WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind vortex sensing

  1. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  2. Analysis of Ground-Wind Vortex Sensing System Data from O'Hare International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    From July 1976 through September 1977, aircraft wake vortex data were collected on the approach to runways 14R, 27R, and 32L at O'Hare International Airport. The vortices from over 21,000 aircraft were tracked using the propeller anemometer Ground-Wi...

  3. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  4. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  5. Examples of Applications of Vortex Methods to Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The current chapter presents wind-energy simulations obtained with the vortex code OmniVor (described in Chap. 44 ) and compared to BEM, CFD and measurements. The chapter begins by comparing rotor loads obtained with vortex methods, BEM and actuator-line simulations of wind turbines under uniform...... and yawed inflows. The second section compares wakes and flow fields obtained by actuator-disk simulations and a free-wake vortex code that uses vortex segments and vortex particles. The third section compares different implementations of viscous diffusion models and investigate their effects...

  6. Vortex system studies on small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomerie, Bjoern; Dahlberg, Jan-Aake [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Aeronautics, FFA

    2003-10-01

    The wind tunnel experiment reported included a small wind turbine setup and smoke to visualize the trailing tip vortices for different wind turbine configurations. Several combinations of tunnel wind speeds and tip speed ratios generated a database where the end result functions were radius and pitch, of the tip vortex spirals, versus the downstream coordinate. The Reynolds number in the experiment was very low compared to that of full size turbines. The results should therefore be seen as valid only for low Reynolds numbers. The models were 18 and 25 cm diameter turbines. This is thought to be complementary to the information obtained in similar wind tunnel investigations for much larger models. The database is meant to be a fundamental tool for the construction of practical aerodynamic induction methods. Such methods typically employ the Biot-Savart law has been shown to lead to a flow field, which deviates considerably from that of reality. E.g. concentration into tip vortices does not happen when the flow is simulated with Biot-Savart law only. Thus, a combination of the induction method and its modification, based on investigations such as the one reported, is foreseen to replace the widely used Blade Element Momentum method for wind turbine loads and performance prediction.

  7. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  8. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  9. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  10. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  11. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  12. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  13. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...

  14. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  15. Sensing the wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combini...

  16. Remote sensing for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Bay Hasager, C.; Lange, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark) (and others

    2013-06-15

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risoe) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory. The report will allow alumni to trace back details after the course and benefit from the collection of information. This is the third edition of the report (first externally available), after very successful and demanded first two, and we warmly acknowledge all the contributing authors for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art 'guideline' available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. (Author)

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  18. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  19. Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between high latitude upper mesospheric winds and the state of the stratospheric polar vortex in the absence of major sudden stratospheric warmings. A ground based Michelson Interferometer stationed at Resolute Bay (74°43' N, 94°58' W in the Canadian High Arctic is used to measure mesopause region neutral winds using the hydroxyl (OH Meinel-band airglow emission (central altitude of ~85 km. These observed winds are compared to analysis winds in the upper stratosphere during November and December of 1995 and 1996; years characterized as cold, stable polar vortex periods. Correlation of mesopause wind speeds with those from the upper stratosphere is found to be significant for the 1996 season when the polar vortex is subtly displaced off its initial location by a strong Aleutian High. These mesopause winds are observed to lead stratospheric winds by approximately two days with increasing (decreasing mesospheric winds predictive of decreasing (increasing stratospheric winds. No statistically significant correlations are found for the 1995 season when there is no such displacement of the polar vortex.

  20. The Effect of Mounting Vortex Generators on the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current work is to analyze possible advantages of mounting Vortex Generators (VG's) on a wind turbine blade. Specifically, the project aims at investigating at which radial sections of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine blade it is most beneficial to mount the VG's in order...

  1. Mitigation of Wind Turbine/Vortex Interaction Using Disturbance Accommodating Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2003-12-01

    Wind turbines, a competitive source of emission-free electricity, are being designed with diameters and hub heights approaching 100 m, to further reduce the cost of the energy they produce. At this height above the ground, the wind turbine is exposed to atmospheric phenomena such as low-level jets, gravity waves, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which are not currently modeled in wind turbine design codes. These atmospheric phenomena can generate coherent turbulence that causes high cyclic loads on wind turbine blades. These fluctuating loads lead to fatigue damage accumulation and blade lifetime reduction. Advanced control was used to mitigate vortex-induced blade cyclic loading. A full-state feedback controller that incorporates more detailed vortex inputs achieved significantly greater blade load reduction. Blade loads attributed to vortex passage, then, can be reduced through advanced control, and further reductions appear feasible.

  2. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac

    2016-01-01

    Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements...... are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean...

  3. A free wake vortex lattice model for vertical axis wind turbines: Modeling, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanzhong; Schwarze, Holger; Vorpahl, Fabian; Strobel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s several research activities had been carried out on developing aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). In order to design large VAWTs of MW scale, more accurate aerodynamic calculation is required to predict their aero-elastic behaviours. In this paper, a 3D free wake vortex lattice model for VAWTs is developed, verified and validated. Comparisons to the experimental results show that the 3D free wake vortex lattice model developed is capable of making an accurate prediction of the general performance and the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the blades. The comparison between momentum method and the vortex lattice model shows that free wake vortex models are needed for detailed loads calculation and for calculating highly loaded rotors

  4. Vortex lattice modelling of winglets on wind turbine blades. 3. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doessing, M.

    2007-08-15

    The power production of wind turbines can be increased by the use of winglets without increasing the swept area. This makes them suitable for sites with restrictions in rotor diameter and in wind farms. The present project aims at understanding how winglets influences the flow and the aerodynamic forces on wind turbine blades. A free wake vortex lattice code and a fast design algorithm for a horizontal axis wind turbine under steady conditions has been developed. 2 winglet designs are treated in detail. (au)

  5. Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT ...may be used to construct spatially varying wind fields for the GOM region (e.g., Thompson and Cardone [12]), but this requires using a complicated...Storm Damage Reduc- tion, and Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER). The USACE Headquarters granted permission to publish this paper

  6. A Prescribed-Wake Vortex Line Method for Aerodynamic Analysis and Optimization of Multi-Rotor Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Aaron; Sharma, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extend the xed wake vortex lattice method (VLM), used to evaluate the performance of single-rotor wind turbines (SRWT), for use in analyzing dual-rotor wind turbines (DRWT). VLM models wind turbine blades as bound vortex laments with helical trailing vortices. Using the Biot-Savart law, it is possible to calculate the induction in the plane of rotation allowing for a computationally inexpensive, yet accurate, prediction of blade loading and power performance....

  7. Numerical Investigation of the Tip Vortex of a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Double-Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. In this study, the number of blades is two and the airfoil is a NACA0021 with chord length of c = 0.265 m. To capture the tip vortex characteristics, the velocity fields are investigated by the Q-criterion iso-surface (Q = 100 with shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model at different tip speed ratios (TSRs. Then, mean velocity, velocity deficit and torque coefficient acting on the blade in the different spanwise positions are compared. The wind velocities obtained by CFD simulations are also compared with the experimental data from wind tunnel experiments. As a result, we can state that the wind velocity curves calculated by CFD simulations are consistent with Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV measurements. The distribution of the vortex structure along the spanwise direction is more complex at a lower TSR and the tip vortex has a longer dissipation distance at a high TSR. In addition, the mean wind velocity shows a large value near the blade tip and a small value near the blade due to the vortex effect.

  8. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds, https://vortex-winds.org, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  9. Remote sensing observation used in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Christiansen, Merete Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing observations used in offshore wind energy are described in three parts: ground-based techniques and applications, airborne techniques and applications, and satellite-based techniques and applications. Ground-based remote sensing of winds is relevant, in particular, for new large wind...

  10. Hybrid vortex simulations of wind turbines using a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid panel method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    adirect calculation, whereas the contribution from the large downstream wake is calculated using a mesh-based method. Thehybrid method is first validated in detail against the well-known MEXICO experiment, using the direct filament method asa comparison. The second part of the validation includes a study......A hybrid filament-mesh vortex method is proposed and validated to predict the aerodynamic performance of wind turbinerotors and to simulate the resulting wake. Its novelty consists of using a hybrid method to accurately simulate the wakedownstream of the wind turbine while reducing...

  11. Vortex-induced vibrations on a modern wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Joachim Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the aero-elastic response of the DTU 10-MW RWT blade in deep stall conditions with angles of attack in the vicinity of 90 degrees. The simulations were conducted with the high-fidelity fluid–structure interaction simulation tool HAWC2CFD employing the multi......-body-based structural model of HAWC2 and the incompressible computational fluid dynamics solver EllipSys3D. The study utilizes detached eddy simulation computations and considers the three-dimensional blade geometry including blade twist and taper. A preliminary frequency analysis of the load variations on a stiff....... Aero-elastic computations of the elastic blade confirmed the findings of the frequency analysis. Inflow conditions with inclination angles between Ψ = 20° and Ψ = 55° and relatively low to moderate wind speeds between V = 16 and V = 26 m s-1 were sufficient to trigger severe edgewise blade vibrations...

  12. Stochastic oscillations induced by vortex shedding in wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus

    1997-01-01

    As a fluid flows past a circular cylinder,vortices are shed alternately from each side at most values of the Reynolds number. Over a certain range of windspeeds, the periodicity in the wake is synchronized or captured by the mechanical system. The shedding abruptly deviates from the linear Strouhal...... dependence and stays constant at the mechanical natural frequency. This coupling between the velocity field and the motion of the mechanical system is referred to as the lock-in phenomenon. The lock-in phenomenon has importance in structural engineering for slightly damped slender structures exposed to wind...... in the wake is synchronized or captured by the mechanical system. The shedding abruptly deviates from the linear Strouhal dependence and stays constant at the mechanical natural frequency. This coupling between the velocity field and the motion of the mechanical system is referred to as the lock-in phenomenon...

  13. Generic vortex modelling for horizontal-axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a generic free-wake calculation of wind turbine wakes. The expanding, helical, tip vortices are represented by a sequence of straight segments, the blades are modelled as lines of constant bound vorticity, and the hub vortices lie along the axis of rotation. It is shown that this model is consistent with the one-dimensional analysis that leads to the Lanchester-Betz limit, in that the velocity in the far-wake is uniform with radius. Particular attention is paid to turbines operating above the Lanchester-Betz limit. It is shown that the usual relationship between the velocity through the blades and in the far-wake breaks down when there is significant wake expansion, and an empirical modification to that relation is presented. For highly expanding wakes, the dynamics of the turbine depend sensitively on the behaviour of the tip vortices. (author)

  14. Impact of a wind turbine on turbulence: Un-freezing turbulence by means of a simple vortex particle approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Mercier, P.; Machefaux, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    by a bound vorticity lifting line while the turbine wake vorticity and the turbulence vorticity are projected onto vortex particles. In the present work the rotor blades are stiff leaving aero-elastic interactions for future work. Inflow turbulence is generated with the model of Mann and converted to vortex......? Is it acceptable to neglect the influence of the wake and the wind turbine on the turbulent inflow? Is there evidence to justify the extra cost of a method capable of including these effects correctly? To this end, a unified vorticity representation of the flow is used: the wind turbine model is represented......A vortex particle representation of turbulent fields is devised in order to address the following questions: Does a wind turbine affect the statistics of the incoming turbulence? Should this imply a change in the way turbulence boxes are used in wind turbine aero-elastic simulations...

  15. Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaal, J.B., de; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating oshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unied model that can represent both dynamic in ow and skewed in ow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a model...... presents a good intermediate solution between computationally efficient but simple momentum balance methods and computationally expensive but complete computational fluid dynamics models. The model introduced is shown to be capable of modelling typical steady and unsteady test cases with reasonable...

  16. Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaal, J B de; Moan, T; Hansen, M O L

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating offshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unified model that can represent both dynamic inflow and skewed inflow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a model presents a good intermediate solution between computationally efficient but simple momentum balance methods and computationally expensive but complete computational fluid dynamics models. The model introduced is shown to be capable of modelling typical steady and unsteady test cases with reasonable accuracy

  17. WindScanner.eu - a new Remote Sensing Research Infrastructure for On- and Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Siggaard Knudsen, Søren; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    will be disseminated throughout Europe to pilot European wind energy research centers. The new research infrastructure will become an open source infrastructure that also invites collaboration with wind energy related atmospheric scientists and wind energy industry overseas. Recent achievements with 3D Wind......A new remote sensing based research infrastructure for atmospheric boundary-layer wind and turbulence measurements named WindScanner have during the past three years been in its early phase of development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. During the forthcoming three years the technology......Scanners and spin-off innovation activity are described. The Danish WindScanner.dk research facility is build from new and fast-scanning remote sensing equipment spurred from achievements within fiber optics and telecommunication technologies. At the same time the wind energy society has demanded excessive 3D wind...

  18. Counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wake of a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Despite the rising popularity of vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs, the wakes behind these machines is much less well understood than those behind horizontal axis wind turbines, or HAWTs. A thorough understanding of wakes is important as they can cause turbines in wind farms to produce less power than anticipated and increase the fatigue loading on turbines due to vibrations. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the wake behind a vertical axis wind turbine in atmospheric flow stereo-PIV is implemented in a boundary-layer wind tunnel to produce snapshots of the 3-component velocity field in the wake at various downstream positions. The boundaries of the wake are readily observed due to the high velocity gradients and turbulence present here. Two pairs of counter-rotating vortices similar to those in the wake of yawed HAWTs are also observed. An examination of the momentum fluxes behind the turbine demonstrates that the mean flow induced by these vortices entrains a large quantity of momentum from the unperturbed boundary layer flow above the wake. This effect proves to play an even more significant role than turbulence in reintroducing momentum into the wake. In order to comprehend why the VAWT produces these vortices we modify the double-multiple stream-tube model typically used to predict VAWT performance to incorporate crosswind forces. The similarity between VAWT and yawed HAWT wakes is found not to be coincidental as both cases feature rotors which exert a lateral thrust on the incoming wind which leads to the creation of counter-rotating vortex pairs.

  19. Vortex-Induced Vibration of an Airfoil Used in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Bridget; Carlson, Daniel; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-11-01

    In Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), when the blades are placed at high angles of attack with respect to the incoming flow, they could experience flow-induced oscillations. A series of experiments in a re-circulating water tunnel was conducted to study the possible Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a fully-submerged, flexibly-mounted NACA 0021 airfoil, which is used in some designs of VAWTs. The airfoil was free to oscillate in the crossflow direction, and the tests were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 600vortex shedding patterns. This research is supported in part by the National Science Foundation under NSF Award Numbers 1460461 and CBET-1437988.

  20. Short term prediction of the horizontal wind vector within a wake vortex warning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frech, M.; Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Konopka, J. [Deutsche Flugsicherung (DFS) GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2000-07-14

    A wake vortex warning system (WVWS) has been developed for Frankfurt airport. This airport has two parallel runways which are separated by 518 m, a distance too short to operate them independently because wake vortices may be advected to the adjacent runway. The objective of the WVWS is to enable operation with reduced separation between two aircraft approaching the parallel runways at appropriate wind conditions. The WVWS applies a statistical persistence model to predict the crosswind within a 20 minute period. One of the main problems identified in the old WVWS are discontinuities between successive forecasts. These forecast breakdowns were not acceptable to airtraffic controllers. At least part of the problem was related to the fact that the forecast was solely based on the prediction of crosswind. A new method is developed on the basis of 523 days of sonic anemometer measurements at Frankfurt airport. It is demonstrated that the prediction of the horizontal wind vector avoids these difficulties and significantly improves the system's performance. (orig.)

  1. WindScanner.eu - a new remote sensing research infrastructure for on- and offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Knudsen, Soeren; Sjoeholm, M.; Angeloua, N.; Tegtmeier, A. [Technical Univ. og Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    A new remote sensing based research infrastructure for atmospheric boundary-layer wind and turbulence measurements named WindScanner have during the past three years been in its early phase of development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. During the forthcoming three years the technology will be disseminated throughout Europe to pilot European wind energy research centers. The new research infrastructure will become an open source infrastructure that also invites collaboration with wind energy related atmospheric scientists and wind energy industry overseas. Recent achievements with 3D WindScanners and spin-off innovation activity are described. The Danish WindScanner.dk research facility is build from new and fast-scanning remote sensing equipment spurred from achievements within fiber optics and telecommunication technologies. At the same time the wind energy society has demanded excessive 3D wind flow and ever taller wind profile measurements for the wind energy resource assessment studies on- and off shore of the future. Today, hub heights on +5 MW wind turbines exceed the 100 m mark. At the Danish DTU test site Oesterild testing is ongoing with a Siemens turbine with hub height 120 meters and a rotor diameter of 154 meters; hence its blade tips reaches almost 200 meters into the sky. The wind speed profiles over the rotor planes are consequently no longer representatively measured by a single cup anemometer at hub height from a nearby met-mast; power curve assessment as well as turbine control call for multi-height multi point measurement strategies of wind speed and wind shear within the turbines entire rotor plane. The development of our new remote sensing-based WindScanner.dk facility as well as the first measurement results obtained to date are here presented, including a first wind lidar measurement of turbulence in complex terrain within an internal boundary layer developing behind an escarpment. Also measurements of wind speed and direction profiles

  2. Wakes behind wind turbines. Studies on tip vortex evolution and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odemark, Ylva

    2012-07-01

    The increased fatigue loads and decreased power output of a wind turbine placed in the wake of another turbine is a well-known problem when building new wind power farms. In order to better estimate the total power output of a wind power farm, knowledge about the development and stability of wind turbine wakes is crucial. In the present thesis, the wake behind a small-scale model turbine was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The velocity in the wake was measured with hot-wire anemometry, for different free stream velocities and tip speed ratios. To characterize the behaviour of the model turbine, the power output, thrust force and rotational frequency of the model were also measured. These results were then compared to calculations using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method. New turbine blades for the model was constructed using the same method, in order to get an estimate of the distribution of the lift and drag forces along the blades. This information is needed for comparisons with certain numerical simulations, which however remains to be performed.By placing the turbine at different heights in a turbulent boundary layer, the effects of forest turbulence on wind turbine outputs (power and thrust) could also be investigated.The evolution of the tip vortices shed from the turbine blades was studied by performing velocity measurements around the location of the tip vortex breakdown. The vortices' receptivity to disturbances was then studied by introducing a disturbance in the form of two pulsed jets, located in the rear part of the nacelle. In order to introduce a well-defined disturbance and perform phase-locked measurements, a new experimental setup was constructed and successfully tested for two different disturbance frequencies. The mean stream wise velocity and the stream wise turbulence intensity was found to scale well with the free stream velocity and the spreading of the wake was found to be proportional to the square root of the

  3. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  4. Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Antenna gain impact on UWB wind turbine blade deflection sensing is studied in this paper. Simulations are applied with a 4.5-meter blade tip. The antennas with high gain (HG) and low gain (LG) in free space are simulated inside a blade. It is interesting to find that tip antennas with HG and LG...

  5. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Astr. (2000) 21, 439–444. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio. Astronomy Methods and Numerical Simulations. S. Ananthakrishnan, National Center for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of. Fundamental Research, Pune, India. Abstract. The ground-based radio astronomy method of interplanetary.

  6. Vortex particle-mesh simulations of vertical axis wind turbine flows: from the airfoil performance to the very far wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatelain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A vortex particle-mesh (VPM method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity–velocity formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters. The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.

  7. Vortex Particle-Mesh simulations of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows: from the blade aerodynamics to the very far wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Caprace, D.-G.; Marichal, Y.; Winckelmans, G.

    2016-09-01

    A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features.

  8. Vortex Particle-Mesh simulations of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows: from the blade aerodynamics to the very far wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, P; Duponcheel, M; Caprace, D-G; Winckelmans, G; Marichal, Y

    2016-01-01

    A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features. (paper)

  9. Frequency Stepped Pulse Train Modulated Wind Sensing Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    of frequency shifts corresponding to a specific distance. The spatial resolution depends on the repetition rate of the pulses in the pulse train. Directional wind measurements are shown and compared to a CW lidar measurement. The carrier to noise ratio of the FSPT lidar compared to a CW lidar is discussed......In this paper a wind sensing lidar utilizing a Frequency Stepped Pulse Train (FSPT) is demonstrated. One of the advantages in the FSTP lidar is that it enables direct measurement of wind speed as a function of distance from the lidar. Theoretically the FSPT lidar continuously produces measurements...... as is the case with a CW lidar, but at the same time with a spatial resolution, and without the range ambiguity originating from e.g. clouds. The FSPT lidar utilizes a frequency sweeping source for generation of the FSPT. The source generates a pulse train where each pulse has an optical carrier frequency...

  10. Evolution and breakdown of helical vortex wakes behind a wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, A; Jacono, D Lo; Sheridan, J; Blackburn, H M; Sherry, M

    2014-01-01

    The wake behind a three-bladed Glauert model rotor in a water channel was investigated. Planar particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocity fields on the wake centre-line, with snapshots phase-locked to blade position of the rotor. Phase- locked averages of the velocity and vorticity fields are shown, with tip vortex interaction and entanglement of the helical filaments elucidated. Proper orthogonal decomposition and topology-based vortex identification are used to filter the PIV images for coherent structures and locate vortex cores. Application of these methods to the instantaneous data reveals unsteady behaviour of the helical filaments that is statistically quantifiable

  11. Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.

  12. Aeroelastic simulation of multi-MW wind turbines using a free vortex model coupled to a geometrically exact beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverin, Joseph; Peukert, Juliane; Marten, David; Pechlivanoglou, George; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Greenblatt, David

    2016-01-01

    The current paper investigates the aeroelastic modelling of large, flexible multi- MW wind turbine blades. Most current performance prediction tools make use of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model, based upon a number of simplifying assumptions that hold only under steady conditions. This is why a lifting line free vortex wake (LLFVW) algorithm is used here to accurately resolve unsteady wind turbine aerodynamics. A coupling to the structural analysis tool BeamDyn, based on geometrically exact beam theory, allows for time-resolved aeroelastic simulations with highly deflected blades including bend-twist, coupling. Predictions of blade loading and deformation for rigid and flexible blades are analysed with reference to different aerodynamic and structural approaches. The emergency shutdown procedure is chosen as an examplary design load case causing large deflections to place emphasis on the influence of structural coupling and demonstrate the necessity of high fidelity structural models. (paper)

  13. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Passive Vortex Control and Vortex-Tail Interactions on a Slender Wing at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of passive porosity on vortex flow interactions about a slender wing configuration at subsonic and transonic speeds. Flow-through porosity was applied in several arrangements to a leading-edge extension, or LEX, mounted to a 65-degree cropped delta wing as a longitudinal instability mitigation technique. Test data were obtained with LEX on and off in the presence of a centerline vertical tail and twin, wing-mounted vertical fins to quantify the sensitivity of the aerodynamics to tail placement and orientation. A close-coupled canard was tested as an alternative to the LEX as a passive flow control device. Wing upper surface static pressure distributions and six-component forces and moments were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.85, and 1.20, unit Reynolds number of 2.5 million, angles of attack up to approximately 30 degrees, and angles of sideslip to +/-8 degrees. The off-surface flow field was visualized in cross planes on selected configurations using a laser vapor screen flow visualization technique. Tunnel-to-tunnel data comparisons and a Reynolds number sensitivity assessment were also performed. 15.

  14. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  15. Numerical Validation of a Vortex Model against ExperimentalData on a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dyachuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic blade motion during operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs imposes challenges on the simulations models of the aerodynamics of VAWTs. A two-dimensional vortex model is validated against the new experimental data on a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT, which is operated at an open site. The results on the normal force on one blade are analyzed. The model is assessed against the measured data in the wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.8 to 4.6. The predicted results within one revolution have a similar shape and magnitude as the measured data, though the model does not reproduce every detail of the experimental data. The present model can be used when dimensioning the turbine for maximum loads.

  16. Potential of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Ocean Surface Wind Observations for Determining Tropical Storm Vortex Intensity and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development, which offers the potential of new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation from either UAS or satellite platforms. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven aircraft remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by the NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard version of the instrument is complete and has been successfully tested in an anechoic chamber, and development of the aircraft instrument is well underway. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean vector winds and rain during hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered. Preliminary studies show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor.

  17. Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Segalini, Antonio; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ). The vortex model matched the numerical simulation of the turbine with constant blade circulation in terms of the near-wake structure and local forces along the blade. The results from the Tjæreborg turbine case showed some discrepancies between the two approaches, but overall, the agreement is qualitatively...... good, validating the analytical method for more general conditions. The present results show that a simple vortex code is able to provide an estimation of the flow around the wind turbine similar to the actuator-line approach but with a negligible computational effort. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley...

  18. Vortex, ULF wave and Aurora Observation after Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Here we will summarize our recent study and show some new results on the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Response to Dynamic Pressure Change/disturbances in the Solar Wind and foreshock regions. We study the step function type solar wind dynamic pressure change (increase/decrease) interaction with the magnetosphere using THEMIS satellites at both dayside and nightside in different geocentric distances. Vortices generated by the dynamic pressure change passing along the magnetopause are found and compared with model predictions. ULF waves and vortices are excited in the dayside and nightside plasma sheet when dynamic pressure change hit the magnetotail. The related ionospheric responses, such as aurora and TCVs, are also investigated. We compare Global MHD simulations with the observations. We will also show some new results that dayside magnetospheric FLRs might be caused by foreshock structures.Shi, Q. Q. et al. (2013), THEMIS observations of ULF wave excitation in the nightside plasma sheet during sudden impulse events, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, doi:10.1029/2012JA017984. Shi, Q. Q. et al. (2014), Solar wind pressure pulse-driven magnetospheric vortices and their global consequences, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JA019551. Tian, A.M. et al.(2016), Dayside magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to solar wind pressure increase: Multispacecraft and ground observations, J. Geophys. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/2016JA022459. Shen, X.C. et al.(2015), Magnetospheric ULF waves with increasing amplitude related to solar wind dynamic pressure changes: THEMIS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi:10.1002/2014JA020913Zhao, H. Y. et al. (2016), Magnetospheric vortices and their global effect after a solar wind dynamic pressure decrease, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA021646. Shen, X. C., et al. (2017), Dayside magnetospheric ULF wave frequency modulated by a solar wind dynamic pressure negative impulse, J. Geophys. Res

  19. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Finite Element Based Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, Michael K; Crawford, Curran

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel aerodynamic model based on Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics (LVD) formulated using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The advantage of LVD is improved fidelity over Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) while being faster than Numerical Navier-Stokes Models (NNSM) in either primitive or velocity-vorticity formulations. The model improves on conventional LVD in three ways. First, the model is based on an error minimization formulation that can be solved with fast root finding algorithms. In addition to improving accuracy, this eliminates the intrinsic numerical instability of conventional relaxed wake simulations. The method has further advantages in optimization and aero-elastic simulations for two reasons. The root finding algorithm can solve the aerodynamic and structural equations simultaneously, avoiding Gauss-Seidel iteration for compatibility constraints. The second is that the formulation allows for an analytical definition for sensitivity calculations. The second improvement comes from a new discretization scheme based on an FE formulation and numerical quadrature that decouples the spatial, influencing and temporal meshes. The shape for each trailing filament uses basis functions (interpolating splines) that allow for both local polynomial order and element size refinement. A completely independent scheme distributes the influencing (vorticity) elements along the basis functions. This allows for concentrated elements in the near wake for accuracy and progressively less in the far-wake for efficiency. Finally the third improvement is the use of a far-wake model based on semi-infinite vortex cylinders where the radius and strength are related to the wake state. The error-based FE formulation allows the transition to the far wake to occur across a fixed plane

  1. Wind erosion in semiarid landscapes: Predictive models and remote sensing methods for the influence of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: to develop and test predictive relations for the quantitative influence of vegetation canopy structure on wind erosion of semiarid rangeland soils, and to develop remote sensing methods for measuring the canopy structural parameters that determine sheltering against wind erosion. The influence of canopy structure on wind erosion will be investigated by means of wind-tunnel and field experiments using structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments using model roughness elements to simulate plant canopies. The canopy structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments as important in determining vegetative sheltering against wind erosion will then be measured at a number of naturally vegetated field sites and compared with estimates of these variables derived from analysis of remotely sensed data.

  2. Winding sense of galaxies around the local supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, Binil

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the winding sense (S and Z-shapes) of 1621 field galaxies that have radial velocity between 3000 km s -1 and 5000 km s -1 . The preferred alignments of S- and Z-shaped galaxies are studied using chi-square, autocorrelation and Fourier series tests. We classify all the galaxies into 32 subsamples and notice a good agreement between the position angle (PA) distribution of the S- and Z-shaped galaxies. The homogeneous distribution of the S- and Z-shaped galaxies is more noticeable for the late-type spirals (Sc, Scd, Sd and Sm) than for the early-types (Sa, Sab, Sb and Sbc). A significant dominance of S-mode galaxies is apparent in the barred spirals. A random alignment is evident in the PA-distribution of Z- and S-mode spirals. In addition, a homogeneous distribution of the S- and Z-shaped galaxies is found to be invariant under global expansion. The PA-distribution of the total S-mode galaxies is found to be random, whereas a preferred alignment is clear for all the Z-mode galaxies. It is found that the galactic planes of Z-mode galaxies tend to lie in the equatorial plane.

  3. Remote sensing for wind power potential: a prospector's handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.E.; Maule, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.; Rosenfeld, C.L.; Woolley, S.G.; McClenahan, M.R.

    1983-02-01

    Remote sensing can aid in identifying and locating indicators of wind power potential from the terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments (i.e.: wind-deformed trees, white caps, and areas of thermal flux). It is not considered as a tool for determining wind power potential. A wide variety of remotely sensed evidence is described in terms of the scale at which evidence of wind power can be identified, and the appropriate remote sensors for finding such evidence. Remote sensing can be used for regional area prospecting using small-scale imagery. The information from such small-scale imagery is most often qualitative, and if it is transitory, examination of a number of images to verify presistence of the feature may be required. However, this evidence will allow rapid screening of a large area. Medium-scale imagery provides a better picture of the evidence obtained from small-scale imagery. At this level it is best to use existing imagery. Criteria relating to land use, accessibility, and proximity of candidate sites to nearby transmission lines can also be effectively evaluated from medium-scale imagery. Large-scale imagery provides the most quantitative evidence of the strength of wind. Wind-deformed trees can be identified at a large number of sites using only a few hours in locally chartered aircraft. A handheld 35mm camera can adequately document any evidence of wind. Three case studies that employ remote sensing prospecting techniques are described. Based on remotely sensed evidence, the wind power potential in three geographically and climatically diverse areas of the United States is estimated, and the estimates are compared to actual wind data in those regions. In addition, the cost of each survey is discussed. The results indicate that remote sensing for wind power potential is a quick, cost effective, and fairly reliable method for screening large areas for wind power potential.

  4. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  5. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...

  6. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Issues and Preliminary Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boquet, Matthieu [Leosphere, Orsay (France); Burin Des Roziers, Edward [UL International Gmbh, Freemont, CA (United States); Westerhellweg, Annette [UL International Gmbh, Freemont, CA (United States); Hofsass, Martin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Stuttgart Wind Energy; Klaas, Tobias [Fraunhofer Inst. for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, Freiburg (Germany); Vogstad, Klaus [Meventus, Hamburg (Germany); Clive, Peter [Sgurr Energy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Harris, Mike [ZephIR Limited, Kirkcudbrightshire (United Kingdom); Wylie, Scott [ZephIR Limited, Kirkcudbrightshire (United Kingdom); Osler, Evan [Renewable NRG Systems, Hinesburg, VT (United States); Banta, Bob [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Choukulkar, Aditya [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lundquist, Julie [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Aitken, Matthew [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing of winds using lidar has become popular and useful in the wind energy industry. Extensive experience has been gained with using lidar for applications including land-based and offshore resource assessment, plant operations, and turbine control. Prepared by members of International Energy Agency Task 32, this report describes the state of the art in the use of Doppler wind lidar for resource assessment in complex flows. The report will be used as input for future recommended practices on this topic.

  7. Offshore wind potential evaluation and remote sensing imagery; Evaluation du potentiel eolien offshore et imagerie satellitale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichaux, N.

    2003-12-15

    Offshore wind energy may help to contribute to the respect of the Kyoto objectives by Europe. It is a key issue to struggle against global change. To sit the future offshore wind parks, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the spatial repartition of the wind potential. We demonstrate that the offshore wind potential shall be represented by maps of wind statistics. As remote sensing is a tool for measuring space physical phenomena, we evaluate its potentialities for mapping wind statistics. Space-borne scatterometers enables the obtention of wind statistics, but far from our areas of interest and at low spatial resolution. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enables the computation of high resolution wind maps over our areas of interest, but are unsuitable to compute wind statistics. We define the mathematical framework of a statistical method. That method enables to take advantage of both scatterometer and SAR to compute maps of wind statistics at high spatial resolution over the areas of interest. It enables remote sensing to be used operationally to map the offshore wind potential. (author)

  8. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, S; Bülk, M; Cheng, P W; Schön, L; Erbslöh, S; Boorsma, K; Grasso, F; Kühn, M

    2014-01-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK

  9. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.

  10. Modeling of wind turbine vortex generators in considering the inter-effects between arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou; Shen, Wenzhong; Wang, Ruixin

    2017-01-01

    circulation created by VGs and created various parametric models used with the Navier-Stokes equations, but most of them are based on a single winglet of VGs and do not include the inter-effects between the winglets. This paper proposes a parameterized VG array model based on counter-rotating VGs, which...... properly takes into account the inter-effects between winglets. Two cases, i.e., a plate with a pair of VGs and a DU-W2-250 blade segment with five pairs of VGs, are investigated to validate this model; the array type parametric model is in closer agreement with experimental data than traditional models....... Compared to the solid VG model, the array type model has similar streamlines and surface pressure coefficients on the suction surface. The array type VG model can effectively reduce the number of grid points and yield highly accurate predictions of wind turbine blade aerodynamic characteristics....

  11. Cylindrical vortex wake model: right cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Gaunaa, Mac

    2015-01-01

    The vortex system consisting of a bound vortex disk, a root vortex and a vortex cylinder as introduced by Joukowski in 1912 is further studied in this paper. This system can be used for simple modeling of rotors (e.g. wind turbines) with infinite number of blades and finite tip-speed ratios....... For each vortex element, the velocity components in all directions and in the entire domain are computed analytically in a novel approach. In particular, the velocity field from the vortex actuator disk is derived for the first time. The induction from the entire vortex system is studied and is seen...

  12. Experimental wind tunnel study of a smart sensing skin for condition evaluation of a wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Condition evaluation of wind turbine blades is difficult due to their large size, complex geometry and lack of economic and scalable sensing technologies capable of detecting, localizing, and quantifying faults over a blade’s global area. A solution is to deploy inexpensive large area electronics over strategic areas of the monitored component, analogous to sensing skin. The authors have previously proposed a large area electronic consisting of a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC). The SEC is highly scalable due to its low cost and ease of fabrication, and can, therefore, be used for monitoring large-scale components. A single SEC is a strain sensor that measures the additive strain over a surface. Recently, its application in a hybrid dense sensor network (HDSN) configuration has been studied, where a network of SECs is augmented with a few off-the-shelf strain gauges to measure boundary conditions and decompose the additive strain to obtain unidirectional surface strain maps. These maps can be analyzed to detect, localize, and quantify faults. In this work, we study the performance of the proposed sensing skin at conducting condition evaluation of a wind turbine blade model in an operational environment. Damage in the form of changing boundary conditions and cuts in the monitored substrate are induced into the blade. An HDSN is deployed onto the interior surface of the substrate, and the blade excited in a wind tunnel. Results demonstrate the capability of the HDSN and associated algorithms to detect, localize, and quantify damage. These results show promise for the future deployment of fully integrated sensing skins deployed inside wind turbine blades for condition evaluation.

  13. When Oil and Wind Turbine Companies Make Green Sense Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2009-01-01

    strengthen their relationships with companies such as Vestas – that are born green. This is so since companies that are born green have strong green ecocentric business beliefs that can function as important engines in shared green sense‐making with companies that are not born green and have more hesitant......In this article I contribute to descriptive green business research on how processes of eco‐effective greening business unfold in practical reality. I look into the case of the increasing interaction between the multinational oil company Shell and the world's largest wind turbine company Vestas. I...... draw on descriptive organizational sense‐making theory and analyse to this end the shared green sense‐making of Shell and Vestas on off‐shore wind energy business. The article concludes that greening companies such as Shell – that are not born green – might be considerably advanced if these companies...

  14. When Oil and Wind Turbine Companies Make Green Sense Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    strengthen their relationships with companies such as Vestas - that are born green. This is so, since companies that are born green have strong green ecocentric business beliefs that can function as important engines in shared green sense-making with companies that are not born green and have more hesitant...... green beliefs....

  15. Multi-spectral remote sensing of the vortex formerly known as White Oval BA: Temperature structure and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G.; Parrish, P.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Baines, K.; Mousis, O.; Pantin, E.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fuse, T.; Simon-Miller, A.

    White Oval BA: Temperature structure and cloud properties G. Orton, P. Parrish, P. Yanamandra-Fisher, K. Baines (1), O. Mousis (2), E. Pantin (3), T. Fuse, T. Fujiyoshi (4), A. Simon-Miller (5) (1) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif. Inst. of Technology, USA, (2) Obs. de Besancon, France, (3) C.E.A., France, (4) Subaru National Astron. Obs., Japan, (5) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. (Glenn.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov) White Oval BA, constituted from 3 predecessor vortices (known as Jupiter's "classical" White Ovals) after successive mergers in 1998 and 2000, became second-largest vortex in the atmosphere of Jupiter (and possibly the solar system) at the time of its formation. While it continues in this distinction, it required a name change after a 2005 December through 2006 February transformation which made it appear visually the same color as the Great Red Spot. Our campaign to understand the changes involved examination of the detailed color and wind field using Hubble Space Telescope instrumentation on several orbits in April. The field of temperatures, ammonia distribution and clouds were also examined using the mid-infrared VISIR camera/spectrometer on ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope (3), the NASA Infrared telescope with the mid-infrared MIRSI instrument and the refurbished near-infrared facility camera NSFCam2. High-resolution images of the Oval were made before the color change with the COMICS mid-infrared facility on the Subaru telescope. We are using these data, and possibly others to be acquired during the summer, to characterize the extent to which changes in storm strength (vorticity, positive vertical motion) influenced (i) the depth from which colored cloud particles may have been "dredged up" from depth or (ii) the altitude to which particles may have been lofted and subject to high-energy UV radiation which caused a color change, as alternative explanations for the phenomenon. Clues to this will provide clues to the chemistry of Jupiter's cloud

  16. Multi-site testing and evaluation of remote sensing instruments for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Borbon Guillen, F.; Gomez Arranz, P.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for testing and evaluation of remote sensing instruments that makes use of two test sites in flat and complex terrain is presented. To illustrate the method, a system intercomparison experiment is presented involving one sodar and two lidars (pulsed and continuous-wave). The wind...

  17. Wind turbine extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images based on saliency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Yue, Anzhi; Wang, Chengyi; Huang, Qingqing; Chen, Jiansheng; Meng, Yu; He, Dongxu

    2018-01-01

    The wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical power. Accurate and automatic extraction of wind turbine is instructive for government departments to plan wind power plant projects. A hybrid and practical framework based on saliency detection for wind turbine extraction, using Google Earth image at spatial resolution of 1 m, is proposed. It can be viewed as a two-phase procedure: coarsely detection and fine extraction. In the first stage, we introduced a frequency-tuned saliency detection approach for initially detecting the area of interest of the wind turbines. This method exploited features of color and luminance, was simple to implement, and was computationally efficient. Taking into account the complexity of remote sensing images, in the second stage, we proposed a fast method for fine-tuning results in frequency domain and then extracted wind turbines from these salient objects by removing the irrelevant salient areas according to the special properties of the wind turbines. Experiments demonstrated that our approach consistently obtains higher precision and better recall rates. Our method was also compared with other techniques from the literature and proves that it is more applicable and robust.

  18. Wind farm related mortality among avian migrants - a remote sensing study and model analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desholm, M.

    ,136 migrating sea ducks only 47 individuals were predicted to collide with the wind turbine rotor-blades, equivalent to an overall mean collision risk of c. 0.02%. This thesis shows the added value of modelling in supplementing sound empirical studies in accessing the effects of major human development......This thesis is the result of a PhD study on bird-wind farm collisions and consists of a synopsis, five published papers, one submitted manuscript and another ready for submission. The papers describe the fi ndings from pre- and post-construction visual, radar and thermal imaging studies (1999......-2006) of migrating birds at the Nysted offshore wind farm in the Baltic Sea, Denmark. This thesis poses and answers the following questions: a) what hazard factors do offshore wind farming pose to wild birds, b) how should one choose the key focal species to study, c) how can remote sensing techniques be applied...

  19. Remotely sensed wind speed predicts soaring behaviour in a wide-ranging pelagic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Rory; Shoji, Akiko; Fayet, Annette L; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus ). We used high-frequency GPS tracking data (10 Hz) and statistical behaviour state classification to identify two energetic modes in at-sea flight, corresponding to flap-like and soar-like flight. We show that soaring is significantly more likely to occur in tailwinds and crosswinds above a wind speed threshold of around 8 m s -1 , suggesting that these conditions enable birds to reduce metabolic costs by preferentially soaring over flapping. Our results suggest a behavioural mechanism by which wind conditions may shape foraging and migration ecology in pelagic seabirds, and thus indicate that shifts in wind patterns driven by climate change could impact this and other species. They also emphasize the emerging potential of high-frequency GPS biologgers to provide detailed quantitative insights into fine-scale flight behaviour in free-living animals. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Wind farm related mortality among avian migrants - a remote sensing study and model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desholm, M

    2006-11-15

    This thesis is the result of a PhD study on bird-wind farm collisions and consists of a synopsis, five published papers, one submitted manuscript and another ready for submission. The papers describe the findings from pre- and post-construction visual, radar and thermal imaging studies (1999-2006) of migrating birds at the Nysted offshore wind farm in the Baltic Sea, Denmark. This thesis poses and answers the following questions: a) what hazard factors do offshore wind farming pose to wild birds, b) how should one choose the key focal species to study, c) how can remote sensing techniques be applied to the study of bird wind farm interactions, and d) specifically, how do water birds react when approaching an offshore wind farm? The main aim of the study was the development of a predictive bird-wind farm collision model that incorporates the avoidance rate of birds at multiple scales. Out of 235,136 migrating sea ducks only 47 individuals were predicted to collide with the wind turbine rotor-blades, equivalent to an overall mean collision risk of c. 0.02%. This thesis shows the added value of modelling in supplementing sound empirical studies in accessing the effects of major human development pressures on migratory bird populations. (au)

  1. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  2. The energy balance of wind waves and the remote sensing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of wave growth indicate an energy balance of the wave spectrum governed primarily by input from the atmosphere, nonlinear transfer to shorter and longer waves, and advection. The pronounced spectral peak and sharp low frequency cut-off characteristic of fetch-limited spectra are explained as a self-stabilizing feature of the nonlinear wave-wave interactions. The momentum transferred from the atmosphere to the wind waves accounts for a large part of the wind drag. These findings are relevant for remote microwave sensing of the sea surface by backscatter and passive radiometry methods.

  3. Multipath Suppression with an Absorber for UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2017-01-01

    The deflection of a wind turbine blade can be monitored with an ultra-wideband (UWB) deflection sensing system which consists of one transmitting antenna at the blade tip and two receiving antennas at the blade root. The blade deflection is calculated by two estimated tip-root antenna distances...... verifications of the proposed method are carried out with different full-blade measurements. From all the results, it is found that the proposed technique can efficiently suppress multipath for the in-blade tip antenna, and improve the pulse wave front fidelity, so that the UWB sensing system can also...

  4. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claytor, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atterbury, Marie K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  5. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake

  6. Combining Unsteady Blade Pressure Measurements and a Free-Wake Vortex Model to Investigate the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Blade Loads in Yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Elgammi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different blade sections over multiple rotor rotations and three different yaw angles. Through the adopted approach it was possible to investigate how the rotor self-induced aerodynamic load fluctuations influence the unsteady variations in the blade angles of attack and induced velocities. The hysteresis loops for the normal and tangential load coefficients plotted against the angle of attack were plotted over multiple rotor revolutions. Although cycle-to-cycle variations in the angles of attack at the different blade radial locations and azimuth positions are found to be relatively small, the corresponding variations in the normal and tangential load coefficients may be significant. Following a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the load coefficients follow a normal distribution at the majority of blade azimuth angles and radial locations. The results of this study provide further insight on how existing engineering models for dynamic stall may be improved through

  7. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    In developing a national energy strategy, the United States has a number of objectives, including increasing economic growth, improving environmental quality, and enhancing national energy security. Wind power contributes to these objectives through the deployment of clean, affordable and reliable domestic energy. To achieve U.S. wind generation objectives, the Wind and Water Power Program within the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) instituted the U.S. Offshore Wind: Removing Market Barriers Program in FY 2011. Accurate and comprehensive information on offshore wind resource characteristics across a range of spatial and temporal scales is one market barrier that needs to be addressed through advanced research in remote sensing technologies. There is a pressing need for reliable offshore wind-speed measurements to assess the availability of the potential wind energy resource in terms of power production and to identify any frequently occurring spatial variability in the offshore wind resource that may impact the operational reliability and lifetime of wind turbines and their components and to provide a verification program to validate the “bankability” of the output of these alternative technologies for use by finance institutions for the financing of offshore wind farm construction. The application of emerging remote sensing technologies is viewed as a means to cost-effectively meet the data needs of the offshore wind industry. In particular, scanning and buoy mounted LIDAR have been proposed as a means to obtain accurate offshore wind data at multiple locations without the high cost and regulatory hurdles associated with the construction of offshore meteorological towers. However; before these remote sensing technologies can be accepted the validity of the measured data must be evaluated to ensure their accuracy. The proposed research will establish a unique coastal ocean test-bed in the Mid-Atlantic for

  8. Numerical simulations of island-scale airflow over Maui and the Maui vortex under summer trade wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaNa L. Carlis; Yi-Leng Chen; Vernon R. Morris

    2010-01-01

    The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) coupled with the Noah land surface model (LSM) is employed to simulate island-scale airflow and circulations over Maui County, Hawaii, under summer trade wind conditions, during July–August 2005. The model forecasts are validated by surface observations with good agreement.

  9. Targets Mask U-Net for Wind Turbines Detection in Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    To detect wind turbines precisely and quickly in very high resolution remote sensing images (VHRRSI) we propose target mask U-Net. This convolution neural network (CNN), which is carefully designed to be a wide-field detector, models the pixel class assignment to wind turbines and their context information. The shadow, which is the context information of the target in this study, has been regarded as part of a wind turbine instance. We have trained the target mask U-Net on training dataset, which is composed of down sampled image blocks and instance mask blocks. Some post-processes have been integrated to eliminate wrong spots and produce bounding boxes of wind turbine instances. The evaluation metrics prove the reliability and effectiveness of our method for the average F1-score of our detection method is up to 0.97. The comparison of detection accuracy and time consuming with the weakly supervised targets detection method based on CNN illustrates the superiority of our method.

  10. A classical model wind turbine wake “blind test” revisited by remote sensing lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Nielsen, Morten Busk

    2017-01-01

    One of the classical model wind turbine wake “blind test” experiments1 conducted in the boundary-layer wind tunnel at NTNU in Trondheim and used for benchmarking of numerical flow models has been revisited by remote sensing lidars in a joint experiment called “Lidars For Wind Tunnels” (L4WT) under...... was D=0.894 m and it was designed for a tip speed ratio (TSR) of 6. However, the TSRs used were 3, 6, and 10 at a free-stream velocity of 10 m/s. Due to geometrical constraints imposed by for instance the locations of the wind tunnel windows, all measurements were performed in the very same vertical...... cross-section of the tunnel and the various down-stream distances of the wake, i.e. 1D, 3D, and 5D were achieved by re-positioning the turbine. The approach used allows for unique studies of the influence of the inherent lidar spatial filtering on previously both experimentally and numerically well...

  11. Paleogene Vertebrate Paleontology, Geology and Remote Sensing in the Wind River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, R. K.; Krishtalka, L.

    1985-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies were used to correlate different events in the geologic evolution of the northeastern part of the Wind River Basin and have suggested several conclusions. Laterally equivalent exposures of the Lysite member from Cedar Ridge to Bridger Creek show a gradation in lithology from interbedded boulder conglomerates and sandstones to interbedded lenticular sandstones and mudstones to interbedded carbonaceous shales, coals and tabular sandstones. This gradation suggests a shift from alluvial fan to braided stream to paludal or lacustrine sedimentary environments during the late early Eocene. The Lysite and Lost Cabin members of the Wind River Formation are in fault contact in the Bridger Creek area and may intertongue to the east along Cedar Ridge. Ways in which remote sensing could be used in these studies are discussed.

  12. Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.

    1995-01-01

    For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....

  13. Remote sensing of temperature and wind using acoustic travel-time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Manuela; Fischer, Gabi; Raabe, Armin; Weisse, Frank [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie; Ziemann, Astrid [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Meteorologie

    2013-04-15

    A remote sensing technique to detect area-averaged temperature and flow properties within an area under investigation, utilizing acoustic travel-time measurements, is introduced. This technique uses the dependency of the speed of acoustic signals on the meteorological parameters temperature and wind along the propagation path. The method itself is scalable: It is applicable for investigation areas with an extent of some hundred square metres as well as for small-scale areas in the range of one square metre. Moreover, an arrangement of the acoustic transducers at several height levels makes it possible to determine profiles and gradients of the meteorological quantities. With the help of two examples the potential of this remote sensing technique for simultaneously measuring averaged temperature and flow fields is demonstrated. A comparison of time histories of temperature and wind values derived from acoustic travel-time measurements with point measurements shows a qualitative agreement whereas calculated root-mean-square errors differ for the two example applications. They amount to 1.4 K and 0.3 m/s for transducer distances of 60 m and 0.4 K and 0.2 m/s for transducer distances in the range of one metre. (orig.)

  14. Remote Sensing Data in Wind Velocity Field Modelling: a Case Study from the Sudetes (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancewicz, Kacper

    2014-06-01

    The phenomena of wind-field deformation above complex (mountainous) terrain is a popular subject of research related to numerical modelling using GIS techniques. This type of modelling requires, as input data, information on terrain roughness and a digital terrain/elevation model. This information may be provided by remote sensing data. Consequently, its accuracy and spatial resolution may affect the results of modelling. This paper represents an attempt to conduct wind-field modelling in the area of the Śnieżnik Massif (Eastern Sudetes). The modelling process was conducted in WindStation 2.0.10 software (using the computable fluid dynamics solver Canyon). Two different elevation models were used: the Global Land Survey Digital Elevation Model (GLS DEM) and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 2. The terrain roughness raster was generated on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC 2006) data. The output data were post-processed in ArcInfo 9.3.1 software to achieve a high-quality cartographic presentation. Experimental modelling was conducted for situations from 26 November 2011, 25 May 2012, and 26 May 2012, based on a limited number of field measurements and using parameters of the atmosphere boundary layer derived from the aerological surveys provided by the closest meteorological stations. The model was run in a 100-m and 250-m spatial resolution. In order to verify the model's performance, leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The calculated indices allowed for a comparison with results of former studies pertaining to WindStation's performance. The experiment demonstrated very subtle differences between results in using DTED or GLS DEM elevation data. Additionally, CLC 2006 roughness data provided more noticeable improvements in the model's performance, but only in the resolution corresponding to the original roughness data. The best input data configuration resulted in the following mean values of error measure: root mean squared error of velocity

  15. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  16. A wind tunnel investigation of the effects of micro-vortex generators and Gurney flaps on the high-lift characteristics of a business jet wing. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuccio, Michelle Therese

    1994-01-01

    A study of a full-scale, semi-span business jet wing has been conducted to investigate the potential of two types of high-lift devices for improving aircraft high-lift performance. The research effort involved low-speed wind-tunnel tests of micro-vortex generators and Gurney flaps applied to the flap system of the business jet wing and included force and moment measurements, surface pressure surveys and flow visualization on the wing and flap. Results showed that the micro-vortex generators tested had no beneficial effects on the longitudinal force characteristics in this particular application, while the Gurney flaps were an effective means of increasing lift. However, the Gurney flaps also caused an increase in drag in most circumstances.

  17. Vortex methods and vortex statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorin, A.J.

    1993-05-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (''blobs'') and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ''blob'' methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena

  18. High Resolution Mapping of Wind Speed Using Active Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayde, C.; Thomas, C. K.; Wagner, J.; Selker, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel approach to continuously measure wind speed simultaneously at thousands of locations using actively heated fiber optics with a distributed temperature sensing system (DTS). Analogous to a hot-wire anemometer, this approach is based on the principal of velocity-dependent heat transfer from a heated surface: The temperature difference between the heated surface and ambient air is a function of the convective cooling of the air flowing past the surface. By knowing the thermal properties of the heated surface, the heating input, and ambient temperature, wind speed can be calculated. In our case, the heated surface consists of a thin stainless steel tube that can exceed several km in length. A fiber optic is enclosed within the stainless steel tube to report the heated tube temperature, which in this case was sampled every 0.125 m. Ambient temperature were measured by an independent fiber optic cable located proximally to the stainless steel tube. We will present the theoretical bases of measuring wind speed using heated fiber optic as well as validation of this method in the field. In the field testing, more than 5000 simultaneous wind speed measurements were obtained every 5.5 second at 3 elevations (2m, 1m, and 0.5 m) every 0.125 m along a 230 m transects located across a shallow gulley in Nunn, CO. This method, which provides both air temperature and wind speed spanning four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.1 - 1,000m) opens up many important opportunities for testing basic theories in micro-meteorology regarding spatial scales of turbulent length scales as a function of distance from the earth, development of internal boundary layers, applicability of Taylors hypothesis, etc. The equipment employed, including the heating system, which is available to all US scientists, was provided by CTEMPs.org thanks to the generous grant support from the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1129003. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or

  19. 导叶对涡轮型垂直轴风力机气动性能的影响%Effects of guiding vanes on aerodynamic performance of vortex vertical axis wind turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原红红; 赵振宙; 郑源; 黄娟

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the problem of low efficiency of the traditional vertical axis wind turbine, the structural advantages of the wind turbine with guiding vanes are introduced and the effects of guiding vanes on the vortex vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed in detail. Based on computational fluid dynamics theory, the slippage mesh technique and the k-ε model were used to compare the aerodynamic performance of the vortex vertical axis wind turbine with and without guiding vanes at a design velocity of 12 m/s. Studies have shown that the guiding vanes can effectively prevent the direct impact of the coming flow from acting on the suction section of the blade in the upwind area so as to decrease the drag torque, while the guiding vanes also negatively affect the performance of blades in the downwind area, but the positive effect of the former is more significant, so the performance of a wind turbine with guiding vanes greatly improves. The vortex vertical axis wind turbine with arc-type guiding vanes has a wider operating range, higher optimum tip speed ratio, and higher aerodynamic efficiency. The maximum wind power coefficient can reach 0.24 .%针对传统垂直轴风力机效率低的缺陷,阐述带导叶垂直轴风力机的结构优势,并分析导叶对涡轮型垂直轴风力机的作用。应用计算流体力学理论,在设计风速12 m/s下,采用滑移网格技术及k-着模型对有、无导叶两种涡轮型垂直轴风力机的气动性能进行比较。研究表明,导叶可以有效降低由于来流对逆风区叶片吸力面的直接冲击而造成的阻力扭矩,也会负面影响顺风区叶片的性能,但其负作用效果远不及在逆风区挡流降阻的正作用效果,故加导叶后风轮的性能会有很大提高。带弧线形导叶涡轮型垂直轴风力机最大风能利用系数可达0.24,具有工作范围广、最佳尖速比大的特点。

  20. WindScanner.dk - a new Remote Sensing based Research Infrastructure for on- and offshore Wind Energy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    obtained in planetary boundary layer turbulent flow have been acquired from both ground-based and wind turbine-integrated space by time and space synchronized scanning lidars. Results to date include: turbulent inflow over complex terrain scanned in a horizontal-vertical 2D scan plane, and 2-dimensional...... and 3-dimensional wind vector scan measurements obtained during various WindScanner boundary-layer field campaigns. A special designed `2D upwind rotor plane scanning SpinnerLidar', mounted in the rotating spinner, and able to provide the wind turbine control systems with detailed upwind feed......-forward inflow information, is also investigated as a provider of rotor plane inflow for accurate power curve measurements. The instrument development involves both a short range (10 -200 m) and a long-range (100 - 6000 m) synchronized 3D scanning wind lidar system....

  1. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  2. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface wind data - A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.; Halem, M.; Halberstam, I.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation has the objective to assess the potential impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP) of remotely sensed surface wind data. Other investigations conducted with similar objectives have not been satisfactory in connection with a use of procedures providing an unrealistic distribution of initial errors. In the current study, care has been taken to duplicate the actual distribution of information in the conventional observing system, thus shifting the emphasis from accuracy of the data to the data coverage. It is pointed out that this is an important consideration in assessing satellite observing systems since experience with sounder data has shown that improvements in forecasts due to satellite-derived information is due less to a general error reduction than to the ability to fill data-sparse regions. The reported study concentrates on the evaluation of the observing system simulation experimental design and on the assessment of the potential of remotely sensed marine surface wind data.

  3. Remote Sensing Marine Ecology: Wind-driven algal blooms in the open oceans and their ecological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, DanLing

    2016-07-01

    Algal bloom not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g., Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actually the traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms. Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing, this study: 1), introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; 2), Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. 3), Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. 1), It proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combing "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. 2), A new interdisciplinary subject "Remote Sensing Marine Ecology"(RSME) has been

  4. Examples of, reasons for, and consequences of the poor quality of wind data from ships for the marine boundary layer - Implications for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Willard J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Wind reports by data buoys are used to demonstrate that these reports have in the past provided useful values for the synoptic scale winds and that at present these reports provide very reliable value for the synoptic scale winds. Past studies of wind reports by ships have revealed that the data are of poor quality, but the causes for this poor quality are not identified. Examples of the poor quality of wind data from ships are obtained by comparing ship reports with buoy reports and comparing reports of different kinds of ships with each other. These comparisons identify many different reasons for the poor quality of wind data from ships. Suggestions are made for improving the quality of ship data. The consequences of the poor quality of ship winds are described in terms of the effects on weather and wave forecasts. The implications for remotely sensed winds are discussed.

  5. Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.

  6. Vortex Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials

  7. Remotely sensed data fusion for offshore wind energy resource mapping; Fusion de donnees satellitaires pour la cartographie du potentiel eolien offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ticha, M.B

    2007-11-15

    Wind energy is a component of an energy policy contributing to a sustainable development. Last years, offshore wind parks have been installed offshore. These parks benefit from higher wind speeds and lower turbulence than onshore. To sit a wind park, it is necessary to have a mapping of wind resource. These maps are needed at high spatial resolution to show wind energy resource variations at the scale of a wind park. Wind resource mapping is achieved through the description of the spatial variations of statistical parameters characterizing wind climatology. For a precise estimation of these statistical parameters, high temporal resolution wind speed and direction measurements are needed. However, presently, there is no data source allying high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. We propose a data fusion method taking advantage of the high spatial resolution of some remote sensing instruments (synthetic aperture radars) and the high temporal resolution of other remote sensing instruments (scatterometers). The data fusion method is applied to a case study and the results quality is assessed. The results show the pertinence of data fusion for the mapping of wind energy resource offshore. (author)

  8. Multi-MW wind turbine power curve measurements using remote sensing instruments - the first Hoevsoere campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.

    2009-02-15

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the scatter in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. LiDAR are found to be more accurate than SoDAR and therefore more suitable for power performance measurement. The equivalent wind speed calculated from LiDAR profile measurements gave a small reduction of the power curve uncertainty. Several factors can explain why this difference is smaller than expected, including the experimental design and errors pertaining to the LiDAR at that time. This first measurement campaign shows that used of the equivalent wind speed at least results in a power curve with no more scatter than using the conventional method. (au)

  9. The RUNE Experiment—A Database of Remote-Sensing Observations of Near-Shore Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Lea, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here...

  10. An investigation of the vortex method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.

  11. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower.

    Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly

  12. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower. Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly between

  13. Validation of four LES and a vortex model against stereo-PIV measurements in the near wake of an actuator disc and a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lignarolo, Lorenzo E.M.; Mehta, Dhruv; Stevens, Richard J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of a workshop organised by the Delft University of Technology in 2014, aiming at the comparison between different state-of-the-art numerical models for the simulation of wind turbine wakes. The chosen benchmark case is a wind tunnel measurement, where stereosco...

  14. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  15. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  16. Remote wind sensing with a CW diode laser lidar beyond the coherence regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) a coherent CW lidar system capable of wind speed measurement at a probing distance beyond the coherence regime of the light source. A side-by-side wind measurement was conducted on the field using two lidar systems with identical...... optical designs but different laser linewidths. While one system was operating within the coherence regime, the other was measuring at least 2.4 times the coherence range. The probing distance of both lidars is 85 m and the radial wind speed correlation was measured to be r2=0.965 between the two lidars...

  17. Remote wind sensing with a CW diode laser lidar beyond the coherence regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) a coherent CW lidar system capable of wind speed measurement at a probing distance beyond the coherence regime of the light source. A side-by-side wind measurement was conducted on the field using two lidar systems with identical optical designs but different laser linewidths. While one system was operating within the coherence regime, the other was measuring at least 2.4 times the coherence range. The probing distance of both lidars is 85 m and the radial wind speed correlation was measured to be r2=0.965 between the two lidars at a sampling rate of 2 Hz. Based on our experimental results, we describe a practical guideline for designing a wind lidar operating beyond the coherence regime.

  18. The Impacts of Satellite Remotely Sensed Winds and Total Precipitable Vapour in WRF Tropical Cyclone Track Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diandong Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact assimilating the scatterometer near-surface wind observations and total precipitable water from the SSMI, into WRF on genesis and track forecasting of four tropical cyclones (TCs. These TCs are selected to be representative of different intensity categories and basins. Impact is via a series of data denial experiments that systematically exclude the remote sensed information. Compared with the control case, in which only the final analysis atmospheric variables are used to initialize and provide the lateral boundary conditions, the data assimilation runs performed consistently better, but with very different skill levels for the different TCs. Eliassen-Palm flux analyses are employed. It is confirmed that if a polar orbital satellite footprint passes over the TC’s critical genesis region, the forecast will profit most from assimilating the remotely sensed information. If the critical genesis region lies within an interorbital gap then, regardless of how strong the TC later becomes (e.g., Katrina 2005, the improvement from assimilating near-surface winds and total precipitable water in the model prediction is severely limited. This underpins the need for a synergy of data from different scatterometers/radiometers. Other approaches are suggested to improve the accuracy in the prediction of TC genesis and tracks.

  19. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  20. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement...

  1. Vortex structure and characterization of quasiperiodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, Itzhack; Chernov, Vladislav E

    2002-01-01

    Quasiperiodic functions (QPFs) are characterized by their full vortex structure in one unit cell. This characterization is much finer and more sensitive than the topological one given by the total vorticity per unit cell (the 'Chern index'). It is shown that QPFs with an arbitrarily prescribed vortex structure exist by constructing explicitly such a 'standard' QPF. Two QPFs with the same vortex structure are equivalent, in the sense that their ratio is a function which is strictly periodic, nonvanishing and at least continuous. A general QPF can then be approximately reconstructed from its vortex structure on the basis of the standard QPF and the equivalence concept. As another application of this concept, a simple method is proposed for calculating the quasiperiodic eigenvectors of periodic matrices. Possible applications to the quantum-chaos problem on a phase-space torus are briefly discussed

  2. Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rates over Tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, C. T.; Dehority, D. C.; Black, P. G.; Chien, J. Z.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using narrowly spaced frequencies within a microwave band to measure wind speeds and rain rates over tropical storms with radiometers is reviewed. The technique focuses on results obtained in the overflights of Hurricane Allen during 5 and 8 of August, 1980.

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  4. Vortex profiles and vortex interactions at the electroweak crossover

    OpenAIRE

    Chernodub, M. N.; Ilgenfritz, E. -M.; Schiller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Local correlations of Z-vortex operators with gauge and Higgs fields (lattice quantum vortex profiles) as well as vortex two-point functions are studied in the crossover region near a Higgs mass of 100 GeV within the 3D SU(2) Higgs model. The vortex profiles resemble certain features of the classical vortex solutions in the continuum. The vortex-vortex interactions are analogous to the interactions of Abrikosov vortices in a type-I superconductor.

  5. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of time domain active sensing data from CX-100 wind turbine blade fatigue tests for damage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Mi Jin [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and LANL-CBNU Engineering Institute, Chunbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hwee Kwon; Park, Gyu Hae [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Taylor, Stuart G.; Farinholt, Kevin M. [The Engineering Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the results obtained using time-series-based methods for structural damage assessment. The methods are applied to a wind turbine blade structure subjected to fatigue loads. A 9 m CX-100 (carbon experimental 100 kW) blade is harmonically excited at its first natural frequency to introduce a failure mode. Consequently, a through-thickness fatigue crack is visually identified at 8.5 million cycles. The time domain data from the piezoelectric active-sensing techniques are measured during the fatigue loadings and used to detect incipient damage. The damage-sensitive features, such as the first four moments and a normality indicator, are extracted from the time domain data. Time series autoregressive models with exogenous inputs are also implemented. These features could efficiently detect a fatigue crack and are less sensitive to operational variations than the other methods.

  7. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  8. Clouds, Wind and the Biogeography of Central American Cloud Forests: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Modeling, and Walking in the Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud forests stand at the core of the complex of montane ecosystems that provide the backbone to the multinational Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which seeks to protect a biodiversity conservation "hotspot" of global significance in an area of rapidly changing land use. Although cloud forests are generally defined by frequent and prolonged immersion in cloud, workers differ in their feelings about "frequent" and "prolonged", and quantitative assessments are rare. Here we focus on the dry season, in which the cloud and mist from orographic cloud plays a critical role in forest water relations, and discuss remote sensing of orographic clouds, and regional and atmospheric modeling at several scales to quantitatively examine the distribution of the atmospheric conditions that characterize cloud forests. Remote sensing using data from GOES reveals diurnal and longer scale patterns in the distribution of dry season orographic clouds in Central America at both regional and local scales. Data from MODIS, used to calculate the base height of orographic cloud banks, reveals not only the geographic distributon of cloud forest sites, but also striking regional variation in the frequency of montane immersion in orographic cloud. At a more local scale, wind is known to have striking effects on forest structure and species distribution in tropical montane ecosystems, both as a general mechanical stress and as the major agent of ecological disturbance. High resolution regional atmospheric modeling using CSU RAMS in the Monteverde cloud forests of Costa Rica provides quantitative information on the spatial distribution of canopy level winds, insight into the spatial structure and local dynamics of cloud forest communities. This information will be useful in not only in local conservation planning and the design of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, but also in assessments of the sensitivity of cloud forests to global and regional climate changes.

  9. Flow induced by a skewed vortex cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field induced by a skewed vortex cylinder of longitudinal and tangential vorticity is derived in this chapter by direct integration of the Biot– Savart law. The derivation steps are provided in details. The results of Castles and Durham for the skewed semi-infinite cylinder....... The content of this chapter is based on the publication of the author entitled "Cylindrical vortex wake model: skewed cylinder, application to yawed or tilted rotors" [1]. Results from this chapter are applied: in Chap. 21 to model a wind turbine (or rotor) in yaw, in Chap. 22 to derive a new yaw...

  10. Sand Dune Dynamics on Mars: Integration of Surface Imaging, Wind Measurements, and Orbital Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ewing, R. C.; Newman, C. E.; Ayoub, F.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; van Beek, J.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the Mars Science Laboratory rover completed the first in situ investigation of an active dune field on another planetary body, the "Bagnold Dunes" in Gale Crater. During the campaign, a series of Mastcam and RMI time-series images of local sand patches, dump piles, ripples, and the lee face and margin of Namib Dune (a barchan in the Bagnold field) were acquired. These were at cadences of a sol or more that were generally at nearly the same local time, and intra-sol imaging bridged by continuous wind measurements from REMS. The dune field has also been imaged 16 times by HiRISE since 2008. By combining the two datasets, long term dune dynamics over the whole field can be compared to small-scale and short-term observations on the surface. From HiRISE, Namib Dune and other barchans and longitudinal dunes to the south and west migrate generally toward the south to southeast. The most active sand deposits are the longitudinal and barchans dunes, with the highest ripple migration rates found on the highest elevations. Rippled sand patches exhibit little of no motion. From MSL, the scrambling of grains on the surfaces of local rippled sand patches and Namib Dune is obvious over periods as short as a single sol, with light-toned grains showing the greatest tendency. On the lee face of Namib, images show grain scrambling, one case of modification to a secondary grainflow, and possibly ripple motion over 3-16 sols. At the dune margin, grain scrambling and one major slump on the lee face of a dune ripple are seen. The daytime REMS record shows wind speeds up to 20 m/s with confidence. As yet, we do not have a demonstrable correlation between measured wind speeds and changes, suggesting that short term gusts or non-aeolian processes acting as triggers may precede significant activity. The changes, occurring in a low flux season based on HiRISE analysis and global circulation models, indicate an active surface at all times of the year to some degree.

  11. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Summary of Issues and Preliminary Recommendations from IEA Wind Task 32 Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2017-06-21

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. In Phase 1 of the task, a working group looked at the state of the art of wind lidar in complex flow conditions. This presentation is a short summary of that work, given at the start of Phase 2.

  12. Development of new tip-loss corrections based on vortex theory and vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Gaunaa, Mac

    2014-01-01

    A new analytical formulation of the tip-loss factor is established based on helical vortex lament solutions. The derived tip-loss factor can be applied to wind-turbines, propellers or other rotary wings. Similar numerical formulations are used to assess the influence of wake expansion on tip...

  13. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  14. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  15. Characterisation of vortex flow inside an entrained cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambert, A.; Elcafsi, A.; Gougat, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. d' Informatique pour la Mecanique et les Sciences de l' Ingenieur

    2000-07-01

    A number of studies have referred to the existence of a vortex cell within an urban street canyon when ambient winds aloft are perpendicular to the street. The understanding of vortex dynamics or vorticity distribution in a such configuration is of great interest. Vortex structures play an important role in the dynamics of pollutant dispersion. This configuration was simulated by the interaction between a boundary layer and a cavity. Experimental characterisation of the vortex structures evolution was developed by flow velocity measurements inside and out of the cavity. Classical methods like hot wire and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) display only local measurements. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) method based on the optical flow technique permitted global velocity measurements. This technique emphasis the vortex structures inside the cavity which present small scales as well as large scales related to the cavity geometry. These vortices are usually non-stationary. (orig.)

  16. Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanierschot, M.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is investigated experimentally by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, analysis of the instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) vortical structures shows the existence of a vortex core along the central axis which breaks up into a double helix downstream. The winding sense of this double helix is opposite to the swirl direction (m =-2 ) and it is wrapped around a central vortex breakdown bubble. This structure is quite different from double helix breakdown found in laminar flows where the helix is formed in the wake of the bubble and not upstream. The double helix precesses around the central axis of the jet with a precessing frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27.

  17. First remote sensing measurements of ClOOCl along with ClO and ClONO2 in activated and deactivated Arctic vortex conditions using new ClOOCl IR absorption cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Birk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Active chlorine species play a dominant role in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone in the polar vortices during the late winter and early spring seasons. Recently, the correct understanding of the ClO dimer cycle was challenged by the release of new laboratory absorption cross sections (Pope et al., 2007 yielding significant model underestimates of observed ClO and ozone loss (von Hobe et al., 2007. Under this aspect, nocturnal Arctic stratospheric limb emission measurements carried out by the balloon version of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B from Kiruna (Sweden on 11 January 2001 and 20/21 March 2003 have been reanalyzed with regard to the chlorine reservoir species ClONO2 and the active species, ClO and ClOOCl (Cl2O2. New laboratory measurements of IR absorption cross sections of ClOOCl for various temperatures and pressures allowed for the first time the retrieval of ClOOCl mixing ratios from remote sensing measurements. High values of active chlorine (ClOx of roughly 2.3 ppbv at 20 km were observed by MIPAS-B in the cold mid-winter Arctic vortex on 11 January 2001. While nighttime ClOOCl shows enhanced values of nearly 1.1 ppbv at 20 km, ClONO2 mixing ratios are less than 0.1 ppbv at this altitude. In contrast, high ClONO2 mixing ratios of nearly 2.4 ppbv at 20 km have been observed in the late winter Arctic vortex on 20 March 2003. No significant ClOx amounts are detectable on this date since most of the active chlorine has already recovered to its main reservoir species ClONO2. The observed values of ClOx and ClONO2 are in line with the established polar chlorine chemistry. The thermal equilibrium constants between the dimer formation and its dissociation, as derived from the balloon measurements, are on the lower side of reported data and in good agreement with values recommended by von Hobe et al. (2007. Calculations with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model (EMAC using

  18. Cryptanalysis of Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws...

  19. Vortex diode jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  20. An Organic Vortex Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F

    2018-03-27

    Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.

  1. Modeling Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Julianne C.

    2011-01-01

    A source-term model that simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force that would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 corotating vortex generators, and supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counter-rotating vortex-generator pair. The model was also used to successfully simulate microramps in supersonic flow by treating each microramp as a pair of vanes with opposite angles of incidence. The validation results indicate that the source-term vortex-generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex-generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using gridded vanes.

  2. Evaluation of Aircraft Wing-Tip Vortex Using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Omer A.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2010-06-01

    The formation and development of a wing-tip vortex in a near and extended near filed were studied experimentally. Particle image velocimetry was used in a wind tunnel to measure the tip vortex velocity field and hence investigate the flow structure in a wake of aircraft half-wing model. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the main features of the lift generated vortices in order to find ways to alleviate hazardous wake vortex encounters for follower airplanes during start and approach such that the increase in airport capacity can be achieved. First the wake structure at successive downstream planes crosswise to the axis of the wake vortices was investigated by measuring parameters such as core radius, maximum tangential velocities, vorticities and circulation distributions. The effect of different angles of attack setting on vortex parameters was examined at one downstream location. In very early stages the vortex sheet evolution makes the tip vortex to move inward and to the suction side of the wing. While the core radius and circulation distributions hardly vary with the downstream distance, noticeable differences for the same vortex parameters at different angles of attack settings were observed. The center of the wing tip vortices scatter in a circle of radius nearly equal to 1% of the mean wing chord and wandering amplitudes shows no direct dependence on the vortex strength but linearly increase with the downstream distance.

  3. A New Dark Vortex on Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael H.; Tollefson, Joshua; Hsu, Andrew I.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; Sromovsky, Lawrence; Fry, Patrick; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Hammel, Heidi; Delcroix, Marc; de Kleer, Katherine; Orton, Glenn S.; Baranec, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    An outburst of cloud activity on Neptune in 2015 led to speculation about whether the clouds were convective in nature, a wave phenomenon, or bright companions to an unseen dark vortex (similar to the Great Dark Spot studied in detail by Voyager 2). The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) finally answered this question by discovering a new dark vortex at 45 degrees south planetographic latitude, named SDS-2015 for “southern dark spot discovered in 2015.” SDS-2015 is only the fifth dark vortex ever seen on Neptune. In this paper, we report on imaging of SDS-2015 using HST’s Wide Field Camera 3 across four epochs: 2015 September, 2016 May, 2016 October, and 2017 October. We find that the size of SDS-2015 did not exceed 20 degrees of longitude, more than a factor of two smaller than the Voyager dark spots, but only slightly smaller than previous northern-hemisphere dark spots. A slow (1.7–2.5 deg/year) poleward drift was observed for the vortex. Properties of SDS-2015 and its surroundings suggest that the meridional wind shear may be twice as strong at the deep level of the vortex as it is at the level of cloud-tracked winds. Over the 2015–2017 period, the dark spot’s contrast weakened from about -7 % to about -3 % , while companion clouds shifted from offset to centered, a similar evolution to some historical dark spots. The properties and evolution of SDS-2015 highlight the diversity of Neptune’s dark spots and the need for faster cadence dark spot observations in the future.

  4. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  5. Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldacchino, D.; Manolesos, M.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30...

  6. Simulation of a MW rotor equipped with vortex generators using CFD and an actuator shape model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of CFD simulations of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine with and without vortex generators installed on the inboard part of the blades. The vortex generators are modelled by introducing body forces determined using a modified version of the so-called BAY mode...

  7. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  8. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  9. The singing vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.

    2015-01-01

    Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147

  10. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji

    2017-10-30

    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  11. Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J.; Puerta Torres, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)

  12. Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J. [Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas; Puerta Torres, D. [Universidad de Cartagena (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    2010-12-15

    In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)

  13. Inclined Jet in Crossflow Interacting with a Vortex Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Rigby, D .L.; Heidmann, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment is conducted on the effectiveness of a vortex generator in preventing liftoff of a jet in crossflow, with possible relevance to film-cooling applications. The jet issues into the boundary layer at an angle of 20 degreees to the freestream. The effect of a triangular ramp-shaped vortex generator is studied while varying its geometry and location. Detailed flowfield properties are obtained for a case in which the height of the vortex generator and the diameter of the orifice are comparable with the approach boundary-layer thickness. The vortex generator produces a streamwise vortex pair with a vorticity magnitude 3 times larger (and of opposite sense) than that found in the jet in crossflow alone. Such a vortex generator appears to be most effective in keeping the jet attached to the wall. The effect of parametric variation is studied mostly from surveys 10 diameters downstream from the orifice. Results over a range of jet-to-freestream momentum flux ratio (1 vortex generator has a significant effect even at the highest J covered in the experiment. When the vortex generator height is halved, there is a liftoff of the jet. On the other hand, when the height is doubled, the jet core is dissipated due to larger turbulence intensity. Varying the location of the vortex generator, over a distance of three diameters from the orifice, is found to have little impact. Rounding off the edges of the vortex generator with the increasing radius of curvature progressively diminishes its effect. However, allowing for a small radius of curvature may be quite tolerable in practice.

  14. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcia, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves

  15. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  16. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  17. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%, typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977, Massman (1987 and Lalic et al. (2003. The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB model developed by Norman et al. (1995 and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999. High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15–50%. The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  18. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, Mahrooz; Sameni, Abdolmajid; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid; Bartholomeus, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion

  19. Wind climate modeling using Weibull and extreme value distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is very much important to fit wind speed data into some suitable statistical model for two aspects. One is fatigue failure due to periodic vortex shedding and the other is to estimate the wind energy potential of a particular location. For the fatigue failure due to periodic vortex shedding, it is important to analyse the load cycle.

  20. Breaking down the delta wing vortex: The role of vorticity in the breakdown process. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Visser, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental x-wire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 deg flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Grids were taken normal to the wing at various chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 deg. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core and on chordwise location was also examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data is made. The results indicate that the circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows in a nearly linear fashion in the chordwise direction. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity is severely altered through the breakdown. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, such as that found in the secondary vortex, seem to remain unaffected by changes in wind sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. In addition, the inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter allows the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows to be reduced into a single curve.

  1. Measurements of a vortex transitional ndro Josephson memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, S.; Ishida, I.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Ajisawa, Y.; Wada, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A novel vortex transitional NDRO Jospehson memory cell has been successfully fabricated and tested. The memory cell consists of two superconducting loops and a two-junction interferometer gate as a sense gate. The superconducting loop contains one Josephson junction and inductances, and stores single flux quantum. The memory cell employs vortex transitions in the superconducting loops for writing and reading data. The memory cell chips have been fabricated using niobium planarization process. The +-21 percent address signal current margin and the +-33 percent sense gate current margin have been obtained experimentally. The memory operation of the cell driven by the two-junction interferometer gates has been accurately demonstrated

  2. Copepod behavior response to Burgers' vortex treatments mimicking turbulent eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, D.; Webster, D. R.; Fields, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    Copepods detect hydrodynamic cues in the water by their mechanosensory setae. We expect that copepods sense the flow structure of turbulent eddies in order to evoke behavioral responses that lead to population-scale distribution patterns. In this study, the copepods' response to the Burgers' vortex is examined. The Burgers' vortex is a steady-state solution of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations that allows us to mimic turbulent vortices at the appropriate scale and eliminate the stochastic nature of turbulence. We generate vortices in the laboratory oriented in the horizontal and vertical directions each with four intensity levels. The objective of including vortex orientation as a parameter in the study is to quantify directional responses that lead to vertical population distribution patterns. The four intensity levels correspond to target vortex characteristics of eddies corresponding to the typical dissipative vortices in isotropic turbulence with mean turbulent dissipation rates in the range of 0.002 to 0.25 cm2/s3. These vortices mimic the characteristics of eddies that copepods most likely encounter in coastal zones. We hypothesize that the response of copepods to hydrodynamic features depends on their sensory architecture and relative orientation with respect to gravity. Tomo-PIV is used to quantify the vortex circulation and axial strain rate for each vortex treatment. Three-dimensional trajectories of the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus are analyzed to examine their swimming kinematics in and around the vortex to quantify the hydrodynamic cues that trigger their behavior.

  3. Theoretical tornado vortex model for nuclear plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.N.; Barnett, R.O.; Burdette, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    A simplified tornado vortex model is defined using fluid dynamics theory. Beginning with the Navier-Stokes equations of motion for an incompressible fluid and simpifying in a way consistent with a tornado wind field, develops the well-known cyclostrophic wind equation referred to by Hoecker and another equation which defines the tangential velocity profile. Together, they define a simplified tornado vertex model of which the Rankine and Hoecker vortices are special cases. Practical implications of the results obtained are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Vortex Shedding from Tapered Cylinders at high Reynolds Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Christensen, Silas Sverre

    2015-01-01

    percent for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The present investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine......^5 (Supercritical). Results indicate that circular strakes with a diameter corresponding to 3 percent of the structures mean diameter can be used to efficiently reduce VIV in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime....

  5. Vortex solutions in a Witten-type model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaya, Satoru; Sawado, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Michitaka

    2014-01-01

    Straight line vortex solutions in a Witten's superconducting string model are studied. The model has many parameters and this is the main reason of the complexity. We argue the precise conditions of the parameters for finding the solutions of the model. We obtain the rotationally symmetric solutions for the winding numbers m = 1 - 4 with/without the gauge field. For the higher winding numbers, an energy minimization algorithm is used to investigate non-rotational solutions

  6. Dynamics of a vortex ring moving perpendicularly to the axis of a rotating fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenga, A.H.M.; Verzicco, R.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of a vortex ring moving orthogonally to the rotation vector of a uniformly rotating fluid is analysed by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In the rotating system the vortex ring describes a curved trajectory, turning in the opposite sense to the system's anti-clockwise

  7. An Empirical Model for Vane-Type Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Julianne C.

    2005-01-01

    An empirical model which simulates the effects of vane-type vortex generators in ducts was incorporated into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code. The model enables the effects of the vortex generators to be simulated without defining the details of the geometry within the grid, and makes it practical for researchers to evaluate multiple combinations of vortex generator arrangements. The model determines the strength of each vortex based on the generator geometry and the local flow conditions. Validation results are presented for flow in a straight pipe with a counter-rotating vortex generator arrangement, and the results are compared with experimental data and computational simulations using a gridded vane generator. Results are also presented for vortex generator arrays in two S-duct diffusers, along with accompanying experimental data. The effects of grid resolution and turbulence model are also examined.

  8. Vorticity and vortex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, M-D

    2006-01-01

    The importance of vorticity and vortex dynamics has now been well rec- nized at both fundamental and applied levels of ?uid dynamics, as already anticipatedbyTruesdellhalfcenturyagowhenhewrotethe?rstmonograph onthesubject, The Kinematics of Vorticity(1954);andasalsoevidencedby the appearance of several books on this ?eld in 1990s. The present book is characterizedbythefollowingfeatures: 1. A basic physical guide throughout the book. The material is directed by a basic observation on the splitting and coupling of two fundamental processes in ?uid motion, i.e., shearing (unique to ?uid) and compre- ing/expanding.Thevorticityplaysakeyroleintheformer,andavortex isnothingbuta?uidbodywithhighconcentrationofvorticitycompared to its surrounding ?uid. Thus, the vorticity and vortex dynamics is - cordinglyde?nedasthetheoryofshearingprocessanditscouplingwith compressing/expandingprocess. 2. A description of the vortex evolution following its entire life.Thisbegins from the generation of vorticity to the formation of thi...

  9. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  10. An experimental study of the effect of external turbulence on the decay of a single vortex and a vortex pair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, J.P.J.; Holten, A.P.C.; Elsenaar, A.; Trieling, R.R.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of external turbulence on the decay of vortices. Single vortices and vortex pairs were generated with wing(s) mounted in the sidewalls of a wind tunnel. The distance between the two vortices could be adjusted such that they just touched each other or

  11. Electric vortex in MHD flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low β flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion

  12. Intracavity vortex beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Aït-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring this OAM to matter and to be used in quantum information processing. We explore an extra-cavity and intra-cavity approach in LG0l mode generation respectively. The outputs of a Porro-prism resonator are represented by "petals" and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the "petal" fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes.

  13. Application of fuzzy logic approach for wind erosion hazard mapping in Laghouat region (Algeria) using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoud, Djouher; Hassani, Mohamed; Martin Peinado, Francisco José; Guettouche, Mohamed Saïd

    2018-06-01

    Wind erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Algeria that threatens human activities and socio-economic development. The main goal of this study is to apply a fuzzy logic approach to wind erosion sensitivity mapping in the Laghouat region, Algeria. Six causative factors, obtained by applying fuzzy membership functions to each used parameter, are considered: soil, vegetation cover, wind factor, soil dryness, land topography and land cover sensitivity. Different fuzzy operators (AND, OR, SUM, PRODUCT, and GAMMA) are applied to generate wind-erosion hazard map. Success rate curves reveal that the fuzzy gamma (γ) operator, with γ equal to 0.9, gives the best prediction accuracy with an area under curve of 85.2%. The resulting wind-erosion sensitivity map delineates the area into different zones of five relative sensitivity classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The estimated result was verified by field measurements and the high statistically significant value of a chi-square test.

  14. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-01-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

  15. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M., E-mail: ymjin@mtu.edu

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.

  16. Remote Sensing of Three-dimensional Winds with Elastic Lidar: Explanation of Maximum Cross-correlation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttler, William T.; Soriano, Cecilia; Baldasano, Jose M.; Nickel, George H.

    Maximum cross-correlation provides a method toremotely de-ter-mine high-lyre-solved three-dimensional fields of horizontalwinds with e-las-tic li-darthrough-out large volumes of the planetaryboundary layer (PBL). This paperdetails the technique and shows comparisonsbetween elastic lidar winds, remotelysensed laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) windprofiles, and radiosonde winds.Radiosonde wind data were acquired at Barcelona,Spain, during the BarcelonaAir-Quality Initiative (1992), and the LDVwind data were acquired at SunlandPark, New Mexico during the 1994 Border AreaAir-Quality Study. Comparisonsshow good agreement between the differentinstruments, and demonstrate the methoduseful for air pollution management at thelocal/regional scale. Elastic lidar windscould thus offer insight into aerosol andpollution transport within the PBL. Lidarwind fields might also be used to nudge orimprove initialization and evaluation ofatmospheric meteorological models.

  17. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  18. Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two...... different airfoils at a Reynolds number of 3 million, the FFA- W3-301 and FFA-W3-360, respectively. The computations are compared with wind tunnel measurements from the Stuttgart Laminar Wind Tunnel with respect to lift and drag variation as function of angle of attack. Even though the method does...

  19. A consistent definition of the Arctic polar vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W.; Seo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Breakup of the polar vortex is a dominant feature of the seasonal transition from winter to summer in the stratosphere, which significantly affects stratospheric O3 concentration and tropospheric weather. Previously several criteria for the vortex breakup have been suggested based on the potential vorticity (PV) and wind speed, however, those mainly have focused on the lower stratospheric vortex of which spatiotemporal evolution and decay are more continuous than those of the upper stratospheric vortex. To find a consistent criterion for the vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere, the present study defined a polar vortex breakup day as when PV gradient at the polar vortex edge becomes lower than that at the subtropical edge on the area equivalent latitude based on PV. With applying the new definition to the UK Met Office reanalysis data, the breakup days of the Arctic polar vortices on 18 isentropic levels from 450 K to 1300 K were calculated for the period of 1993-2005. In comparison with CH4, N2O and O3 measured by the ILAS and POAM II/III satellite instruments, the breakup days are well consistent with changes in the distribution of such tracers as well as their zonal standard deviations associated with the vortex structure breaking and irreversible mixing. The vortex breakup in the upper stratosphere occurs more or less a month prior to that in the middle and lower stratosphere while the stratospheric final warming events occurs simultaneously in the upper and lower stratosphere.

  20. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  1. Soliton on thin vortex filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kimiaki; Mituhashi, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1990-12-01

    Showing that one of the equations found by Wadati, Konno and Ichikawa is equivalent to the equation of motion of a thin vortex filament, we investigate solitons on the vortex filament. N vortex soliton solution is given in terms of the inverse scattering method. We examine two soliton collision processes on the filament. Our analysis provides the theoretical foundation of two soliton collision processes observed numerically by Aref and Flinchem. (author)

  2. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  3. Estimates of the effectiveness of automatic control in alleviating wake vortex induced roll excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinling, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the effectiveness of a model following type control system in reducing the roll excursion due to a wake vortex encounter were obtained from single degree of freedom computations with inputs derived from the results of wind tunnel, flight, and simulation experiments. The analysis indicates that the control power commanded by the automatic system must be roughly equal to the vortex induced roll acceleration if effective limiting of the maximum bank angle is to be achieved.

  4. Study of vortex breakdown of F-106B by Euler code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Jenn Louh

    1990-01-01

    The 'Three-dimensional Euler Aerodynamic Method' (TEAM) is presently applied to the F-106B at subsonic speed, in order to examine the relationship between off- and on-surface flow features at angles-of-attack sufficiently great for the occurrence of vortex breakdown. Although TEAM's flow separation is triggered by numerical dissipation, the general trend of vortex-breakdown effect on computed lift characteristics is similar to extant wind tunnel results.

  5. A numerical study of the stabilitiy of helical vortices using vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, J H [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Guenot, M [Enginering College in Industrial Systems, FR-17041, La Rochelle (France); Machefaux, E [Enginering College in Industrial Systems, FR-17041, La Rochelle (France); Rasmussen, J T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Chatelain, P [Computational Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Okulov, V L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Soerensen, J N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Bergdorf, M [Computational Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Koumoutsakos, P [Computational Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    We present large-scale parallel direct numerical simulations using particle vortex methods of the instability of the helical vortices. We study the instability of a single helical vortex and find good agreement with inviscid theory. We outline equilibrium configurations for three double helical vortices-similar to those produced by three blade wind turbines. The simulations confirm the stability of the inviscid model, but predict a breakdown of the vortical system due to viscosity.

  6. A numerical study of the stabilitiy of helical vortices using vortex methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, J H; Guenot, M; Machefaux, E; Rasmussen, J T; Chatelain, P; Okulov, V L; Soerensen, J N; Bergdorf, M; Koumoutsakos, P

    2007-01-01

    We present large-scale parallel direct numerical simulations using particle vortex methods of the instability of the helical vortices. We study the instability of a single helical vortex and find good agreement with inviscid theory. We outline equilibrium configurations for three double helical vortices-similar to those produced by three blade wind turbines. The simulations confirm the stability of the inviscid model, but predict a breakdown of the vortical system due to viscosity

  7. On the effects of leading edge vortex generators on an OA209 airfoil

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, Benjamin; Mulleners, Karen; Gardner, Anthony; Mai, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Leading edge vortex generators have been found to significantly increase the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil under dynamic stall conditions. However, the principle of operation of these devices is still unclear. Therefore static wind and water tunnel experiments as well as CFD simulations have been conducted on a rotary aircraft wing profile OA209. A POD analysis applied to the vector fields generated by PIV measurements showed that the vortex generators break larger flow structures...

  8. The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

    2014-01-01

    Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…

  9. Vortex lattices in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1995-01-01

    We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear

  10. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those

  11. Decreasing vortex flux in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow

  12. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  13. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leble, V.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

  14. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leble, V; Barakos, G

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance. (paper)

  15. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  16. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  17. Experimental study of improved HAWT performance in simulated natural wind by an active controlled multi-fan wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, Kazuhiko; Narihara, Takahiko; Kikugawa, Hironori; Akiyoshi, Arata; Kawazu, Yuuya

    2017-04-01

    The effects of turbulent intensity and vortex scale of simulated natural wind on performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) are mainly investigated in this paper. In particular, the unsteadiness and turbulence of wind in Japan are stronger than ones in Europe and North America in general. Hence, Japanese engineers should take account of the velocity unsteadiness of natural wind at installed open-air location to design a higher performance wind turbine. Using the originally designed five wind turbines on the basis of NACA and MEL blades, the dependencies of the wind frequency and vortex scale of the simulated natural wind are presented. As the results, the power coefficient of the newly designed MEL3-type rotor in the simulated natural wind is 130% larger than one in steady wind.

  18. A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....

  19. Vortex-vortex interactions in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, T.; Santos, L.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the vortex dynamics and vortex-vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in toroidal traps. We show that this particular geometry strongly distorts the vortex dynamics. The numerically calculated vortex trajectories are well explained by an analytical calculation based on image method and conformal mapping. Finally, the dissipation effects are discussed.

  20. Vortex dynamics in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Luca; Fetter, Alexander L.; Massignan, Pietro; Wittek, Peter

    2017-02-01

    In classical hydrodynamics with uniform density, vortices move with the local fluid velocity. This description is rewritten in terms of forces arising from the interaction with other vortices. Two such positive straight vortices experience a repulsive interaction and precess in a positive (anticlockwise) sense around their common centroid. A similar picture applies to vortices in a two-component, two-dimensional uniform Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coherently coupled through rf Rabi fields. Unlike the classical case, however, the rf Rabi coupling induces an attractive interaction and two such vortices with positive signs now rotate in the negative (clockwise) sense. Pairs of counter-rotating vortices are instead found to translate with uniform velocity perpendicular to the line joining their cores. This picture is extended to a single vortex in a two-component trapped BEC. Although two uniform vortex-free components experience familiar Rabi oscillations of particle-number difference, such behavior is absent for a vortex in one component because of the nonuniform vortex phase. Instead the coherent Rabi coupling induces a periodic vorticity transfer between the two components.

  1. Multi-MW wind turbine power curve measurements using remote sensing instruments – the first Høvsøre campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael

    curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. LiDAR are found to be more accurate than SoDAR and therefore more suitable for power performance measurement. The equivalent wind...... that used of the equivalent wind speed at least results in a power curve with no more scatter than using the conventional method....

  2. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  3. Review of Vortex Methods for Simulation of Vortex Breakdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinski, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify current developments in the field of vortex breakdown modelling in order to initiate the development of a numerical model for the simulation of F/A-18 empennage buffet...

  4. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex 'nanoliquid'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E ZELDOV2, A SOIBEL3, F de la CRUZ4,CJ van der BEEK5,. M KONCZYKOWSKI5, T ... 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. 76100, Israel ..... heterogeneous nature of the vortex nanoliquid.

  5. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.

    1999-09-16

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.

  6. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  7. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: hermann.suderow@uam.es [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  8. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvis, J.A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  9. Vortex loops and Majoranas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry

  10. Vortex gas lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.

    1989-01-01

    A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.

  11. Vortex electronis and squids

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of vortices in high-Tc superconductors is a crucial subject for research on superconductive electronics, especially for superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs), it is also a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. Recent technological progress in methods for both direct and indirect observation of vortices, e.g. scanning SQUID, terahertz imaging, and microwave excitation, has led to new insights into vortex physics, the dynamic behavior of vortices in junctions and related questions of noise. This book presents the current status of research activity and provides new information on the applications of SQUIDs, including magnetocardiography, immunoassays, and laser-SQUID microscopes, all of which are close to being commercially available.

  12. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  13. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  14. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future. PMID:27653976

  15. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  16. A SAR Observation and Numerical Study on Ocean Surface Imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Pichel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Street (AVS off Aleutian Volcanic Islands, Alaska were observed in two RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images separated by about 11 hours. In both images, three pairs of distinctive vortices shedding in the lee side of two volcanic mountains can be clearly seen. The length and width of the vortex street are about 60-70 km and 20 km, respectively. Although the AVS’s in the two SAR images have similar shapes, the structure of vortices within the AVS is highly asymmetrical. The sea surface wind speed is estimated from the SAR images with wind direction input from Navy NOGAPS model. In this paper we present a complete MM5 model simulation of the observed AVS. The surface wind simulated from the MM5 model is in good agreement with SAR-derived wind. The vortex shedding rate calculated from the model run is about 1 hour and 50 minutes. Other basic characteristics of the AVS including propagation speed of the vortex, Strouhal and Reynolds numbers favorable for AVS generation are also derived. The wind associated with AVS modifies the cloud structure in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. The AVS cloud pattern is also observed on a MODIS visible band image taken between the two RADARSAT SAR images. An ENVISAT advance SAR image taken 4 hours after the second RADARSAT SAR image shows that the AVS has almost vanished.

  17. Progress in wind tunnel experimental techniques for wind turbine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingping XIAO; Li CHEN; Qiang WANG; Qiao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Based on the unsteady aerodynamics experiment (UAE) phase VI and the model experiment in controlled conditions (MEXICO) projects and the related research carried out in China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center (CARDC), the recent progress in the wind tunnel experimental techniques for the wind turbine is sum-marized. Measurement techniques commonly used for di?erent types of wind tunnel ex-periments for wind turbine are reviewed. Important research achievements are discussed, such as the wind tunnel disturbance, the equivalence of the airfoil in?ow condition, the three-dimensional (3D) e?ect, the dynamic in?ow in?uence, the ?ow ?eld structure, and the vortex induction. The corresponding research at CARDC and some ideas on the large wind turbine are also introduced.

  18. Imaging of artificially induced vortex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Yanina; Menghini, M.; Cruz, F. de la

    2004-01-01

    The combination of engineered pinning potentials in superconducting crystals, the detection of the liquid-solid vortex transition and the observation of the vortex structure with single vortex sensitivity allow the microscopic analysis of the response of 3D elastic systems to the presence of these potentials. In this work we review recent results obtained by a combination of those techniques studying different vortex structure induced transformations. On the one hand, we have visualized the transformation, along the vortex direction, of a bulk vortex single crystal with hexagonal symmetry into another crystal with square symmetry induced by an engineered Fe-dot lattice deposited on a surface of the vortex single crystal. On the other hand, we found an infrequent first-order phase transition where a vortex liquid under the presence of a random correlated potential (columnar defects) transforms into a vortex solid with no change of topological order

  19. Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I

    2011-01-01

    We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex

  20. Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Lixia; Liu, Chunxiang; Li, Xing; Wang, Shuyun; Xu, Qing; Teng, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    In view of the limitations of vortex generators with polarization dependence at present, we propose a plasmonic vortex generator composed of rectangular holes etched in silver film, in which the optical vortex can be generated under arbitrary linearly polarized light illumination. Two sets of rectangular holes are arranged equidistantly on a circle and rotate in postulate directions. Theoretical analysis provides the design principle for the vortex generator, and numerical simulations give guidance on designating the vortex generator parameters. Experimental measurements verify the performance of the proposed vortex generator. Moreover, two alternative structures for the generation of a plasmonic vortex are also provided in this paper. The resulting perfect vortex, compact structure and flexible illumination conditions will lead to wide applications of this plasmonic vortex generator.

  1. Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, D; Ferreira, C; Florentie, L; Timmer, N; Van Zuijlen, A; Manolesos, M; Chaviaropoulos, T; Diakakis, K; Papadakis, G; Voutsinas, S; González Salcedo, Á; Aparicio, M; García, N R.; Sørensen, N N.; Troldborg, N

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30% thick DU97W300 and an 18% thick NTUA T18 have been used for benchmarking several simulation tools. These tools span low-to-high complexity, ranging from engineering-level integral boundary layer tools to fully-resolved computational fluid dynamics codes. Results indicate that with appropriate calibration, engineering-type tools can capture the effects of vortex generators and outperform more complex tools. Fully resolved CFD comes at a much higher computational cost and does not necessarily capture the increased lift due to the VGs. However, in lieu of the limited experimental data available for calibration, high fidelity tools are still required for assessing the effect of vortex generators on airfoil performance. (paper)

  2. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...... particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator....

  3. Economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.; Kumar, H.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional economic analysis of wind energy often ignores the fact that it is not an energy source available on tap, but is intermittent. The analysis at times is discriminatory in the sense that the costs of transmission and distribution are added to the central grid alternative but the costs of the locational constraints of wind energy siting are not quantified. This paper evaluates wind energy after correcting for these two factors. The results are not encouraging

  4. Vortex survival in 3D self-gravitating accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Kai; Pierens, Arnaud

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale, dust-trapping vortices may account for observations of asymmetric protoplanetary discs. Disc vortices are also potential sites for accelerated planetesimal formation by concentrating dust grains. However, in 3D discs vortices are subject to destructive `elliptic instabilities', which reduces their viability as dust traps. The survival of vortices in 3D accretion discs is thus an important issue to address. In this work, we perform shearing box simulations to show that disc self-gravity enhances the survival of 3D vortices, even when self-gravity is weak in the classic sense (e.g. with a Toomre Q ≃ 5). We find a 3D, self-gravitating vortex can grow on secular timescales in spite of the elliptic instability. The vortex aspect-ratio decreases as it strengthens, which feeds the elliptic instability. The result is a 3D vortex with a turbulent core that persists for ˜103 orbits. We find when gravitational and hydrodynamic stresses become comparable, the vortex may undergo episodic bursts, which we interpret as interaction between elliptic and gravitational instabilities. We estimate the distribution of dust particles in self-gravitating, turbulent vortices. Our results suggest large-scale vortices in protoplanetary discs are more easily observed at large radii.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Aircraft Wake Vortex Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Perry, R. Brad

    2013-01-01

    The near wake vortex flowfield from a NACA0012 half-wing was simulated using a fully unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver in three dimensions at a chord Reynolds number of 4.6 million and a Mach number of approximately 0.15. Several simulations were performed to examine the effect of boundary conditions, mesh resolution and turbulence scheme on the formation of wingtip vortex and its downstream propagation. The standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was compared with the Dacles-Mariani and Spalart-Shur corrections for rotation and curvature effects. The simulation results were evaluated using the data from experiment performed at NASA Ames' 32in x 48in low speed wind tunnel.

  6. Wind energy conversion. Volume II. Aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Dugundji, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Gohard, J.; Chung, S.; Humes, T.

    1978-09-01

    The basic aerodynamic theory of the wind turbine is presented, starting with the simple momentum theory based on uniform inflow and an infinite number of blades. The basic vortex theory is then developed. Following these basics, the more complete momentum theory, including swirl, non-uniform inflow, the effect of a finite number of blades, and empirical correction for the vortex ring condition is presented. The more complete vortex theory is presented which includes unsteady aerodynamic effects but based on a semi-rigid wake. Methods of applying this theory for performance estimation are discussed as well as for the purpose of computing time varying airloads due to windshear and tower interference.

  7. Green functions of vortex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1981-01-01

    We study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarly for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail. (orig.)

  8. Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Niels N; Zahle, F; Bak, C; Vronsky, T

    2014-01-01

    Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two different airfoils at a Reynolds number of 3 million, the FFA- W3-301 and FFA-W3-360, respectively. The computations are compared with wind tunnel measurements from the Stuttgart Laminar Wind Tunnel with respect to lift and drag variation as function of angle of attack. Even though the method does not exactly capture the measured performance, it can be used to compare different VG setups qualitatively with respect to chord- wise position, inter and intra-spacing and inclination of the VGs already in the design phase

  9. Experimental parameter study for passive vortex generators on a 30% thick airfoil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; De Tavernier, D.A.M.; Timmer, W.A.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2018-01-01

    Passive vane-type vortex generators (VGs) are commonly used on wind turbine blades to mitigate the effects of flow separation. However, significant uncertainty surrounds VG design guidelines. Understanding the influence of VG parameters on airfoil performance requires a systematic approach

  10. KNOW-BLADE task-3.3 report: Rotor blade computations with 3D vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Reck, M.

    2005-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in work package WP3.3: Aerodynamic Accessories in 3D in the EC project KNOW-BLADE. Vortex generators (VGs) are modelled in 3D Navier-Stokes solvers and applied on the flow around an airfoil and a wind turbineblade. Three test cases have been investigated...

  11. Computing the flow past Vortex Generators : Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manolesos, M.; Sorensen, NN; Troldborg, N.; Florentie, L.; Papadakis, G; Voutsinas, S.

    2016-01-01

    The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental

  12. Regimes of Vorticity in the Wake of a Rectangular Vortex Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the study of the secondary structures generated in the wake of a wall mounted rectangular vane, commonly referred to as a vortex generator. The study has been conducted by Stereoscopic PIV measurements in a wind tunnel and supplementary flow visualizations in a water channel...

  13. Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the in_nite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent

  14. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  15. Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams through the turbulent biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Meilan; Chen, Qi; Hua, Limin; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2014-01-10

    The general analytical expression of the stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams through turbulent biological tissues is derived based on the fractal model. The statistical properties, including the spectral density, the spectral degree of coherence and the spectral degree of polarization are investigated in detail. It can be found that the normalized spectral density of the stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams with higher topological charge is less influenced by turbulence than that with lower topological charge. In addition, the change of the degree of polarization versus propagation distance of the anisotropic vortex beams in biological tissues differs from that of the isotropic vortex beams. The findings might be useful in the investigation of the structures of biological tissues and operation of communication and sensing systems involving biological tissues turbulence channels.

  16. Generating, Separating and Polarizing Terahertz Vortex Beams via Liquid Crystals with Gradient-Rotation Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jun Ge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal (LC is a promising candidate for terahertz (THz devices. Recently, LC has been introduced to generate THz vortex beams. However, the efficiency is intensely dependent on the incident wavelength, and the transformed THz vortex beam is usually mixed with the residual component. Thus, a separating process is indispensable. Here, we introduce a gradient blazed phase, and propose a THz LC forked polarization grating that can simultaneously generate and separate pure THz vortices with opposite circular polarization. The specific LC gradient-rotation directors are implemented by a photoalignment technique. The generated THz vortex beams are characterized with a THz imaging system, verifying features of polarization controllability. This work may pave a practical road towards generating, separating and polarizing THz vortex beams, and may prompt applications in THz communications, sensing and imaging.

  17. Backreaction of excitations on a vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1996-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their backreaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate backreaction of Proca type excitations on a straightlinear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose exact Ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the backreaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found ...

  18. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  19. Vortex dynamics in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Krane, B.; Pecseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Low frequency dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in strongly magnetized plasmas have been studied. It was found that perturbations in density and potential can be very localized, indicating the applicability of an approximate description based on a finite number of vortices. A model based on a few isolated vortical structures is discussed, with particular attention to vortex collapse, where three vortices merge together within a finite time, or to the converse process, i.e. a vortex explosion. Details of these particular types of vortex dynamics depend on the actual model used for describing the electrons, the presence of a Debye shielding in particular. A ''boomerang''-type of evolution was found, where three shielded vortices expand initially, just as their unshielded counterparts, but eventually the expansion is arrested, and they start converging to collapse ultimately. The study is extended by a numerical simulation where the point model is relaxed to a continuous, but localized, vorticity distribution with finite size vortices. (orig.)

  20. Non-Abelian vortex lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.

  1. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

  2. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  3. A note on integral vortex strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-28 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : circulation * unsteady Taylor vortex * vortex intensity * vortex strength * vorticity * vorticity decomposition Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  4. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  5. Boundary Layer Flow Control by an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Hirt, S. M.; Bencic, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Flow field survey results for the effect of ramp-shaped vortex generators (VG) on a turbulent boundary layer are presented. The experiments are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel and the data are acquired primarily by hot-wire anemometry. Distributions of mean velocity and turbulent stresses as well as streamwise vorticity, on cross-sectional planes at various downstream locations, are obtained. These detailed flow field properties, including the boundary layer characteristics, are documented with the primary objective of aiding possible computational investigations. The results show that VG orientation with apex upstream, that produces a downwash directly behind it, yields a stronger pair of streamwise vortices. This is in contrast to the case with apex downstream that produces a pair of vortices of opposite sense. Thus, an array of VG s with the former orientation, usually considered for film-cooling application, may also be superior for mixing enhancement and boundary layer separation control. The data files can be found on a supplemental CD.

  6. Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band - High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Keen, Cecil S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark; Pease, Steven R.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that Great Lakes snow squall convection occurs in a variety of different modes depending on various factors such as air-water temperature contrast, boundary-layer wind shear, and geostrophic wind direction. An exceptional and often neglected source of data for mesoscale cloud studies is the ultrahigh resolution multispectral data produced by Landsat satellites. On October 19, 1972, a clearly defined spiral vortex was noted in a Landsat-1 image near the southern end of Lake Michigan during an exceptionally early cold air outbreak over a still very warm lake. In a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation mesoscale model with an initially uniform wind field, a definite analog to the observed vortex was generated. This suggests that intense surface heating can be a principal cause in the development of a low-level mesoscale vortex.

  7. Vortex configuration and vortex-vortex interaction in nano-structured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru; Niwa, Yuhei; Suematsu, Hisataka; Ishida, Takekazu

    2012-01-01

    We study the vortex structures and quasi-particle structures in nano-structured superconductors. We used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation and the finite element method and obtained stable magnetic flux structures and the quasi-particle states. We found the vortex configurations are affected by the interference of the quasi-particle bound states around the vortices. In order to clarify the interference between the quasi-particle wave-functions around two vortices we have developed a numerical method using the elliptic coordinates and the Mathieu functions. We apply this method to two singly quantized vortex state in a conventional s-wave superconductor and a pair of half-quantum vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor.

  8. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  9. Near-ground tornado-like vortex structure resolved by particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Iowa State University, Aerospace Engineering Department, Ames, IA (United States); University of Minnesota, Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sarkar, Partha P. [Iowa State University, Aerospace Engineering Department, Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    tornado-like vortex structure and the ground surface, ultimately leading to better predictions of tornado-induced wind loads on civil structures. (orig.)

  10. Wind energy: Overcoming inadequate wind and modeling uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Vivek

    2010-09-15

    'Green Energy' is the call of the day, and significance of Wind Energy can never be overemphasized. But the key question here is - What if the wind resources are inadequate? Studies reveal that the probability of finding favorable wind at a given place on land is only 15%. Moreover, there are inherent uncertainties associated with wind business. Can we overcome inadequate wind resources? Can we scientifically quantify uncertainty and model it to make business sense? This paper proposes a solution, by way of break-through Wind Technologies, combined with advanced tools for Financial Modeling, enabling vital business decisions.

  11. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  12. The interaction of counter-rotating strained vortex pairs with a third vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Keith; Ooi, Andrew; Chong, M S; Ruetten, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The vortex dynamics caused by the interaction of counter-rotating Burgers vortex pairs with a third Burgers vortex in a straining flow is investigated numerically. These interactions blend vortex merging and cancellation effects, and the aim is to investigate how the third vortex might influence the evolution of the vortex pair. Many different choices of initial conditions for the pair and third vortex exist, so attention is restricted to a class of initial conditions in which the vortex pair initially moves in the general direction of vortex 3, and the distance from vortex 3 to the line of free propagation of the vortex pair is the 'offset' parameter δ. A series of calculations with 0≤δ≤4 reveals three types of intermediate-time vortex dynamics that are called merging, swapping and switching. The evolution of the vortex core separation and core vorticity level diagnostics are used to determine the points of transition from merging to swapping and switching. In the longer term, vortex merging, cancellation and straining reduces the three vortices to a single vortex. Other diagnostics of interest are also monitored, including the spatial distributions of the rate of viscous dissipation and terms contributing to the vorticity transport equation. During the merging phase for the case with δ=0, double-peak and double-trough structures are observed in the dissipation-rate contours. In addition, the diffusion of vorticity dominates the vortex-stretching effect near vortex 1 during its absorbtion by vortex 3. Finally, the dynamics of the three vortices are also examined by computing a co-rotating angular velocity and stream function. A series of peaks in the co-rotating angular velocity is found to be associated with the conservation of angular momentum and interactions with a 'ghost' vortex in the co-rotating stream function.

  13. Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan

    , and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding flutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefficients found from the current version......The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional flow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the flow field around bridge sections...

  14. Some exact Bradlow vortex solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-05-08

    We consider the Bradlow equation for vortices which was recently found by Manton and find a two-parameter class of analytic solutions in closed form on nontrivial geometries with non-constant curvature. The general solution to our class of metrics is given by a hypergeometric function and the area of the vortex domain by the Gaussian hypergeometric function.

  15. 150 Years of vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    An IUTAM symposium with the title of this paper was held on October 12-16, 2008, in Lyngby and Copenhagen, Denmark, to mark the sesquicentennial of publication of Helmholtz's seminal paper on vortex dynamics. This volume contains the proceedings of the Symposium. The present paper provides...

  16. Anatomy of a Bathtub Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole...

  17. Vortex dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of vortical structures in magnetized plasmas with nonuniform density is investigated numerically. In particular the dynamics of monopolar vortices is considered and the results are discussed in terms of the conservation of potential vorticity. It is found that individual vortex...

  18. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  19. Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  20. A vortex dynamics perspective on stratospheric sudden warmings

    OpenAIRE

    Matthewman, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    A vortex dynamics approach is used to study the underlying mechanisms leading to polar vortex breakdown during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). Observational data are used in chapter 2 to construct climatologies of the Arctic polar vortex structure during vortex-splitting and vortex-displacement SSWs occurring between 1958 and 2002. During vortex-splitting SSWs, polar vortex breakdown is shown to be typically independent of height (barotropic), whereas breakdown during vor...

  1. Flow analysis of vortex generators on wing sections by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Cavar, Dalibor

    2008-01-01

    a wind turbine blade. The low Reynolds number is chosen on the basis that this is a fundamental investigation of the structures of the flow induced by vortex generators and the fact that one obtains a thicker boundary layer and larger structures evoked by the actuating devices, which are easier...... generators are applied. The idea behind the experiments is that the results will be offered for validation of modeling of the effect of vortex generators using various numerical codes. Initial large eddy simulation (LES) computations have been performed that show the same qualitative behaviour...

  2. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  3. Bluff body flow and vortex—its application to wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Some interesting phenomena of vortex flows we have found in past experimental research are described. For a given flow configuration, multiple flow patterns can exist and a sudden change from one flow pattern to another can occur. We observed the alternate switching of the flow patterns with irregular periods around a bluff body. The change of vortex flow pattern around a bluff body with geometrical parameters or stratification is not always continuous but often shows a sudden change in the whole flow pattern. Based on our research on vortex flows, an innovative application of the vortex flow to a shrouded wind turbine is made in which the power output of a wind turbine is remarkably enhanced. Unlike the majority of conventional aerodynamic machinery, which tends to minimize vortex shedding, the vortex formation of our ‘brimmed’ shroud plays an important role in capturing and concentrating wind energy. Furthermore, aerodynamic noise is reduced in this design. The blade tip vortex is weakened by a counter-rotating vortex generated along the inner side of the shroud as they travel downstream, making the shrouded wind turbine much quieter than conventional turbines. (paper)

  4. Bluff body flow and vortex—its application to wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohya, Yuji, E-mail: ohya@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Some interesting phenomena of vortex flows we have found in past experimental research are described. For a given flow configuration, multiple flow patterns can exist and a sudden change from one flow pattern to another can occur. We observed the alternate switching of the flow patterns with irregular periods around a bluff body. The change of vortex flow pattern around a bluff body with geometrical parameters or stratification is not always continuous but often shows a sudden change in the whole flow pattern. Based on our research on vortex flows, an innovative application of the vortex flow to a shrouded wind turbine is made in which the power output of a wind turbine is remarkably enhanced. Unlike the majority of conventional aerodynamic machinery, which tends to minimize vortex shedding, the vortex formation of our ‘brimmed’ shroud plays an important role in capturing and concentrating wind energy. Furthermore, aerodynamic noise is reduced in this design. The blade tip vortex is weakened by a counter-rotating vortex generated along the inner side of the shroud as they travel downstream, making the shrouded wind turbine much quieter than conventional turbines. (paper)

  5. Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.

  6. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available simple decay process to restore equilibrium. More complicated dynamics are involved, which requires deeper investigations. REFERENCES [1] Nye, J. F. and Berry, M. V., ?Dislocations in wave trains,? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165?190 (1974). [2] Dennis..., J., Zambrini, R., Dennis, M., and Vasnetsov, M., ?Angular momentum of optical vortex arrays,? Opt. Express 14, 938?949 (2006). [27] Berry, M. V., ?Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent gaussian random waves,? J. Phys...

  7. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  8. Leading-Edge Flow Sensing for Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Aditya

    The identification of inflow air data quantities such as airspeed, angle of attack, and local lift coefficient on various sections of a wing or rotor blade provides the capability for load monitoring, aerodynamic diagnostics, and control on devices ranging from air vehicles to wind turbines. Real-time measurement of aerodynamic parameters during flight provides the ability to enhance aircraft operating capabilities while preventing dangerous stall situations. This thesis presents a novel Leading-Edge Flow Sensing (LEFS) algorithm for the determination of the air -data parameters using discrete surface pressures measured at a few ports in the vicinity of the leading edge of a wing or blade section. The approach approximates the leading-edge region of the airfoil as a parabola and uses pressure distribution from the exact potential-ow solution for the parabola to _t the pressures measured from the ports. Pressures sensed at five discrete locations near the leading edge of an airfoil are given as input to the algorithm to solve the model using a simple nonlinear regression. The algorithm directly computes the inflow velocity, the stagnation-point location, section angle of attack and lift coefficient. The performance of the algorithm is assessed using computational and experimental data in the literature for airfoils under different ow conditions. The results show good correlation between the actual and predicted aerodynamic quantities within the pre-stall regime, even for a rotating blade section. Sensing the deviation of the aerodynamic behavior from the linear regime requires additional information on the location of ow separation on the airfoil surface. Bio-inspired artificial hair sensors were explored as a part of the current research for stall detection. The response of such artificial micro-structures can identify critical ow characteristics, which relate directly to the stall behavior. The response of the microfences was recorded via an optical microscope for

  9. Aeroelastic analysis of large horizontal wind turbine baldes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di TANG; Zhiliang LU; Tongqing GUO

    2016-01-01

    A nonlinear aeroelastic analysis method for large horizontal wind turbines is described. A vortex wake method and a nonlinear ?nite element method (FEM) are coupled in the approach. The vortex wake method is used to predict wind turbine aero-dynamic loads of a wind turbine, and a three-dimensional (3D) shell model is built for the rotor. Average aerodynamic forces along the azimuth are applied to the structural model, and the nonlinear static aeroelastic behaviors are computed. The wind rotor modes are obtained at the static aeroelastic status by linearizing the coupled equations. The static aeroelastic performance and dynamic aeroelastic responses are calculated for the NH1500 wind turbine. The results show that structural geometrical nonlinearities signi?cantly reduce displacements and vibration amplitudes of the wind turbine blades. Therefore, structural geometrical nonlinearities cannot be neglected both in the static aeroelastic analysis and dynamic aeroelastic analysis.

  10. A differentiated plane wave as an electromagnetic vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Nye, J F

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating a complex scalar plane wave with respect to its direction produces an isolated straight vortex line and has a natural extension, described in earlier papers, to the vector waves of electromagnetism—a differentiated plane wave (DPW). It epitomizes destructive interference and will be shown to have the local structure of an electromagnetic vortex. In this paper its polarization structure and Poynting vector field are compared and contrasted with that of the family of linear polynomial waves, of which it is a special member. By definition this wider family has a general linear complex vector function of position multiplying a plane wave, but the function must be such that the combination satisfies Maxwell’s equations. This forces translational invariance of the function along the wavevector direction—in other words the wave is ‘non-diffracting’. In a natural sense all possible polarizations are exhibited once only. But the DPW has a distinctive polarization structure only partly explored previously. Both classes of waves share similar Poynting vector fields, which can be ‘elliptic’ (helix-like flow lines) or ‘hyperbolic’, of a repulsive nature, unexpected for a vortex. Both classes can be considered as a limit in the superposition of three closely parallel ordinary plane waves in destructive interference, and this derivation is supplied in full here. (paper)

  11. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  12. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  13. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  14. Some observations of tip-vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R. E. A.; Arakeri, V. H.; Higuchi, H.

    1991-08-01

    Cavitation has been observed in the trailing vortex system of an elliptic platform hydrofoil. A complex dependence on Reynolds number and gas content is noted at inception. Some of the observations can be related to tension effects associated with the lack of sufficiently large-sized nuclei. Inception measurements are compared with estimates of pressure in the vortex obtained from LDV measurements of velocity within the vortex. It is concluded that a complete correlation is not possible without knowledge of the fluctuating levels of pressure in tip-vortex flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory shows a surprising lack of dependence on any of the physical parameters varied, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, cavitation number, and dissolved gas content.

  15. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Separated and Vortex Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Goldstein

    2004-05-27

    This document summarizes the research performance done at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the University of Minnesota on heat transfer and energy separation in separated and vortex flow supported by DOE in the period September 1, 1998--August 31, 2003. Unsteady and complicated flow structures in separated or vortex flows are the main reason for a poor understanding of heat transfer under such conditions. The research from the University of Minnesota focused on the following important aspects of understanding such flows: (1) Heat/mass transfer from a circular cylinder; (2) study of energy separation and heat transfer in free jet flows and shear layers; and (3) study of energy separation on the surface and in the wake of a cylinder in crossflow. The current study used three different experimental setups to accomplish these goals. A wind tunnel and a liquid tunnel using water and mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, is used for the study of prandtl number effect with uniform heat flux from the circular cylinder. A high velocity air jet is used to study energy separation in free jets. A high speed wind tunnel, same as used for the first part, is utilized for energy separation effects on the surface and in the wake of the circular cylinder. The final outcome of this study is a substantial advancement in this research area.

  16. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  17. Characterization of the wind loads and flow fields around a gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Haan, Fred [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures. (orig.)

  18. Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

  19. Adaptive computations of flow around a delta wing with vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, David L.; Murman, Earll M.

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive unstructured mesh solution method for the three-dimensional Euler equations was used to simulate the flow around a sharp edged delta wing. Emphasis was on the breakdown of the leading edge vortex at high angle of attack. Large values of entropy, which indicate vortical regions of the flow, specified the region in which adaptation was performed. The aerodynamic normal force coefficients show excellent agreement with wind tunnel data measured by Jarrah, and demonstrate the importance of adaptation in obtaining an accurate solution. The pitching moment coefficient and the location of vortex breakdown are compared with experimental data measured by Hummel and Srinivasan, showing good agreement in cases in which vortex breakdown is located over the wing.

  20. ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by...

  2. Quantum Kinematics of Bosonic Vortex Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, G.A.; Owczarek, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Poisson structure for vortex filaments (loops and arcs) in 2D ideal incompressible fluid is analyzed in detail. Canonical coordinates and momenta on coadjoint orbits of the area-preserving diffeomorphism group, associated with such vortices, are found. The quantum space of states in the simplest case of ''bosonic'' vortex loops is built within a geometric quantization approach to the description of a quantum fluid. Fock-like structure and non-local creation and annihilation operators of quantum vortex filaments are introduced

  3. Distributed amplifier using Josephson vortex flow transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, D.P.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A wide-band traveling wave amplifier using vortex flow transistors is proposed. A vortex flow transistor is a long Josephson junction used as a current controlled voltage source. The dual nature of this device to the field effect transistor is exploited. A circuit model of this device is proposed and a distributed amplifier utilizing 50 vortex flow transistors is predicted to have useful gain to 100 GHz

  4. Velocity measurement by vortex shedding. Contribution to the mass-flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Piquer, T.

    1988-01-01

    The phenomenon of vortex shedding has been known for centuries and has been the subject of scientific studies for about one hundred years. It is only in the ten last years that is has been applied to the measurement of fluids velocity. In 1878 F. Strouhal observed the vortex shedding phenomenon and shown that the shedding frequency of a wire vibrating in the wind was related to the wire diameter and the wind velocity. Rayleigh, who introduced the non-dimensional Strouhal number, von Karman and Rohsko, carried out extensive work or the subject which indicated that vortex shedding could form the basis for a new type of flowmeter. The thesis describes two parallel lines of investigation which study in depth the practical applications of vortex shedding. The first one deals with the measure of velocity and it presents the novelty of a bluff body with a cross-section which has not been used until this day. This body is a circular cylinder with a two-dimensional slit along the diameter and situated in crossdirection to the fluid's stream. It possesses excellent characteristics and it is the most stable as a vortex shedder, which gives it great advantage to the rest of the shapes used until now. The detection of the vortex has been performed by measuring the pressure changes generated by the vortex on two posts situated just beside the slit. To calculate the frequency of the vortex shedding, we obtain the difference of the mentioned signals, which are the same and 180 out of phase. Finding out the period of the autocorrelation function of this signal we can estimate the velocity of the fluid. A logical equipment based on a microprocessor has been designed for the calculation using a zero-crossing time algorithm implemented in assembler language. The second line of research refers to a new method of measure mass flow. The pressure signal generated by the vortex has an intensity which is proportional to the density and to the square of the velocity. Since we have already

  5. The bathtub vortex in a rotating container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.

    2006-01-01

    We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...... expansion approximation of the central vortex core and reduce the model to a single first-order equation. We solve the equation numerically and find that the axial velocity depends linearly on height whereas the azimuthal velocity is almost independent of height. We discuss the model of the bathtub vortex...

  6. Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior

  7. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  8. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  9. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  10. Wind effects on long-span bridges: Probabilistic wind data format for buffeting and VIV load assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K.; Srouji, R. G.; Hansen, S. O.

    2017-12-01

    The technology development within the structural design of long-span bridges in Norwegian fjords has created a need for reformulating the calculation format and the physical quantities used to describe the properties of wind and the associated wind-induced effects on bridge decks. Parts of a new probabilistic format describing the incoming, undisturbed wind is presented. It is expected that a fixed probabilistic format will facilitate a more physically consistent and precise description of the wind conditions, which in turn increase the accuracy and considerably reduce uncertainties in wind load assessments. Because the format is probabilistic, a quantification of the level of safety and uncertainty in predicted wind loads is readily accessible. A simple buffeting response calculation demonstrates the use of probabilistic wind data in the assessment of wind loads and responses. Furthermore, vortex-induced fatigue damage is discussed in relation to probabilistic wind turbulence data and response measurements from wind tunnel tests.

  11. Spoiled darkness? Sense of place and annoyance over obstruction lights from the world’s largest wind turbine test centre in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch; Lyhne, Ivar

    2017-01-01

    strategies. In particular, the discussion focuses on the perceived annoyance in relation to the perceived changes in sense of place, hereunder the loss of the area’s unique night darkness. We argue that perceived annoyance can only be mitigated through coping strategies to a limited extent, as a) perceived...... effects on sense of place are distinctive in shaping annoyance, and b) an internalisation of planning-related inequities persists....

  12. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....

  13. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  14. BPS Lorentz-violating vortex solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Hora, E. da

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we deal with the construction of static Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) rotationally symmetric configurations on the dimensional CPT-even Lorentz-breaking photonic sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The main objective of this presentation is to show the possibility of obtaining such BPS solutions, even in the presence of a Lorentz-violating background. A secondary objective is to analyze the effects of this background on such topologically non-trivial BPS configurations. In order to obtain these results, we deal with some specific components of Lorentz-violating field, handling with the static Euler-Lagrange equation of motion to gauge field, from which we fix temporal gauge (absence of electric field) as a proper gauge choice. Also, considering this equation, we consistently determine an interesting configuration (discarding non-interesting ones) to the Lorentz-breaking sector. Using this configuration and the standard rotationally symmetric vortex Ansatz (which describes the behaviors of Higgs and gauge fields via two profile functions, g(r) and a(r), respectively), we construct a rotationally symmetric expression to the energy density of the system. To obtain BPS solutions, we rewrite this expression in order to have static vortex solutions satisfying a set of first order differential equations (BPS ones). The existence of such solutions is strongly constrained by a relation between some parameters of the model, including the Lorentz-breaking one. Naturally, we show that the total energy of these BPS solutions is proportional to their magnetic flux, which is quantized according to their winding number. Using suitable boundary conditions (near the origin and asymptotically), we numerically integrate the BPS equations (by means of the shooting method). By this way, we obtain solutions for some physical quantities (Higgs field, magnetic field and energy density) for several values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. From these

  15. Analyzing complex wake-terrain interactions and its implications on wind-farm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fuchs, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Rotating wind turbine blades generate complex wakes involving vortices (helical tip-vortex, root-vortex etc.).These wakes are regions of high velocity deficits and high turbulence intensities and they tend to degrade the performance of down-stream turbines. Hence, a conservative inter-turbine distance of up-to 10 times turbine diameter (10D) is sometimes used in wind-farm layout (particularly in cases of flat terrain). This ensures that wake-effects will not reduce the overall wind-farm performance, but this leads to larger land footprint for establishing a wind-farm. In-case of complex-terrain, within a short distance (say 10D) itself, the nearby terrain can rise in altitude and be high enough to influence the wake dynamics. This wake-terrain interaction can happen either (a) indirectly, through an interaction of wake (both near tip vortex and far wake large-scale vortex) with terrain induced turbulence (especially, smaller eddies generated by small ridges within the terrain) or (b) directly, by obstructing the wake-region partially or fully in its flow-path. Hence, enhanced understanding of wake- development due to wake-terrain interaction will help in wind farm design. To this end the current study involves: (1) understanding the numerics for successful simulation of vortices, (2) understanding fundamental vortex-terrain interaction mechanism through studies devoted to interaction of a single vortex with different terrains, (3) relating influence of vortex-terrain interactions to performance of a wind-farm by studying a multi-turbine wind-farm layout under different terrains. The results on interaction of terrain and vortex has shown a much faster decay of vortex for complex terrain compared to a flatter-terrain. The potential reasons identified explaining the observation are (a) formation of secondary vortices in flow and its interaction with the primary vortex and (b) enhanced vorticity diffusion due to increased terrain-induced turbulence. The implications of

  16. Performance augmentation with vortex generators: Design and testing for stall-regulated AWT-26 turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A. [Advanced Wind Turbines Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A study investigated the use of vortex generators (VGs) for performance augmentation of the stall-regulated AWT-26 wind turbine. Based on wind-tunnel results and analysis, a VG array was designed for and tested on the AWT-26 prototype, designated Pt. Performance and loads data were measured for P1, both with and without VGs installed. The turbine performance with VGs met most of the design requirements; power output was increased at moderate wind speeds with a minimal effect on peak power. However, VG drag penalties caused a loss in power output for low wind speeds, such that performance with VGs resulted in a net decrease in AEP for wind speed sites up to 8.5 m/s. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Middle atmospheric water vapour and dynamics in the vicinity of the polar vortex during the Hygrosonde-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lossow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hygrosonde-2 campaign took place on 16 December 2001 at Esrange/Sweden (68° N, 21° E with the aim to investigate the small scale distribution of water vapour in the middle atmosphere in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex. In situ balloon and rocket-borne measurements of water vapour were performed by means of OH fluorescence hygrometry. The combined measurements yielded a high resolution water vapour profile up to an altitude of 75 km. Using the characteristic of water vapour being a dynamical tracer it was possible to directly relate the water vapour data to the location of the polar vortex edge, which separates air masses of different character inside and outside the polar vortex. The measurements probed extra-vortex air in the altitude range between 45 km and 60 km and vortex air elsewhere. Transitions between vortex and extra-vortex usually coincided with wind shears caused by gravity waves which advect air masses with different water vapour volume mixing ratios.

    From the combination of the results from the Hygrosonde-2 campaign and the first flight of the optical hygrometer in 1994 (Hygrosonde-1 a clear picture of the characteristic water vapour distribution inside and outside the polar vortex can be drawn. Systematic differences in the water vapour concentration between the inside and outside of the polar vortex can be observed all the way up into the mesosphere. It is also evident that in situ measurements with high spatial resolution are needed to fully account for the small-scale exchange processes in the polar winter middle atmosphere.

  18. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  20. The vortex free energy in the screening phase of the Z(2) Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.

    1983-06-01

    The vortex free energy was proposed to distinguish between the confinement - and the Higgs phase (in the sense of 't Hooft) in lattice gauge theory, when matter fields are present that transform according to an arbitrary representation of the gauge group. In this paper I consider the Z(2) Higgs model and calculate the vortex free energy in the screening part of the confining/screening phase of Fradkin and Shenker. The result does not agree with the expected behavior that corresponds to the structure of the phase diagram. Therefore the vortex free energy is no longer a good indicator for confinement when matter fields transform nontrivially under the center of the gauge group (such as Z(2) Higgs scalars). (orig.)

  1. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  2. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  3. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  4. Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Leesburg, VA, Apr. 25-27, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caflisch, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on the mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: mathematical analysis of vortex dynamics, improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows, the relation between thin vortex layer and vortex sheets, computations of broadband instabilities in a class of closed-streamline flows, vortex-sheet dynamics and hyperfunction theory, free surface vortex method with weak viscous effects, iterative method for computing steady vortex flow systems, invariant measures for the two-dimensional Euler flow, similarity flows containing two-branched vortex sheets, strain-induced vortex stripping, convergence of the vortex method for vortex sheets, boundary conditions and deterministic vortex methods for the Navier-Stokes equations, vorticity creation boundary conditions, vortex dynamics of stratified flows, vortex breakdown, numerical studies of vortex reconnection, vortex lattices in theory and practice, dynamics of vortex structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer, and energy of a vortex lattice configuration

  5. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L.

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arodź, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component.

  7. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  8. High Magnetic Field Vortex Microscopy by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, V. F.; Sigmund, E. E.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P.; Moulton, W. G.

    2001-03-01

    At low temperatures the ^17O NMR spectrum of HTS exhibits a characteristic vortex lattice line shape. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation rate, T_1-1, across the vortex spectrum represent a probe of low-energy quasiparticle excitations as a function of distance from the vortex core. We report ^17O(2,3) T_1-1 measurements of YBa_2Cu_3O7 at low temperatures in magnetic fields up to 37 T. We find that the rate increases on approaching the vortex core. In the vortex core region at 37 T we observe an additional increase in the relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the rate will also be discussed. Work at Northwestern University is supported by the NSF (DMR 91-20000) through the Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity.

  9. Computing the flow past Vortex Generators: Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolesos, M.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental ...... data. The best results are obtained with the more expensive fully resolved VG approach. The cost efficient BAY model can also provide acceptable results, if grid related numerical diffusion is minimized and only force coefficient polars are considered....

  10. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  11. An experimental analysis of critical factors involved in the breakdown process of leading edge vortex flows. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental crosswire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Survey grids were taken normal to the platform at a series of chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core as well as on chordwise location was examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data was made. The circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows approximately linearly in the chordwise direction. For regions of the flow outside of the vortex subcore, the circulation at any chordwise station was observed to vary logarithmically with distance from the vortex axis. The circulation was also found to increase linearly with angle of incidence at a given chordwise station. A reduction in the local circulation about the vortex axis occurred at breakdown. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity was severely altered through the breakdown region and the spanwise distribution of axial vorticity present appeared to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The local concentration of axial vorticity about the vortex axis was reduced while the magnitude of the azimuthal vorticity decreased throughout the breakdown zone. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, found in the secondary vortex, remained unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. The inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter indicated that the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows were similar at corresponding radii from the vortex axis. It was concluded that the flow over a delta wing, upstream of the breakdown regions and away from the apex and trailing edge regions, is conical. In addition, the dominating

  12. Wind energy harvesting with a piezoelectric harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Quan; Xie, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    An energy harvester comprising a cantilever attached to piezoelectric patches and a proof mass is developed for wind energy harvesting, from a cross wind-induced vibration of the cantilever, by the electromechanical coupling effect of piezoelectric materials. The vibration of the cantilever under the cross wind is induced by the air pressure owing to a vortex shedding phenomenon that occurs on the leeward side of the cantilever. To describe the energy harvesting process, a theoretical model considering the cross wind-induced vibration on the piezoelectric coupled cantilever energy harvester is developed, to calculate the charge and the voltage from the harvester. The influences of the length and location of the piezoelectric patches as well as the proof mass on the generated electric power are investigated. Results show that the total generated electric power can be as high as 2 W when the resonant frequency of the cantilever harvester is close to the vortex shedding frequency. Moreover, a value of total generated electric power up to 1.02 W can be practically realized for a cross wind with a variable wind velocity of 9–10 m s −1 by a harvester with a length of 1.2 m. This research facilitates an effective and compact wind energy harvesting device. (paper)

  13. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pinzón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization.  Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.

  14. Ginzburg-Landau equations for a d-wave superconductor with applications to vortex structure and surface problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Ren, Y.; Ting, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of a d x 2 -y 2 -wave superconductor in an external magnetic field are investigated on the basis of Gorkov's theory of weakly coupled superconductors. The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations, which govern the spatial variations of the order parameter and the supercurrent, are microscopically derived. The single vortex structure and surface problems in such a superconductor are studied using these equations. It is shown that the d-wave vortex structure is very different from the conventional s-wave vortex: the s-wave and d-wave components, with the opposite winding numbers, are found to coexist in the region near the vortex core. The supercurrent and local magnetic field around the vortex are calculated. Far away from the vortex core, both of them exhibit a fourfold symmetry, in contrast to an s-wave superconductor. The surface problem in a d-wave superconductor is also studied by solving the GL equations. The total order parameter near the surface is always a real combination of s- and d-wave components, which means that the proximity effect cannot induce a time-reversal symmetry-breaking state at the surface

  15. On the self-induced motion of a helical vortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.; Wood, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity field in the immediate vicinity of a curved vortex comprises a circulation around the vortex, a component due to the vortex curvature, and a ‘remainder’ due to the more distant parts of the vortex. The first two components are relatively well understood but the remainder is known only

  16. The observation of a triangular vortex in a rotating fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A dye visualization study of a triangular vortex in a rotating fluid is presented. The emergence and subsequent break-up of the vortex structure are described. Soon after the generation of the triangular vortex it becomes unstable: two satellite vortices merge and pair with the core vortex into an

  17. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

  18. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  19. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  20. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  1. Phase diagram of a lattice of pancake vortex molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Crisan, A.; Shivagan, D.D.; Iyo, A.; Shirage, P.M.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Terada, N.

    2009-01-01

    On a superconducting bi-layer with thickness much smaller than the penetration depth, λ, a vortex molecule might form. A vortex molecule is composed of two fractional vortices and a soliton wall. The soliton wall can be regarded as a Josephson vortex missing magnetic flux (degenerate Josephson vortex) due to an incomplete shielding. The magnetic energy carried by fractional vortices is less than in the conventional vortex. This energy gain can pay a cost to form a degenerate Josephson vortex. The phase diagram of the vortex molecule is rich because of its rotational freedom.

  2. Vortex dynamics in superconducting Corbino disk at zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Y.; Ohta, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the radial current driven vortex dynamics in the Corbino disk sample at zero field, by using a logarithmically interacting point vortex model involving effect of temperature, random pinning centers, and disk wall confinement force. We also take into account both the current induced vortex pair nucleation and the vortex pair annihilation processes in the model. Simulation results demonstrate that the vortex motion induced voltage exhibits almost periodic pulse behavior in time, observed experimentally, for a certain range of the model parameters. Such an anomalous behavior is thought to originate from large fluctuations of the vortex number due to the collective dynamics of this vortex system

  3. New scanning technique for the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir

    2012-04-01

    In the optical vortex microscopy the focused Gaussian beam with optical vortex scans a sample. An optical vortex can be introduced into a laser beam with the use of a special optical element--a vortex lens. When moving the vortex lens, the optical vortex changes its position inside the spot formed by a focused laser beam. This effect can be used as a new precise scanning technique. In this paper, we study the optical vortex behavior at the sample plane. We also estimate if the new scanning technique results in observable effects that could be used for a phase object detection.

  4. Structures of single vortex and vortex lattice in a d-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Ren, Y.; Ting, C.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of a single vortex and vortex lattice in a superconductor with d x 2 -y 2 symmetry are studied self-consistently employing a recently developed Ginzburg-Landau theory. Near a single vortex, we found that an s-wave component of the order parameter is always induced, and it causes the local magnetic-field distribution and the d-wave order parameter to have a fourfold anisotropy. It is shown that there is a strong correlation between the structure of a single vortex and the shape of the vortex lattice. Our numerical calculation indicates that the structure of the vortex lattice is always oblique except for temperatures very close to T c where it becomes triangular. The possible connection of the result with experiment is also discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  6. Vortex-induced buckling of a viscous drop impacting a pool

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2017-07-20

    We study the intricate buckling patterns which can form when a viscous drop impacts a much lower viscosity miscible pool. The drop enters the pool by its impact inertia, flattens, and sinks by its own weight while stretching into a hemispheric bowl. Upward motion along the outer bottom surface of this bowl produces a vortical boundary layer which separates along its top and rolls up into a vortex ring. The vorticity is therefore produced in a fundamentally different way than for a drop impacting a pool of the same liquid. The vortex ring subsequently advects into the bowl, thereby stretching the drop liquid into ever thinner sheets, reaching the micron level. The rotating motion around the vortex pulls in folds to form multiple windings of double-walled toroidal viscous sheets. The axisymmetric velocity field thereby stretches the drop liquid into progressively finer sheets, which are susceptible to both axial and azimuthal compression-induced buckling. The azimuthal buckling of the sheets tends to occur on the inner side of the vortex ring, while their folds can be stretched and straightened on the outside edge. We characterize the total stretching from high-speed video imaging and use particle image velocimetry to track the formation and evolution of the vortex ring. The total interfacial area between the drop and the pool liquid can grow over 40-fold during the first 50 ms after impact. Increasing pool viscosity shows entrapment of a large bubble on top of the drop, while lowering the drop viscosity produces intricate buckled shapes, appearing at the earliest stage and being promoted by the crater motions. We also present an image collage of the most intriguing and convoluted structures observed. Finally, a simple point-vortex model reproduces some features from the experiments and shows variable stretching along the wrapping sheets.

  7. RANS computations of tip vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaix, Jean; Balarac, Guillaume; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed; Münch, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    The present study is related to the development of the tip vortex cavitation in Kaplan turbines. The investigation is carried out on a simplified test case consisting of a NACA0009 blade with a gap between the blade tip and the side wall. Computations with and without cavitation are performed using a R ANS modelling and a transport equation for the liquid volume fraction. Compared with experimental data, the R ANS computations turn out to be able to capture accurately the development of the tip vortex. The simulations have also highlighted the influence of cavitation on the tip vortex trajectory.

  8. Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.

  9. Vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, M.Z.; Adamus, Z. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Lab Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The dependence of vortex dynamics on the geometry of magnetic domain pattern is studied in the superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, in which niobium is a superconductor, and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy serves as a ferromagnetic layer. Magnetic domain patterns with different density of domains per surface area and different domain size, w, are obtained for Co/Pt with different thickness of Pt. The dense patterns of domains with the size comparable to the magnetic penetration depth (w {>=} {lambda}) produce large vortex pinning and smooth vortex penetration, while less dense patterns with larger domains (w {>=}{>=} {lambda}) enhance pinning less effectively and result in flux jumps during flux motion. (authors)

  10. Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.

  11. Moving vortex matter with coexisting vortices and anti-vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Gilson

    2009-01-01

    Moving vortex matter, driven by transport currents independent of time, in which vortices and anti-vortices coexist is investigated theoretically in thin superconducting films with nanostructured defects. A simple London model is proposed for the vortex dynamics in films with periodic arrays of nanomagnets or cylindrical holes (antidots). Common to these films is that vortex anti-vortex pairs may be created in the vicinity of the defects by relatively small transport currents, because it adds to the current generated by the defects - the nanomagnets screening current, or the antidots backflow current - and may exceed locally the critical value for vortex anti-vortex pair creation. The model assumes that vortex matter dynamics is governed by Langevin equations, modified to account for creation and annihilation of vortex anti-vortex pairs. For pair creation, it is assumed that whenever the total current at some location exceeds a critical value, equal to that needed to separate a vortex from an anti-vortex by a vortex core diameter, a pair is created instantaneously around this location. Pair annihilation occurs by vortex anti-vortex collisions. The model is applied to films at zero external magnetic field and low temperatures. It is found that several moving vortex matter steady-states with equal numbers of vortices and anti-vortices are possible.

  12. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-08-29

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  13. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  14. On plasma flows along vortex lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma flows are discussed and various intrinsic relations along the vortex lines and their principal normals and binormals are obtained. The effects of rotations on Bernoulli surfaces are also studied. (M.K.V.)

  15. Vortex sorter for Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Graeme; Veitch, John; Courtial, Johannes; Oehberg, Patrik

    2004-01-01

    We have designed interferometers that sort Bose-Einstein condensates into their vortex components. The Bose-Einstein condensates in the two arms of the interferometer are rotated with respect to each other through fixed angles; different vortex components then exit the interferometer in different directions. The method we use to rotate the Bose-Einstein condensates involves asymmetric phase imprinting and is itself new. We have modeled rotation through fixed angles and sorting into vortex components with even and odd values of the topological charge of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a number of states (pure or superposition vortex states for different values of the scattering length). Our scheme may have applications for quantum information processing

  16. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  17. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  18. A Retrospective on Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Michael; Swinney, Harry

    2009-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video of the Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow state of Taylor-Couette flow with the outer cylinder fixed is presented. This state precedes the transition to turbulence, which is more gradual than that for other fluid systems.

  19. Superconducting coherence in a vortex line liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Teitel, S.

    1995-01-01

    We carry out simulations of the anisotropic uniformly frustrated 3d XY model, as a model for vortex line fluctuations in high T c superconductors. We compute the phase diagram as a function of temperature and anisotropy, for a fixed applied magnetic field B. We find two distinct phase transitions. Upon heating, there is first a lower T c perpendicular where the vortex line lattice melts and super-conducting coherence perpendicular to the applied magnetic field vanishes. At a higher T cz , within the vortex line liquid, superconducting coherence parallel to the applied magnetic field vanishes. For finite anisotropy, both T c perpendicular and T cz lie well below the crossover from the vortex line liquid to the normal state

  20. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  1. Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsebeth Schroeder; Ola Toernkvist

    1998-01-01

    We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom

  2. Fatigue damage from random vibration pulse process of tubular structural elements subject to wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus F.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    In a wide range of the Reynolds number an elastically suspended circular cylinder surrounded by a homogeneous wind velocity field will generate vortex shedding of a frequency that by and large is proportional to the far field wind velocity. However, if the cylinder is free to vibrate, resonance w...

  3. Superconductivity and vortex properties in various multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koorevaar, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis three qualitatively different type of superconducting multilayers are studied. We discuss the vortex lattice structure in Nb/NbZr multilayers, a system where both type of constituting layers are superconducting. At certain temperatures and for parallel fields close to H c2parallel , the Nb/NbZr system has a strongly modulated order parameter, and in this aspect resembles the high-Tc materials. By lowering the field the modulation decreases, having important consequences for the vortex lattice structure. By studying the transport critical currents we show that in the case of strong modulation the vortex lattice has a kinked structure, but at weaker modulations the vortices are straight, and the change in modulation actually results in a vortex lattice transition. Our study confirms the picture of the existence of kinked vortex lattices, but it is rather surprising that these kinked structures can exist in a system which in itself is not at all that anisotropic. It indicates the relevance of other parameters governing the vortex lattice structure. (orig.)

  4. Aperiodicity Correction for Rotor Tip Vortex Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Manikandan; Paetzel, Ryan; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.

    2011-01-01

    The initial roll-up of a tip vortex trailing from a model-scale, hovering rotor was measured using particle image velocimetry. The unique feature of the measurements was that a microscope was attached to the camera to allow much higher spatial resolution than hitherto possible. This also posed some unique challenges. In particular, the existing methodologies to correct for aperiodicity in the tip vortex locations could not be easily extended to the present measurements. The difficulty stemmed from the inability to accurately determine the vortex center, which is a prerequisite for the correction procedure. A new method is proposed for determining the vortex center, as well as the vortex core properties, using a least-squares fit approach. This approach has the obvious advantage that the properties are derived from not just a few points near the vortex core, but from a much larger area of flow measurements. Results clearly demonstrate the advantage in the form of reduced variation in the estimated core properties, and also the self-consistent results obtained using three different aperiodicity correction methods.

  5. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-08-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications.

  6. Fractional vortex lattice structures in spin-triplet superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Suk Bum; Agterberg, Daniel F; Kim, Eun-A

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in spin-triplet superconductors, we investigate the vortex lattice structures for this class of unconventional superconductors. We discuss how the order parameter symmetry can give rise to U(1)xU(1) symmetry in the same sense as in spinor condensates, making half-quantum vortices (HQVs) topologically stable. We then calculate the vortex lattice structure of HQVs, with particular attention on the roles of the crystalline lattice, the Zeeman coupling and Meissner screening, all absent in spinor condensates. Finally, we consider how spin-orbit coupling leads to a breakdown of the U(1)xU(1) symmetry in free energy and whether the HQV lattice survives this symmetry breaking. As examples, we examine simpler spin-triplet models proposed in the context of Na x CoO 2 ·yH 2 O and Bechgaard salts, as well as the better known and more complex model for Sr 2 RuO 4 .

  7. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    addressed within the issue is how much conventional power production can be replaced by the ceaseless wind, with the question of how Greece's target of 29% renewables by 2020 is to be met efficiently. Other topics include an innovative way to determine the power curve of a turbine experimentally more accurately, the use of fluid dynamics tools to investigate the implications of placing vortex generators on wind turbine blades (thereby possibly improving their efficiency) and a study of the perception of wind turbine noise. It turns out that a small but significant fraction of wind turbine neighbours feel that turbine generated noise impairs their ability to rest. The annoyance is correlated with a negative attitude towards the visual impact on the landscape, but what is cause and effect is too early to say. As mentioned there is a rush for wind turbines in many countries. However, this positive development for the global climate is currently limited by practical barriers. One bottleneck is the difficulties for the sub-suppliers of gears and other parts to meet the demand. Another is the difficulties to meet the demand for engineers specialized in wind. For that reason the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) recently launched the world's first Wind Energy Masters Program. Here and elsewhere in the world of wind education and research we should really speed up now, as our chances of contributing to emission free energy production and a healthier global climate have never been better. Focus on Wind Energy Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Wind turbines—low level noise sources interfering with restoration? Eja Pedersen and Kerstin Persson Waye On the effect of spatial dispersion of wind power plants on the wind energy capacity credit in Greece George Caralis, Yiannis Perivolaris, Konstantinos Rados and Arthouros Zervos Large-eddy simulation of spectral coherence in a wind turbine wake

  8. Analysis and model-tests on vortex-induced oscillation of bridges; Kyoryo no uzu reishin ni kansuru sanjigen oto kaiseki to fudo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, N. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ogasawara, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Shiraishi, N. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Nanjo, M.

    1996-07-21

    In order to predict the three-dimensional response to vortex-induced oscillation of bridges, a model was investigated using the aerodynamic force coefficient including vortex-induced and self-excited forces, and the nonlinear response coefficient expressing constancy of response to vortex-induced oscillation. In the analysis, change of frequency in wind by the self-excited force, aerodynamic damping term, effect of the mode, and correlation of the vortex-induced force along member axis were taken into account. The aerodynamic force and nonlinear response coefficients were identified from the homogeneous and turbulent flow results of wind tunnel tests using a two-dimensional spring support rigid body model with varied damping factor. The aerodynamic damping term can be estimated from the nonlinear aerodynamic force coefficient, but it was enough to calculate it from the quasi-stationary coefficient in general bridge profiles. The correlation of the vortex-induced force was obtained from measurements of the vertical variation components of trailing flow under the resonance state, or the pressure distribution of the member surface. When comparing to the wind tunnel test of three-dimensional model of cable-stayed bridge, the response amplitude by the present analysis method was consistent well with the test results rather than by the method in which the amplitude of two-dimensional model was corrected. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  10. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics : first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, M.F.M.; Meleshko, V.V.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration ("N-vortex polygons"). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N

  11. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenming; SUN Jianhua; ZHAO Sixiong; LI Wanli

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China (11-13 June 2008). The results show that kinetic energy (KE) generation and a dvection were the most important KE sources, while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks. There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs. The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV. Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance, as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex (vortex B). The conversion from available potential energy (APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection. Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects.The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection; in this case, vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released, while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  12. Particle-vortex duality in topological insulators and superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, Jeff [The Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7700 (South Africa); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Nastase, Horatiu [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-31

    We investigate the origins and implications of the duality between topological insulators and topological superconductors in three and four spacetime dimensions. In the latter, the duality transformation can be made at the level of the path integral in the standard way, while in three dimensions, it takes the form of “self-duality in odd dimensions'. In this sense, it is closely related to the particle-vortex duality of planar systems. In particular, we use this to elaborate on Son’s conjecture that a three dimensional Dirac fermion that can be thought of as the surface mode of a four dimensional topological insulator is dual to a composite fermion.

  13. Transverse force on a moving vortex with the acoustic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengming; Cao Liming; Duan Yishi; Zhong Chengkui

    2004-01-01

    We consider the transverse force on a moving vortex with the acoustic metric using the phi-mapping topological current theory. In the frame of effective space-time geometry the vortex appear naturally by virtue of the vortex tensor in the Lorentz space-time and we show that it is just the vortex derived with the order parameter in the condensed matter. With the usual Lagrangian we obtain the equation of motion for the vortex. At last, we show that the transverse force on the moving vortex in our equation is just the usual Magnus force in a simple model

  14. Three-vortex configurations in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seman, J. A.; Henn, E. A. L.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Ramos, E. R. F.; Caracanhas, M.; Castilho, P.; Castelo Branco, C.; Tavares, P. E. S.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Magalhaes, K. M. F.; Bagnato, V. S.; Haque, M.; Roati, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the creation of three-vortex clusters in a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate by oscillatory excitation of the condensate. This procedure can create vortices of both circulations, so that we are able to create several types of vortex clusters using the same mechanism. The three-vortex configurations are dominated by two types, namely, an equilateral-triangle arrangement and a linear arrangement. We interpret these most stable configurations respectively as three vortices with the same circulation and as a vortex-antivortex-vortex cluster. The linear configurations are very likely experimental signatures of predicted stationary vortex clusters.

  15. Aeroelastic Ground Wind Loads Analysis Tool for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicles are exposed to ground winds during rollout and on the launch pad that can induce static and dynamic loads. Of particular concern are the dynamic loads caused by vortex shedding from nearly-cylindrical structures. When the frequency of vortex shedding nears that of a lowly-damped structural mode, the dynamic loads can be more than an order of magnitude greater than mean drag loads. Accurately predicting vehicle response to vortex shedding during the design and analysis cycles is difficult and typically exceeds the practical capabilities of modern computational fluid dynamics codes. Therefore, mitigating the ground wind loads risk typically requires wind-tunnel tests of dynamically-scaled models that are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In recent years, NASA has developed a ground wind loads analysis tool for launch vehicles to fill this analytical capability gap in order to provide predictions for prelaunch static and dynamic loads. This paper includes a background of the ground wind loads problem and the current state-of-the-art. It then discusses the history and significance of the analysis tool and the methodology used to develop it. Finally, results of the analysis tool are compared to wind-tunnel and full-scale data of various geometries and Reynolds numbers.

  16. Formation of quasistationary vortex and transient hole patterns through vortex merger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, R.; Lee, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Collection of point-like intense vortices arranged symmetrically outside of a uniform circular vortex patch, both enclosed in a free-slip circular boundary, are numerically time evolved for up to 10-15 patch turnover times. These patterns are found to merge with the patch by successively inducing nonlinear dispersive modes (V-states) on the surface of the patch, draw off fingers of vorticity (filamentation), trap the irrotational regions as the fingers symmetrize under the shear flow of the patch and point-like vortices (wave breaking) followed by the vortex-hole capture. While the hole patterns are observed to break up over several turnover periods the vortex patterns appear to evolve into quasistationary patterns for some cases of an initial number of point-like vortices N pv . The bounded V-states, filamentation, and vortex (hole) pattern formation are discussed in some detail and their possible connection to recently observed vortex 'crystals' is pointed out

  17. Vortex shedding from tandem cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Elhimer, Mehdi; Wang, Longjun; Jacono, David Lo; Wong, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on the flow around tandem cylinders for ranges of diameter ratio d/ D = 0.25-1.0, spacing ratio L/ d = 5.5-20, and Reynolds number Re = 0.8 × 104-2.42 × 104, where d and D are the diameters of the upstream and downstream cylinders, respectively, L is the distance from the upstream cylinder center to the forward stagnation point of the downstream one. The focus is given on examining the effects of d/ D, L/ d and Re on Strouhal number St, flow structures and fluid forces measured using hotwire, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and load cell measurement techniques, respectively. Changes in d/ D and L/ d in the ranges examined lead to five flow regimes, namely lock-in, intermittent lock-in, no lock-in, subharmonic lock-in and shear-layer reattachment regimes. Time-mean drag coefficient ( C D) and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients ({C^'D} and {C^'L}) are more sensitive to L/ d than d/ D. The scenario is opposite for St where d/ D is more prominent than L/ d to change the St. The detailed facet of the dependence on d/ D and L/ d of C D, {C^'D}, {C^'L} and St is discussed based on shear-layer velocity, approaching velocity, vortex formation length, and wake width.

  18. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  19. Optical vortex beams: Generation, propagation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen

    An optical vortex (also known as a screw dislocation or phase singularity) is one type of optical singularity that has a spiral phase wave front around a singularity point where the phase is undefined. Optical vortex beams have a lot of applications in areas such as optical communications, LADAR (laser detection and ranging) system, optical tweezers, optical trapping and laser beam shaping. The concepts of optical vortex beams and methods of generation are briefly discussed. The properties of optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence have been studied. A numerical modeling is developed and validated which has been applied to study the high order properties of optical vortex beams propagating though a turbulent atmosphere. The simulation results demonstrate the advantage that vectorial vortex beams may be more stable and maintain beam integrity better when they propagate through turbulent atmosphere. As one important application of optical vortex beams, the laser beam shaping is introduced and studied. We propose and demonstrate a method to generate a 2D flat-top beam profile using the second order full Poincare beams. Its applications in two-dimensional flat-top beam shaping with spatially variant polarization under low numerical aperture focusing have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A novel compact flat-top beam shaper based on the proposed method has been designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that high quality flat-top profile can be obtained with steep edge roll-off. The tolerance to different input beam sizes of the beam shaper is also verified in the experimental demonstration. The proposed and experimentally verified LC beam shaper has the potential to become a promising candidate for compact and low-cost flat-top beam shaping in areas such as laser processing/machining, lithography and medical treatment.

  20. Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.

  1. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062

  2. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1980-07-01

    Several related aspects of the 't Hooft vortex operator are studied. The current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator are reviewed first. The Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and the calculation of its Green's functions are considered. A two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string is presented. The expression of the Green's functions more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections is addressed. The renormalization of the Green's functions of two kinds of Abelian looplike operators, the Wilson loop and the vortex operator, is studied; for both operators only an overall multiplicative renormalization is needed. In the case of the vortex this involves a surprising cancellation. Next, the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and 't Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum is discussed. The cluster properties of the Green's functions are emphasized. It is seen that the vortex operator in a massive Abelian theory always has surface-like clustering. The form of Green's functions in terms of Feynman graphs is the same in Higgs and symmetric phases; the difference appears in the sum over all tadpole trees. Finally, systems having fields in the fundamental representation are considered. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, a vortex-like operator is anticipated. Any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. A U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint), is examined. When the fundamental field is weakly coupled, the expected phase transitions are found. When it is strongly coupled, the operator still appears to be a good order parameter, a discontinuous change in its behavior leads to a new phase transition. 18 figures

  3. Vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating bottom and a flat stress-free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, E.; Bontoux, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vortex breakdown and transition to time-dependent regimes are investigated in a cylinder (H/R = 4) with a rotating disk and a free-surface. The aim of this study is to show how, by changing upstream conditions it is possible to alter on the flow, particularly the vortex breakdown process. The understanding of such effects on vortex breakdown is very useful in the development of a control strategy in order to intensify or remove the phenomenon. The flow dynamics are explored through numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations based on high-order spectral approximations. The use of a flat, stress-free model for the air/water interface is shown to be entirely satisfactory at least for moderate Reynolds numbers. A particular interest of these results is to show how the bubble related to the vortex breakdown becomes attached to the free-surface and grows in diameter as the Reynolds number is increased, Re ≥ 2900. Such a phenomenon removes the cylindrical vortex core upstream of the breakdown which is usually included in classical theories based on idealized models of vortex flows. The flow is shown to be unstable to three-dimensional perturbations for sufficiently large rotation rates. The bifurcated state takes the form of a k = 3 rotating wave at Re = 3000. The existence of the free-surface promotes the onset of periodicity, with a critical Reynolds number about 15% lower than in the case with a rigid cover. Moreover, the successive bifurcations occur over a much shorter range of Reynolds numbers and lead rapidly to a multi-frequency regime with more than five different frequencies. In the unsteady regime, the vortex breakdown is characterized by an elongated, asymmetric recirculation zone, attached to the free-surface and precessing around the axis of the container. By increasing the rotation, the circular stagnation line on the free-surface takes a more irregular form and starts to move around the axis of the cylinder in the same sense as

  4. A multipole-expanded effective field theory for vortex ring-sound interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, Sebastian; Mitsou, Ermis; Nicolis, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The low-energy dynamics of a zero temperature superfluid or of the compressional modes of an ordinary fluid can be described by a simple effective theory for a scalar field — the superfluid `phase'. However, when vortex lines are present, to describe all interactions in a local fashion one has to switch to a magnetic-type dual two-form description, which comes with six degrees of freedom (in place of one) and an associated gauge redundancy, and is thus considerably more complicated. Here we show that, in the case of vortex rings and for bulk modes that are much longer than the typical ring size, one can perform a systematic multipole expansion of the effective action and recast it into the simpler scalar field language. In a sense, in the presence of vortex rings the non-single valuedness of the scalar can be hidden inside the rings, and thus out of the reach of the multipole expansion. As an application of our techniques, we compute by standard effective field theory methods the sound emitted by an oscillating vortex ring.

  5. Nonlinear quantum piston for the controlled generation of vortex rings and soliton trains

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natalia G.; Pé rez-Garcí a, Ví ctor M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple way to generate nonlinear excitations in a controllable way by managing interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. Under the action of a quantum analog of a classical piston, the condensed atoms are pushed through the trap, generating vortex rings infully three-dimensional condensates or soliton trains in quasi-one-dimensional scenarios. The vortex rings form due to transverse instability of the shock-wave train, enhanced and supported by the energy transfer between waves. We elucidate in what sense the self-interactions within the atom cloud define the properties of the generated vortex rings and soliton trains. Based on the quantum-piston scheme we study the behavior of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates and analyze how the presence of an additional superfluid influences the generation of vortex rings or solitons in the other component, and vice versa. Finally, we show the dynamical emergence of skyrmions within two-component systems in the immiscible regime. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  6. Nonlinear quantum piston for the controlled generation of vortex rings and soliton trains

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian

    2013-05-29

    We propose a simple way to generate nonlinear excitations in a controllable way by managing interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. Under the action of a quantum analog of a classical piston, the condensed atoms are pushed through the trap, generating vortex rings infully three-dimensional condensates or soliton trains in quasi-one-dimensional scenarios. The vortex rings form due to transverse instability of the shock-wave train, enhanced and supported by the energy transfer between waves. We elucidate in what sense the self-interactions within the atom cloud define the properties of the generated vortex rings and soliton trains. Based on the quantum-piston scheme we study the behavior of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates and analyze how the presence of an additional superfluid influences the generation of vortex rings or solitons in the other component, and vice versa. Finally, we show the dynamical emergence of skyrmions within two-component systems in the immiscible regime. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  7. Vortex-induced dynamic loads on a non-spinning volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-ding, Wei; Rong-sheng, Lin; Zhi-jie, Liu

    1988-09-01

    An experiment on vortex-induced dynamic loads on a non-spinning Volleyball was conducted in a wind tunnel. The flow past the Volleyball was visualized, and the aerodynamic load was measured by use of a strain gauge balance. The separation on the Volleyball was measured with hot-film. The experimental results suggest that under the action of an unstable tail vortex system the separation region is changeable, and that the fluctuation of drag and lateral forces is the same order of magnitude as the mean drag, no matter whether the seam of the Volleyball is symmetric or asymmetric, with regard to the flow. Based on the experimental data a numerical simulation of Volleyball swerve motion was made.

  8. Statistical Characterization of River and Channel Network Formation in Intermittently Flowing Vortex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.

    1997-03-01

    Vortices moving in dirty superconductors can form intricate flow patterns, resembling fluid rivers, as they interact with the pinning landscape (F. Nori, Science 271), 1373 (1996).. Weaker pinning produces relatively straight nori>vortex channels, while stronger pinning results in the formation of one or more winding channels that carry all flow. This corresponds to a crossover from elastic flow to plastic flow as the pinning strength is increased. For several pinning parameters, we find the fractal dimension of the channels that form, the vortex trail density, the distance travelled by vortices as they pass through the sample, the branching ratio, the sinuosity, and the size distribution of the rivers, and we compare our rivers with physical rivers that follow Horton's laws.

  9. Experimental Study of Boundary Layer Flow Control Using an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Zaman, Khairul B.M.Q.; Bencic, Tomothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a database on the flowfield past an array of vortex generators (VGs) in a turbulent boundary layer. All testing was carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with a flow velocity of 29 ft/sec, giving a Reynolds number of 17,500 based on the width of the VG. The flowfield generated by an array of five ramp-shaped vortex generators was examined with hot wire anemometry and smoke flow visualization. The magnitude and extent of the velocity increase near the wall, the penetration of the velocity deficit into the core flow, and the peak streamwise vorticity are examined. Influence of various parameters on the effectiveness of the array is considered on the basis of the ability to pull high momentum fluid into the near wall region.

  10. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  11. Nonlinear Binormal Flow of Vortex Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Scott; Carr, Lincoln

    2015-11-01

    With the current advances in vortex imaging of Bose-Einstein condensates occurring at the Universities of Arizona, São Paulo and Cambridge, interest in vortex filament dynamics is experiencing a resurgence. Recent simulations, Salman (2013), depict dissipative mechanisms resulting from vortex ring emissions and Kelvin wave generation associated with vortex self-intersections. As the local induction approximation fails to capture reconnection events, it lacks a similar dissipative mechanism. On the other hand, Strong&Carr (2012) showed that the exact representation of the velocity field induced by a curved segment of vortex contains higher-order corrections expressed in powers of curvature. This nonlinear binormal flow can be transformed, Hasimoto (1972), into a fully nonlinear equation of Schrödinger type. Continued transformation, Madelung (1926), reveals that the filament's square curvature obeys a quasilinear scalar conservation law with source term. This implies a broader range of filament dynamics than is possible with the integrable linear binormal flow. In this talk we show the affect higher-order corrections have on filament dynamics and discuss physical scales for which they may be witnessed in future experiments. Partially supported by NSF.

  12. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  13. Phenomena, dynamics and instabilities of vortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C H K; Asselin, D J; Leweke, T; Harris, D M

    2014-01-01

    Our motivation for studying the dynamics of vortex pairs stems initially from an interest in the trailing wake vortices from aircraft and the dynamics of longitudinal vortices close to a vehicle surface. However, our motivation also comes from the fact that vortex–vortex interactions and vortex–wall interactions are fundamental to many turbulent flows. The intent of the paper is to present an overview of some of our recent work concerning the formation and structure of counter-rotating vortex pairs. We are interested in the long-wave and short-wave three-dimensional instabilities that evolve for an isolated vortex pair, but also we would like to know how vortex pairs interact with a wall, including both two-dimensional interactions, and also the influence of the surface on the three-dimensional instabilities. The emphasis of this presentation is on physical mechanisms by which vortices interact with each other and with surfaces, principally from an experimental approach, but also coupled with analytical studies. (paper)

  14. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A M; Marchant, N G; Parker, N G; O’Dell, D H J

    2017-01-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition. (topical review)

  15. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.

  16. Remote sensing: best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gareth [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents remote sensing best practice in the wind industry. Remote sensing is a technique whereby measurements are obtained from the interaction of laser or acoustic pulses with the atmosphere. There is a vast diversity of tools and techniques available and they offer wide scope for reducing project uncertainty and risk but best practice must take into account versatility and flexibility. It should focus on the outcome in terms of results and data. However, traceability of accuracy requires comparison with conventional instruments. The framework for the Boulder protocol is given. Overviews of the guidelines for IEA SODAR and IEA LIDAR are also mentioned. The important elements of IEC 61400-12-1, an international standard for wind turbines, are given. Bankability is defined based on the Boulder protocol and a pie chart is presented that illustrates the uncertainty area covered by remote sensing. In conclusion it can be said that remote sensing is changing perceptions about how wind energy assessments can be made.

  17. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  18. Vortex Filaments in Grids for Scalable, Fine Smoke Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhang; Weixin, Si; Yinling, Qian; Hanqiu, Sun; Jing, Qin; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Vortex modeling can produce attractive visual effects of dynamic fluids, which are widely applicable for dynamic media, computer games, special effects, and virtual reality systems. However, it is challenging to effectively simulate intensive and fine detailed fluids such as smoke with fast increasing vortex filaments and smoke particles. The authors propose a novel vortex filaments in grids scheme in which the uniform grids dynamically bridge the vortex filaments and smoke particles for scalable, fine smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures. Using the vortex model, their approach supports the trade-off between simulation speed and scale of details. After computing the whole velocity, external control can be easily exerted on the embedded grid to guide the vortex-based smoke motion. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of using the proposed scheme for a visually plausible smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures.

  19. Dynamic Control of Collapse in a Vortex Airy Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    Here we study systematically the self-focusing dynamics and collapse of vortex Airy optical beams in a Kerr medium. The collapse is suppressed compared to a non-vortex Airy beam in a Kerr medium due to the existence of vortex fields. The locations of collapse depend sensitively on the initial power, vortex order, and modulation parameters. The collapse may occur in a position where the initial field is nearly zero, while no collapse appears in the region where the initial field is mainly distributed. Compared with a non-vortex Airy beam, the collapse of a vortex Airy beam can occur at a position away from the area of the initial field distribution. Our study shows the possibility of controlling and manipulating the collapse, especially the precise position of collapse, by purposely choosing appropriate initial power, vortex order or modulation parameters of a vortex Airy beam. PMID:23518858

  20. Suppression of vortex shedding around a square cylinder using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    control of vortex shedding of square cylinders using blowing or suction. ... also showed complete suppression of vortex shedding if suction velocity falls between 0.40 .... equations such that mass balance (continuity) is satisfied simultaneously.

  1. Universal statistics of vortex lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T

    2012-03-01

    We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.

  2. MJO-Related Tropical Convection Anomalies Lead to More Accurate Stratospheric Vortex Variability in Subseasonal Forecast Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, C I; Schwartz, C

    2017-10-16

    The effect of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the Northern Hemisphere wintertime stratospheric polar vortex in the period preceding stratospheric sudden warmings is evaluated in operational subseasonal forecasting models. Reforecasts which simulate stronger MJO-related convection in the Tropical West Pacific also simulate enhanced heat flux in the lowermost stratosphere and a more realistic vortex evolution. The time scale on which vortex predictability is enhanced lies between 2 and 4 weeks for nearly all cases. Those stratospheric sudden warmings that were preceded by a strong MJO event are more predictable at ∼20 day leads than stratospheric sudden warmings not preceded by a MJO event. Hence, knowledge of the MJO can contribute to enhanced predictability, at least in a probabilistic sense, of the Northern Hemisphere polar stratosphere.

  3. Front propagation in a regular vortex lattice: Dependence on the vortex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvier, E; Bodea, S; Pocheau, A

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the dependence on the vortex structure of the propagation of fronts in stirred flows. For this, we consider a regular set of vortices whose structure is changed by varying both their boundary conditions and their aspect ratios. These configurations are investigated experimentally in autocatalytic solutions stirred by electroconvective flows and numerically from kinematic simulations based on the determination of the dominant Fourier mode of the vortex stream function in each of them. For free lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in an extended vortex lattice, it is found that both the flow structure and the front propagation negligibly depend on vortex aspect ratios. For rigid lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in a vortex chain, vortices involve a slight dependence on their aspect ratios which surprisingly yields a noticeable decrease of the enhancement of front velocity by flow advection. These different behaviors reveal a sensitivity of the mean front velocity on the flow subscales. It emphasizes the intrinsic multiscale nature of front propagation in stirred flows and the need to take into account not only the intensity of vortex flows but also their inner structure to determine front propagation at a large scale. Differences between experiments and simulations suggest the occurrence of secondary flows in vortex chains at large velocity and large aspect ratios.

  4. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics: first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speetjens, M F M; Meleshko, V V; Van Heijst, G J F

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N-point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration (‘N-vortex polygons’). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N⩽7. Confinement in a circular domain tightens the stability conditions to N⩽6 and a maximum polygon size relative to the domain radius. This work expands on existing studies on stability and integrability by a first giving an exploratory spectral analysis of the dynamics of N vortex polygons in circular domains. Key to this is that the spectral signature of the time evolution of vortex positions reflects their qualitative behaviour. Expressing vortex motion by a generic evolution operator (the so-called Koopman operator) provides a rigorous framework for such spectral analyses. This paves the way to further differentiation and classification of point-vortex behaviour beyond stability and integrability. The concept of Koopman-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for N-vortex polygons. This reveals that conditional stability can be seen as a local form of integrability and confirms an important generic link between spectrum and dynamics: discrete spectra imply regular (quasi-periodic) motion; continuous (sub-)spectra imply chaotic motion. Moreover, this exposes rich nonlinear dynamics as intermittency between regular and chaotic motion and quasi-coherent structures formed by chaotic vortices. (ss 1)

  5. Theory of vortex flows in partially ionized magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P.K

    2004-06-07

    A complete theory for vortex flows in partially ionized magnetoplasmas is presented. Accurate analytical and numerical results are obtained concerning the structure of a Burger's vortex and a tripolar vortex. A novel type of rotating tripolar vortices with elliptic cores are found in the systems dominated by the convection in incompressible flows, but whose generation is triggered by the diffusive and compressible effects. Our vortex flow models successfully explain recent observations from laboratory magnetoplasmas and geophysical flows.

  6. Vortex pinning by point defect in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Hongyin; Zhou Shiping; Du Haochen

    2003-01-01

    We apply the periodic time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model to study vortex distribution in type-II superconductors with a point-like defect and square pinning array. A defect site will pin vortices, and a periodic pinning array with right geometric parameters, which can be any form designed in advance, shapes the vortex pattern as external magnetic field varies. The maximum length over which an attractive interaction between a pinning centre and a vortex extends is estimated to be about 6.0ξ. We also derive spatial distribution expressions for the order parameter, vector potential, magnetic field and supercurrent induced by a point defect. Theoretical results and numerical simulations are compared with each other and they are consistent

  7. Inertial mass of the Abrikosov vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, E M; Kuklov, A B

    2003-08-08

    We show that a large contribution to the inertial mass of the Abrikosov vortex comes from transversal displacements of the crystal lattice. The corresponding part of the mass per unit length of the vortex line is M(l)=(m(2)(e)c(2)/64 pi alpha(2)mu lambda(4)(L))ln((lambda(L)/xi), where m(e) is the bare electron mass, c is the speed of light, alpha=e(2)/Planck's over 2 pi c approximately 1/137 is the fine structure constant, mu is the shear modulus of the solid, lambda(L) is the London penetration length, and xi is the coherence length. In conventional superconductors, this mass can be comparable to or even greater than the vortex core mass computed by Suhl [Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 226 (1965)

  8. Elementary pinning force for a superconducting vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, O.B.; Finnemore, D.K.; Schwartzkopf, L.; Clem, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The elementary pinning force f/sub p/ has been measured for a single vortex trapped in one of the superconducting layers of a cross-strip Josephson junction. At temperatures close to the transition temperature the vortex can be pushed across the junction by a transport current. The vortex is found to move in a small number of discrete steps before it exits the junction. The pinning force for each site is found to be asymmetric and to have a value of about 10/sup -6/ N/m at the reduced temperature, t = T/T/sub c/ = 0.95. As a function of temperature, f/sub p/ is found to vary approximately as (1-t)/sup 3/2/. .AE

  9. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  10. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    We study several related aspects of the t Hooft vortex operator. The first chapter reviews the current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator. The second chapter deals with the Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and with the calculation of its Green's functions. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string. This leads us to a new solution of the veto problem; we discuss its extension to four dimensions. We then show how the Green's functions can be expressed more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections. In the third chapter we discuss the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and t Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum. In the fourth chapter we consider systems which have fields in the fundamental representation, so that there are no vortex operators. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, as is the case in QCD and in real superconductors, we would expect to be able to define a vortex-like operator. We show that any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. We can still find an operator with useful properties, its cluster property, though more complicated than that of the usual vortex operator, still appears to distinguish Higgs, confining and perturbative phases. To test this, we consider a U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint)

  11. A vortex ring interacting with a vortex filament and its deformation near the two-dimensional stagnation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, M.; Sato, T.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between vortex filaments and vortex rings and the deformation of vortex rings near the two-dimensional stagnation point are simulated by a three-dimensional vortex method. The two problems are respectively concerned with the effect of free-stream turbulence on turbulent plane mixing layers and the production of turbulence by the vortex stretching near saddles associated with large-scale coherent structures. The authors assume that the first step to understand the free-stream turbulence effect is to study the interaction between a vortex ring and a vortex filament and that the process of deformation of a vortex ring gives us a clue to understand physical processes occurring near the saddles

  12. Numerical simulations of the internal flow pattern of a vortex pump compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Angela; Preuss, Enrico; Thamsen, Paul Uwe; Lykholt-Ustrup, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    We did a numerical study of the internal flow field of a vortex pump. Five operating points were considered and validated through a measured characteristic curve. The internal flow pattern of a vortex pump was analyzed and compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The calculated flow field was assessed with respect to the circumferential velocity, the vorticity and the axial velocity. Whereas the trajectories of the circumferential velocity were largely in line with the Hamel-Oseen vortex model, the opposite was true for vorticity. Only the vorticity at strong part load was in line with the predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. We therefore compared the circumferential velocity and vorticity for strong part load operation to the analytical predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The simulated values were below the analytical values. The study therefore suggests that a vortex similar to the Hamel-Oseen vortex is only present at the strong part load operation

  13. Numerical simulations of the internal flow pattern of a vortex pump compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Angela; Preuss, Enrico; Thamsen, Paul Uwe [Institute of Fluid System Dynamics, Technische Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Lykholt-Ustrup, Flemming [Grundfos Holding A/S, Bjerringbro (Denmark)

    2017-04-15

    We did a numerical study of the internal flow field of a vortex pump. Five operating points were considered and validated through a measured characteristic curve. The internal flow pattern of a vortex pump was analyzed and compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The calculated flow field was assessed with respect to the circumferential velocity, the vorticity and the axial velocity. Whereas the trajectories of the circumferential velocity were largely in line with the Hamel-Oseen vortex model, the opposite was true for vorticity. Only the vorticity at strong part load was in line with the predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. We therefore compared the circumferential velocity and vorticity for strong part load operation to the analytical predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The simulated values were below the analytical values. The study therefore suggests that a vortex similar to the Hamel-Oseen vortex is only present at the strong part load operation.

  14. Theory of pairing symmetry in the vortex states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, Takehito; Ichioka, Yukio; Yanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2010-01-01

    We investigate pairing symmetry in an Abrikosov vortex and vortex lattice. It is shown that the Cooper pair wave function at the center of an Abrikosov vortex with vorticity m has a different parity with respect to frequency from that in the bulk if m is an odd number, while it has the same parity

  15. Vortex deformation and reduction of the Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorio, M.

    1977-01-01

    A vortex of an extreme II-type superconductor is considered in the presence of a transport current. The equivalence of Magnus and Lorentz forces in a static vortex is discussed and the effect of vortex deformation is included in calculating corrections to the conventional expression of the Lorentz force. (author)

  16. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  17. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  18. First and second order vortex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoonbai; Lee, Kimyeong

    2002-01-01

    The low energy dynamics of vortices in self-dual Abelian Higgs theory in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime is of second order in vortex velocity and characterized by the moduli space metric. When the Chern-Simons term with a small coefficient is added to the theory, we show that a term linear in vortex velocity appears and can be consistently added to the second order expression. We provide an additional check of the first and second order terms by studying the angular momentum in field theory

  19. Integrable Abelian vortex-like solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contatto, Felipe, E-mail: felipe.contatto@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, DF 70040-020 (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We propose a modified version of the Ginzburg–Landau energy functional admitting static solitons and determine all the Painlevé-integrable cases of its Bogomolny equations of a given class of models. Explicit solutions are determined in terms of the third Painlevé transcendents, allowing us to calculate physical quantities such as the vortex number and the vortex strength. These solutions can be interpreted as the usual Abelian-Higgs vortices on surfaces of non-constant curvature with conical singularity.

  20. Integrable Abelian vortex-like solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contatto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modified version of the Ginzburg–Landau energy functional admitting static solitons and determine all the Painlevé-integrable cases of its Bogomolny equations of a given class of models. Explicit solutions are determined in terms of the third Painlevé transcendents, allowing us to calculate physical quantities such as the vortex number and the vortex strength. These solutions can be interpreted as the usual Abelian-Higgs vortices on surfaces of non-constant curvature with conical singularity.

  1. Inertial mass of a superconducting vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, E. M.; Kuklov, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    We show that a large contribution to the inertial mass of a moving superconducting vortex comes from transversal displacements of the crystal lattice. The corresponding part of the mass per unit length of the vortex line is $M_{l} = ({\\rm m}_e^2c^{2}/64{\\pi}{\\alpha}^{2}{\\mu}{\\lambda}_{L}^{4})\\ln({\\lambda}_{L}/{\\xi})$ , where ${\\rm m}_{e}$ is the the bare electron mass, $c$ is the speed of light, ${\\alpha}=e^{2}/{\\hbar}c {\\approx} 1/137$ is the fine structure constant, ${\\mu}$ is the shear mod...

  2. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  3. Comment on ''Negative temperature of vortex motion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, K.; Campbell, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent Brief Report and subsequently [Phys. Rev. A 43, 2050 (1991); 44, 8439 (1991)], Berdichevsky, Kunin, and Hussain claim that the ''Boltzmann temperature'' of a bounded point vortex system is always positive, and that the spatial inhomogeneities that evolve at high energies in such a system are incompatible with ergodicity of the dynamics. The argument given to support these claims neglected the presence of the fluid boundary. We prove that the Boltzmann temperature is in fact always negative, and present evidence that the vortex clumping that has been observed in simulations is consistent with ergodic dynamics

  4. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  5. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    of a circle is integrable. As the body is made slightly elliptic, a chaotic region grows from an unstable relative equilibrium of the circle-vortex case. The case of a cylindrical body of any shape moving in fluid otherwise at rest is also integrable. A second transition to chaos arises from the limit between...... rocking and tumbling motion of the body known in this case. In both instances, the chaos may be detected both in the body motion and in the vortex motion. The effect of increasing body mass at a fixed body shape is to damp the chaos....

  6. Vortex-Peierls States in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.A.; Demler, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    We show that vortices, induced in cold atom superfluids in optical lattices, may order in a novel vortex-Peierls ground state. In such a state vortices do not form a simple lattice but arrange themselves in clusters, within which the vortices are partially delocalized, tunneling between classically degenerate configurations. We demonstrate that this exotic quantum many-body state is selected by an order-from-disorder mechanism for a special combination of the vortex filling and lattice geometry that has a macroscopic number of classically degenerate ground states

  7. Intra-cavity vortex beam generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available at exploring the methods of generating optical vortex beams. We will discuss a typical extra-cavity approach that harnesses digital holography through the use of a SLM. We consider vortex beam generation as the fundamental mode of a monolithic microchip laser...-cavity phase diffractive elements can result in the desired mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity with pure modal quality. This approach, although very attractive is insufficient for the generation of these modes in monolithic microchip lasers. A...

  8. Wind Tunnel Measurements of Shuttle Orbiter Global Heating with Comparisons to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Blanchard, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic database of global heating images was acquired of the Shuttle Orbiter in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. These results were obtained for comparison to the global infrared images of the Orbiter in flight from the infrared sensing aeroheating flight experiment (ISAFE). The most recent ISAFE results from STS-103, consisted of port side images, at hypersonic conditions, of the surface features that result from the strake vortex scrubbing along the side of the vehicle. The wind tunnel results were obtained with the phosphor thermography system, which also provides global information and thus is ideally suited for comparison to the global flight results. The aerothermodynamic database includes both windward and port side heating images of the Orbiter for a range of angles of attack (20 to 40 deg), freestream unit Reynolds number (1 x 10(exp 6))/ft to 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft, body flap deflections (0, 5, and 10 deg), speed brake deflections (0 and 45 deg), as well as with boundary layer trips for forced transition to turbulence heating results. Sample global wind tunnel heat transfer images were extrapolated to flight conditions for comparison to Orbiter flight data. A windward laminar case for an angle of attack of 40 deg was extrapolated to Mach 11.6 flight conditions for comparison to STS-2 flight thermocouple results. A portside wind tunnel image for an angle of attack of 25 deg was extrapolated for Mach 5 flight conditions for comparison to STS-103 global surface temperatures. The comparisons showed excellent qualitative agreement, however the extrapolated wind tunnel results over-predicted the flight surface temperatures on the order of 5% on the windward surface and slightly higher on the portside.

  9. Acoustic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam by a rigid fixed spheroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Partial-wave series representation of the acoustic scattering field of high-order Bessel vortex beams by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids using the modal matching method is developed. The method, which is applicable to slightly elongated objects at low-to-moderate frequencies, requires solving a system of linear equations which depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs), and satisfying the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface in the least-squares sense. This original semi-analytical approach developed for Bessel vortex beams is demonstrated for finite oblate and prolate spheroids, where the mathematical functions describing the spheroidal geometry are written in a form involving single angular (polar) integrals that are numerically computed. The transverse (θ = π / 2) and 3D scattering directivity patterns are evaluated in the far-field for both prolate and oblate spheroids, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid) not exceeding 3:1, the half-cone angle β and order m of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kr0. Periodic oscillations in the magnitude plots of the far-field scattering form function are observed, which result from the interference of the reflected waves with the circumferential (Franz') waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3D directivity patterns illustrate the far-field scattering from the spheroid, that vanishes in the forward (θ = 0) and backward (θ = π) directions. Particular applications in underwater acoustics and scattering, acoustic levitation and the detection of submerged elongated objects using Bessel vortex waves to name a few, would benefit from the results of the present investigation.

  10. CFD Studies on Triangular Micro-Vortex Generators in Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashodhar, V.; Humrutha, G.; Kaushik, M.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the flow characteristics of the commercially used S809 wind turbine airfoil controlled with triangular counter-rotating micro-vortex generators at stall angle of attack of 15 degrees and 10 m/s, 15 m/s and 20 m/s (speed range used in the wind turbine applications) had been computationally investigated. In addition to the controlled airfoil, an uncontrolled airfoil was also studied for the comparison. The modelling and analysis had been carried out using incompressible, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equation using Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence model. The numerical computations were performed with SIMPLE algorithm. The velocity profiles at different locations on the suction surface were plotted for both uncontrolled and controlled airfoils. The shear stresses exerted on the upper surface of the airfoil in both the configurations were also compared. It is found that the controlled airfoil, the shear stress distribution was greatly increased near to trailing edge of the airfoil revealing the superiority of vortex generators in increasing the efficiency of wind turbine by delaying boundary layer separation. The qualitative results of flow visualization in the spanwise direction also support the quantitative findings of velocity profiles and shear stress distribution.

  11. Vortex dynamics in Josephson junctions arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalom, Diego Edgar

    2005-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of vortices in two-dimensional overdamped Josephson Junctions Arrays (JJA) driven by dc current in a wide range of conditions varying magnetic field and temperature using experiments, numerical simulations and analytic studies.We develop the Fixed Phase method, a variation of numeric relaxation techniques in which we fix and control the phase of some islands, adjacent to the vortex center, while allowing all other phases in the system to relax.In this way we are able to pull and push the vortex uphill, as we are forcing the center of rotation of the vortex currents to be in a defined location, allowing us to calculate the potential energy of a vortex located in any arbitrary position.We use this method to study the potential energy of a vortex in a variety of situations in homogeneous and non-homogeneous JJA, such as arrays with defects, channel arrays and ratchets.We study the finite size effects in JJA by means of analytic and numerical tools.We implement the rings model, in which we replace the two-dimensional square array by a series of square, concentric, uncoupled rings. This is equivalent to disregarding the radial junctions that couple consecutive rings.In spite of its extreme simplicity, this model holds the main ingredients of the magnetic dependence of the energy.We combine this model with other terms that take into account the dependence in the position of the vortex to obtain a general expression for the potential energy of a vortex in a finite JJA with applied magnetic field.We also present an expression for the first critical field, corresponding to the value of the magnetic field in which the entrance of the first vortex becomes energetically favorable.We build and study JJA modulated to form periodic and asymmetrical potentials for the vortices, named ratchet potentials.The experimental results clearly show the existence of a rectification in the motion of vortices in these potentials.Under certain conditions we

  12. Effect of the Initial Vortex Size on Intensity Change in the WRF-ROMS Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the tropical cyclone (TC) induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling strongly depends on the preexisting oceanic condition and TC characteristics. However, very few focused on the correlation of SST cooling and the subsequent intensity with TC size. Therefore, a series of idealized numerical experiments are conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) model to understand how the vortex size is related to SST cooling and subsequent intensity changes of a stationary TC-like vortex. In the uncoupled experiments, the radius of maximum wind (RMW) and size (radius of gale-force wind (R17)) both depend on the initial size within the 72 h simulation. The initially small vortex is smaller than the medium and large vortices throughout its life cycle and is the weakest. In other words, thermodynamic processes do not contribute as much to the R17 change as the dynamic processes proposed (e.g., angular momentum transport) in previous studies. In the coupled experiments, the area-averaged SST cooling induced by medium and large TCs within the inner-core region is comparable due to the similar surface winds and thus mixing in the ocean. Although a stronger SST cooling averaged within a larger region outside the inner-core is induced by the larger TC, the intensity of the larger TC is more intense. This is because that the enthalpy flux in the inner-core region is higher in the larger TC than that in the medium and small TCs.

  13. High-charge and multiple-star vortex coronagraphy from stacked vector vortex phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, Artur; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-02-01

    Optical vortex phase masks are now installed at many ground-based large telescopes for high-contrast astronomical imaging. To date, such instrumental advances have been restricted to the use of helical phase masks of the lowest even order, while future giant telescopes will require high-order masks. Here we propose a single-stage on-axis scheme to create high-order vortex coronagraphs based on second-order vortex phase masks. By extending our approach to an off-axis design, we also explore the implementation of multiple-star vortex coronagraphy. An experimental laboratory demonstration is reported and supported by numerical simulations. These results offer a practical roadmap to the development of future coronagraphic tools with enhanced performances.

  14. DNS of droplet-vortex interaction with a Karman vortex street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, M.; Schmehl, R.; Koch, R.; Wittig, S.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicting fuel spray interaction with large scale vortex structures still is a major challenge for state-of-the-art CFD codes. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, a fundamental study has been carried out in which the interaction of water droplets with a Karman vortex street is investigated. The disperse two-phase flow around a cylinder has been computed taking into account the mass, momentum and heat transfer between both phases. Flow conditions are chosen such that large scale vortices are generated by periodic flow separations of the well known Karman vortex street. A homogeneous distribution of water droplets is injected into the hot air up-stream of the computational domain. The mixing process as well as the impact of the droplets on the gas phase instabilities is analyzed in the downstream region where large scale vortex structures are present

  15. Dynamics and chemistry of vortex remnants in late Arctic spring 1997 and 2000: Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konopka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution simulations of the chemical composition of the Arctic stratosphere during late spring 1997 and 2000 were performed with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. The simulations were performed for the entire northern hemisphere on two isentropic levels 450 K (~18 km and 585 K (~24 km. The spatial distribution and the lifetime of the vortex remnants formed after the vortex breakup in May 1997 display different behavior above and below 20 km. Above 20 km, vortex remnants propagate southward (up to 40°N and are "frozen in'' in the summer circulation without significant mixing. Below 20 km the southward propagation of the remnants is bounded by the subtropical jet. Their lifetime is shorter by a factor of 2 than that above 20 km, owing to significant stirring below this altitude. The behavior of vortex remnants formed in March 2000 is similar but, due to an earlier vortex breakup, dominated during the first 6 weeks after the vortex breakup by westerly winds, even above 20 km. Vortex remnants formed in May 1997 are characterized by large mixing ratios of HCl indicating negligible, halogen-induced ozone loss. In contrast, mid-latitude ozone loss in late boreal spring 2000 is dominated, until mid-April, by halogen-induced ozone destruction within the vortex remnants, and subsequent transport of the ozone-depleted polar air masses (dilution into the mid-latitudes. By varying the intensity of mixing in CLaMS, the impact of mixing on the formation of ClONO2 and ozone depletion is investigated. We find that the photochemical decomposition of HNO3 and not mixing with NOx-rich mid-latitude air is the main source of NOx within the vortex remnants in March and April 2000. Ozone depletion in the remnants is driven by ClOx photolytically formed from ClONO2. At the end of May 1997, the halogen-induced ozone deficit at 450 K poleward of 30°N amounts to ~12% with ~10% in the polar vortex and ~2% in well-isolated vortex remnants

  16. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  17. Tunable magnetic vortex resonance in a potential well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnicke, P.; Wohlhüter, P.; Suszka, A. K.; Stevenson, S. E.; Heyderman, L. J.; Raabe, J.

    2017-11-01

    We use frequency-resolved x-ray microscopy to fully characterize the potential well of a magnetic vortex in a soft ferromagnetic permalloy square. The vortex core is excited with magnetic broadband pulses and simultaneously displaced with a static magnetic field. We observe a frequency increase (blueshift) in the gyrotropic mode of the vortex core with increasing bias field. Supported by micromagnetic simulations, we show that this frequency increase is accompanied by internal deformation of the vortex core. The ability to modify the inner structure of the vortex core provides a mechanism to control the dynamics of magnetic vortices.

  18. Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P

    2018-01-19

    We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.

  19. Interaction of a strong vortex with decaying turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of a localized, axially symmetric vortex under the action of shear stresses associated with decaying two-dimensional turbulent vorticity which is inhomogeneous in the presence of the vortex is studied analytically. For a vortex which is sufficiently strong relative to the coefficient of turbulent eddy viscosity, it is shown that turbulent fluctuations in the vortex interior and diffusion of coherent vorticity by the turbulence localize to the vortex periphery. It is also found that the coefficient of diffusion is small compared to the coefficient of eddy viscosity. 8 refs

  20. Vortex molecule in a nanoscopic square superconducting plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Hisataka; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Using the finite element method and solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we have investigated magnetic field dependence of the stable vortex structures in a mesoscopic superconducting plate at low temperature (T = 0.1T c ). Because of the compactness of vortex configuration, there is interference between bound states around vortices and such quasi-particle structure affects the vortex configuration. Especially in two-vortices state, vortices form a molecule-like state, where bound states of each vortex form molecular orbital like bonding and anti-bonding states. The vortex configuration is different from that, which is expected from the repulsive interaction between vortices. (author)

  1. Metamorphosis of a Hairpin Vortex into a Young Turbulent Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bart A.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation was used to study the formation and growth of a hairpin vortex in a flat-plate boundary layer and its later development into a young turbulent spot. Fluid injection through a slit in the wall triggered the initial vortex. The legs of the vortex were stretched into a hairpin shape as it traveled downstream. Multiple hairpin vortex heads developed between the stretched legs. New vortices formed beneath the streamwise-elongated vortex legs. The continued development of additional vortices resulted in the formation of a traveling region of highly disturbed ow with an arrowhead shape similar to that of a turbulent spot.

  2. Study on the Effect and Mechanism of Aerodynamic Measures for the Vortex-Induced Vibration of Separate Pairs of Box Girders in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xin He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although not always resulting in catastrophic failures, vortex-induced vibration (VIV response can seriously impact the fatigue life and functionality of bridges, especially for separate pairs of box girders in cable-stayed bridges. This study investigates the effects of three aerodynamic measures: grating, inclined web plate, and the baffles on separated box girders in the cable-stayed bridges. The experimental result indicates that the grating of different opening ratios can control the vortex-induced vibration effectively, and the optimized grating opening ratio set in this paper is 40%. Increasing the angle of inclined web plate has a great control on mitigation of the vortex-induced vibration. However, there is an optimum angle where the amplitude of vortex-induced vibration is the smallest at low wind speed. The amplitude of vortex-induced vibration becomes larger with the increase of the web inclined angle that exceeds the optimum angle. Comparatively, the baffles installed on both sides of the inclined webs are more effective to restrain the vortex-induced resonance. The Computational Fluent Dynamics (CFD software is utilized to investigate the mechanism of the experimental results.

  3. A vortex-shedding flowmeter based on IPMCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquale, Giovanna Di; Pollicino, Antonino; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive polymers that can be used both as sensors and actuators. They have been demonstrated for many potential applications, in wet and underwater environments. Applications in fields such as biomimetics, robotics, and aerospace, just to mention a few, have been proposed. In this paper, the sensing nature of IPMCs is used to develop a flowmeter based on the vortex shedding phenomenon. The system is described, and a model is proposed and verified. A setup has been realized, and data have been acquired for many working conditions. The performance of the sensing system has been investigated by using acquired experimental data. Water flux velocities in the range [0.38, 2.83] m s −1 have been investigated. This working range is comparable with ranges claimed for established technologies. Results show the suitability of the proposed system to work as a flowmeter. The proposed transducer is suitable for envisaged post-silicon applications, where the use of IPMCs gives the opportunity to realize a new generating polymeric flowmeter. This has potential applications in fields where properties of IPMCs such as low cost, usability, and disposability are relevant. (paper)

  4. Solar winds along curved magnetic field lines

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Chen, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Both remote-sensing measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and in situ measurements by the Ulysses spacecraft show a bimodal structure for the solar wind at solar minimum conditions. At present what makes the fast wind fast and the slow wind slow still remains to be answered. While a robust empirical correlation exists between the coronal expansion rate $f_c$ of the flow tubes and the speeds $v$ measured in situ, further data analysis suggests that $v$ depends on ...

  5. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  6. Vortex properties of mesoscopic superconducting samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Leonardo R.E. [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil); Barba-Ortega, J. [Grupo de Fi' sica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Souza Silva, C.C. de [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J., E-mail: albino@df.ufpe.b [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    In this work we investigated theoretically the vortex properties of mesoscopic samples of different geometries, submitted to an external magnetic field. We use both London and Ginzburg-Landau theories and also solve the non-linear Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations to obtain vortex configurations, equilibrium states and the spatial distribution of the superconducting electron density in a mesoscopic superconducting triangle and long prisms with square cross-section. For a mesoscopic triangle with the magnetic field applied perpendicularly to sample plane the vortex configurations were obtained by using Langevin dynamics simulations. In most of the configurations the vortices sit close to the corners, presenting twofold or three-fold symmetry. A study of different meta-stable configurations with same number of vortices is also presented. Next, by taking into account de Gennes boundary conditions via the extrapolation length, b, we study the properties of a mesoscopic superconducting square surrounded by different metallic materials and in the presence of an external magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the square surface. It is determined the b-limit for the occurrence of a single vortex in a mesoscopic square of area d{sup 2}, for 4{xi}(0){<=}d{<=}10{xi}(0).

  7. Vortex in the chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek

    1995-02-01

    We construct the classical vortex solution in the model of chiral field interacting with the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field. This solution is topologically nontrivial and well localized. We discuss its relevance for effective hadron models based on the flux-tube picture and the possibility of its extension to the higher symmetry gauge groups SU(N).

  8. The Vortex Oscillations and Abelian Higgs Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkowski, J.; Swierczynski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The excitations of the vortex in Abelian Higgs model with small ratio of vector and Higgs particle masses are considered. Three main modes encountered in numerical computations are described in detail. They are also compared to analytic results obtained recently by Arodz and Hadasz in Phys. Rev. D54, 4004 (1996). (author)

  9. Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.

  10. Vortex identification: new requirements and limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2007), s. 638-652 ISSN 0142-727X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : vortex identification * vorticity decomposition * decomposition of motion Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2007

  11. Hexatic vortex glass in disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that interaction of the flux-line lattice with randomly arranged pinning centers should destroy the long-range positional order in the lattice, but not the long-range orientational order. A new phase: hexatic vortex glass, is suggested for the mixed state of disordered, type-II superconductors. Relevance to amorphous and high-T c superconductors is discussed

  12. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    . It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional...

  13. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  14. Point vortex dynamics: A classical mathematics playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    the integrability of the three-vortex problem, the interplay of relative equilibria of identical vortices and the roots of certain polynomials, addition formulas for the cotangent and the Weierstrass zeta function, projective geometry, and other topics. The hope and intent of the article is to garner further...

  15. Vortex precession in thin elliptical ferromagnetic nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspel, C.E., E-mail: craig.zaspel@umwestern.edu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A general form for the magnetostatic energy is calculated for the vortex state in a ferromagnetic ellipse. • The ellipse magnetostatic energy is minimized by conformal mapping the circular disk onto the ellipse. • The gyrotropic precession frequency is obtained in general for a range of ellipticities. - Abstract: The magnetostatic energy is calculated for a magnetic vortex in a noncircular elliptical nanodisk. It is well-known that the energy of a vortex in the circular disk is minimized though an ansatz that eliminates the magnetostatic charge at the disk edge. Beginning with this ansatz for the circular disk, a conformal mapping of a circle interior onto the interior of an ellipse results in the magnetization of the elliptical disk. This magnetization in the interior of an ellipse also has no magnetostatic charge at the disk edge also minimizing the magnetostatic energy. As expected the energy has a quadratic dependence on the displacement of the vortex core from the ellipse center, but reflecting the lower symmetry of the ellipse. Through numerical integration of the magnetostatic integral a general expression for the energy is obtained for ellipticity values from 1.0 to about 0.3. Finally a general expression for the gyrotropic frequency as described by the Thiele equation is obtained.

  16. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time...

  17. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  18. On open-quotes Vortex breakdownclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmyglevskii, Yu.D.

    1995-01-01

    The well-known investigations of vortex breakdown are supplemented with an exact analytic representation of this phenomenon on the basis of the complete Navier-Stokes equations for the case of a potential swirl of the input flow about the axis of symmetry

  19. Vortex lattice melting, pinning and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniach, S.; Ryu, S.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenology of the high T c superconductors is discussed both at the level of the thermodynamics of melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice and in terms of the melting and kinetics of the flux lattice for a pinned system. The authors review results on 3D melting obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation approach in which the 2D open-quotes pancakeclose quotes vortices are treated as statistical variables. The authors discuss pinning in the context of the strong pinning regime in which the vortex density given in terms of the applied field B is small compared to that represented by an effective field B pin measuring the pinning center density. The authors introduce a new criterion for the unfreezing of a vortex glass on increase of magnetic field or temperature, in the strong pinning, small field unit. The authors model this limit in terms of a single flux line interacting with a columnar pin. This model is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. By applying a tilt potential, the authors study the kinetics of the vortex motion in an external current and show that the resulting current-voltage characteristic follows a basic vortex glass-like scaling relation in the vicinity of the depinning transition

  20. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  1. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  2. Quantum oscillations in vortex-liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sumilan; Zhang, Shizhong; Randeria, Mohit

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by observations of quantum oscillations in underdoped cuprates [1], we examine the electronic density of states (DOS) in a vortex-liquid state, where long-range phase coherence is destroyed by an external magnetic field H but the local pairing amplitude survives. We note that this regime is distinct from that studied in most of the recent theories, which have focused on either a Fermi liquid with a competing order parameter or on a d-wave vortex lattice. The cuprate experiments are very likely in a resistive vortex-liquid state. We generalize the s-wave analysis of Maki and Stephen [2] to d-wave pairing and examine various regimes of the chemical potential, gap and field. We find that the (1/H) oscillations of the DOS at the chemical potential in a d-wave vortex-liquid are much more robust, i.e., have a reduced damping, compared to the s-wave case. We critically investigate the conventional wisdom relating the observed frequency to the area of an underlying Fermi surface. We also show that the oscillations in the DOS cross over to a √H behavior in the low field limit, in agreement with the recent specific heat measurements. [1] L. Taillefer, J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 21, 164212 (2009). [2] M. J. Stephen, Phys. Rev. B 45, 5481 (1992).

  3. Impact of pulsations on vortex flowmeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.A.M.; Bokhorst, E. van; Limpens, C.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of imposed pulsations on the output of five 3”-industrial vortex flow meters with a triangular bluff body and various type of sensors was experimentally investigated in a gas flow over a wide range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 400 Hz and amplitudes ranging from 1% to 30% rms of the

  4. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  5. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  6. Fermions and non-Abelian vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, E.R.B. de.

    1986-01-01

    Some aspectos of the fermion-non-Abelian vortex system are discussed. It is shown that this system presents properties analogous to the fermion-non-Abelian magnetic monopole one. But, differrently from the fermion-monopole case, this system does not present fermion condensate V = 0. (Author) [pt

  7. Vortex and half-vortex dynamics in a nonlinear spinor quantum fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Dagvadorj, Galbadrakh; Fellows, Jonathan M; Ballarini, Dario; De Giorgi, Milena; Marchetti, Francesca M; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bramati, Alberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Szymańska, Marzena H; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2015-12-01

    Vortices are archetypal objects that recur in the universe across the scale of complexity, from subatomic particles to galaxies and black holes. Their appearance is connected with spontaneous symmetry breaking and phase transitions. In Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluids, vortices are both point-like and quantized quasiparticles. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid of polaritons, bosonic particles constituted by hybrid photonic and electronic oscillations, to study quantum vortex dynamics. Polaritons benefit from easiness of wave function phase detection, a spinor nature sustaining half-integer vorticity, strong nonlinearity, and tuning of the background disorder. We can directly generate by resonant pulsed excitations a polariton condensate carrying either a full or half-integer vortex as initial condition and follow their coherent evolution using ultrafast imaging on the picosecond scale. The observations highlight a rich phenomenology, such as the spiraling of the half-vortex and the joint path of the twin charges of a full vortex, until the moment of their splitting. Furthermore, we observe the ordered branching into newly generated secondary couples, associated with the breaking of radial and azimuthal symmetries. This allows us to devise the interplay of nonlinearity and sample disorder in shaping the fluid and driving the vortex dynamics. In addition, our observations suggest that phase singularities may be seen as fundamental particles whose quantized events span from pair creation and recombination to 2D+t topological vortex strings.

  8. Vortex generation and wave-vortex interaction over a concave plate with roughness and suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    1993-01-01

    The generation and amplification of vortices by surface homogeneities, both in the form of surface waviness and of wall-normal velocity, is investigated using the nonlinear parabolic stability equations. Transients and issues of algebraic growth are avoided through the use of a similarity solution as initial condition for the vortex. In the absence of curvature, the vortex decays as the square root of 1/x when flowing over streamwise aligned riblets of constant height, and grows as the square root of x when flowing over a corresponding streamwise aligned variation of blowing/suction transpiration velocity. However, in the presence of wall inhomogeneities having both streamwise and spanwise periodicity, the growth of the vortex can be much larger. In the presence of curvature, the vortex develops into a Gortler vortex. The 'direct' and 'indirect' interaction mechanisms possible in wave-vortex interaction are presented. The 'direct' interaction does not lead to strong resonance with the flow conditions investigated. The 'indirect' interaction leads to K-type transition.

  9. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Takashi; Okura, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions

  10. Single vortex states in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komineas, S.; Cooper, N. R.; Papanicolaou, N.

    2005-01-01

    It has been demonstrated experimentally that non-axisymmetric vortices precess around the center of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Two types of single vortex states have been observed, usually referred to as the S vortex and the U vortex. We study theoretically the single vortex excitations in spherical and elongated condensates as a function of the interaction strength. We solve numerically the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and calculate the angular momentum as a function of precession frequency. The existence of two types of vortices means that we have two different precession frequencies for each angular momentum value. As the interaction strength increases the vortex lines bend and the precession frequencies shift to lower values. We establish that for given angular momentum the S vortex has higher energy than the U vortex in a rotating elongated condensate. We show that the S vortex is related to the solitonic vortex, which is a nonlinear excitation in the nonrotating system. For small interaction strengths the S vortex is related to the dark soliton. In the dilute limit a lowest Landau level calculation provides an analytic description of these vortex modes in terms of the harmonic oscillator states

  11. Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2000-11-01

    Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.

  12. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Takashi, E-mail: naitoh.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Okura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ohkura@meijo-u.ac.jp [Department of Vehicle and Mechanical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Gotoh, Toshiyuki, E-mail: gotoh.toshiyuki@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Scientific and Engineering Simulation, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Controller Business Unit Engineering Division 1, Engineering Department 3, Denso Wave Incorporated, 1 Yoshiike Kusagi Agui-cho, Chita-gun Aichi 470-2297 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions.

  13. Motion of a single quantized vortex in an orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Discrete phase-slip events are observed when superfluid 4 He moves through a microscopic orifice. In order to understand such behavior, one must know (a) how a quantized vortex is introduced into the orifice, and (b) how such a vortex evolves fluid dynamically so as to absorb energy from the applied flow field. To begin the study of the latter question, the authors present calculations done with an idealized orifice geometry. It is found that vortex loops larger than a critical size are carried out of the orifice and stretched by the diverging flow. As it stretches, such a vortex will cross the orifice, the energy required to stretch the vortex being absorbed from the flow field. Both a vortex loop introduced directly into the orifice and a remanent vortex extending to infinity will be discussed

  14. Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P

    2016-02-10

    Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory.

  15. The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Krüger, K.; Bittner, M.; Timmreck, C.; Schmidt, H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and simple theoretical arguments suggest that the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric polar vortex is stronger in winters following major volcanic eruptions. However, recent studies show that climate models forced by prescribed volcanic aerosol fields fail to reproduce this effect. We investigate the impact of volcanic aerosol forcing on stratospheric dynamics, including the strength of the NH polar vortex, in ensemble simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The model is forced by four different prescribed forcing sets representing the radiative properties of stratospheric aerosol following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo: two forcing sets are based on observations, and are commonly used in climate model simulations, and two forcing sets are constructed based on coupled aerosol-climate model simulations. For all forcings, we find that simulated temperature and zonal wind anomalies in the NH high latitudes are not directly impacted by anomalous volcanic aerosol heating. Instead, high-latitude effects result from enhancements in stratospheric residual circulation, which in turn result, at least in part, from enhanced stratospheric wave activity. High-latitude effects are therefore much less robust than would be expected if they were the direct result of aerosol heating. Both observation-based forcing sets result in insignificant changes in vortex strength. For the model-based forcing sets, the vortex response is found to be sensitive to the structure of the forcing, with one forcing set leading to significant strengthening of the polar vortex in rough agreement with observation-based expectations. Differences in the dynamical response to the forcing sets imply that reproducing the polar vortex responses to past eruptions, or predicting the response to future eruptions, depends on accurate representation of the space-time structure of the volcanic aerosol forcing.

  16. Air-sea interaction and formation of the Asian summer monsoon onset vortex over the Bay of Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoxiong; Liu, Yimin; Mao, Jiangyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China); Guan, Yue [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yan, Jinghui [China Meteorological Administration, National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2012-01-15

    In spring over the southern Bay of Bengal (BOB), a vortex commonly develops, followed by the Asian summer monsoon onset. An analysis of relevant data and a case study reveals that the BOB monsoon onset vortex is formed as a consequence of air-sea interaction over BOB, which is modulated by Tibetan Plateau forcing and the land-sea thermal contrast over the South Asian area during the spring season. Tibetan Plateau forcing in spring generates a prevailing cold northwesterly over India in the lower troposphere. Strong surface sensible heating is then released, forming a prominent surface cyclone with a strong southwesterly along the coastal ocean in northwestern BOB. This southwesterly induces a local offshore current and upwelling, resulting in cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The southwesterly, together with the near-equatorial westerly, also results in a surface anticyclone with descending air over most of BOB and a cyclone with ascending air over the southern part of BOB. In the eastern part of central BOB, where sky is clear, surface wind is weak, and ocean mixed layer is shallow, intense solar radiation and low energy loss due to weak surface latent and sensible heat fluxes act onto a thin ocean layer, resulting in the development of a unique BOB warm pool in spring. Near the surface, water vapor is transferred from northern BOB and other regions to southeastern BOB, where surface sensible heating is relatively high. The atmospheric available potential energy is generated and converted to kinetic energy, thereby resulting in vortex formation. The vortex then intensifies and moves northward, where SST is higher and surface sensible heating is stronger. Meanwhile, the zonal-mean kinetic energy is converted to eddy kinetic energy in the area east of the vortex, and the vortex turns eastward. Eventually, southwesterly sweeps over eastern BOB and merges with the subtropical westerly, leading to the onset of the Asian summer monsoon. (orig.)

  17. Hydrodynamic pressure sensing with an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturelli, Roberto; Akanyeti, Otar; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo; Ježov, Jaas; Toming, Gert; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Brown, Jennifer; Megill, William M

    2012-01-01

    With the overall goal being a better understanding of the sensing environment from the local perspective of a situated agent, we studied uniform flows and Kármán vortex streets in a frame of reference relevant to a fish or swimming robot. We visualized each flow regime with digital particle image velocimetry and then took local measurements using a rigid body with laterally distributed parallel pressure sensor arrays. Time and frequency domain methods were used to characterize hydrodynamically relevant scenarios in steady and unsteady flows for control applications. Here we report that a distributed pressure sensing mechanism has the capability to discriminate Kármán vortex streets from uniform flows, and determine the orientation and position of the platform with respect to the incoming flow and the centre axis of the Kármán vortex street. It also enables the computation of hydrodynamic features which may be relevant for a robot while interacting with the flow, such as vortex shedding frequency, vortex travelling speed and downstream distance between vortices. A Kármán vortex street was distinguished in this study from uniform flows by analysing the magnitude of fluctuations present in the sensor measurements and the number of sensors detecting the same dominant frequency. In the Kármán vortex street the turbulence intensity was 30% higher than that in the uniform flow and the sensors collectively sensed the vortex shedding frequency as the dominant frequency. The position and orientation of the sensor platform were determined via a comparative analysis between laterally distributed sensor arrays; the vortex travelling speed was estimated via a cross-correlation analysis among the sensors. (paper)

  18. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  19. Propagation of optical vortex beams and nucleation of vortex-antivortex pairs in disordered nonlinear photonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong-Kwon; Kim, Ki-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of optical vortex beams through disordered nonlinear photonic lattices is numerically studied. The vortex beams are generated by using a superposition of several Gaussian laser beams arranged in a radially-symmetric manner. The paraxial nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing the longitudinal propagation of the beam array through nonlinear triangular photonic lattices with two-dimensional disorder is solved numerically by using the split-step Fourier method. We find that due to the spatial disorder, the vortex beam is destabilized after propagating a finite distance and new vortex-antivortex pairs are nucleated at the positions of perfect destructive interference. We also find that in the presence of a self-focusing nonlinearity, the vortex-antivortex pair nucleation is suppressed and the vortex beam becomes more stable, while a self-defocusing nonlinearity enhances the vortex-antivortex pair nucleation.

  20. Vortex lift augmentation by suction on a 60 deg swept Gothic wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance of suction applied near the wing tips above the trailing edge of a 60 deg swept Gothic wing. Moveable suction inlets were symmetrically mounted in the proximity of the trailing edge, and the amount of suction was varied to maximize wing lift. Tests were conducted at Mach 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45, and the angle of attack was varied from -4 to 50 deg. The suction augmentation increases the lift coefficient over the entire range of angle of attack. The lift improvement exceeds the unaugmented wing lift by over 20%. Moreover, the augmented lift exceeds the lift predicted by vortex lattice theory to 30 deg angle of attack. Suction augmentation is postulated to strengthen the vortex system by increasing its velocity and making it more concentrated. This causes the vortex breakdown to be delayed to a higher angle of attack

  1. Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

  2. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  3. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1998-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1997-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Rewritable ferroelectric vortex pairs in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Yang, Jan-Chi; Chu, Ying-Hao; Huang, Fengzhen; Zhu, Jinsong; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Ferroelectric vortex in multiferroic materials has been considered as a promising alternative to current memory cells for the merit of high storage density. However, the formation of regular natural ferroelectric vortex is difficult, restricting the achievement of vortex memory device. Here, we demonstrated the creation of ferroelectric vortex-antivortex pairs in BiFeO3 thin films by using local electric field. The evolution of the polar vortex structure is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy at nanoscale. The results reveal that the patterns and stability of vortex structures are sensitive to the poling position. Consecutive writing and erasing processes cause no influence on the original domain configuration. The Z4 proper coloring vortex-antivortex network is then analyzed by graph theory, which verifies the rationality of artificial vortex-antivortex pairs. This study paves a foundation for artificial regulation of vortex, which provides a possible pathway for the design and realization of non-volatile vortex memory devices and logical devices.

  6. Computational investigation of the temperature separation in vortex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anish, S.; Setoguchi, T.; Kim, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    The vortex chamber is a mechanical device, without any moving parts that separates compressed gas into a high temperature region and a low temperature region. Functionally vortex chamber is similar to a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RVHT), but it is a simpler and compact structure. The objective of the present study is to investigate computationally the physical reasoning behind the energy separation mechanism inside a vortex chamber. A computational analysis has been performed using three-dimensional compressible Navier Stokes equations. A fully implicit finite volume scheme was used to solve the governing equations. A commercial software ANSYS CFX is used for this purpose. The computational predictions were validated with existing experimental data. The results obtained show that the vortex chamber contains a large free vortex zone and a comparatively smaller forced vortex region. The physical mechanism that causes the heating towards periphery of the vortex chamber is identified as the work done by the viscous force. The cooling at the center may be due to expansion of the flow. The extent of temperature separation greatly depends on the outer diameter of the vortex chamber. A small amount of compression is observed towards the periphery of the vortex chamber when the outer diameter is reduced.

  7. Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2017-09-01

    Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (<10 ns) magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.

  8. A Free Wake Numerical Simulation for Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, Radian

    2010-11-01

    In the last four decades, several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus wind turbine performances and characteristics. We can identified two families: stream-tube and vortex. The paper presents a simplified numerical techniques for simulating vertical axis wind turbine flow, based on the lifting line theory and a free vortex wake model, including dynamic stall effects for predicting the performances of a 3-D vertical axis wind turbine. A vortex model is used in which the wake is composed of trailing stream-wise and shedding span-wise vortices, whose strengths are equal to the change in the bound vortex strength as required by the Helmholz and Kelvin theorems. Performance parameters are computed by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Jukowski theorem and a semi-empirical stall model. We tested the developed model with an adaptation of the earlier multiple stream-tube performance prediction model for the Darrieus turbines. Predictions by using our method are shown to compare favorably with existing experimental data and the outputs of other numerical models. The method can predict accurately the local and global performances of a vertical axis wind turbine, and can be used in the design and optimization of wind turbines for built environment applications.

  9. Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the NACA 4415 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Wind turbines in the field can be subjected to many and varying wind conditions, including high winds with rotor locked or with yaw excursions. In some cases the rotor blades may be subjected to unusually large angles of attack that possibly result in unexpected loads and deflections. To better understand loadings at unusual angles of attack, a wind tunnel test was performed. An 18-inch constant chord model of the NACA 4415 airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 7 x 10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel (7 x 10). The objective of these tests was to document section lift and moment characteristics under various model and air flow conditions. These included a normal angle of attack range of {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}, an extended angle of attack range of {minus}60{degree} to +230{degree}, applications of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR), and use of vortex generators (VGs), all at chord Reynolds numbers as high as possible for the particular model configuration. To realistically satisfy these conditions the 7 x 10 offered a tunnel-height-to-model-chord ratio of 6.7, suggesting low interference effects even at the relatively high lift and drag conditions expected during the test. Significantly, it also provided chord Reynolds numbers up to 2.0 million. 167 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. The nonlinear dirac equation in Bose-Einstein condensates: vortex solutions and spectra in a weak harmonic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, L. H.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the vortex solution space of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Dirac equation for bosons in a honeycomb optical lattice at length scales much larger than the lattice spacing. Dirac point relativistic covariance combined with s-wave scattering for bosons leads to a large number of vortex solutions characterized by different functional forms for the internal spin and overall phase of the order parameter. We present a detailed derivation of these solutions which include skyrmions, half-quantum vortices, Mermin-Ho and Anderson-Toulouse vortices for vortex winding {\\ell }=1. For {\\ell }≥slant 2 we obtain topological as well as non-topological solutions defined by the asymptotic radial dependence. For arbitrary values of ℓ the non-topological solutions include bright ring-vortices which explicitly demonstrate the confining effects of the Dirac operator. We arrive at solutions through an asymptotic Bessel series, algebraic closed-forms, and using standard numerical shooting methods. By including a harmonic potential to simulate a finite trap we compute the discrete spectra associated with radially quantized modes. We demonstrate the continuous spectral mapping between the vortex and free particle limits for all of our solutions.

  11. Comparison and validation of wake vortex characteristics collected at different airports by different scanning lidar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobois, Ludovic; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Cappellazzo, Valerio; Musson, Christian; Treve, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    Today, the demand for increasing airport capacity is high, in particular for increasing runway throughput from an ATM perspective. Runway capacity is often directly linked with the minima longitudinal separation between aircraft on approach phase or between aircraft on departure. The separation minima are based on surveillance capabilities and on wake turbulence (WT) in order to mitigate respectively collision risk and WT-induced accidents, therefore WT hazard becomes a major concern for ATM. For ten years, many research LIDAR systems have been used for better understanding wake vortices behaviors in the operational environment within large range of wind and turbulence conditions. All these studies[1][2] helped to design new concepts of wake separations between aircrafts thanks to the proven capabilities of LIDAR systems to assess the risks of wake vortex (WV) encounters through the circulation retrievals. The re-categorization project, called RECAT [8], has been launched by a joint EUROCONTROL - FAA initiative in order to renew and optimize the out-of-date currently applied ICAO regulations on distance separation. Nowadays, the first phase of regional RECAT projects, which consists in defining new distance separation matrices composed of six/seven static aircraft categories instead of three, entered the operational phase and is deployed in several airports in United States and Europe. In addition, other concepts like Time-Based Separation have also been studied and deployed in London Heathrow. The airports where these solutions have been deployed obtained significant benefits as increased runway throughput and improved resilience to disruptions. For implementing such new WT solutions at an airport, a local safety assessment before the implementation and a risk monitoring after are usually needed. Before implementation, it may be required to determine for the targeted airport the relative variations of risk of wake vortex encounters, given the local ATM rules, the

  12. Comparison and validation of wake vortex characteristics collected at different airports by different scanning lidar sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobois Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the demand for increasing airport capacity is high, in particular for increasing runway throughput from an ATM perspective. Runway capacity is often directly linked with the minima longitudinal separation between aircraft on approach phase or between aircraft on departure. The separation minima are based on surveillance capabilities and on wake turbulence (WT in order to mitigate respectively collision risk and WT-induced accidents, therefore WT hazard becomes a major concern for ATM. For ten years, many research LIDAR systems have been used for better understanding wake vortices behaviors in the operational environment within large range of wind and turbulence conditions. All these studies[1][2] helped to design new concepts of wake separations between aircrafts thanks to the proven capabilities of LIDAR systems to assess the risks of wake vortex (WV encounters through the circulation retrievals. The re-categorization project, called RECAT [8], has been launched by a joint EUROCONTROL – FAA initiative in order to renew and optimize the out-of-date currently applied ICAO regulations on distance separation. Nowadays, the first phase of regional RECAT projects, which consists in defining new distance separation matrices composed of six/seven static aircraft categories instead of three, entered the operational phase and is deployed in several airports in United States and Europe. In addition, other concepts like Time-Based Separation have also been studied and deployed in London Heathrow. The airports where these solutions have been deployed obtained significant benefits as increased runway throughput and improved resilience to disruptions. For implementing such new WT solutions at an airport, a local safety assessment before the implementation and a risk monitoring after are usually needed. Before implementation, it may be required to determine for the targeted airport the relative variations of risk of wake vortex encounters, given the

  13. Ozone and water vapour in the austral polar stratospheric vortex and sub-vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ozone and water vapour, in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, were made as part of the APE-GAIA mission in September and October 1999. The measurements show a distinct difference above and below the 415K isentrope. Above 415K, the chemically perturbed region of low ozone and water vapour is clearly evident. Below 415K, but still above the tropopause, no sharp meridional gradients in ozone and water vapour were observed. The observations are consistent with analyses of potential vorticity from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, which show smaller radial gradients at 380K than at 450K potential temperature. Ozone loss in the chemically perturbed region above 415K averages 5ppbv per day for mid-September to mid-October. Apparent ozone loss rates in the sub-vortex region are greater, at 7ppbv per day. The data support, therefore, the existence of a sub-vortex region in which meridional transport is more efficient than in the vortex above. The low ozone mixing ratios in the sub-vortex region may be due to in-situ chemical destruction of ozone or transport of ozone-poor air out of the bottom of the vortex. The aircraft data we use cannot distinguish between these two processes. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics polar meteorology – Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere–composition and chemistry

  14. Meissner effects, vortex core states, and the vortex glass phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis covers three topics involving Meissner effects and the resulting defect structures. The first is a study of Meissner effects in superconductivity and in systems with broken translational symmetry. The Meissner effect in the superconductors is a rigidity against external magnetic field caused by the breaking of the gauge symmetry. Other condensed matter systems also exhibit rigidities like this: The breaking of the translational symmetry in a cubic-liquid-crystal causes the system to expel twist deformations and the breaking of the translational symmetry in a nematic liquid crystal gives it a tendency to expel twist and bend deformations. In this thesis, the author studies these generalized Meissner effects in detail. The second is a study of the quasiparticle states bound to the vortex defect in superconductors. Scanning-tunneling-microscope measurements by Harald Hess et al. of the local density of states in a vortex core show a pronounced peak at small bias. These measurements contradict with previous theoretical calculations. Here, he solves the Bogoliubov equations to obtain the local density of states in the core and satisfactorily explain the experimental observations. He also predicted additional structure in the local density of states which were later observed in experiments. The third is a study of vortex dynamics in the presence of disorder. A mean field theory is developed for the recently proposed normal to superconducting vortex glass transition. Using techniques developed to study the critical dynamics of spin glasses, he calculates the mean field vortex glass phase boundary and the critical exponents

  15. Numerical study of the vortex tube reconnection using vortex particle method on many graphics cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Henryk; Kosior, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Vortex Particle Methods are one of the most convenient ways of tracking the vorticity evolution. In the article we presented numerical recreation of the real life experiment concerning head-on collision of two vortex rings. In the experiment the evolution and reconnection of the vortex structures is tracked with passive markers (paint particles) which in viscous fluid does not follow the evolution of vorticity field. In numerical computations we showed the difference between vorticity evolution and movement of passive markers. The agreement with the experiment was very good. Due to problems with very long time of computations on a single processor the Vortex-in-Cell method was implemented on the multicore architecture of the graphics cards (GPUs). Vortex Particle Methods are very well suited for parallel computations. As there are myriads of particles in the flow and for each of them the same equations of motion have to be solved the SIMD architecture used in GPUs seems to be perfect. The main disadvantage in this case is the small amount of the RAM memory. To overcome this problem we created a multiGPU implementation of the VIC method. Some remarks on parallel computing are given in the article.

  16. Numerical study of the vortex tube reconnection using vortex particle method on many graphics cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, Henryk; Kosior, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Vortex Particle Methods are one of the most convenient ways of tracking the vorticity evolution. In the article we presented numerical recreation of the real life experiment concerning head-on collision of two vortex rings. In the experiment the evolution and reconnection of the vortex structures is tracked with passive markers (paint particles) which in viscous fluid does not follow the evolution of vorticity field. In numerical computations we showed the difference between vorticity evolution and movement of passive markers. The agreement with the experiment was very good. Due to problems with very long time of computations on a single processor the Vortex-in-Cell method was implemented on the multicore architecture of the graphics cards (GPUs). Vortex Particle Methods are very well suited for parallel computations. As there are myriads of particles in the flow and for each of them the same equations of motion have to be solved the SIMD architecture used in GPUs seems to be perfect. The main disadvantage in this case is the small amount of the RAM memory. To overcome this problem we created a multiGPU implementation of the VIC method. Some remarks on parallel computing are given in the article.

  17. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  18. Model-based observer and feedback control design for a rigid Joukowski foil in a Kármán vortex street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Brian A; Paley, Derek A

    2018-03-14

    Obstacles and swimming fish in flow create a wake with an alternating left/right vortex pattern known as a Kármán vortex street and reverse Kármán vortex street, respectively. An energy-efficient fish behavior resembling slaloming through the vortex street is called Kármán gaiting. This paper describes the use of a bioinspired array of pressure sensors on a Joukowski foil to estimate and control flow-relative position in a Kármán vortex street using potential flow theory, recursive Bayesian filtering, and trajectory-tracking feedback control. The Joukowski foil is fixed in downstream position in a flowing water channel and free to move on air bearings in the cross-stream direction by controlling its angle of attack to generate lift. Inspired by the lateral-line neuromasts found in fish, the sensing and control scheme is validated using off-the-shelf pressure sensors in an experimental testbed that includes a flapping device to create vortices. We derive a potential flow model that describes the flow over a Joukowski foil in a Kármán vortex street and identify an optimal path through a Kármán vortex street using empirical observability. The optimally observable trajectory is one that passes through each vortex in the street. The estimated vorticity and location of the Kármán vortex street are used in a closed-loop control to track either the optimally observable path or the energetically efficient gait exhibited by fish. Results from the closed-loop control experiments in the flow tank show that the artificial lateral line in conjunction with a potential flow model and Bayesian estimator allow the robot to perform fish-like slaloming behavior in a Kármán vortex street. This work is a precursor to an autonomous robotic fish sensing the wake of another fish and/or performing pursuit and schooling behavior.

  19. Strings, vortex rings, and modes of instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Gubser

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu–Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross–Pitaevskii Lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.

  20. Vortex sheet approximation of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorin, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    a grid free method for approximating incomprssible boundary layers is introduced. The computational elements are segments of vortex sheets. The method is related to the earlier vortex method; simplicity is achieved at the cost of replacing the Navier-Stokes equations by the Prandtl boundary layer equations. A new method for generating vorticity at boundaries is also presented; it can be used with the earlier voartex method. The applications presented include (i) flat plate problems, and (ii) a flow problem in a model cylinder- piston assembly, where the new method is used near walls and an improved version of the random choice method is used in the interior. One of the attractive features of the new method is the ease with which it can be incorporated into hybrid algorithms

  1. Spectroscopy of fractional Josephson vortex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Using tiny current injectors we create {kappa} discontinuities of the Josephson phase in a long Josephson junction. The junction reacts at the discontinuities by creating fractional Josephson vortices of size {lambda}{sub J} pinned at them. Such vortices carry the flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Being pinned, a fractional vortex has an eigenfrequency (localized mode), which depends on {kappa} and applied bias current, and which lays within the plasma gap. If one considers a molecule consisting of several coupled fractional vortices, the eigenfrequency will split into several modes. We report on spectroscopy of a fractional vortex molecule performed in the thermal regime.

  2. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  3. Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.

  4. Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jixing

    1990-01-01

    Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)

  5. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  6. ''Soft'' Anharmonic Vortex Glass in Ferromagnetic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Ettouhami, A. M.; Saunders, Karl; Toner, John

    2001-01-01

    Ferromagnetic order in superconductors can induce a spontaneous vortex (SV) state. For external field H=0 , rotational symmetry guarantees a vanishing tilt modulus of the SV solid, leading to drastically different behavior than that of a conventional, external-field-induced vortex solid. We show that quenched disorder and anharmoinc effects lead to elastic moduli that are wave-vector dependent out to arbitrarily long length scales, and non-Hookean elasticity. The latter implies that for weak external fields H , the magnetic induction scales universally like B(H)∼B(0)+cH α , with α∼0.72 . For weak disorder, we predict the SV solid is a topologically ordered glass, in the ''columnar elastic glass'' universality class

  7. Coherent vortex structures in fluids and plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Anatoli

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces readers to the hydrodynamics of vortex formation, and reviews the last decade of active research in the field, offering a unique focus on research topics at the crossroads of traditional fluids and plasmas. Vortices are responsible for the process of macroscopic transport of momentum, energy and mass, and are formed as the result of spontaneous self-organization. Playing an important role in nature and technology, localized, coherent vortices are regularly observed in shear flows, submerged jets, afterbody flows and in atmospheric boundary layers, sometimes taking on the form of vortex streets. In addition, the book addresses a number of open issues, including but not limited to: which singularities are permitted in a 2D Euler equation besides point vortices? Which other, even more complex, localized vortices could be contained in the Euler equation? How do point vortices interact with potential waves?

  8. Dynamics and Instabilities of Vortex Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leweke, Thomas; Le Dizès, Stéphane; Williamson, Charles H. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics and behavior of counter-rotating and corotating vortex pairs, which are seemingly simple flow configurations yet immensely rich in phenomena. Since the reviews in this journal by Widnall (1975) and Spalart (1998) , who studied the fundamental structure and dynamics of vortices and airplane trailing vortices, respectively, there have been many analytical, computational, and experimental studies of vortex pair flows. We discuss two-dimensional dynamics, including the merging of same-sign vortices and the interaction with the mutually induced strain, as well as three-dimensional displacement and core instabilities resulting from this interaction. Flows subject to combined instabilities are also considered, in particular the impingement of opposite-sign vortices on a ground plane. We emphasize the physical mechanisms responsible for the flow phenomena and clearly present the key results that are useful to the reader for predicting the dynamics and instabilities of parallel vortices.

  9. Vortex dynamics in superconducting transition edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, S.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Asano, T.; Shinozaki, B.

    2018-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance (R-T) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been measured and analyzed in a 40 nm thick Ti thin film, which is used as a transition edge sensor (TES). The analyses of the I-V characteristics with the vortex-antivortex pair dissociation model indicate the possible existence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in two-dimensional superconducting Ti thin films. We investigated the noise due to the vortices' flow in TESs. The values of the current noise spectral density in the TESs were estimated by employing the vortex dynamics caused by the BKT transition in the Ti thin films. The estimated values of the current noise spectral density induced by the vortices' flow were in respectable agreement with the values of excess noise experimentally observed in the TESs with Ti/Au bilayer.

  10. Breaking down the delta wing vortex: The role of vorticity in the breakdown process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. C.; Visser, Kenneth Dale

    1991-01-01

    Experimental x-wire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 degree and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Grids were taken normal to the wing at various chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 degrees and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core and on chordwise location was also examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data is made. The results indicate that the circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows in a nearly linear fashion in the chordwise direction. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity is severely altered through the breakdown region and the amount of vorticity present appears to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The axial velocity components with a negative sense, such as that found in the secondary vortex, seem to remain unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the visible components. In addition, the inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter allows the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows to be reduced to a single curve.

  11. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  12. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F

    2015-02-28

    A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical behaviour of optical vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ) Density limitation→ effective profile for point vortex (remove evanescent field) . – p.10/37 Scintillated optical beams Optical beam in a turbulent atmosphere: → index variations cause random phase modulations → leads to distortion of the optical beam.... Weak scintillation→ continuous phase distortions that can be corrected by an adaptive optical system: Wavefront sensor Beam splitter Scintillated beam Corrected beam Deformable mirror Control signal . – p.11/37 Strong scintillation Strong scintillation...

  14. A nonabelian particle–vortex duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Murugan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We define a nonabelian particle–vortex duality as a 3-dimensional analogue of the usual 2-dimensional worldsheet nonabelian T-duality. The transformation is defined in the presence of a global SU(2 symmetry and, although derived from a string theoretic setting, we formulate it generally. We then apply it to so-called “semilocal strings” in an SU(2G×U(1L gauge theory, originally discovered in the context of cosmic string physics.

  15. Quantum vortex fluid in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that in two dimensions the high-field zero-temperature phase of a type-II superconductor can be quantum vortex fluid. The average intervortex spacing in this phase takes discrete values, leading to macroscopic steps in the total flux through the superconductor on the applied magnetic field. In the absence of dissipation, the Hall conductivity is quantized in units of 4e 2 /πℎ

  16. X-29 vortex flow control tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Regis; Fullerton, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA X-29 aircraft program to improve yaw control at high angle of attack using vortex flow control (VFC) is described. Directional VFC blowing proved to a be a powerful yaw moment generator and was very effective in overriding natural asymmetries, but was essentially ineffective in suppressing wing rock. Symmetric aft blowing also had little effect on suppressing wing rock.

  17. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  18. Numerical investigation of tip leakage vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    The Kaplan turbine has a small clearance gap between the blade tip and casing to allow the blades to rotate freely. This clearance gap is the cause of an undesirable Tip Leakage Vortex (TLV). A TLV might reduce the turbine efficiency, erode the turbine blades or cause instabilities for the power output. A literature study indicated that the tip clearance gap was a critical parameter affecting the behavior of the TLV. A research gap was observed for an operating Kaplan turbine where the ...

  19. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  20. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm 2 . Probe measurements reveal that within 30 μs an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column