific factors for C-to-U RNA editing in plant organelles. Here we report that knockout of DYW-PPR_65 in Physcomitrella patens causes a severe...... developmental phenotype in the moss and specifically affects two editing sites located 18 nucleotides apart on the mitochondrial ccmFC mRNA. Intriguingly, PPR_71, another DYW-type PPR, had been identified previously as an editing factor specifically affecting only the downstream editing site, ccmFCeU122SF....... The now characterized PPR_65 binds specifically only to the upstream target site, ccmFCeU103PS, in full agreement with a recent RNA-recognition code for PPR arrays. The functional interference between the two editing events may be caused by a combination of three factors: (i) the destabilization of an RNA...

  14. The Physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensing, Stefan A.; Lang, Daniel; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Nishiyama, Tomaoki; Perroud, Pierre-Francois; Lindquist, Erika A.; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Tanahashi, Takako; Sakakibara, Keiko; Fujita, Tomomichi; Oishi, Kazuko; Shin, Tadasu; Kuroki, Yoko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Sugano, Sumio; Kohara, Yuji; Fujiyama, Asao; Anterola, Aldwin; Aoki, Setsuyuki; Ashton, Neil; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Barker, Elizabeth; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Blankenship, Robert; Cho, Sung Hyun; Dutcher, Susan K.; Estelle, Mark; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Gundlach, Heidrum; Hanada, Kousuke; Melkozernov, Alexander; Murata, Takashi; Nelson, David R.; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Reiss, Bernd; Renner, Tanya; Rombauts, Stephane; Rushton, Paul J.; Sanderfoot, Anton; Schween, Gabriele; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stueber, Kurt; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Tu, Hank; Van de Peer, Yves; Verrier, Paul J.; Waters, Elizabeth; Wood, Andrew; Yang, Lixing; Cove, David; Cuming, Andrew C.; Hasebe, Mitsayasu; Lucas, Susan; Mishler, Brent D.; Reski, Ralf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Quatrano, Rakph S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2007-09-18

    We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family complexity; loss of genes associated with aquatic environments (e.g., flagellar arms); acquisition of genes for tolerating terrestrial stresses (e.g., variation in temperature and water availability); and the development of the auxin and abscisic acid signaling pathways for coordinating multicellular growth and dehydration response. The Physcomitrella genome provides a resource for phylogenetic inferences about gene function and for experimental analysis of plant processes through this plant's unique facility for reverse genetics.

  15. Widespread impact of horizontal gene transfer on plant colonization of land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    In complex multicellular eukaryotes such as animals and plants, horizontal gene transfer is commonly considered rare with very limited evolutionary significance. Here we show that horizontal gene transfer is a dynamic process occurring frequently in the early evolution of land plants. Our genome analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens identified 57 families of nuclear genes that were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses. Many of these gene families were transferred to the ancestors of green or land plants. Available experimental evidence shows that these anciently acquired genes are involved in some essential or plant-specific activities such as xylem formation, plant defence, nitrogen recycling as well as the biosynthesis of starch, polyamines, hormones and glutathione. These findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer had a critical role in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of horizontal gene transfer mechanism in nonvascular and seedless vascular plants.

  16. AcEST: DK959361 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TVI Chromosome chr8 scaffold_23, whole genome... 360 6e-98 tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous... 358 2e-97 tr|Q8GSN3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate pr... 35... Query: 623 AYGLDKKATSVGE 661 AYGLDKKATSVGE Sbjct: 186 AYGLDKKATSVGE 198 >tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous...8GSN2|Q8GSN2_CUCMA Cell-autonomous heat shock cognate protei... 353 5e-96 tr|Q84Q...ein OS=Picea... 354 3e-96 tr|A9TWR9|A9TWR9_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 354 3e-96 tr|Q

  17. AcEST: DK960985 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ive uncharacterized protein (Chromos... 340 3e-96 tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cogn...us ... 337 2e-94 tr|Q8GSN2|Q8GSN2_CUCMA Cell-autonomous heat shock cognate protei... 334 2e-94 tr|Q84QJ3|Q84...EATRCGEKNVLIFDLGGGT 702 ++AT GEKNVLIFDLGGGT Sbjct: 191 KKATSVGEKNVLIFDLGGGT 210 >tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous...A9S0A3_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 340 4e-96 tr|Q8GSN3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autono...mous heat shock cognate pr... 341 5e-96 tr|A9SNF1|A9SNF1_PHYPA Predicted protein OS

  18. AcEST: DK959365 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 367 e-100 tr|A7PNK8|A7PNK8_VITVI Chromosome chr8 scaffold_23, whole genome... 367 e-100 tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomou...0 protein OS=Oryza sativa subs... 365 1e-99 tr|Q8GSN3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate pr..._PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 362 2e-98 tr|Q8GSN2|Q8GSN2_CUCMA Cell-autonomous heat sh...SVGEKNV 670 AYGLDKKATSVGEKNV Sbjct: 186 AYGLDKKATSVGEKNV 201 >tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous hea

  19. Pre-Enlistment Person-Job Match System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Cther wranW Or Corprn(Wt tn, Or -orlveymgS any raghtu or permisuwi tu manufa ~ltue. uae. or sell any patenic’ ivention that may in any way he related...1 O-i as U05 ru 05A / SIf, ntISati I C / ham[ 4O’ 1*% 0`1. 1 I I f L I! I %.)1 30-0i.41 CAR ta15 AWL "it AVL DPI 1411 *. 311730 CPU ?,,. "AT1 I0o...al %"~q.4faS9 CPU "AV to 5 12. lkpoll AV In.4IC c11V Sys 1P atoo "AV 76 v It .opk I55 I L t 3q I&.i’ftt FAA 9att AwL *SI AWIL OPT INDS 1111 11in

  20. AcEST: DK960095 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s-Prot sp_hit_id Q61900 Definition sp|Q61900|SMR3A_MOUSE Submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3A OS...E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q61900|SMR3A_MOUSE Submaxillary...6 OS=Homo... 32 4.2 >sp|Q61900|SMR3A_MOUSE Submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3A OS=Mus musculus ...4_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 40 0.14 tr|B7ZP11|B7ZP11_MOUSE Submaxillary gland andro...LRCVCKRWNEI 109 >tr|B7ZP11|B7ZP11_MOUSE Submaxillary gland androgen regulated pro

  1. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  2. Lifeact-mEGFP reveals a dynamic apical F-actin network in tip growing plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is essential for tip growth in plants. However, imaging actin in live plant cells has heretofore presented challenges. In previous studies, fluorescent probes derived from actin-binding proteins often alter growth, cause actin bundling and fail to resolve actin microfilaments.In this report we use Lifeact-mEGFP, an actin probe that does not affect the dynamics of actin, to visualize actin in the moss Physcomitrella patens and pollen tubes from Lilium formosanum and Nicotiana tobaccum. Lifeact-mEGFP robustly labels actin microfilaments, particularly in the apex, in both moss protonemata and pollen tubes. Lifeact-mEGFP also labels filamentous actin structures in other moss cell types, including cells of the gametophore.Lifeact-mEGFP, when expressed at optimal levels does not alter moss protonemal or pollen tube growth. We suggest that Lifeact-mEGFP represents an exciting new versatile probe for further studies of actin's role in tip growing plant cells.

  3. Screening of north-east Mexico medicinal plants with activities against herpes simplex virus and human cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Mares, David; Rivas-Galindo, Veronica M; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-Lopez, Luis Alejandro; Waksman De Torres, Noemí; Pérez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Torres-Lopez, Ernesto

    2018-01-15

    The plants examined in this study have previous biological activity reports indicating the possibility of found activity against herpes and cancer cell. The aim of this contribution was to carry out a screening of Juglans mollis (Juglandaceae), Persea americana (Lauraceae), Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae), Salvia texana (Lamiaceae), Salvia ballotaeflora (Lamiaceae), Ceanothus coeruleus (Rhamnaceae), Chrysactinia mexicana (Asteraceae) y Clematis drummondii (Ranunculaceae), against HeLa cells, VHS-1 and VHS-2. The method MTT was used to determine the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), in Vero and HeLa cell lines. To determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) against herpes, the plaque reduction method was used. Results showed that none of the plants exhibited activity against HeLa cells. About antiherpetic activity, J. mollis and S. ballotaeflora extracts present antiherpetic activity in terms of their SI, increasingly interest for further studies on the isolation of compounds with antiherpetic activity and about the mechanisms of action that produce this activity.

  4. AcEST: DK949466 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rized protein OS=Picea... 213 9e-54 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced prote...52 tr|A9SVZ6|A9SVZ6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 207 4e-52 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum...=2 SV=1 205 2e-51 tr|A5AXQ8|A5AXQ8_VITVI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Vitis... 200 8e-50 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum...tive uncharacterized protein OS=Oryza... 195 2e-48 tr|Q8S2R9|Q8S2R9_THEHA Aluminum

  5. AcEST: DK961493 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|A9NV94|A9NV94_PICSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 205 2e-51 tr|Q5MCR8|Q5MCR8_9ASTR Aluminum...Picea... 204 3e-51 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein OS=Brassica ca...rella paten... 203 6e-51 tr|B4YYA6|B4YYA6_THEHA ST7-5-2 OS=Thellungiella halophila PE=2 SV=1 202 1e-50 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminu...m-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 202 1e-50 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum

  6. AcEST: DK952090 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ARATH Putative aluminium-induced protein OS=Ara... 190 6e-47 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein... protein OS=Oryza... 182 1e-44 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 179 1e-43... tr|A9TLC6|A9TLC6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 188 2e-46 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Alum...inum-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 188 2e-46 tr|B4YYA6|B4YYA6_THEHA ST7-5-2 O

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10823-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EU937530_1( EU937530 |pid:none) Mus musculus sucrase-isomaltase mR... 205 5e-51 AX840238_1( AX840238 |pid:none)...5e-51 AF016833_1( AF016833 |pid:none) Homo sapiens maltase-glucoamylase ... 204 6e-51 AB057452_1( AB057452...subsp. paten... 203 1e-50 ( O43451 ) RecName: Full=Maltase-glucoamylase, intestinal; Include... 202 2e-50...sapiens sucrase-isomaltase (a... 192 3e-47 ( P14410 ) RecName: Full=Sucrase-isomaltase, intestinal; Contains:...BC116452_1( BC116452 |pid:none) Homo sapiens sucrase-isomaltase (a... 192 3e-47 AB428422_1( AB428422 |pid:none)

  8. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens) to 63 (Glycine max). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution. PMID:28991190

  9. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen; Ma, Haoli

    2017-10-08

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens) to 63 (Glycine max). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  10. An in silico analysis of the mitochondrial protein import apparatus of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan James

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An in silico analysis of the mitochondrial protein import apparatus from a variety of species; including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella variabilis, Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Picea glauca, Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken to determine if components differed within and between plant and non-plant species. Results The channel forming subunits of the outer membrane components Tom40 and Sam50 are conserved between plant groups and other eukaryotes. In contrast, the receptor component(s in green plants, particularly Tom20, (C. reinhardtii, C. variabilis, P. patens, S. moellendorffii, P. glauca, O. sativa and A. thaliana are specific to this lineage. Red algae contain a Tom22 receptor that is orthologous to yeast Tom22. Furthermore, plant mitochondrial receptors display differences between various plant lineages. These are evidenced by distinctive motifs in all plant Metaxins, which are absent in red algae, and the presence of the outer membrane receptor OM64 in Angiosperms (rice and Arabidopsis, but not in lycophytes (S. moellendorffii and gymnosperms (P. glauca. Furthermore, although the intermembrane space receptor Mia40 is conserved across a wide phylogenetic range, its function differs between lineages. In all plant lineages, Tim17 contains a C-terminal extension, which may act as a receptor component for the import of nucleic acids into plant mitochondria. Conclusions It is proposed that the observed functional divergences are due to the selective pressure to sort proteins between mitochondria and chloroplasts, resulting in differences in protein receptor components between plant groups and other organisms. Additionally, diversity of receptor components is observed within the plant kingdom. Even when receptor components are orthologous across plant and non-plant species, it appears that the functions of these have expanded or

  11. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  12. Post-translational control of nitrate reductase activity responding to light and photosynthesis evolved already in the early vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Królicka, Adriana; Førland, Nina; Hansen, Margarita; Heidari, Behzad; Lillo, Cathrine

    2013-05-01

    Regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) by reversible phosphorylation at a conserved motif is well established in higher plants, and enables regulation of NR in response to rapid fluctuations in light intensity. This regulation is not conserved in algae NR, and we wished to test the evolutionary origin of the regulatory mechanism by physiological examination of ancient land plants. Especially a member of the lycophytes is of interest since their NR is candidate for regulation by reversible phosphorylation based on sequence analysis. We compared Selaginella kraussiana, a member of the lycophytes and earliest vascular plants, with the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, and also tested the moss Physcomitrella patens. Interestingly, optimization of assay conditions revealed that S. kraussiana NR used NADH as an electron donor like A. thaliana, whereas P. patens NR activity depended on NADPH. Examination of light/darkness effects showed that S. kraussiana NR was rapidly regulated similar to A. thaliana NR when a differential (Mg(2+) contra EDTA) assay was used to reveal activity state of NR. This implies that already existing NR enzyme was post-translationally activated by light in both species. Light had a positive effect also on de novo synthesis of NR in S. kraussiana, which could be shown after the plants had been exposed to a prolonged dark period (7 days). Daily variations in NR activity were mainly caused by post-translational modifications. As for angiosperms, the post-translational light activation of NR in S. kraussiana was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1*1-dimethylurea (DCMU), an inhibitor of photosynthesis and stomata opening. Evolutionary, a post-translational control mechanism for NR have occurred before or in parallel with development of vascular tissue in land plants, and appears to be part of a complex mechanisms for coordination of CO2 and nitrogen metabolism in these plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Teknologi Portable Inflated Greenhouse Sebagai Fasilitas Pendukung Peningkatan Ketahanan Pangan Dan Pertanian Perkotaan (Urban Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Durrotun Nasihien

    2017-10-01

    melakukan pengembangan rancang bangun prototipe Portable inflated Greenhouse, dilanjutkan pembuatan prototipe dan diakhiri dengan uji coba prototipe serta uji coba lapangan di di Lab Universitas Narotama, dipublikasikan pada Seminar/Proceeding Internasional dan Jurnal Internasional terindex, diajukan registrasi PATEN KemenkumHAM. Hasil penelitian berupa Teknologi Tepat Guna dipublikasikan pada Seminar/Proceeding Internasional dan Jurnal Internasional terindex, diproses PATEN KemenkumHAM, serta layak diproduksi massal guna mendukung percepatan produksi pangan Nasional yang higienis, murah dan menguntungkan.

  14. A primary survey on bryophyte species reveals two novel classes of nucleotide-binding site (NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yu Xue

    Full Text Available Due to their potential roles in pathogen defense, genes encoding nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain have been particularly surveyed in many angiosperm genomes. Two typical classes were found: one is the TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL class and the other is the CC-NBS-LRR (CNL class. It is seldom known, however, what kind of NBS-encoding genes are mainly present in other plant groups, especially the most ancient groups of land plants, that is, bryophytes. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we mainly focused on two bryophyte species: the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, to survey their NBS-encoding genes. Surprisingly, two novel classes of NBS-encoding genes were discovered. The first novel class is identified from the P. patens genome and a typical member of this class has a protein kinase (PK domain at the N-terminus and a LRR domain at the C-terminus, forming a complete structure of PK-NBS-LRR (PNL, reminiscent of TNL and CNL classes in angiosperms. The second class is found from the liverwort genome and a typical member of this class possesses an α/β-hydrolase domain at the N-terminus and also a LRR domain at the C-terminus (Hydrolase-NBS-LRR, HNL. Analysis on intron positions and phases also confirmed the novelty of HNL and PNL classes, as reflected by their specific intron locations or phase characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis covering all four classes of NBS-encoding genes revealed a closer relationship among the HNL, PNL and TNL classes, suggesting the CNL class having a more divergent status from the others. The presence of specific introns highlights the chimerical structures of HNL, PNL and TNL genes, and implies their possible origin via exon-shuffling during the quick lineage separation processes of early land plants.

  15. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  16. Evolution Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Plant Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Aixian; Hou, Fuyun; Zhang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are widespread units on genome sequences, and play many important roles in plants. In order to reveal the evolution of plant genomes, we investigated the evolutionary regularities of SSRs during the evolution of plant species and the plant kingdom by analysis of twelve sequenced plant genome sequences. First, in the twelve studied plant genomes, the main SSRs were those which contain repeats of 1-3 nucleotides combination. Second, in mononucleotide SSRs, the A/T percentage gradually increased along with the evolution of plants (except for P. patens). With the increase of SSRs repeat number the percentage of A/T in C. reinhardtii had no significant change, while the percentage of A/T in terrestrial plants species gradually declined. Third, in dinucleotide SSRs, the percentage of AT/TA increased along with the evolution of plant kingdom and the repeat number increased in terrestrial plants species. This trend was more obvious in dicotyledon than monocotyledon. The percentage of CG/GC showed the opposite pattern to the AT/TA. Forth, in trinucleotide SSRs, the percentages of combinations including two or three A/T were in a rising trend along with the evolution of plant kingdom; meanwhile with the increase of SSRs repeat number in plants species, different species chose different combinations as dominant SSRs. SSRs in C. reinhardtii, P. patens, Z. mays and A. thaliana showed their specific patterns related to evolutionary position or specific changes of genome sequences. The results showed that, SSRs not only had the general pattern in the evolution of plant kingdom, but also were associated with the evolution of the specific genome sequence. The study of the evolutionary regularities of SSRs provided new insights for the analysis of the plant genome evolution.

  17. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  18. Is the cutting of oil contaminated marshes an efficient clean-up technique in a subtropical estuary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, André L T O; Lana, Paulo C; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Cutting and removal of oil-impacted marsh plants are still used worldwide as a clean-up and recovery technique. To experimentally test the efficacy of cutting and removing marsh plants under subtropical conditions, we simulated an oil spill (Bunker MF-180) in Spartina alterniflora marshes and compared the responses of plant height, biomass, density of culms and number of flowering plants in high and low energy areas in Paranaguá Bay (S Brazil) for about 9 months. Cutting and removal were inefficient in promoting or accelerating the recovery of the impacted areas. Cut or uncut impacted marshes fully recovered within 6 months, both in low and high energy areas. Plant cutting should be practiced only when there is an effective risk of contamination of groundwater near urban areas, when obvious aesthetical issues are involved in areas of touristic interest or when there are real short-term conservation risks to threatened species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis type strain (CIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2010-01-01

    Arcobacter nitrofigilis (McClung et al. 1983) Vandamme et al. 1991 is the type species of the genus Arcobacter in the epsilonproteobacterial family Campylobacteraceae. The species was first described in 1983 as Campylobacter nitrofigilis [1] after its detection as a free-living, nitrogen-fixing Campylobacter species associated with Spartina alterniflora Loisel. roots [2]. It is of phylogenetic interest because of its lifestyle as a symbiotic organism in a marine environment in contrast to many other Arcobacter species which are associated with warm-blooded animals and tend to be pathogenic. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a type stain of the genus Arcobacter. The 3,192,235 bp genome with its 3,154 protein-coding and 70 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Emergent aquatic plants: biological and economic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most productive, but least exploited, biomass resources is the group classified as the emergent aquatic plants. Information is presented concerning the biological and economic factors that must be considered if emergent aquatic plants are to become viable feedstocks for multipurpose systems. The feedstock purposes highlighted include fuel and/or chemical production and the species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolla. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be investigated further. Issues such as the development of base-line yield data for managed systems, mechanization and harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, identification of secondary plant products, and economic considerations require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if successful. 19 references.

  1. The utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C. K.; Scantland, D. A.; Groet, S. S.; Lawhon, W. T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement.

  2. Effects of Different Vegetation Zones on CH4 and N2O Emissions in Coastal Wetlands: A Model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands.

  3. Investigation of the Transcriptome of Prairie Cord Grass, a New Cellulosic Biomass Crop

    KAUST Repository

    Gedye, Kristene

    2010-09-15

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is being developed as a cellulosic biomass crop. Development of this species will require numerous steps, including breeding, agronomy, and characterization of the species genome. The research in this paper describes the first investigation of the transcriptome of prairie cordgrass via Next Generation Sequencing Technology, 454 GS FLX. A total of 556,198 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced from four prairie cordgrass tissues: roots, rhizomes, immature inflorescence, and hooks. These ESTs were assembled into 26,302 contigs and 71,103 singletons. From these data were identified, EST-SSR (simple sequence repeat) regions and cell wall biosynthetic pathway genes suitable for the development of molecular markers which can aid the breeding process of prairie cordgrass by means of marker assisted selection.

  4. Remote sensing investigations of wetland biomass and productivity for global biosystems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between spectral radiance and plant canopy biomass was studied in wetlands. Spectroradiometer data was gathered on Thematic Mapper wavebands 3, 4, and 5, and correlated with canopy and edaphic factors determined by harvesting. The relationship between spectral radiance and plant canopy biomass for major salt and brackish canopy types was determined. Algorithms were developed for biomass measurement in mangrove swamps. The influence of latitudinal variability in canopy structure on biomass assessment of selected plants was investigated. Brackish marsh biomass estimates were obtained from low altitude aircraft and compared with ground measurements. Annual net aerial primary productivity estimates computed from spectral radiance data were compiled for a Spartina alterniflora marsh. Spectral radiance data were expressed as vegetation or infrared index values. Biomass estimates computed from models were in close agreement with biomass estimates determined from harvests.

  5. Remote sensing by ERTS satellite of vegetational resources believed to be under possible threat of environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooni, P.; Floyd, W. J.; Hall, R.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of natural vegetation on North Merritt Island, Florida, was studied by computer analysis of ERTS satellite multispectral-scanner data. The boundaries of six distinct plant associations were located in photos produced on the image analyzer with an insignificant mean error of -24.38 meters. The six plant associations are described as: aquatic estuarine association, mangrove, spartina swamp, wooded swamp, sabal hammock, and oak-palmetto. The difference in average reflectance 'grey level' between the lowest of the four spectral scanning bands and the highest spectral scanning band for each of the six vegetation types is described. The decreasing trend of the differences is strongly negatively correlated with height of land, the coefficient of correlation being -0.9696.

  6. Biogeochemical processes in an urban, restored wetland of San Francisco Bay, California, 2007-2009; methods and data for plant, sediment and water parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Erikson, Li H.; Ward, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    The restoration of 18 acres of historic tidal marsh at Crissy Field has had great success in terms of public outreach and visibility, but less success in terms of revegetated marsh sustainability. Native cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) has experienced dieback and has failed to recolonize following extended flooding events during unintended periodic closures of its inlet channel, which inhibits daily tidal flushing. We examined the biogeochemical impacts of these impoundment events on plant physiology and on sulfur and mercury chemistry to help the National Park Service land managers determine the relative influence of these inlet closures on marsh function. In this comparative study, we examined key pools of sulfur, mercury, and carbon compounds both during and between closure events. Further, we estimated the net hydrodynamic flux of methylmercury and total mercury to and from the marsh during a 24-hour diurnal cycle. This report documents the methods used and the data generated during the study.

  7. Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions.

  8. Analysis of the Long-term Meteorological Data at Kori Nuclear Power Plant for Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kihyun; Min, Byung-Il; Kim, Sora; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For the past four years, relatively clear regular patterns were found in terms of wind and atmospheric stability. Wind direction, which is a very essential component for atmospheric dispersion, shows a strong seasonal dependency. We analyzed the long-term meteorological data collected since 1997 at the Kori nuclear power plant. The annual wind tendency shows irregular patterns before 2009. However, for the past four years, clear regular patterns are found in terms of the wind and atmospheric stabilities. Especially, the main wind direction, which is a very essential component for an atmospheric dispersion, shows a strong dependency on the season. During spring and summer, south-west and south-southwest winds are the main winds, whereas north-northeast wind dominates during fall and winter. The annual wind is strongly affected by that of winter.

  9. Electric vehicles to support large wind power penetration in future danish power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) could play major role in the future intelligent grids to support a large penetration of renewable energy in Denmark, especially electricity production from wind turbines. The future power systems aims to phase-out big conventional fossil-fueled generators with large number...... and generation. This paper analyses power balancing support services from EVs and the feasible levels of electric vehicle integration possible to provide grid ancillary services in Danish power systems. This evaluation is conducted on typical wind dominated distribution and transmission networks in Denmark....... The analyses show that EV integration of around 10% is capable of providing sufficient grid regulation services in Danish power systems to support wind power penetration of around 50% in Denmark. The aggregated EV penetration levels quantified on system levels are validated with impact assessment studies...

  10. Droplet Depinning on Inclined Surfaces at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward; Singh, Natasha; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle hysteresis enables a sessile liquid drop to adhere to a solid surface when the surface is inclined, the drop is exposed to gas-phase flow, or the drop is exposed to both forcing modalities. Previous work by Schmucker and White (2012.DFD.M4.6) identified critical depinning Weber numbers for water drops subject to gravity- and wind-dominated forcing. This work extends the Schmucker and White data and finds the critical depinning Weber number obeys a two-slope linear model. Under pure wind forcing at Reynolds numbers above 1500 and with zero surface inclination, Wecrit = 8.0 . For non-zero inclinations, α, Wecrit decreases proportionally to A Bo sinα where A is the drop aspect ratio and Bo is its Bond number. The same relationship holds for α behavior. Supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant CBET-1605947.

  11. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    regions that plan for high penetration of intermittent renewables. Extreme intermittency in the nature of wind power imposes elevated risk levels to power system operation. This every day challenge of wind dominant power systems necessitate the crucial role of operating reserves. In this paper, we propose...... an optimization framework that minimizes the cost of reserve procurement. The framework decouples the share of upward and downward primary, secondary, and tertiary reserve services within DK1 (western Danish power system) and neighboring cross border resources (Norway and Germany). Results indicate the economic...... benefit of reserve provision provided by cross border interconnections. The focus here will be on reserve services from abundant hydropower resource in Norway, taking advantage of fast VSC-based HVDC interconnection that is expected to be commissioned in immediate coming years....

  12. Investigating of short period gravity waves using multi-beam experiments above Andenes in the polar summer mesopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Gunter; Sommer, Svenja; Chau, Jorge L.; Latteck, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    In summer 2013 the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) conducted a multi-beam scanning experiment using 65 different beam directions. These systematic scanning experiments are analysed with respect to gravity waves with periods from 4 minutes up to 8 hours using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) as tracer. The gravity waves are investigated by decomposing the wind field into a mean wind and superimposed tidal components (diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal). After subtracting these mean winds and tides we get a residuum wind dominated by the gravity waves with periods shorter than 8 hours. Using this approach we have been able to identified significant wave burst, with amplitudes as high as 50 m/s and 10-20 m/s for the horizontal and vertical wind components, respectively. In addition, we have identified events that indicate the development of KH-instabilities.

  13. Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Raunbak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its spatio-temporal variability, the mismatch between the weather and demand patterns challenges the design of highly renewable energy systems. A principal component analysis is applied to a simplified networked European electricity system with a high share of wind and solar power generation. It reveals a small number of important mismatch patterns, which explain most of the system’s required backup and transmission infrastructure. Whereas the first principal component is already able to reproduce most of the temporal mismatch variability for a solar dominated system, a few more principal components are needed for a wind dominated system. Due to its monopole structure the first principal component causes most of the system’s backup infrastructure. The next few principal components have a dipole structure and dominate the transmission infrastructure of the renewable electricity network.

  14. Rhizosphere heterogeneity shapes abundance and activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in vegetated salt marsh sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eThomas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems hosting an intense sulfur (S cycle, yet little is known about S-oxidizing microorganisms in these ecosystems. Here, we studied the diversity and transcriptional activity of S-oxidizers in salt marsh sediments colonized by the plant Spartina alterniflora, and assessed variations with sediment depth and small-scale compartments within the rhizosphere. We combined next-generation amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and rRNA libraries with phylogenetic analyses of marker genes for two S-oxidation pathways (soxB and rdsrAB. Gene and transcript numbers of soxB and rdsrAB phylotypes were quantified simultaneously, using newly designed (RT-qPCR assays. We identified a diverse assemblage of S-oxidizers, with Chromatiales and Thiotrichales being dominant. The detection of transcripts from S-oxidizers was mostly confined to the upper 5 cm sediments, following the expected distribution of root biomass. A common pool of species dominated by Gammaproteobacteria transcribed S-oxidation genes across roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding sediment compartments, with rdsrAB transcripts prevailing over soxB. However, the root environment fine-tuned the abundance and transcriptional activity of the S-oxidizing community. In particular, the global transcription of soxB was higher on the roots compared to mix and rhizosphere samples. Furthermore, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria-related S-oxidizers tended to increase on Spartina roots compared to surrounding sediments. These data shed light on the under-studied oxidative part of the sulfur cycle in salt marsh sediments and indicate small-scale heterogeneities are important factors shaping abundance and potential activity of S-oxidizers in the rhizosphere.

  15. Stem breakage of salt marsh vegetation under wave forcing: A field and model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuik, Vincent; Suh Heo, Hannah Y.; Zhu, Zhenchang; Borsje, Bas W.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    2018-01-01

    One of the services provided by coastal ecosystems is wave attenuation by vegetation, and subsequent reduction of wave loads on flood defense structures. Therefore, stability of vegetation under wave forcing is an important factor to consider. This paper presents a model which determines the wave load that plant stems can withstand before they break or fold. This occurs when wave-induced bending stresses exceed the flexural strength of stems. Flexural strength was determined by means of three-point-bending tests, which were carried out for two common salt marsh species: Spartina anglica (common cord-grass) and Scirpus maritimus (sea club-rush), at different stages in the seasonal cycle. Plant stability is expressed in terms of a critical orbital velocity, which combines factors that contribute to stability: high flexural strength, large stem diameter, low vegetation height, high flexibility and a low drag coefficient. In order to include stem breakage in the computation of wave attenuation by vegetation, the stem breakage model was implemented in a wave energy balance. A model parameter was calibrated so that the predicted stem breakage corresponded with the wave-induced loss of biomass that occurred in the field. The stability of Spartina is significantly higher than that of Scirpus, because of its higher strength, shorter stems, and greater flexibility. The model is validated by applying wave flume tests of Elymus athericus (sea couch), which produced reasonable results with regards to the threshold of folding and overall stem breakage percentage, despite the high flexibility of this species. Application of the stem breakage model will lead to a more realistic assessment of the role of vegetation for coastal protection.

  16. On the ability of plant life-history strategies to shape bio-geomorphologic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christian; van Belzen, Jim; Zhu, ZhenChang; Bouma, Tjeerd; van de Koppel, Johan; Gourgue, Olivier; Temmerman, Stijn

    2017-04-01

    Previous work studying bio-geomorphologic interactions in intertidal habitats underlined the importance of wetland vegetation shaping their environment (e.g. tidal channel networks). Up to this point the potential of wetland vegetation to shape their environment was linked to their physical plant properties, such as stiffness, stem diameter or stem density. However the effect of life-history strategies, i.e. the mode of plant proliferation such as sexual reproduction from seeds, non-sexual lateral expansion or a combination of the former two was hitherto ignored. We present numerical experiments based on a wetland ecosystem present in the Western Scheldt Estuary (SW, the Netherlands) showing the importance of life-history strategies shaping bio-geomorphologic interactions. We specifically compare two extremes in life-history strategies, (1) one species solely establishing from seeds and relying on their mass recruitment (Salicornia europea); And a second species (Spartina anglica) which relies on a mixed establishment strategy consisting of seed dispersal and asexual lateral expansion through tillering, with a very low seed recruitment success per year. Based on conducted numerical experiments using TELEMAC2D we show that the Spartina-case facilitates relative low channel densities with pronounced channel networks, whereas the Salicornia-case favors high channel densities with less pronounced intertidal channels. The conducted numerical experiments are the first indication showing that plant proliferation strategies exert a major control on emerging patterns in bio-geomorphologic systems. This provides a deeper understanding in the constraining factors and dynamics shaping the emergence and resilience of bio-geomorphologic systems.

  17. Seasonal shift from bottom-up to top-down impact in phytophagous insect populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio; Denno, Robert F

    2003-03-01

    Although many studies now examine how multiple factors influence the dynamics of herbivore populations, few studies explicitly attempt to document where and when each is important and how they vary and interact. In fact, how temporal variation in top-down (natural enemies) and bottom-up (host plant resources) factors affect herbivore dynamics has been suggested as a particularly important yet poorly understood feature of terrestrial food webs. In this study we examined how temporal changes in predator density (wolf spiders, sheet-web builders, and mirid egg predators) and host-plant resources (plant quality and structural complexity) influence the population dynamics of the dominant phytophagous insects on Atlantic-coast salt marshes, namely Prokelisia planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae). We designed a factorial experiment in meadows of Spartina alterniflora to mimic natural variation in vegetation quality and structure by establishing two levels of plant nutrition (leaf nitrogen content) by fertilization, and two levels of habitat complexity by adding leaf litter (thatch). We then assessed seasonal changes in the strength of bottom-up (plant quality) and top-down (predator) impacts on planthopper populations. Planthopper populations responded positively to increased plant quality treatments in late summer. Despite the greater number of planthopper adults colonizing fertilized Spartina plots compared to unfertilized controls, the offspring of these colonists were much less abundant at the end of the season in fertilized plots, particularly those with thatch. The initial colonization effect was later erased because arthropod predators selectively accumulated in fertilized plots where they inflicted significant mortality on all stages of planthoppers. Predators rapidly colonized fertilized plots and reached high densities well in advance of planthopper colonization, a response we attribute to their rapid aggregation in complex-structured habitats with readily

  18. Rhizosphere heterogeneity shapes abundance and activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in vegetated salt marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, François; Giblin, Anne E; Cardon, Zoe G; Sievert, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems hosting an intense sulfur (S) cycle, yet little is known about S-oxidizing microorganisms in these ecosystems. Here, we studied the diversity and transcriptional activity of S-oxidizers in salt marsh sediments colonized by the plant Spartina alterniflora, and assessed variations with sediment depth and small-scale compartments within the rhizosphere. We combined next-generation amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and rRNA libraries with phylogenetic analyses of marker genes for two S-oxidation pathways (soxB and rdsrAB). Gene and transcript numbers of soxB and rdsrAB phylotypes were quantified simultaneously, using newly designed (RT)-qPCR assays. We identified a diverse assemblage of S-oxidizers, with Chromatiales and Thiotrichales being dominant. The detection of transcripts from S-oxidizers was mostly confined to the upper 5 cm sediments, following the expected distribution of root biomass. A common pool of species dominated by Gammaproteobacteria transcribed S-oxidation genes across roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding sediment compartments, with rdsrAB transcripts prevailing over soxB. However, the root environment fine-tuned the abundance and transcriptional activity of the S-oxidizing community. In particular, the global transcription of soxB was higher on the roots compared to mix and rhizosphere samples. Furthermore, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria-related S-oxidizers tended to increase on Spartina roots compared to surrounding sediments. These data shed light on the under-studied oxidative part of the sulfur cycle in salt marsh sediments and indicate small-scale heterogeneities are important factors shaping abundance and potential activity of S-oxidizers in the rhizosphere.

  19. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognella, M M P; Soares, M L G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that sites sampled were comparatively

  20. Copepod colonization of natural and artificial substrates in a salt marsh pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Eileen; Ruber, Ernest

    1987-12-01

    Pre-weighed packets of Spartina alterniflora and of plastic (polypropylene) twine were placed in a salt marsh pool and recovered on 40 dates spanning 14 months. New packets were placed out regularly to provide a contrast with ageing material. Twelve species of copepods were extracted, counted, and identified. Dry weight and Kjeldahl-nitrogen were determined for Spartina packets. Eight species of copepods, Amphiascus pallidus, Onychocamptus mohammed, Cletocamptus deitersei, Halicyclops sp., Harpacticus chelifer, Mesochra lilljeborgii, Metis jousseaumei and Nitocra sp. were found in higher densities on old grass or plastic packets than on new. The quantity of material was important in that the relative attractiveness of old grass was much lower early in the second year when 7-15% dw and 0·7% nitrogen remained than early in the first year when over 60% dw and 2·0% nitrogen remained. Old plastic polypropylene was equally or more attractive than old grass to 7 of 8 species, therefore, nitrogen decline in old grass was not the factor making it less attractive. Once aged, the quantity of substrate was more important than its quality. Apparently, this is due to colonization by microflora or settlement of detritus but these were not studied. The four clear exceptions to these trends were Darcythompsonia fairliensis and Eurytemora affinis which showed highest densities 72% and 50% of the time in new grass, Apocyclops spartinus with 70% in grass and equal numbers between old and new packets and Acartia tonsa a bay calanoid with 82% of highest densities in the water column and only two occurrences out of 40 dates in the packets.

  1. Can conservation biologists rely on established community structure rules to manage novel systems? ... Not in salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, José M; Silliman, Brian R; Bertness, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally examined plant zonation in a previously unstudied Chilean salt marsh system to test the generality of mechanisms generating zonation of plants across intertidal stress gradients. Vertical zonation in this system is striking. The low-lying clonal succulent, Sarcocornia fruticosa, dominates the daily flooded low marsh, while intermediate elevations are dominated by the much taller Spartina densiflora. Irregularly flooded higher elevations are dominated by Schoenoplectus californicus, with the small forb, Selliera radicans, found associated with Schoenoplectus at its base. Transplant studies of all four species into each zone both with and without competition revealed the mechanisms driving these striking patterns in plant segregation. In the regularly flooded low marsh, Sarcocornia and Spartina grow in the zone that they normally dominate and are displaced when reciprocally transplanted between zones with neighbors, but without neighbors they grow well in each other's zone. Thus, interspecific competition alone generates low marsh zonation as in some mediterranean marshes, but differently than most of the Californian marshes where physical stress is the dominant factor. In contrast, mechanisms generating high marsh patterns are similar to New England marshes. Schoenoplectus dies when transplanted to lower elevations with or without neighbors and thus is limited from the low marsh by physical stress, while Selliera grows best associated with Schoenoplectus, which shades and ameliorates potentially limiting desiccation stress. These results reveal that mechanisms driving community organization across environmental stress gradients, while generally similar among systems, cannot be directly extrapolated to unstudied systems. This finding has important implications for ecosystem conservation because it suggests that the mechanistic understanding of pattern generation necessary to manage and restore specific communities in novel habitats cannot rely

  2. Insights into the evolution and diversification of the AT-hook Motif Nuclear Localized gene family in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianfei; Favero, David S; Qiu, Jiwen; Roalson, Eric H; Neff, Michael M

    2014-10-14

    Members of the ancient land-plant-specific transcription factor AT-Hook Motif Nuclear Localized (AHL) gene family regulate various biological processes. However, the relationships among the AHL genes, as well as their evolutionary history, still remain unexplored. We analyzed over 500 AHL genes from 19 land plant species, ranging from the early diverging Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella to a variety of monocot and dicot flowering plants. We classified the AHL proteins into three types (Type-I/-II/-III) based on the number and composition of their functional domains, the AT-hook motif(s) and PPC domain. We further inferred their phylogenies via Bayesian inference analysis and predicted gene gain/loss events throughout their diversification. Our analyses suggested that the AHL gene family emerged in embryophytes and further evolved into two distinct clades, with Type-I AHLs forming one clade (Clade-A), and the other two types together diversifying in another (Clade-B). The two AHL clades likely diverged before the separation of Physcomitrella patens from the vascular plant lineage. In angiosperms, Clade-A AHLs expanded into 5 subfamilies; while, the ones in Clade-B expanded into 4 subfamilies. Examination of their expression patterns suggests that the AHLs within each clade share similar expression patterns with each other; however, AHLs in one monophyletic clade exhibit distinct expression patterns from the ones in the other clade. Over-expression of a Glycine max AHL PPC domain in Arabidopsis thaliana recapitulates the phenotype observed when over-expressing its Arabidopsis thaliana counterpart. This result suggests that the AHL genes from different land plant species may share conserved functions in regulating plant growth and development. Our study further suggests that such functional conservation may be due to conserved physical interactions among the PPC domains of AHL proteins. Our analyses reveal a possible evolutionary scenario for the AHL gene family

  3. Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae

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    Jackson Robert R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed for Anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western Kenya. The present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity. Methods Groups of mosquitoes were separately given ad libitum opportunity to feed on five of the more preferred plant species (Hamelia patens, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Senna didymobotrya, and Tecoma stans and one of the less preferred species (Lantana camara. The mosquitoes were monitored daily for survival. Sugar solution (glucose 6% and water were used as controls. In addition, the fecundity of mosquitoes on each plant after (i only one blood meal (number of eggs oviposited, and (ii after three consecutive blood meals (proportion of females ovipositing, number of eggs oviposited and hatchability of eggs, was determined. The composition and concentration of sugar in the fed-on parts of each plant species were determined using gas chromatography. Using SAS statistical package, tests for significant difference of the fitness values between mosquitoes exposed to different plant species were conducted. Results and Conclusion Anopheles gambiae that had fed on four of the five more preferred plant species (T. stans, S. didymobotrya, R. communis and H. patens, but not P. hysterophorus lived longer and laid more eggs after one blood meal, when compared with An. gambiae that had fed on the least preferred plant species L. camara. When given three consecutive blood-meals, the percentage of females that oviposited, but not the number of eggs laid, was significantly higher for mosquitoes that had previously fed on the four more preferred plant species. Total sugar concentration in the preferred plant parts was significantly correlated with survival and with the proportion of females that laid eggs. This effect was

  4. Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Hortance; Gouagna, Louis C; Foster, Woodbridge A; Jackson, Robert R; Beier, John C; Githure, John I; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2007-08-21

    A previous study showed for Anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western Kenya. The present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity. Groups of mosquitoes were separately given ad libitum opportunity to feed on five of the more preferred plant species (Hamelia patens, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Senna didymobotrya, and Tecoma stans) and one of the less preferred species (Lantana camara). The mosquitoes were monitored daily for survival. Sugar solution (glucose 6%) and water were used as controls. In addition, the fecundity of mosquitoes on each plant after (i) only one blood meal (number of eggs oviposited), and (ii) after three consecutive blood meals (proportion of females ovipositing, number of eggs oviposited and hatchability of eggs), was determined. The composition and concentration of sugar in the fed-on parts of each plant species were determined using gas chromatography. Using SAS statistical package, tests for significant difference of the fitness values between mosquitoes exposed to different plant species were conducted. Anopheles gambiae that had fed on four of the five more preferred plant species (T. stans, S. didymobotrya, R. communis and H. patens, but not P. hysterophorus) lived longer and laid more eggs after one blood meal, when compared with An. gambiae that had fed on the least preferred plant species L. camara. When given three consecutive blood-meals, the percentage of females that oviposited, but not the number of eggs laid, was significantly higher for mosquitoes that had previously fed on the four more preferred plant species. Total sugar concentration in the preferred plant parts was significantly correlated with survival and with the proportion of females that laid eggs. This effect was associated mainly with three sugar types, namely glucose, fructose

  5. MODEL SELECTION OF ENSEMBLE FORECASTING USING WEIGHTED SIMILARITY OF TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Widodo

    2012-07-01

    digunakan untuk membandingkan deret waktu untuk pengujian dan validasi adalah Euclidean dan Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, di mana setiap titik yang dibandingkan diberi bobot sesuai dengan keterbaruannya. Dataset yang digunakan dalam percobaan ini adalah data time series yang didesain untuk NN3 Competition dan data time series yang di-generate dari paten-paten USPTO dan publikasi ilmiah PubMed di bidang kesehatan, yaitu pada Apnea, Aritmia, dan Sleep Stages. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian kombinasi bobot dari metode yang dipilih berdasarkan kesamaan antara data pelatihan dan data pengujian, dapat menyajikan hasil yang lebih baik dibanding salah satu kombinasi metode unweighted yang dipilih berdasarkan similarity measure atau kombinasi tetap dari individual forecast terbaik.

  6. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartar Aurélien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from γ-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB and eukaryotic (GSIIE GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the γ-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida. However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting

  7. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

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    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  8. Groundwater controls ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alicia M; Evans, Tyler; Moore, Willard; Schutte, Charles A; Joye, Samantha B; Hughes, Andrea H; Anderson, Joseph L

    2015-03-01

    Ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes is strongly influenced by hydrologic factors, but these factors are poorly understood. We examined groundwater flow patterns through surficial sediments in two saltmarshes in the southeastern United States to quantify hydrologic differences between distinct ecological zones. Both sites included tall- or medium-form Spartina alterniflora near the creek bank; short-form Spartina alterniflora in the mid-marsh; salt flats and Salicornia virginica in the high marsh; and Juncus roemarianus in brackish-to-fresh areas adjacent to uplands. Both sites had relatively small, sandy uplands and similar stratigraphy consisting of marsh muds overlying a deeper sand layer. We found significant hydrologic differences between the four ecological zones. In the zones colonized by S. alterniflora, the vertical flow direction oscillated with semi-diurnal tides. Net flow (14-day average) through the tall S. alterniflora zones was downward, whereas the short S. alterniflora zones included significant periods of net upward groundwater flow. An examination of tidal efficiency at these sites suggested that the net flow patterns rather than tidal damping controlled the width of the tall S. alterniflora zone. In contrast to the S. alterniflora zones, hypersaline zones populated by S. virginica were characterized by sustained periods (days) of continuous upward flow of saline water during neap tides. The fresher zone populated by J. roemarianus showed physical flow patterns that were similar to the hypersaline zones, but the upwelling porewaters were fresh rather than saline. These flow patterns were influenced by the hydrogeologic framework of the marshes, particularly differences in hydraulic head between the upland water table and the tidal creeks. We observed increases in hydraulic head of approximately 40 cm from the creek to the upland in the sand layers below both marshes, which is consistent with previous observations that sandy aquifers

  9. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. P. Tognella

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that

  10. A Baseline Study of Piermont Marsh as Nekton Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M.; Bloomfield, F.; Torres, T.; Ward, J.; Sanders, D.; Lobato, A.

    2011-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2011 we have conducted a study of fish populations and water quality in the Piermont Marsh, a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan. This 5-year period represents the baseline for an ongoing ecological study of the marsh. The marsh, along with similar wetlands between the Federal Dam at Troy and the Battery, is an important refuge for juvenile fish, and it is believed that estuarine wetland dynamics are critical in population recruitment for coastal fisheries. Piermont Marsh has undergone a rapid transition from a primarily Spartina alternaflora and Spartina pattens setting to one dominated by an invasive genotype of common reed Phragmites australis. The impact of this shift on local fish populations, species diversity, and adult recruitment are not well understood. The long term goal of this study is to tease apart factors in by use of the marsh as a nekton habitat. Fish were collected in unbaited minnow gee traps which were deployed at slack tide and left for 24 hours. Samples were preserved in 10% buffered formalin. All organisms were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, enumerated, and measured. Gross weight was recorded for each sample set. Water quality measurements such as temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen were collected concurrently with all sampling events. Sample collections were focused on the tidal creeks crossing the marsh, which provide the primary exchange of water and nutrients between the marsh interior and Hudson River estuary. As expected, most minnows captured were Fundulus heteroclitus. However a wide variety of other nekton, including species that are important to commercial and recreational coastal Atlantic fish stocks, was recorded as well. Comparisons are made between habitats such as erosional and depostional banks, rivulets, and exterior and interior marsh settings. Also involved were transient conditions such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, and hydroperiod

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LA TOLERANCIA A SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON ACEITE DIESEL EN ESPECIES VEGETALES CON POTENCIAL BIORREMEDIADO Evaluation of Tolerance to Soils Contaminated with Diesel Oil in Plant Species with Bioremediation Potential

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    MARÍA CRISTINA PETENELLO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos contaminados con petróleo o sus derivados pueden ser remediados a través de diversos métodos, dentro de los cuales se encuentran aquellos que emplean organismos vivos tales como plantas, que poseen la capacidad de mineralizar estos compuestos transformándolos en otros más simples, asimilables a compuestos naturales. Al encarar proyectos de fitorremediación es importante emplear plantas nativas porque están adaptadas a las condiciones ecológicas particulares de la región. En el presente trabajo como primera etapa se evaluó la respuesta de Spartina argentinensis, Paspalum atratum, Paspalum guenoarum y Melilotus albus a la presencia de aceite diesel, considerando la germinación de sus semillas, la emergencia de plántulas y la biomasa alcanzada en suelos que contenían 1 y 2 % de aceite diesel, en condiciones experimentales. Todos estos parámetros se vieron afectados con las concentraciones de contaminante empleadas, sin embargo, las plantas pudieron prosperar demostrando en consecuencia que podrían ser empleadas en proyectos de fitorremediación.Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or their derivates can be remediated by different methods. Many of them use live organisms such as plants that are able to mineralize these compounds, turning them into more simple molecules, similar to natural molecules. When the use of plants is decided, it is important to employ native plants because they are already adapted to the particular ecological conditions of the site. The response of Spartina argentinensis, Paspalum atratum, Paspalum guenoarun and Melilotus albus to the presence of diesel oil was evaluated considering seed germination, plant emergence and biomass production of plants growing on soils experimentally contaminated with different concentrations of diesel oil (1 and 2 %. Although all the parameters evaluated showed the negative impact of the presence of diesel-oil, the plants continued growing; therefore they can be

  12. Will fluctuations in salt marsh–mangrove dominance alter vulnerability of a subtropical wetland to sea-level rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, Karen L.; Vervaeke, William

    2018-01-01

    To avoid submergence during sea-level rise, coastal wetlands build soil surfaces vertically through accumulation of inorganic sediment and organic matter. At climatic boundaries where mangroves are expanding and replacing salt marsh, wetland capacity to respond to sea-level rise may change. To compare how well mangroves and salt marshes accommodate sea-level rise, we conducted a manipulative field experiment in a subtropical plant community in the subsiding Mississippi River Delta. Experimental plots were established in spatially equivalent positions along creek banks in monospecific stands of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) or Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and in mixed stands containing both species. To examine the effect of disturbance on elevation dynamics, vegetation in half of the plots was subjected to freezing (mangrove) or wrack burial (salt marsh), which caused shoot mortality. Vertical soil development was monitored for 6 years with the surface elevation table-marker horizon system. Comparison of land movement with relative sea-level rise showed that this plant community was experiencing an elevation deficit (i.e., sea level was rising faster than the wetland was building vertically) and was relying on elevation capital (i.e., relative position in the tidal frame) to survive. Although Avicennia plots had more elevation capital, suggesting longer survival, than Spartina or mixed plots, vegetation type had no effect on rates of accretion, vertical movement in root and sub-root zones, or net elevation change. Thus, these salt marsh and mangrove assemblages were accreting sediment and building vertically at equivalent rates. Small-scale disturbance of the plant canopy also had no effect on elevation trajectories—contrary to work in peat-forming wetlands showing elevation responses to changes in plant productivity. The findings indicate that in this deltaic setting with strong physical influences controlling elevation (sediment

  13. Measuring Organic Carbon Sequestration, Burial, and Preservation in Salt Marsh Sediments over the Past Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, N. D.; Davis, J.; Tobias, C. R.; McKee, B. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Currin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes have enormous potential to bury and store organic carbon in sediment for centuries to millennia. This production of "blue carbon" in coastal systems is an ecosystem service that is posited as a long-term store of atmospheric CO2, but the sequestration rate, longevity, and ultimate fate of this stored carbon is not well understood. Furthermore, the loss of wetlands is predicted to release a large fraction of the organic carbon stock back into the atmosphere via remineralization, yet very few experimental data exist to substantiate or refute this hypothesis. In order to elucidate the long-term diagenesis of blue carbon, we measured the organic carbon stock in two transects of marsh perpendicular to the creekbank and radiocarbon-dated (14C) the organic carbon at the marsh interface at the bottom of each core. Given the ages of the marsh (ranging from 145 to 2400 yBP), sediment carbon accumulation rates were determined for all cores, which varied from 19 to 190 g C m-2 y-1. We used stable carbon isotopes ratios (δ13C) to examine not only historic transitions between C3 (e.g., Juncus roemarianus or upland maritime forest) and C4 (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) vegetation but also the relationship between carbon storage and plant community. More depleted stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C < -26‰), which correspond to C3 vegetation, tended to have higher organic carbon concentrations, even to depths of 2 m and ages of 2000 years old, and accumulated carbon on the order of 120 - 190 g C m-2 y-1 averaged over century timescales. Relatively 13C-enriched sediment, indicative of Spartina marshes, buried and preserved less organic carbon (19 - 86 g C m-2 y-1) over the past millennium. Overall, these measurements provide evidence that a fraction of belowground biomass production of marsh plants can be stored thousands of years, but the efficiency of this ecosystem service depends on various factors such as the rate of sea level rise and plant community

  14. Will Fluctuations in Salt Marsh - Mangrove Dominance Alter Vulnerability of a Subtropical Wetland to Sea-Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L; Vervaeke, William C

    2017-10-16

    To avoid submergence during sea-level rise, coastal wetlands build soil surfaces vertically through accumulation of inorganic sediment and organic matter. At climatic boundaries where mangroves are expanding and replacing salt marsh, wetland capacity to respond to sea-level rise may change. To compare how well mangroves and salt marshes accommodate sea-level rise, we conducted a manipulative field experiment in a subtropical plant community in the subsiding Mississippi River Delta. Experimental plots were established in spatially equivalent positions along creek banks in monospecific stands of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) or Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and in mixed stands containing both species. To examine the effect of disturbance on elevation dynamics, vegetation in half of the plots was subjected to freezing (mangrove) or wrack burial (salt marsh), which caused shoot mortality. Vertical soil development was monitored for six years with the surface elevation table-marker horizon system. Comparison of land movement with relative sea-level rise showed that this plant community was experiencing an elevation deficit (i.e., sea level was rising faster than the wetland was building vertically) and was relying on elevation capital (i.e., relative position in the tidal frame) to survive. Although Avicennia plots had more elevation capital, suggesting longer survival, than Spartina or mixed plots, vegetation type had no effect on rates of accretion, vertical movement in root and sub-root zones, or net elevation change. Thus, these salt marsh and mangrove assemblages were accreting sediment and building vertically at equivalent rates. Small-scale disturbance of the plant canopy also had no effect on elevation trajectories- contrary to work in peat-forming wetlands showing elevation responses to changes in plant productivity. The findings indicate that in this deltaic setting with strong physical influences controlling elevation (sediment accretion

  15. Mutational studies of the Aux/IAA proteins in Physcomitrella reveal novel insights into their function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sibo; Estelle, Mark

    2018-02-20

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin signaling involves hormone perception by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE/AUXIN F-BOX (TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor system, and the subsequent degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. This leads to the activation of downstream gene expression and diverse physiological responses. Here, we investigate how the structural elements in the Aux/IAAs determine their function in Auxin perception and transcriptional repression. We took advantage of the facile genetics of the moss Physcomitrella patens to determine the activity of wild-type and mutant PpIAA1a proteins in a Δaux/iaa null background. In this way, Aux/IAA function was characterized at the molecular and physiological levels without the interference of genetic redundancy. We identified and characterized degron variants in Aux/IAAs that affect their stability and Auxin response. We also demonstrated that neither the Aux/IAA EAR motif nor Aux/IAA oligomerization is essential for the repressive function of Aux/IAA. Our study demonstrates how key elements within the Aux/IAA proteins fine tune stability and repressor activity, as well as the long-term developmental outcome. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Cloning and characterization of micro-RNAs from moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Tzahi; Talmor-Neiman, Mali; Stav, Ran; Riese, Maike; Huijser, Peter; Baulcombe, David C

    2005-09-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous tiny RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development and responses to external stimuli. To date, miRNAs have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice and pumpkin, and there is limited information on their identity in lower plants including Bryophytes. Bryophytes are among the oldest groups of land plants among the earth's flora, and are important for our understanding of the transition to life on land. To identify miRNAs that might have played a role early in land plant evolution, we constructed a library of small RNAs from the juvenile gametophyte (protonema) of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Sequence analysis revealed five higher plant miRNA homologues, including three members of the miR319 family, previously shown to be involved in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, and miR156, which has been suggested to regulate several members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family in Arabidopsis. We have cloned PpSBP3, a moss SPL homologue that contains an miR156 complementary site, and demonstrated that its mRNA is cleaved within that site suggesting that it is an miR156 target in moss. Six additional candidate moss miRNAs were identified and shown to be expressed in the gametophyte, some of which were developmentally regulated or upregulated by auxin. Our observations suggest that miRNAs play important regulatory roles in mosses.

  17. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A census of nuclear cyanobacterial recruits in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Szabolcs; Li, Xiao; Hussain, Javeed; Cui, Cuiju; Wang, Yuesheng; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Zhaowan; Ma, Chuang; Guo, An-Yuan; Zhou, Yanhong; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-01-01

    The plastids and mitochondria of the eukaryotic cell are of endosymbiotic origin. These events occurred ~2 billion years ago and produced significant changes in the genomes of the host and the endosymbiont. Previous studies demonstrated that the invasion of land affected plastids and mitochondria differently and that the paths of mitochondrial integration differed between animals and plants. Other studies examined the reasons why a set of proteins remained encoded in the organelles and were not transferred to the nuclear genome. However, our understanding of the functional relations of the transferred genes is insufficient. In this paper, we report a high-throughput phylogenetic analysis to identify genes of cyanobacterial origin for plants of different levels of complexity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Physcomitrella patens, Populus trichocarpa, Selaginella moellendorffii, Sorghum bicolor, Oryza sativa, and Ostreococcus tauri. Thus, a census of cyanobacterial gene recruits and a study of their function are presented to better understand the functional aspects of plastid symbiogenesis. From algae to angiosperms, the GO terms demonstrated a gradual expansion over functionally related genes in the nuclear genome, beginning with genes related to thylakoids and photosynthesis, followed by genes involved in metabolism, and finally with regulation-related genes, primarily in angiosperms. The results demonstrate that DNA is supplied to the nuclear genome on a permanent basis with no regard to function, and only what is needed is kept, which thereby expands on the GO space along the related genes.

  19. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  20. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  1. ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE. IV. SERIES LEIOCARPAE, CONCILIATAE Y SESSILIFOLIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la revisión de la serie Leiocarpae Urb., seleccionándose a Turneracallosa Urb. como lectotypus. Esta serie tiene una distribución similar a la del género Turneraen América; presenta 55 especies, la mayoría de las cuales vive en la región biogeográficaChaqueña. Son nuevos los siguientes taxones: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita,T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata,T. jobertii, T. luetzelburgii var. dubia, T. melochioides var. rugosa, T. paradoxa, T. patens, T.rosulata, T. vallsii, T. venezuelana y T. vicaria. Se proponen también dos series nuevas,Conciliatae Arbo para T. rubrobracteata Arbo, una especie con una combinación inusual decaracteres, que no se ajusta a ninguna otra serie, y Sessilifoliae Arbo, incluyendoT. dichotoma y T. revoluta, que fueran excluídas de la serie Capitatae; el análisis comparativocon los miembros de Leiocarpae indica que tampoco pertenecen a la última serie. Sepresentan claves para identificar las series del género y las especies de cada serie tratada, asícomo descripciones morfológicas, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución

  2. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  3. Diagnostic Challenge of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome in a Patient with Coexisting Structural Heart Disease

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    Jorge M. Hurtado-Cordovi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS is a severe complication seen in advance liver disease. Its prevalence among cirrhotic patients varies from 4–47 percent. HPS exact pathogenesis remains unknown. Patient presents with signs/symptoms of chronic liver disease, and dypsnea of variable severity. Our patient is a 62 years old white male with a known history of chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis, ascites, and hypothyroidism who presented to GI/liver clinic complaining of 1 episode BRBPR, and exacerbating dypsnea associated with nausea and few episodes of non-bloody vomit. Physical exam showed, icterus, jaundice, few small spider angiomas on the chest, decrease breath sounds bilateral right more than left, and mild tachycardic. Abdominal exam revealed mid-line scar, moderated size ventral hernia, distention, diffused tenderness, and dullness to percussion. Laboratory result: CBC 5.2/13.2/37.6/83, LFTs 83/217/125/5.2/4.7/7.4, Pt 22.6 INR 1.9 PTT35.4. CT scan showed liver cirrhosis, abdominal varices, and moderated ascites collection around ventral hernia. Calculated A-a gradient was 49.5. Echocardiography revealed patent foramen ovale (PFO with predominant left to right shunt. In our case, existence of paten foramen ovale (PFO and atelectasis precludes definitive diagnosis of HPS. Presence of cardiopulmonary shunt could be partially responsible for the patient’s dypsnea exacerbation.

  4. Application of Lectin Array Technology for Biobetter Characterization: Its Correlation with FcγRIII Binding and ADCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucka, Markus; Zimmermann, Klaus; Fido, Markus; Nechansky, Andreas

    2016-12-24

    Lectin microarray technology was applied to compare the glycosylation pattern of the monoclonal antibody MB311 expressed in SP2.0 cells to an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic effector function (ADCC)-optimized variant (MB314). MB314 was generated by a plant expression system that uses genetically modified moss protoplasts (Physcomitrella patens) to generate a de-fucosylated version of MB311. In contrast to MB311, no or very low interactions of MB314 with lectins Aspergillus oryzae l-fucose (AOL), Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) were observed. These lectins are specific for mono-/biantennary N-glycans containing a core fucose residue. Importantly, this fucose indicative lectin-binding pattern correlated with increased MB314 binding to CD16 (FcγRIII; receptor for the constant region of an antibody)-whose affinity is mediated through core fucosylation-and stronger ADCC. In summary, these results demonstrate that lectin microarrays are useful orthogonal methods during antibody development and for characterization.

  5. Is there evidence of optimisation for carbon efficiency in plant proteomes?

    KAUST Repository

    Jankovic, Boris R.

    2011-07-25

    Flowering plants, angiosperms, can be divided into two major clades, monocots and dicots, and while differences in amino acid composition in different species from the two clades have been reported, a systematic analysis of amino acid content and distribution remains outstanding. Here, we show that monocot and dicot proteins have developed distinct amino acid content. In Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, as in the ancestral moss Physcomitrella patens, the average mass per amino acid appears to be independent of protein length, while in the monocots rice, maize and sorghum, shorter proteins tend to be made of lighter amino acids. An examination of the elemental content of these proteomes reveals that the difference between monocot and dicot proteins can be largely attributed to their different carbon signatures. In monocots, the shorter proteins, which comprise the majority of all proteins, are made of amino acids with less carbon, while the nitrogen content is unchanged in both monocots and dicots. We hypothesise that this signature could be the result of carbon use and energy optimisation in fast-growing annual Poaceae (grasses). © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. A census of nuclear cyanobacterial recruits in the plant kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Makai

    Full Text Available The plastids and mitochondria of the eukaryotic cell are of endosymbiotic origin. These events occurred ~2 billion years ago and produced significant changes in the genomes of the host and the endosymbiont. Previous studies demonstrated that the invasion of land affected plastids and mitochondria differently and that the paths of mitochondrial integration differed between animals and plants. Other studies examined the reasons why a set of proteins remained encoded in the organelles and were not transferred to the nuclear genome. However, our understanding of the functional relations of the transferred genes is insufficient. In this paper, we report a high-throughput phylogenetic analysis to identify genes of cyanobacterial origin for plants of different levels of complexity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Physcomitrella patens, Populus trichocarpa, Selaginella moellendorffii, Sorghum bicolor, Oryza sativa, and Ostreococcus tauri. Thus, a census of cyanobacterial gene recruits and a study of their function are presented to better understand the functional aspects of plastid symbiogenesis. From algae to angiosperms, the GO terms demonstrated a gradual expansion over functionally related genes in the nuclear genome, beginning with genes related to thylakoids and photosynthesis, followed by genes involved in metabolism, and finally with regulation-related genes, primarily in angiosperms. The results demonstrate that DNA is supplied to the nuclear genome on a permanent basis with no regard to function, and only what is needed is kept, which thereby expands on the GO space along the related genes.

  7. Evolution of plant P-type ATPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N.S. Pedersen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauria and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a moss, Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant, and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant. Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Our analysis demonstrates when specific subgroups of P-type ATPases disappeared in the evolution of Angiosperms. Na/K-pump related P2C ATPases were lost with the evolution of streptophytes whereas Na+ or K+ pumping P2D ATPases and secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases remained until mosses. An N-terminally located calmodulin binding domain in P2B ATPases can only be detected in pumps from Streptophytae, whereas, like in animals, a C-terminally localized calmodulin binding domain might be present in chlorophyte P2B Ca2+-ATPases. Chlorophyte genomes encode P3A ATPases resembling protist plasma membrane H+-ATPases and a C-terminal regulatory domain is missing. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps.

  8. The AFL subfamily of B3 transcription factors: evolution and function in angiosperm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Seed development follows zygotic embryogenesis; during the maturation phase reserves accumulate and desiccation tolerance is acquired. This is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level and the AFL (ABI3/FUS3/LEC2) subfamily of B3 transcription factors (TFs) play a central role. They alter hormone biosynthesis, mainly in regards to abscisic acid and gibberellins, and also regulate the expression of other TFs and/or modulate their downstream activity via protein-protein interactions. This review deals with the origin of AFL TFs, which can be traced back to non-vascular plants such as Physcomitrella patens and achieves foremost expansion in the angiosperms. In green algae, like the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the pluricellular Klebsormidium flaccidum, a single B3 gene and four B3 paralogous genes are annotated, respectively. However, none of them present with the structural features of the AFL subfamily, with the exception of the B3 DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis groups the AFL TFs into four Major Clusters of Ortologous Genes (MCOGs). The origin and function of these genes is discussed in view of their expression patterns and in the context of major regulatory interactions in seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evolutionary origin of phytochrome responses and signaling in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Keisuke; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2017-11-01

    Phytochromes comprise one of the major photoreceptor families in plants, and they regulate many aspects of plant growth and development throughout the plant life cycle. A canonical land plant phytochrome originated in the common ancestor of streptophytes. Phytochromes have diversified in seed plants and some basal land plants because of lineage-specific gene duplications that occurred during the course of land plant evolution. Molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that there are two types of phytochromes in angiosperms, light-labile type I and light-stable type II, which have different signaling mechanisms and which regulate distinct responses. In basal land plants, little is known about molecular mechanisms of phytochrome signaling, although red light/far-red photoreversible physiological responses and the distribution of phytochrome genes are relatively well documented. Recent advances in molecular genetics using the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha revealed that basal land plants show far-red-induced responses and that the establishment of phytochrome-mediated transcriptional regulation dates back to at least the common ancestor of land plants. In this review, we summarize our knowledge concerning functions of land plant phytochromes, especially in basal land plants, and discuss subfunctionalization/neofunctionalization of phytochrome signaling during the course of land plant evolution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Efficient and Heritable Targeted Mutagenesis in Mosses Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Toshihisa; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    Targeted genome modification by RNA-guided nucleases derived from the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has seen rapid development in many organisms, including several plant species. In the present study, we succeeded in introducing the CRISPR/Cas9 system into the non-model organism Scopelophila cataractae, a moss that exhibits heavy metal tolerance, and the model organism Physcomitrella patens Utilizing the process by which moss plants regenerate from protoplasts, we conducted targeted mutagenesis by expression of single-chain guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 in protoplasts. Using this method, the acquisition rate of strains exhibiting phenotypic changes associated with the target genes was approximately 45-69%, and strains with phenotypic changes exhibited various insertion and deletion mutations. In addition, we report that our method is capable of multiplex targeted mutagenesis (two independent genes) and also permits the efficient introduction of large deletions (∼3 kbp). These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to accelerate investigations of bryology and land plant evolution. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Application of Lectin Array Technology for Biobetter Characterization: Its Correlation with FcγRIII Binding and ADCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Roucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectin microarray technology was applied to compare the glycosylation pattern of the monoclonal antibody MB311 expressed in SP2.0 cells to an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic effector function (ADCC-optimized variant (MB314. MB314 was generated by a plant expression system that uses genetically modified moss protoplasts (Physcomitrella patens to generate a de-fucosylated version of MB311. In contrast to MB311, no or very low interactions of MB314 with lectins Aspergillus oryzae l-fucose (AOL, Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA, Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA, and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL were observed. These lectins are specific for mono-/biantennary N-glycans containing a core fucose residue. Importantly, this fucose indicative lectin-binding pattern correlated with increased MB314 binding to CD16 (FcγRIII; receptor for the constant region of an antibody—whose affinity is mediated through core fucosylation—and stronger ADCC. In summary, these results demonstrate that lectin microarrays are useful orthogonal methods during antibody development and for characterization.

  12. Isopentenyltransferase-1 (IPT1) knockout in Physcomitrella together with phylogenetic analyses of IPTs provide insights into evolution of plant cytokinin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is part of an early divergent clade of land plants utilizing the plant hormone cytokinin for growth control. The rate-limiting step of cytokinin biosynthesis is mediated by isopentenyltransferases (IPTs), found in land plants either as adenylate-IPTs or as tRNA-IPTs. Although a dominant part of cytokinins in flowering plants are synthesized by adenylate-IPTs, the Physcomitrella genome only encodes homologues of tRNA-IPTs. This study therefore looked into the question of whether cytokinins in moss derive from tRNA exclusively. Targeted gene knockout of ipt1 (d|ipt1) along with localization studies revealed that the chloroplast-bound IPT1 was almost exclusively responsible for the A37 prenylation of tRNA in Physcomitrella. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based cytokinin profiling demonstrated that the total amount of all free cytokinins in tissue was almost unaffected. However, the knockout plants showed increased levels of the N 6-isopentenyladenine (iP)- and trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins, considered to provide active forms, while cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins were reduced. The data provide evidence for an additional and unexpected tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthetic pathway in moss. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates a diversification of tRNA-IPT-like genes in bryophytes probably related to additional functions. PMID:24692654

  13. Peculiar Evolutionary History of miR390-Guided TAS3-Like Genes in Land Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Krasnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR-based approach was used as a phylogenetic profiling tool to probe genomic DNA samples from representatives of evolutionary distant moss taxa, namely, classes Bryopsida, Tetraphidopsida, Polytrichopsida, Andreaeopsida, and Sphagnopsida. We found relatives of all Physcomitrella patens miR390 and TAS3-like loci in these plant taxa excluding Sphagnopsida. Importantly, cloning and sequencing of Marchantia polymorpha genomic DNA showed miR390 and TAS3-like sequences which were also found among genomic reads of M. polymorpha at NCBI database. Our data suggest that the ancient plant miR390-dependent TAS molecular machinery firstly evolved to target AP2-like mRNAs in Marchantiophyta and only then both ARF- and AP2-specific mRNAs in mosses. The presented analysis shows that moss TAS3 families may undergone losses of tasiAP2 sites during evolution toward ferns and seed plants. These data confirm that miR390-guided genes coding for ARF- and AP2-specific ta-siRNAs have been gradually changed during land plant evolution.

  14. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs.

  15. Origins and Evolution of Stomatal Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The fossil record suggests stomata-like pores were present on the surfaces of land plants over 400 million years ago. Whether stomata arose once or whether they arose independently across newly evolving land plant lineages has long been a matter of debate. In Arabidopsis, a genetic toolbox has been identified that tightly controls stomatal development and patterning. This includes the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, FAMA, and ICE/SCREAMs (SCRMs), which promote stomatal formation. These factors are regulated via a signaling cascade, which includes mobile EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides to enforce stomatal spacing. Mosses and hornworts, the most ancient extant lineages to possess stomata, possess orthologs of these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal toolbox genes, and manipulation in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens has shown that the bHLH and EPF components are also required for moss stomatal development and patterning. This supports an ancient and tightly conserved genetic origin of stomata. Here, we review recent discoveries and, by interrogating newly available plant genomes, we advance the story of stomatal development and patterning across land plant evolution. Furthermore, we identify potential orthologs of the key toolbox genes in a hornwort, further supporting a single ancient genetic origin of stomata in the ancestor to all stomatous land plants. PMID:28356502

  16. GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE channels are essential for chemotaxis and reproduction in mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Carlos; Michard, Erwan; Simon, Alexander A; Damineli, Daniel S C; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Becker, Jörg D; Feijó, José A

    2017-09-07

    Glutamate receptors are well characterized channels that mediate cell-to-cell communication during neurotransmission in animals, but their functional role in organisms without a nervous system remains unclear. In plants, genes of the GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE (GLR) family have been implicated in defence against pathogens, reproduction, control of stomata aperture and light signal transduction. However, the large number of GLR genes present in angiosperm genomes (20 to 70) has prevented the observation of strong phenotypes in loss-of-function mutants. Here we show that in the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens, mutation of the GLR genes GLR1 and GLR2 causes failure of sperm cells to target the female reproductive organs. In addition, we show that GLR genes encode non-selective Ca2+-permeable channels that can regulate cytoplasmic Ca2+ and are needed to induce the expression of a BELL1-like transcription factor essential for zygote development. Our work reveals functions for GLR channels in sperm chemotaxis and transcriptional regulation. Sperm chemotaxis is essential for fertilization in both animals and early land plants such as bryophytes and pteridophytes. Therefore, our results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors may have been conserved throughout plant evolution to mediate cell-to-cell communication during sexual reproduction.

  17. Identification of Plant Homologues of Dual Specificity Yak1-Related Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Karpov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Dual Specificity YAK1-Related Kinases (MNB/DYRK were found in slime molds, protista, fungi, and animals, but the existence of plant homologues is still unclear. In the present study, we have identified 14 potential plant homologues with the previously unknown functions, based on the strong sequence similarity. The results of bioinformatics analysis revealed their correspondence to DYRK1A, DYRK1B, DYRK3, and DYRK4. For two plant homologues of animal DYRK1A from Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis thaliana spatial structures of catalytic domains were predicted, as well as their complexes with ADP and selective inhibitor d15. Comparative analysis of 3D-structures of the human DYRK1A and plant homologues, their complexes with the specific inhibitors, and results of molecular dynamics confirm their structural and functional similarity with high probability. Preliminary data indicate the presence of potential MNB/DYRK specific phosphorylation sites in such proteins associated with plant cytoskeleton as plant microtubule-associated proteins WVD2 and WDL1, and FH5 and SCAR2 involved in the organization and polarity of the actin cytoskeleton and some kinesin-like microtubule motor proteins.

  18. Quantitative imaging of directional transport through plasmodesmata in moss protonemata via single-cell photoconversion of Dendra2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Munenori; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2013-07-01

    Cell-to-cell transport of molecules in plants must be properly regulated for plant growth and development. One specialized mechanism that plants have evolved involves transport through plasmodesmata (PD), but when and how transport of molecules via PD is regulated among individual cells remains largely unknown, particularly at the single-cell level. Here, we developed a tool for quantitatively analyzing cell-to-cell transport via PD at a single-cell level using protonemata of Physcomitrella patens and a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, Dendra2. In the filamentous protonemal tissues, one-dimensional intercellular communication can be observed easily. Using this system, we found that Dendra2 was directionally transported toward the apex of the growing protonemata. However, this directional transport could be eliminated by incubation in the dark or treatment with a metabolic inhibitor. Thus, we propose that directional transport of macromolecules can occur via PD in moss protonemata, and may be affected by the photosynthetic and metabolic activity of cells.

  19. A novel plant enzyme with dual activity: an atypical Nudix hydrolase and a dipeptidyl peptidase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karačić, Zrinka; Vukelić, Bojana; Ho, Gabrielle H; Jozić, Iva; Sučec, Iva; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Kozlović, Marija; Brenner, Steven E; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Abramić, Marija

    2017-01-01

    In a search for plant homologues of dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) family, we found a predicted protein from the moss Physcomitrella patens (UniProt entry: A9TLP4), which shared 61% sequence identity with the Arabidopsis thaliana uncharacterized protein, designated Nudix hydrolase 3. Both proteins contained all conserved regions of the DPP III family, but instead of the characteristic hexapeptide HEXXGH zinc-binding motif, they possessed a pentapeptide HEXXH, and at the N-terminus, a Nudix box, a hallmark of Nudix hydrolases, known to act upon a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. To investigate their biochemical properties, we expressed heterologously and purified Physcomitrella (PpND) and Arabidopsis (AtND) protein. Both hydrolyzed, with comparable catalytic efficiency, the isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a universal precursor for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds. In addition, PpND dephosphorylated four purine nucleotides (ADP, dGDP, dGTP, and 8-oxo-dATP) with strong preference for oxidized dATP. Furthermore, PpND and AtND showed DPP III activity against dipeptidyl-2-arylamide substrates, which they cleaved with different specificity. This is the first report of a dual activity enzyme, highly conserved in land plants, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of a peptide bond and of a phosphate bond, acting both as a dipeptidyl peptidase III and an atypical Nudix hydrolase.

  20. AcEST: DK959863 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ized protein OS=Popul... 264 3e-69 tr|A3F580|A3F580_WHEAT RAR1 OS=Triticum aestivum GN=RAR1 PE=2 SV=1 261 3e...dicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 260 6e-68 tr|Q9FLI9|Q9FLI9_ARATH RAR1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana PE=4... SV=1 258 2e-67 tr|Q9SE33|Q9SE33_ARATH RAR1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=Rar1 PE=2...... 258 2e-67 tr|B6EBD3|B6EBD3_SOYBN RAR1 protein OS=Glycine max PE=2 SV=1 256 7e-67 tr|Q8LL14|Q8LL14_TOBAC R...ve OS=Solanum demissu... 174 6e-42 tr|Q6T3R4|Q6T3R4_NICBE RAR1-like protein (Fragment) OS=Nicotiana... 169 1