WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind temperature moisture

  1. Weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space and concepts for their realization. [wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Korb, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space is discussed with emphasis on the requirements for wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data. It is shown that winds are required to realistically depict all atmospheric scales in the tropics and the smaller scales at higher latitudes, where both temperature and wind profiles are necessary. The need for means to estimate air-sea exchanges of sensible and latent heat also is noted. A concept for achieving this through a combination of Lidar cloud top heights and IR cloud top temperatures of cloud streets formed during cold air outbreaks over the warmer ocean is outlined. Recent theoretical feasibility studies concerning the profiling of temperatures, pressure, and humidity by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) from space and expected accuracies are reviewed. An alternative approach to Doppler Lidar wind measurements also is presented. The concept involves the measurement of the displacement of the aerosol backscatter pattern, at constant heights, between two successive scans of the same area, one ahead of the spacecraft and the other behind it a few minutes later. Finally, an integrated space Lidar system capable of measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds which combines the DIAL methods with the aerosol pattern displacement concept is described.

  2. Monthly Summaries of Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Mongolia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil temperature and soil moisture data from the Delger (White Bloom) site in Mongolia. Other variables include wind speed, wind direction,...

  3. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  4. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter D HT , which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that D HT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for D HT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  5. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Parinussa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve soil moisture from the Earth's surface. Low frequency observations have the most sensitivity to soil moisture, therefore the current Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS and future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP satellite missions observe the Earth's surface in the L-band frequency. In the past, several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E and WindSat have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture using multi-channel observations obtained at higher microwave frequencies. While AMSR-E and WindSat lack an L-band channel, they are able to leverage multi-channel microwave observations to estimate additional land surface parameters. In particular, the availability of Ka-band observations allows AMSR-E and WindSat to obtain coincident surface temperature estimates required for the retrieval of surface soil moisture. In contrast, SMOS and SMAP carry only a single frequency radiometer and therefore lack an instrument suited to estimate the physical temperature of the Earth. Instead, soil moisture algorithms from these new generation satellites rely on ancillary sources of surface temperature (e.g. re-analysis or near real time data from weather prediction centres. A consequence of relying on such ancillary data is the need for temporal and spatial interpolation, which may introduce uncertainties. Here, two newly-developed, large-scale soil moisture evaluation techniques, the triple collocation (TC approach and the Rvalue data assimilation approach, are applied to quantify the global-scale impact of replacing Ka-band based surface temperature retrievals with Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA surface temperature output on the accuracy of WindSat and AMSR-E based surface soil moisture retrievals. Results demonstrate that under sparsely vegetated conditions, the use of

  6. SMEX02 Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature data collected for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters measured are soil...

  7. Combined NMR moisture, temperature and pressure measurements during heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pel L.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For model validation, quantitative measurements of the evolution of moisture, temperature, and pressure distributions in time are needed. For this purpose, we have developed an NMR setup to measure the moisture transport in heated building materials. The measured combined moisture content and temperature profiles give a unique insight in the moisture transport and dehydration kinetics inside concrete during fire. These measurements give the first quantitative proof for the build-up of a moisture peak due to the vapor pressure build-up. In this study we have also combined for the first time the measurement of the moisture and temperature profiles with the measurement of the pressure at one position, which show that the pressure build up is directly related to the moisture profiles.

  8. FASST Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature: Original Versus New

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankenstein, Susan

    2008-01-01

    .... In determining the new soil temperatures and moistures, the original model first achieved convergence in the temperature profile followed by the moisture profile at a given time step. The new version of FASST solves both of these sets of equations simultaneously. No changes have been made to the equations describing the canopy physical state except to allow for mixed precipitation.

  9. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Soil temperature is one of the important variables in spatial prediction of soil energy balance in a solar greenhouse. ... temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop ... pertains to the soil itself (thermal properties, moisture content, type of soil, ...

  10. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  11. Soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  12. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  13. Wind induced errors on retrieving SSS with SMOS brightness temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X.; Boutin, J.; Martin, N.; Vergely, J.; Spurgeon, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, launched in November 2009, carries the first interferometric radiometer at L-band (1.4GHz) in orbit. The global distribution of SMOS SSS is very encouraging [Font et al., 2011]. In particular, the latitudinal variation of SSS is well captured by SMOS [Yin et al., 2012] and SSS anomalies in tropical regions seen by ARGO floats also appear on SMOS SSS [Boutin et al., 2011]. However, large discrepancies between SMOS SSS and Argo are noticed when there are large differences between SSMI wind and ECMWF wind, which is used for initializing iterations of SSS retrieval. SMOS does not carry microwave scatterometer or microwave radiometer at high frequency to simultaneously measure roughness, although it's proved in this paper that SMOS retrieved wind speed in the center of the swath (± 300 km) is partly (but not entirely) corrected for inconsistencies between ECMWF wind speeds and true wind speeds, whereas it's not possible to correct wind speed in the border of the swath. Two main aspects of wind induced errors on retrieving SSS with SMOS are: 1) The difference between and ECMWF forecast model wind and neutral equivalent wind which is defined for microwave remote sensing 2) The difference between wind used as prior and the truth. When the discrepancies between ECMWF wind and SSMI wind is out of SMOS's capability of wind correction, the retrieved SSS is biases. In this paper, we show some examples of large discrepancies between SMOS SSS and Argo when there are large differences between SSMI wind and ECMWF wind: 1) The SMOS is systematically to high in the equatorial area in the Eastern Pacific in Summer of 2010, where there is a strong westward current. 2) A case with strong wind front in the southern Pacific ocean. In this paper, we study the precision on SMOS SSS when SSMI wind speed is used as prior and compare it with SSS when ECMWF wind speed is used as prior. We also present the result of SMOS SSS when ECMWF wind

  14. Specific heat of apple at different moisture contents and temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhailyk, Viacheslav; Lebovka, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses results of experimental investigations of the specific heat, $C$, of apple in a wide interval of moisture contents ($W=0-0.9$) and temperatures ($T = 283-363$ K). The obtained data reveal the important role of the bound water in determination of $C(W,T)$ behaviour. The additive model for description of $C(W)$ dependence in the moisture range of $0.1

  15. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  16. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  17. WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L2 V001 (LPRM_WINDSAT_SOILM2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L2 V001 is a Level 2 (swath) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin)...

  18. Temperature as a moisture cue in haptics on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamachi, H

    2011-02-01

    A mechanism for giving a moisturized or dried-out feeling to hair was investigated. A two-step approach was conducted in order to elucidate the issue. First, we have reviewed previous studies that are related to the sensory perception of materials not only in cosmetic industry but also in other fields, such as textile and architecture industries, and established a hypothesis. Second, we have verified the hypothesis derived from the first step and identified the mechanism for the moisturized or dried-out feeling that people feel by measuring the heat transfer characteristic, q(max) . The results revealed that the moisturized or dried-out feeling that people feel at the moment of contact with hair was highly related to the temperature drop at the skin surface. The results also revealed that the moisturized or dried-out feeling strongly depends on the hair shape (meandering and diameter), surface damage and the water content of hair fibres which constitute the hair swatch. The moisturized feeling, however, was not related to the water content of hair fibres at a constant relative humidity (RH), as the differences in the water content of the hair fibres at a constant RH were too small for the recognition of the difference in the moisturized feeling. © 2010 Kao Corporation. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  20. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  1. Improving Fire Risk Estimation through Investigating Fire Intensity, Moisture and Temperature Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A.; Rudiger, C.; Tapper, N. J.; Dharssi, I.

    2016-12-01

    Australia has recently experienced large scale severe droughts, driven by prolonged rainfall decits and high temperatures. These conditions provide for a greater risk of forest fires leading to events such as the severe forest fires in Victoria in 2009 and Tasmania in 2012. The McAuthur Fire Danger Index (FFDI; McArthur, 1957) is used operationally in Australia to quantify fire danger. The FFDI is calculated using the maximum daily temperature, the mean daily wind speed, the mid-day relative humidity, and a Drought Factor (DF), which quantifies the soil moisture decit. This DF is calculated either using the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI; Keetch and Byram, 1968) in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland or Mounts Soil Dryness Index (MSDI; Mount, 1972) in South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia, with both primarily based on precipitation. Similarly, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) have been used in the past to quantify soil moisture decits in lieu of high resolution soil moisture data. Recent studies indicate that the occurrence of large fires are correlated to soil moisture deficits and suggest that the formulation of the FFDI is largely dependent on how this is calculated. This study compares API, SPI, KBDI and MSDI across observational in situ sites from the OzNet Hydrological monitoring network (OzNet; Smith, 2012) and the Australian Cosmic ray soil moisture monitoring facility (CosmOz; Howdon et al, 2014). The averaged correlation coefficient across all sites is 0.77, 0.69, 0.60 and 0.57 for API, MSDI, SPI and KBDI respectively, indicating that API best represents soil moisture at the surface layer depth. From this, a daily FFDI is calculated between 2000 and 2014, simply substituting the various moisture indices in place of the DF. The accuracy of these calculated FFDI's are then compared against MODIS derived fire "hotspots" and also Fire Radiative Power, an indication of fire intensity.

  2. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    for combined heat and moisture transport in materials. There is a need for further elaboration of the importance of these issues, and it is the intent of this paper to contribute to such elaboration. The paper seeks to contribute to the knowledge base about such sorption characteristic by presenting some new...... measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...

  3. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  4. Musical intonation of wind instruments and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-05-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  5. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  6. Moisture diffusivity of HPFRC exposed to high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Concrete structures suffer from a high-temperature exposure, among others from the damage induced by spalling. The cracks propagation is connected with the degree of material water saturation and rate of damage during the release of free and bound water from cement hydrates as a result of material high-temperature heating. In case of High Performance Concrete (HPC), its dense structure increases concrete damage due to the formation of higher water vapor pressures compared to normal strength concrete. On this account, detail information on the influence of a high-temperature load on the permeability of a High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) represents worth information for proper building and structural design. In this study, 1-D liquid water transport in HPFRC samples exposed to the laboratory temperature and temperatures of 800 °C and 1000 °C is studied. Experimentally measured moisture profiles are used for the calculation of moisture dependent moisture diffusivity using inverse analysis method based on Boltzmann-Matano treatment. The K-spline software tool, developed at the Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, FCE, CTU in Prague is used to get high accuracy of the computational inverse procedure.

  7. Transformer winding temperature estimation based on tank surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyu; Wijaya, Jaury; Martin, Daniel; Lelekakis, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Power transformers are among the most valuable assets of the electrical grid. Since the largest units cost in the order of millions of dollars, it is desirable to operate them in such a manner that extends their remaining lives. Operating these units at high temperature will cause excessive insulation ageing in the windings. Consequently, it is necessary to study the thermal performance of these expensive items. Measuring or estimating the winding temperature of power transformers is beneficial to a utility because this provides them with the data necessary to make informed decisions on how best to use their assets. Fiber optic sensors have recently become viable for the direct measurement of winding temperatures while a transformer is energized. However, it is only practical to install a fiber optic temperature sensor during the manufacture of a transformer. For transformers operating without fiber optic sensors, the winding temperature can be estimated with calculations using the temperature of the oil at the top of the transformer tank. When the oil temperature measurement is not easily available, the temperature of the tank surface may be used as an alternative. This paper shows how surface temperature may be utilized to estimate the winding temperature within a transformer designed for research purposes.

  8. Microhabitat effects of litter temperature and moisture on forest-floor invertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim A. Christiansen; Sue A. Perry; William B. Perry

    1996-01-01

    Litter temperature and moisture may be altered due to changes in global climate. We investigated the effect of small changes in litter temperature and moisture on forest-floor communities in West Virginia.

  9. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation........ After the initial tests the surface of the wall was treated with mortar and a new series of test was performed. The wall with and without treatment performed almost equal during the influence of driving rain, and during the later drying phase, the difference was equally small....

  10. Creep of concrete under various temperature, moisture, and loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the time-dependent deformation behavior of concrete in the presence of temperature, moisture, and loading conditions similar to those encountered in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Variables included concrete strength, aggregate types, curing history, temperature, and types of loading (uniaxial, hydrostatic, biaxial, and triaxial). There were 66 test conditions for creep tests and 12 test conditions for unloaded or control specimens. Experimental results are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made concerning the effect of the various test conditions on the behavior of concrete, and general conclusions are formulated

  11. Evaluation of the Influence of Wind-Driven Rain on Moisture in Cellular Concrete Wall Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsabry A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-stationary moisture level of a cellular concrete wall board in a heated utility building located in the northern part of the town of Brest (Belarus, depending on the climatic influence, was assessed in this work. The results were obtained both in a calculation experiment and a physical test. It was observed that the main reason for the high moisture levels in cellular concrete is wind-driven rain intensifying the process of free capillary moisture transfer. A comparative analysis of the results of the physical test and the calculation experiment showed that the THSS software elaborated by the authors was able to predict the actual moisture levels of the shielding structure under study accurately enough when precise data concerning the thermal and physical characteristics of the materials as well as the occurring climatic influences were submitted.

  12. Evaluation of the Influence of Wind-Driven Rain on Moisture in Cellular Concrete Wall Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Nikitsin, V. I.; Kofanov, V. A.; Backiel-Brzozowska, B.

    2017-08-01

    The non-stationary moisture level of a cellular concrete wall board in a heated utility building located in the northern part of the town of Brest (Belarus), depending on the climatic influence, was assessed in this work. The results were obtained both in a calculation experiment and a physical test. It was observed that the main reason for the high moisture levels in cellular concrete is wind-driven rain intensifying the process of free capillary moisture transfer. A comparative analysis of the results of the physical test and the calculation experiment showed that the THSS software elaborated by the authors was able to predict the actual moisture levels of the shielding structure under study accurately enough when precise data concerning the thermal and physical characteristics of the materials as well as the occurring climatic influences were submitted.

  13. Interactive Vegetation Phenology, Soil Moisture, and Monthly Temperature Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, R. D.; Walker, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    The time scales that characterize the variations of vegetation phenology are generally much longer than those that characterize atmospheric processes. The explicit modeling of phenological processes in an atmospheric forecast system thus has the potential to provide skill to subseasonal or seasonal forecasts. We examine this possibility here using a forecast system fitted with a dynamic vegetation phenology model. We perform three experiments, each consisting of 128 independent warm-season monthly forecasts: 1) an experiment in which both soil moisture states and carbon states (e.g., those determining leaf area index) are initialized realistically, 2) an experiment in which the carbon states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts, and 3) an experiment in which both the carbon and soil moisture states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts. Evaluating the monthly forecasts of air temperature in each ensemble against observations, as well as quantifying the inherent predictability of temperature within each ensemble, shows that dynamic phenology can indeed contribute positively to subseasonal forecasts, though only to a small extent, with an impact dwarfed by that of soil moisture.

  14. LPRM/WindSat/Coriolis L2 Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 (swath) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  15. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  16. Experimental on moisture migration and pore pressure formation of concrete members subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kakuhiro; Nakane, Sunao

    1993-01-01

    The experimental studies concerning temperature, moisture migration, and pore pressure of mass concrete mock-up specimens heated up to high temperature at 110degC to 600degC, were performed, so as to correctly estimate the moisture migration behaviour of concrete members subjected to high temperature, which is considered significantly influenced on physical properties of concrete. As a results, it is confirmed that the moisture migration behavior of concrete members can be explained by temperature and pore pressure, and indicate the characteristics both sealed condition (dissipation of moisture is prevented) and unsealed condition (dissipation of moisture occur). (author)

  17. Soil Moisture Profiles and Temperature Data from SoilSCAPE Sites, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains in-situ soil moisture profile and soil temperature data collected at 20-minute intervals at SoilSCAPE (Soil moisture Sensing Controller and...

  18. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  19. Investigations for determining temperature, pressure and moisture distributions in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.; Kamp, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper gives a report on the test program. The main objective of the tests was the determination of the temperature and moisture fields decisive for the corrosion conditions, which are built up behind the liner in the range of the heated concrete. The determination of transport characteristics of the concrete are another objective. Small concrete specimens are used to determine the following data: Thermal conductivity, heat capacity, diffusion coefficient for liquid water, steam and air, steam sorption therms. The chemical shrinkage of the concrete as a function of moisture and temperature is being evaluated by means of tests and calculations. (orig./HP)

  20. Regional amplification of extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Land temperatures, and in particular hot extremes, will likely increase by more than 2° C in many regions, even in the case that the global temperature increase with respect to pre-industrial levels can be limited to 2°C. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for projected changes of extreme temperatures by comparing experiments from the GLACE-CMIP5 (Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project. In particular, we consider fully coupled experiments with all 6 involved GCMs and corresponding experiments where soil moisture is fixed to the local present-day seasonal cycle until the end of the 21st century. We consider the yearly hottest days and apply a scaling approach whereby we relate changes of hottest days to global mean temperature increase. We find that soil moisture-temperature coupling significantly contributes to additional future warming of extreme temperatures in many regions: In particular, it can explain more than 70% of the warming amplification of hottest days compared to global mean temperature in Central Europe, Central North America and Northern Australia, and around 50% of this signal in the Amazonian Region and Southern Africa.

  1. A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Jensen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data globally, and thus product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and temperature network of Decagon ECH2O 5TE...

  2. Interaction between Soil Moisture and Air Temperature in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing air temperatures are expected to continue in the future. The relation between soil moisture and near surface air temperature is significant for climate change and climate extremes. Evaluation of the relations between soil moisture and temperature was performed by devel...

  3. Soil moisture-soil temperature interrelationships on a sandy-loam soil exposed to full sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis

    1967-01-01

    In a study of birch regeneration in New Hampshire, soil moisture and temperature were found to be intimately related. Not only does low moisture lead to high temperature, but high temperature undoubtedly accelerates soil drying, setting up a vicious cycle of heating and drying that may prevent seed germination or kill seedlings.

  4. Sensitivity of soil respiration to variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana Wood; M. Detto; W.L. Silver

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal...

  5. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  6. Using soil moisture forecasts for sub-seasonal summer temperature predictions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture exhibits outstanding memory characteristics and plays a key role within the climate system. Especially through its impacts on the evapotranspiration of soils and plants, it may influence the land energy balance and therefore surface temperature. These attributes make soil moisture an important variable in the context of weather and climate forecasting. In this study we investigate the value of (initial) soil moisture information for sub-seasonal temperature forecasts. For this purpose we employ a simple water balance model to infer soil moisture from streamflow observations in 400 catchments across Europe. Running this model with forecasted atmospheric forcing, we derive soil moisture forecasts, which we then translate into temperature forecasts using simple linear relationships. The resulting temperature forecasts show skill beyond climatology up to 2 weeks in most of the considered catchments. Even if forecasting skills are rather small at longer lead times with significant skill only in some catchments at lead times of 3 and 4 weeks, this soil moisture-based approach shows local improvements compared to the monthly European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperature forecasts at these lead times. For both products (soil moisture-only forecast and ECMWF forecast), we find comparable or better forecast performance in the case of extreme events, especially at long lead times. Even though a product based on soil moisture information alone is not of practical relevance, our results indicate that soil moisture (memory) is a potentially valuable contributor to temperature forecast skill. Investigating the underlying soil moisture of the ECMWF forecasts we find good agreement with the simple model forecasts, especially at longer lead times. Analyzing the drivers of the temperature forecast skills we find that they are mainly controlled by the strengths of (1) the soil moisture-temperature coupling and (2) the soil moisture memory. We

  7. The interactive effects of temperature and moisture on nitrogen fixation in two temperate-arctic mosses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Pedersen, Pia Agerlund; Dyrnum, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is one of the main sources of ‘new’ N in pristine ecosystems like subarctic and arctic tundra. This fundamental ecosystem process is driven by temperature as well as by moisture. Yet, the effects of temperature and moisture stress on N2 fix...

  8. Feasibility of soil moisture estimation using passive distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Rutten, M.M.; Krzeminska, D.M.; Hausner, M.; Tyler, S.W.; Selker, J.; Bogaard, T.A.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Through its role in the energy and water balances at the land surface, soil moisture is a key state variable in surface hydrology and land?atmosphere interactions. Point observations of soil moisture are easy to make using established methods such as time domain reflectometry and gravimetric

  9. A High-Temporal and Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature Network In Iowa Using Wireless Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Krajewki, W. F.; Eichinger, W. E.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Cunha, L.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past year we have created an in-situ soil moisture and soil temperature network in a 200 acre agricultural plot at Ames, Iowa. This work is part of a collaborative effort between researchers at The University of Iowa, and Iowa State University. The purpose of the network is to provide high temporal and spatial resolution soil moisture and soil temperature data to validate remotely-sensed observations of the terrestrial water cycle. This is part of a larger effort by the authors and collaborators to improve the quantitative value of remotely-sensed observations of the water cycle. In addition to the soil moisture and soil temperature measurements, detailed precipitation data, and atmospheric data such as air temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and velocity, and solar radiation data are collected. The current soil moisture network consists of 10 Iowa and Iowa State stations, each equipped with seven pairs of soil moisture and soil temperature sensors. In the future, the network will be expanded to 15 stations. At each of the 10 station the sensors pairs are deployed at depths of 1.5, 4.5, 15, 30, and 60 cm to provide a vertical profile of soil moisture and soil temperature. Prior to installation we calibrated the soil temperature sensors to within 0.1 degree Celsius. The time-domain reflectometry soil moisture measurements are adjusted for local soil conditions. At each of the 10 stations, data are collected every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted wirelessly with low power radio links to a central location. The system started collecting data at the beginning of July, 2007. One of the challenges we faced is how to provide reliable solar power to the wireless nodes, since the current crop, corn, grows up to 3 m tall, and casts dense shadows. The corn also significantly attenuates the radios signals, and the radios fell far short of their advertized ranges. Consequently, we had to use high-gain antennas, and robust retransmit communication modes

  10. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  11. Determination of moisture in rubber stoppers: effect of Karl Fischer oven temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Frankel, B A; Lambert, W J

    2001-01-01

    Moisture released from rubber stoppers of pharmaceutical products may adversely affect product quality during storage. The objective of the current study was to identify an appropriate method to quantify free moisture in processed stoppers. The moisture content in stoppers is commonly determined by the Karl Fischer (KF) method. However, for the FM257/2 stoppers from Helvoet, our results suggest that the KF assay results are always lower than that from the gravimetric method and increase with the KF oven temperatures used. The systematic study presented in this manuscript shows that, although moisture results vary with respect to KF oven temperatures, reproducible results are obtained at fixed temperatures. Therefore, the observed variation can not be explained by the release of volatile chemicals from this rubber-affecting KF reagents. Furthermore, by extrapolating moisture results obtained with different thicknesses of rubber slabs to zero thickness, it was found that the diffusion barrier is also not a major source for the variation. It is hypothesized that the moisture in rubber stoppers can be free or bound. The KF method measures both free and bound moisture. As higher KF oven temperatures are used, more bound moisture is released and determined by the KF method. By deducting the bound moisture (measured by the KF method for samples dried at 100 degrees C for one week) from the sample moisture, the amount of free moisture (which is releasable) can be estimated. A KF oven temperature at 250 degrees C is recommended based on the accuracy and precision of the results. This method was validated by showing consistency with the gravimetric method for stoppers undergoing desorption at 25 degrees C and 0% relative humidity (equilibrated with P2O5). An example is also presented to show the application of this method.

  12. Temperature Effects on the Wind Direction Measurement of 2D Solid Thermal Wind Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Yi, Zhenxiang; Qin, Ming; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-01-01

    For a two-dimensional solid silicon thermal wind sensor with symmetrical structure, the wind speed and direction information can be derived from the output voltages in two orthogonal directions, i.e., the north-south and east-west. However, the output voltages in these two directions will vary linearly with the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this paper, a temperature model to study the temperature effect on the wind direction measurement has been developed. A theoretical analysis has been presented first, and then Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations have been performed. It is found that due to symmetrical structure of the thermal wind sensor, the temperature effects on the output signals in the north-south and east-west directions are highly similar. As a result, the wind direction measurement of the thermal wind sensor is approximately independent of the ambient temperature. The experimental results fit the theoretical analysis and simulation results very well. PMID:26633398

  13. A numerical simulation of soil temperature and moisture variations for a bare field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The diurnal variations of soil temperature and moisture content were simulated for a bare agricultural field in the San Joaquin Valley in California. The simulation pertained to the first 72 hours of drying, from saturation, of a sandy, clay loam soil. The results were compared with measurements of soil temperature and moisture content made at the field. Calculated and measured values of soil temperature trends agreed in general, but model results of moisture trends did not replicate observed diurnal effects evident at depths 4 centimeters or more below the surface.

  14. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  15. Use of Temperature and Humidity Sensors to Determine Moisture Content of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of tea moisture content is important for processing and storing tea. The moisture content of tea affects the quality and durability of the product. Some electrical devices have been proposed to measure the moisture content of tea leaves but are not practical. Their performance is influenced by material density and packing. The official oven method is time-consuming. In this study, the moisture content of Oolong tea was measured by the equilibrium relative humidity technique. The equilibrium relative humidity, and temperature, of tea materials were measured by using temperature and relative humidity sensors. Sensors were calibrated, and calibration equations were established to improve accuracy. The moisture content was calculated by using an equilibrium moisture content model. The error of the moisture content determined with this method was within 0.5% w.b. at moisture <15% w.b. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the performance of the humidity sensor had a significant effect on the accuracy of moisture determination.

  16. Temperature and Soil Moisture Regimes In and Adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry T. Crews; Linton Wright

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevation, aspect, ambient air temperature, and soil moisture on soil temperature were examined in and adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to determine the extent of frigid soils. The mean annual temperature of frigid soils ranges from 1? to 7?C at a depth of 50 cm; the difference between mean winter and mean summer temperatures...

  17. Temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and visibility during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the connections between temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and their effect on visibility of Makurdi town during the harmattan season. Data on mean monthly temperature of harmattan months of November, December, January and February (2001 to 2011), Wind speed and visibility records ...

  18. GCOM-W soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  19. An algorithm for temperature correcting substrate moisture measurements: aligning substrate moisture responses with environmental drivers in polytunnel-grown strawberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Janes, Stuart; Jenkins, Malcolm; Nicholl, Chris; Kühn, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the use of temperature corrected substrate moisture data to improve the relationship between environmental drivers and the measurement of substrate moisture content in high porosity soil-free growing environments such as coir. Substrate moisture sensor data collected from strawberry plants grown in coir bags installed in a table-top system under a polytunnel illustrates the impact of temperature on capacitance-based moisture measurements. Substrate moisture measurements made in our coir arrangement possess the negative temperature coefficient of the permittivity of water where diurnal changes in moisture content oppose those of substrate temperature. The diurnal substrate temperature variation was seen to range from 7° C to 25° C resulting in a clearly observable temperature effect in substrate moisture content measurements during the 23 day test period. In the laboratory we measured the ML3 soil moisture sensor (ThetaProbe) response to temperature in Air, dry glass beads and water saturated glass beads and used a three-phase alpha (α) mixing model, also known as the Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM), to derive the permittivity temperature coefficients for glass and water. We derived the α value and estimated the temperature coefficient for water - for sensors operating at 100MHz. Both results are good agreement with published data. By applying the CRIM equation with the temperature coefficients of glass and water the moisture temperature coefficient of saturated glass beads has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude to a moisture temperature coefficient of

  20. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  1. Effect of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of Northern soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minions, C.; Natali, S.; Ludwig, S.; Risk, D.; Macintyre, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems are vast reservoirs of carbon and are particularly sensitive to climate warming. Changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes of these regions could significantly alter soil respiration rates, impacting atmospheric concentrations and affecting climate change feedbacks. Many incubation studies have shown that both temperature and soil moisture are important environmental drivers of soil respiration; this relationship, however, has rarely been demonstrated with in situ data. Here we present the results of a study at six field sites in Alaska from 2016 to 2017. Low-power automated soil gas systems were used to measure soil surface CO2 flux from three forced diffusion chambers and soil profile concentrations from three soil depth chambers at hourly intervals at each site. HOBO Onset dataloggers were used to monitor soil moisture and temperature profiles. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) was determined at each site using inversion analysis applied over different time periods. With highly resolved data sets, we were able to observe the changes in soil respiration in response to changes in temperature and soil moisture. Through regression analysis we confirmed that temperature is the primary driver in soil respiration, but soil moisture becomes dominant beyond a certain threshold, suppressing CO2 flux in soils with high moisture content. This field study supports the conclusions made from previous soil incubation studies and provides valuable insights into the impact of both temperature and soil moisture changes on soil respiration.

  2. Typical and darkened Portland cement concrete pavement: temperature, moisture, and roughness analyses : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) investigate the effects of lower concrete albedo on the thermal behavior of concrete pavement by directly comparing temperatures and moisture contents of typical and darkened concrete pavements and 2) invest...

  3. Thresholds and interactive effects of soil moisture on the temperature response of soil respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kovács-Láng, Edit; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem carbon exchange is poorly understood in low-productivity, semiarid habitats. Here we studied the controls of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in climate change field experiment in a sandy forest-steppe. Soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly from April to November in 2003......–2008 on plots receiving either rain exclusion or nocturnal warming, or serving as ambient control. Based on this dataset, we developed and compared empirical models of temperature and moisture effects on soil respiration. Results suggest that in this semiarid ecosystem the main controlling factor for soil CO2...... efflux is soil temperature, while soil moisture has less, although significant effect on soil respiration. Clear thresholds for moisture effects on temperature sensitivity were identified at 0.6, 4.0 and 7.0vol% by almost each model, which relate well to other known limits for biological activity...

  4. Numerical simulation of transient moisture and temperature distribution in polycarbonate and aluminum electronic enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing a reliable electronic product requires huge amounts of resources and knowledge. Temperature and thermal features directly affect the life of electronic products. Furthermore, moisture can be damaging for electronic components. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics (CF...

  5. Monthly Summaries of Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture at Oil Contamination Sites in Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To determine the effects of oil spills on soil temperature and moisture, soil climate stations were built at existing contamination sites -- Scott Base, Marble...

  6. Soil CO2 Flux, Moisture, Temperature, and Litterfall, La Selva, Costa Rica, 2003-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates, soil moisture, relative humidity (RH), temperature, and litterfall from six types of...

  7. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brooke B.; Baron, Jill S.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many high elevation ecosystems. The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses. In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity, we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash, talus, and meadow). We found that bacteria, not archaea, dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities. Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments. However, temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils. Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidizer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes. Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  8. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van

    2018-04-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role as well. We use a land surface model and a large ensemble from the weather@home modelling effort to investigate the coupling between soil moisture and temperature in a warming world. Both models show that May was anomalously dry, satisfying a prerequisite for the extreme heat wave, and they indicate that WA and OR are in a wet-to-dry transitional soil moisture regime. We use two different land surface-atmosphere coupling metrics to show that there was strong coupling between temperature, latent heat flux and the effect of soil moisture deficits on the energy balance in June 2015 in WA and OR. June temperature anomalies conditioned on wet/dry conditions show that both the mean and extreme temperatures become hotter for dry soils, especially in WA and OR. Fitting a Gaussian model to temperatures using soil moisture as a covariate shows that the June 2015 temperature values fit well in the extrapolated empirical temperature/drought lines. The high temperature anomalies in WA and OR are thus to be expected, given the dry soil moisture conditions and that those regions are in the transition from a wet to a dry regime. CA is already in the dry regime and therefore the necessity of taking soil moisture into account is of lower importance.

  9. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van

    2017-06-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role as well. We use a land surface model and a large ensemble from the weather@home modelling effort to investigate the coupling between soil moisture and temperature in a warming world. Both models show that May was anomalously dry, satisfying a prerequisite for the extreme heat wave, and they indicate that WA and OR are in a wet-to-dry transitional soil moisture regime. We use two different land surface-atmosphere coupling metrics to show that there was strong coupling between temperature, latent heat flux and the effect of soil moisture deficits on the energy balance in June 2015 in WA and OR. June temperature anomalies conditioned on wet/dry conditions show that both the mean and extreme temperatures become hotter for dry soils, especially in WA and OR. Fitting a Gaussian model to temperatures using soil moisture as a covariate shows that the June 2015 temperature values fit well in the extrapolated empirical temperature/drought lines. The high temperature anomalies in WA and OR are thus to be expected, given the dry soil moisture conditions and that those regions are in the transition from a wet to a dry regime. CA is already in the dry regime and therefore the necessity of taking soil moisture into account is of lower importance.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture-temperature coupling in current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    While climate models generally agree on a future global mean temperature increase, the exact rate of change is still uncertain. The uncertainty is even higher for regional temperature trends that can deviate substantially from the projected global temperature increase. Several studies tried to constrain these regional temperature projections. They found that over land areas soil moisture is an important factor that influences the regional response. Due to the limited knowledge of the influence of soil moisture on atmospheric conditions on global scale the constraint remains still weak, though. Here, we use a framework that is based on the dependence of evaporative fraction (i.e. the fraction of net radiation that goes into latent heat flux) on soil moisture to distinguish between different soil moisture regimes (Seneviratne et al., 2010). It allows to estimate the influence of soil moisture on near-surface air temperature in the current climate and in future projections. While in the wet soil moisture regime, atmospheric conditions and related land surface fluxes can be considered as mostly driven by available energy, in the transitional regime - where evaporative fraction and soil moisture are essentially linearly coupled - soil moisture has an impact on turbulent heat fluxes, air humidity and temperature: Decreasing soil moisture and concomitant decreasing evaporative fraction cause increasing sensible heat flux, which might further lead to higher surface air temperatures. We investigate the strength of the single couplings (soil moisture → latent heat flux → sensible heat flux → air temperature) in order to quantify the influence of soil moisture on surface air temperature in the transitional regime. Moreover, we take into account that the coupling strength can change in the course of the year due to seasonal climate variations. The relations between soil moisture, evaporative fraction and near-surface air temperature in re-analysis and observation

  11. LPRM/WindSat/Coriolis L3 Night Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  12. LPRM/WindSat/Coriolis L3 Day Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  13. The detection of wind turbine shaft misalignment using temperature monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, Oliver; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is a parameter increasingly monitored in wind turbine systems. This paper details a potential temperature monitoring technique for use on shaft couplings. Such condition monitoring methods aid fault detection in other areas of wind turbines. However, application to shaft couplings has not previously been widely researched. A novel temperature measurement technique is outlined, using an infra-red thermometer which can be applied to online condition monitoring. The method was va...

  14. Assimilation of microwave brightness temperatures for soil moisture estimation using particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, H Y; Ma, J W; Qin, S X; Zeng, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a significant role in global water cycles. Both model simulations and remote sensing observations have their limitations when estimating soil moisture on a large spatial scale. Data assimilation (DA) is a promising tool which can combine model dynamics and remote sensing observations to obtain more precise ground soil moisture distribution. Among various DA methods, the particle filter (PF) can be applied to non-linear and non-Gaussian systems, thus holding great potential for DA. In this study, a data assimilation scheme based on the residual resampling particle filter (RR-PF) was developed to assimilate microwave brightness temperatures into the macro-scale semi-distributed Variance Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model to estimate surface soil moisture. A radiative transfer model (RTM) was used to link brightness temperatures with surface soil moisture. Finally, the data assimilation scheme was validated by experimental data obtained at Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the estimation accuracy of soil moisture can be improved significantly by RR-PF through assimilating microwave brightness temperatures into VIC model. Both the overall trends and specific values of the assimilation results are more consistent with ground observations compared with model simulation results

  15. Dynamics and characteristics of soil temperature and moisture of active layer in central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Hu, G.; Wu, X.; Tian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research on the hydrothermal properties of active layer during the thawing and freezing processes was considered as a key question to revealing the heat and moisture exchanges between permafrost and atmosphere. The characteristics of freezing and thawing processes at Tanggula (TGL) site in permafrost regions on the Tibetan Plateau, the results revealed that the depth of daily soil temperature transmission was about 40 cm shallower during thawing period than that during the freezing period. Soil warming process at the depth above 140 cm was slower than the cooling process, whereas they were close below 140 cm depth. Moreover, the hydro-thermal properties differed significantly among different stages. Precipitation caused an obviously increase in soil moisture at 0-20 cm depth. The vertical distribution of soil moisture could be divided into two main zones: less than 12% in the freeze state and greater than 12% in the thaw state. In addition, coupling of moisture and heat during the freezing and thawing processes also showed that soil temperature decreased faster than soil moisture during the freezing process. At the freezing stage, soil moisture exhibited an exponential relationship with the absolute soil temperature. Energy consumed for water-ice conversion during the freezing process was 149.83 MJ/m2 and 141.22 MJ/m2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which was estimated by the soil moisture variation.

  16. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Using Plant Temperature to Evaluate the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Soil Moisture Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant temperature is an indicator of stomatal conductance, which reflects soil moisture stresses. We explored the relationship between plant temperature and soil moisture to optimize irrigation schedules in a water-stress experiment using Firmiana platanifolia (L. f. Marsili in an incubator. Canopy temperature, leaf temperature, and stomatal conductance were measured using thermal imaging and a porometer. The results indicated that (1 stomatal conductance decreased with declines in soil moisture, and reflected average canopy temperature; (2 the variation of the leaf temperature distribution was a reliable indicator of soil moisture stress, and the temperature distribution in severely water-stressed leaves exhibited greater spatial variation than that in the presence of sufficient irrigation; (3 thermal indices (Ig and crop water stress index (CWSI were theoretically proportional to stomatal conductance (gs, Ig was certified to have linearity relationship with gs and CWSI have a logarithmic relationship with gs, and both of the two indices can be used to estimate soil moisture; and (4 thermal imaging data can reflect water status irrespective of long-term water scarcity or lack of sudden rainfall. This study applied thermal imaging methods to monitor plants and develop adaptable irrigation scheduling, which are important for the formulation of effective and economical agriculture and forestry policy.

  18. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  19. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  20. Incorporation of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures in the ECMWF Soil Moisture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has used in-situ observations of 2 m temperature and 2 m relative humidity to operationally constrain the temporal evolution of model soil moisture. These observations are not available everywhere and they are indirectly linked to the state of the surface, so under various circumstances, such as weak radiative forcing or strong advection, they cannot be used as a proxy for soil moisture reinitialization in numerical weather prediction. Recently, the ECMWF soil moisture analysis has been updated to be able to account for the information provided by microwave brightness temperatures from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission of the European Space Agency (ESA. This is the first time that ECMWF uses direct information of the soil emission from passive microwave data to globally adjust the estimation of soil moisture by a land-surface model. This paper presents a novel version of the ECMWF Extended Kalman Filter soil moisture analysis to account for remotely sensed passive microwave data. It also discusses the advantages of assimilating direct satellite radiances compared to current soil moisture products, with a view to an operational implementation. A simple assimilation case study at global scale highlights the potential benefits and obstacles of using this new type of information in a global coupled land-atmospheric model.

  1. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    moisture contents were attributed to condensation of liquid water on the specimen with subsequent evaporation at a rate that was too slow for the moisture content to reach equilibrium before it was measured. Reliable EMC data at elevated temperatures require (1) tight process control of experimental......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  2. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  3. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Andrew; Ballantyne, Ashley; Cooper, Leila; Maneta, Marco; Kimball, John; Watts, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply, and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity, and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture and soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg yr -1 , but also highlight regions of uncertainty

  4. Tensile behaviour of radiata pine with different moisture contents at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain tensile elastic modulus (EM) information for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood in tangential grain direction, over a temperature range of 70 °C to 150 °C for a wide range of moisture contents. Such information is scarce, probably because of difficulties...... that moisture and temperature can play a significant role in reducing stress during drying, regardless of the drying time. Properties of wood, such as tensile elastic information at elevated temperatures, are important for mechanical design, distortion modelling and understanding the fundamental behaviour...... with research equipment design and process control strategies to perform accurate tests. As expected, EM dramatically decreased with increasing temperature and moisture content. The results were modelled to yield a relationship between stress and strain. The results were also successfully transposed...

  5. Use of a powered coverlet for moisture removal, skin temperature reduction, odor, and bacteria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Steven I; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; McNulty, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of a powered coverlet (PCL) to control moisture, reduce skin temperature, and help control odor and microbial growth at the skin/support-surface interface. A human torso was simulated using a water temperature-regulated loading gauge. The PCL is a 3-tier coverlet composed of vapor-permeable, liquid-impermeable layers with a foam spacer inbetween and a fan blower to draw moisture and heat away from the patient's skin through the spacer. A fabric moisture reservoir simulated sweating skin. It was placed between the simulated human torso and pressure redistribution support surface. A change in moisture reservoir weight was used to calculate moisture vapor transfer rate; temperature and relative humidity at the support surface interface were recorded as a function of time. To test for odor control, a malodorous compound was applied daily to the coverlet with and without power for 30 days in a laboratory setting. In a separate test, both a PCL and a standard hospital sheet were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 32°C to observe the PCL's ability to mitigate microbial growth. Results indicated a higher moisture vapor transfer rate with the PCL as compared to a standard hospital bed sheet (129.5 g/m/h vs 34.1 g/m/h, P control. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the PCL helped control odor better than a non-PCL (P microbial growth.

  6. A new heat and moisture exchanger for laryngectomized patients: endotracheal temperature and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Ackerstaff, A.H.; Jacobi, I.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the endotracheal temperature and humidity and clinical effects of 2 models of a new heat and moisture exchanger (HME): Rplus, which has regular breathing resistance, and Lplus, which has lower breathing resistance. Methods: We measured endotracheal temperature and humidity in 10

  7. A new heat and moisture exchanger for laryngectomized patients: endotracheal temperature and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Saar H.; Vincent, Andrew; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H.; Jacobi, Irene; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the endotracheal temperature and humidity and clinical effects of 2 models of a new heat and moisture exchanger (HME): Rplus, which has regular breathing resistance, and Lplus, which has lower breathing resistance. We measured endotracheal temperature and humidity in 10 laryngectomized

  8. Determining soil moisture and soil properties in vegetated areas by assimilating soil temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Ochsner, Tyson E.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses two critical barriers to the use of Passive Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) for large-scale, high-resolution monitoring of soil moisture. In recent research, a particle batch smoother (PBS) was developed to assimilate sequences of temperature data at two depths into

  9. Experimental investigation on the short-term impact of temperature and moisture on reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, A.; Nygaard, P.V.; Geiker, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, reinforced concrete specimens with and without mixed-in chlorides were conditioned at different relative humidities and subsequently subjected to varying temperatures. Results of the study confirmed that neither temperature nor moisture content have a major impact on the corrosion...

  10. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  11. Experimental study on the effect of temperature and flux conditions on moisture distribution in vadose zone soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinguo; Zheng, Hu

    2017-02-01

    Moisture distribution in vadose zone soil is the most important parameter for land productivity and vegetation status of ecological systems, and is sensitive to temperature variation. In this study, laboratory scale tests were conducted to determine the effect of temperature on variation in moisture distribution in covered and uncovered conditions. The results indicated that soil moisture from 2.65 to 20 cm was positively correlated with temperature and temperature gradient, and the top 2.65 to 5 cm was dramatically influenced by temperature changes in both covered and uncovered conditions. The moisture content when temperature was increasing was higher than that when temperature was decreasing for the same temperature, when the film covered the top of the soil column. In contrast, the moisture content when temperature was increasing was lower than when the temperature was decreasing for the uncovered soil column. The difference between treatments was not maintained as soil depth increased.

  12. Numerical and experimental determination of surface temperature and moisture evolution in a field soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Olukayode D.; Mendes, Nathan

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge about the dynamics of soil moisture and heat, especially at the surface, provides important insights into the physical processes governing their interactions with the atmosphere, thereby improving the understanding of patterns of climate dynamics. In this context the paper presents the numerical and field experimental results of temperature and moisture evolution, which were measured on the surface of a sandy soil at Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria. An unconditionally stable numerical method was used, which linearizes the vapour concentration driving-potential term giving the moisture exchanged at the boundaries in terms of temperature and moisture content, and simultaneously solves the governing equations for each time step. The model avoids stability problems and limitations to low moisture contents and the usual assumption of constant thermal conductivity. Instantaneous temperature measurements were made at the surface using a thermocouple, while the gravimetric method was employed to determine the volumetric water contents at some specific hours of the experimental period. The observed experimental data compared fairly well with the predicted values, with both having correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 and consequently following a common diurnal trend. The sensitivity of the model was very high to the choice of simulation parameters, especially grid size refinement and time step. While the model underestimated the soil moisture content at 6 a.m. and 10 p.m., the measured temperatures were however overestimated. When compared to moisture content, average errors for temperature were low resulting in a minimal absolute difference in amplitude of 0.81 °C.

  13. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  14. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty. The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on building constructions. The wood in wooden frame cladding changes its moisture content depending on temperature and moisture conditions of the environment it is built into. The water vapor condensation doesn’t necessarily have to occur right in the wooden framework of the cladding for the equilibrium moisture content to rise over the level permissible for the reliable function of a given construction. In spite of the fact that the common heat-technical assessment cannot be considered fully capable of detecting the effects of these factors on the functional reliability of wood-based constructions and buildings, an extension has been proposed of the present method of design an assessment of building constructions according to the ČSN 73 0540 standard regarding the interpretation of equilibrium moisture content in relation to the temperature/moisture conditions and their time behavior inside a construction.

  15. Effects of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Soil Respiration on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoying; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shiping; Xu, Burenbayin; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wang, Qi; Rui, Yichao; Cui, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of effects of soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration (Rs) under future warming is critical to reduce uncertainty in predictions of feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 concentrations from grassland soil carbon. Intact cores with roots taken from a full factorial, 5-year alpine meadow warming and grazing experiment in the field were incubated at three different temperatures (i.e. 5, 15 and 25°C) with two soil moistures (i.e. 30 and 60% water holding capacity (WHC)) in our study. Another experiment of glucose-induced respiration (GIR) with 4 h of incubation was conducted to determine substrate limitation. Our results showed that high temperature increased Rs and low soil moisture limited the response of Rs to temperature only at high incubation temperature (i.e. 25°C). Temperature sensitivity (Q10) did not significantly decrease over the incubation period, suggesting that substrate depletion did not limit Rs. Meanwhile, the carbon availability index (CAI) was higher at 5°C compared with 15 and 25°C incubation, but GIR increased with increasing temperature. Therefore, our findings suggest that warming-induced decrease in Rs in the field over time may result from a decrease in soil moisture rather than from soil substrate depletion, because warming increased root biomass in the alpine meadow.

  16. Effects of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Soil Respiration on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Bao

    Full Text Available Understanding of effects of soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration (Rs under future warming is critical to reduce uncertainty in predictions of feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 concentrations from grassland soil carbon. Intact cores with roots taken from a full factorial, 5-year alpine meadow warming and grazing experiment in the field were incubated at three different temperatures (i.e. 5, 15 and 25°C with two soil moistures (i.e. 30 and 60% water holding capacity (WHC in our study. Another experiment of glucose-induced respiration (GIR with 4 h of incubation was conducted to determine substrate limitation. Our results showed that high temperature increased Rs and low soil moisture limited the response of Rs to temperature only at high incubation temperature (i.e. 25°C. Temperature sensitivity (Q10 did not significantly decrease over the incubation period, suggesting that substrate depletion did not limit Rs. Meanwhile, the carbon availability index (CAI was higher at 5°C compared with 15 and 25°C incubation, but GIR increased with increasing temperature. Therefore, our findings suggest that warming-induced decrease in Rs in the field over time may result from a decrease in soil moisture rather than from soil substrate depletion, because warming increased root biomass in the alpine meadow.

  17. Diuron mineralisation in a Mediterranean vineyard soil: impact of moisture content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaï, Talaat; Devers, Marion; Lagacherie, Bernard; Rouard, Nadine; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    The diuron-mineralising ability of the microbiota of a Mediterranean vineyard soil exposed each year to this herbicide was measured. The impact of soil moisture and temperature on this microbial activity was assessed. The soil microbiota was shown to mineralise diuron. This mineralising activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content, being negligible at 5% and more than 30% at 20% soil moisture content. According to a double Gaussian model applied to fit the dataset, the optimum temperature/soil moisture conditions were 27.9 degrees C/19.3% for maximum mineralisation rate and 21.9 degrees C/18.3% for maximum percentage mineralisation. The impact of temperature and soil moisture content variations on diuron mineralisation was estimated. A simulated drought period had a suppressive effect on subsequent diuron mineralisation. This drought effect was more marked when higher temperatures were used to dry (40 degrees C versus 28 degrees C) or incubate (28 degrees C versus 20 degrees C) the soil. The diuron kinetic parameters measured after drought conditions were no longer in accordance with those estimated by the Gaussian model. Although soil microbiota can adapt to diuron mineralisation, its activity is strongly dependent on climatic conditions. It suggests that diuron is not rapidly degraded under Mediterranean climate, and that arable Mediterranean soils are likely to accumulate diuron residues. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. [Effects of air temperature and soil moisture on flavonoids accumulation in Ginkgo biloba leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Guo, Xu-Qin; Chang, Li; Cao, Fu-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Taking the 2-year old Ginkgo biloba seedlings as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber to study the effects of air temperature and soil moisture on the flavonoids accumulation in leaves. Three levels of air temperature (15/5 degrees C, 25/15 degrees C, and 35/25 degrees C day/night) and three levels of soil moisture (55%-60%, 40%-45%, and 30%-35% of field capacity) were installed, yielding nine temperature-soil moisture combinations. Under the three levels of soil moisture, the quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and total flavonoids contents in the leaves were higher at 15/5 degrees C than at 25/15 degrees C and 35/25 degrees C. Soil moisture had minor effects on the flavonoids accumulation. The leaf kaempferol content was the highest, followed by quercetin and isorhamnetin. The total flavonoids yield per plant at 35/25 degrees C was higher than that at 15/5 degrees C and 25/15 degrees C. It was suggested that to adopt appropriate soil covering and watering before harvesting to decrease the ambient temperature could benefit the enhancement of leaf flavonoids content and the improvement of per unit area flavonoids production in G. biloba leaf-harvesting plantation.

  19. Quantifying the effects of soil temperature, moisture and sterilization on elemental mercury formation in boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Ravinder; Siciliano, Steven D; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2014-10-01

    Soils are a source of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to the atmosphere, however the effects of soil temperature and moisture on Hg(0) formation is not well defined. This research quantifies the effect of varying soil temperature (278-303 K), moisture (15-80% water filled pore space (WFPS)) and sterilization on the kinetics of Hg(0) formation in forested soils of Nova Scotia, Canada. Both, the logarithm of cumulative mass of Hg(0) formed in soils and the reduction rate constants (k values) increased with temperature and moisture respectively. Sterilizing soils significantly (p soils and our results highlight two key processes: (i) a fast abiotic process that peaks at 45% WFPS and depletes a small pool of Hg(0) and; (ii) a slower, rate limiting biotic process that generates a large pool of reducible Hg(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Temperature/Moisture Sensitive Composite Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomblin, John

    2001-01-01

    ...). A series of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and static mechanical tests were performed using specimens conditioned at three relative humidity levels and tested at six different temperatures for two commonly used 270 deg F cure prepreg systems...

  1. Moisture effects on temperature sensitivity of CO2 exchange in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Lotte; Christensen, TR; Mastepanov, M

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere have received increased attention in recent years due to the impact they have on climate. In order to investigate independently how soil moisture and temperature control carbon fluxes into and out of a dry subarctic dwarf shrub dominated...... heath, monoliths containing soil and plants were incubated at three different moisture levels and subjected to four different temperature levels between 7 and 20degreesC. Ecosystem CO2 exchange was monitored continuously day and night during the 16 to 18 days that each of three experiments lasted...

  2. Hurricane Wind Speed Estimation Using WindSat 6 and 10 GHz Brightness Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The realistic and accurate estimation of hurricane intensity is highly desired in many scientific and operational applications. With the advance of passive microwave polarimetry, an alternative opportunity for retrieving wind speed in hurricanes has become available. A wind speed retrieval algorithm for wind speeds above 20 m/s in hurricanes has been developed by using the 6.8 and 10.7 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures of WindSat. The WindSat measurements for 15 category 4 and category 5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2010 and the corresponding H*wind analysis data are used to develop and validate the retrieval model. In addition, the retrieved wind speeds are also compared to the Remote Sensing Systems (RSS global all-weather product and stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The statistical results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the retrieved wind speeds with respect to the H*wind analysis data are 0.04 and 2.75 m/s, respectively, which provides an encouraging result for retrieving hurricane wind speeds over the ocean surface. The retrieved wind speeds show good agreement with the SFMR measurements. Two case studies demonstrate that the mean bias and RMS difference are 0.79 m/s and 1.79 m/s for hurricane Rita-1 and 0.63 m/s and 2.38 m/s for hurricane Rita-2, respectively. In general, the wind speed retrieval accuracy of the new model in hurricanes ranges from 2.0 m/s in light rain to 3.9 m/s in heavy rain.

  3. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52-73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be

  4. SMOS CATDS Level 3 products, Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperature: Presentation and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Lucie; Mialon, Arnaud; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Cabot, François; Bircher, Simone; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-04-01

    The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since November 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring surface soil moisture and ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) ground segment. It provides spatial and temporal synthesis products (referred to as Level 3) of soil moisture, which are now covering the whole SMOS operation period since January 2010. These products have different time resolutions: daily products, 3-day global products (insuring a complete coverage of the Earth's surface), 10-day composite products, and monthly averaged products. Moreover, a new product provides brightness temperatures at H and V polarizations which are computed at fixed incidence angles every 5 degrees. All the CATDS products are presented in the NetCDF format on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km². The soil moisture Level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's Level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-day window. Using many revisits is expected to improve the quality of the retrieved soil moisture. This communication aims at presenting the CATDS soil moisture and brightness temperature products as well as other geophysical parameters retrieved on the side, such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. Furthermore, we illustrate the validation of this database, including the comparison of the Level 3 soil moisture to in-situ measurements available from various sites (Australia, US, southwest of France, Spain, Denmark, West Africa, French Alps), spanning different surface conditions.

  5. The effect of seed moisture and temperature on grinding characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoon Waleed Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is a native food plant of the Andean region of South America. Quinoa seeds have remarkable nutritional properties, not only from its high protein content, but also from its good amino acid balance. The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of quinoa seed moisture content (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% and temperature (-20, 3, 20 and 40°C, with the initial grain moisture content of 10.5% on grinding process. Especially the particle size distributions and grinding energy indices were determined. The results showed that the increase of seed moisture content from 10 to 16% caused an increase the specific grinding energy from 6.9 to 8.3 kJ·kg-1, beside of this as the moisture increased the average particle also increased. The highest changes were observed in the fraction of coarse particles (above 1.0 mm. Interestingly, the mass fraction of fine particles (below 0.2 mm also increased. Other grinding indices also confirmed an increase the grinding energy requirements with the increase seed moisture content. The temperature of seed has little influence on quinoa grinding process. The highest grinding energy requirements were observed when the frozen seeds were ground.

  6. Role of temperature and moisture in the survival and seedling physiology of a Great Basin perennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; Anthony S. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Munro's globemallow (Sphaeralcea munroana) is an important constituent of Great Basin communities and is commonly used in restoration; however, little is known about the influence of environmental conditions on early plant establishment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of Munro's globemallow to a suite of temperature and moisture...

  7. Assesment of a soil moisture retrieval with numerical weather prediction model temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of using a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) soil temperature product instead of estimates provided by concurrent 37 GHz data on satellite-based passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture retrieval was evaluated. This was prompted by the change in system configuration of preceding mult...

  8. Effect of moisture content and temperature on thermal behaviour of sesame seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hassan Miraei ASHTIANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of two varieties (white and brown of sesame seeds were evaluated as a function of moisture content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 25-70˚C and the moisture content range of 3.86-19.83% (dry basis for white and 3.07-18.99% (dry basis for brown varieties. The specific heat of white and brown sesame seeds ranged 1062-3058 and 906-2958 J/(kg·˚C, respectively. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values also increased with increasing either moisture content or temperature. Thermal diffusivity varied between 4.66×10-8 and 8.59×10-8 m2/s for white and 4.36×10-8-8.08×10-8 m2/s for brown varieties. Thermal conductivity ranged 0.031-0.149 and 0.023-0.135 W/(m·˚C for white and brown varieties, respectively. Results showed that the moisture content and temperature had significant effects (p≤0.01 on the studied properties.

  9. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdt, ter Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  10. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heerdt, Gerard N.J.; Veen, G.F.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Abstract Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in

  11. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerard N. J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef feedlot surface materials as affected by diet, moisture, temperature, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to measure the effects of diet, moisture, temperature, and time on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from feedlot surface materials (FSM). The FSM were collected from open lot, pens where beef cattle were fed either a dry-rolled corn (DRC) diet containing no wet distil...

  13. Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Salmén, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    of these two climatic factors on TDMB of wood. It was found that the mechanical response of wood tissue is the sum of responses from both tracheids and middle lamella, with only the previous being reversible. The effect of moisture and temperature differed in that the latter affected the elastic and time...

  14. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture 2115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment into grasslands creates a mosaic of different soil microsites ranging from open spaces to well-developed shrub canopies, and it is unclear how this affects the spatial variability in soil respiration characteristics, such as the sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture. This i...

  15. Using soil temperature and moisture to predict forest soil nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of N in forest productivity ecosystem and nutrient cycling research often includes measurement of soil N transformation rates as indices of potential availability and ecosystem losses of N. We examined the feasibility of using soil temperature and moisture content to predict soil N mineralization rates (Nmin) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory...

  16. Implementation of Fully Coupled Heat and Mass Transport Model to Determine Temperature and Moisture State at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecenko, R.; Hozjan, Tomaz; Svensson, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present precise numerical formulation to determine temperature and moisture state of timber in the situation prior pyrolysis. The strong formulations needed for an accurate description of the physics are presented and discussed as well as their coupling terms. From the...

  17. On the kinetic temperature of He/++/ in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A.; Hung, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Observations of solar-wind He(++) can be useful for studying dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium. Several processes which may influence the kinetic temperature are considered, and an attempt is made to inquire whether they can account for the observed fact that the kinetic temperature exceeds the proton temperature. Resonant heating is discussed qualitatively, and equations of resonant heating are developed. The proton and He(++) heating rates are determined for the least damped magnetoacoustic wave under various conditions.

  18. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  19. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  20. Mapping high-resolution soil moisture and properties using distributed temperature sensing data and an adaptive particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrated a new method for mapping high-resolution (spatial: 1 m, and temporal: 1 h) soil moisture by assimilating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) observed soil temperatures at intermediate scales. In order to provide robust soil moisture and property estimates, we first proposed...

  1. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  2. Assimilation of SMOS Brightness Temperatures or Soil Moisture Retrievals into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Three different data products from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated separately into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) to improve estimates of surface and root-zone soil moisture. The first product consists of multi-angle, dual-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations at the bottom of the atmosphere extracted from Level 1 data. The second product is a derived SMOS Tb product that mimics the data at a 40 degree incidence angle from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The third product is the operational SMOS Level 2 surface soil moisture (SM) retrieval product. The assimilation system uses a spatially distributed ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with seasonally varying climatological bias mitigation for Tb assimilation, whereas a time-invariant cumulative density function matching is used for SM retrieval assimilation. All assimilation experiments improve the soil moisture estimates compared to model-only simulations in terms of unbiased root-mean-square differences and anomaly correlations during the period from 1 July 2010 to 1 May 2015 and for 187 sites across the US. Especially in areas where the satellite data are most sensitive to surface soil moisture, large skill improvements (e.g., an increase in the anomaly correlation by 0.1) are found in the surface soil moisture. The domain-average surface and root-zone skill metrics are similar among the various assimilation experiments, but large differences in skill are found locally. The observation-minus-forecast residuals and analysis increments reveal large differences in how the observations add value in the Tb and SM retrieval assimilation systems. The distinct patterns of these diagnostics in the two systems reflect observation and model errors patterns that are not well captured in the assigned EnKF error parameters. Consequently, a localized optimization of the EnKF error parameters is needed to further improve Tb or SM retrieval

  3. Moisture migration and shrinkage of hardened cement paste at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numao, Tatsuya; Mihashi, Hirozo.

    1991-01-01

    The drying shrinkage of concrete is caused by the loss of water in the concrete. The moisture diffusion behavior influences the mechanical properties of concrete. When concrete is exposed to high temperature, the rate of moisture migration becomes fast, and moisture gradient is formed. This gradient causes cracks on the concrete surface. Accordingly, it is important to study on the relation between the drying shrinkage and the water diffusion in concrete when its mechanical properties at elevated temperature are discussed. In this paper, the results of the experiment which was carried out by using thin-walled cylinder specimens kept at different temperature and stress are reported. The specimens, the drying shrinkage of concrete and acoustic emission (AE), the thermal expansion of hardened cement paste, the influence that temperature change exerted to the drying shrinkage, and the influence that compressive stress and temperature exerted to water migration are described. The thin-walled cylinder specimens were useful for these experimental studies. (K.I.)

  4. Local Versus Remote Contributions of Soil Moisture to Near-Surface Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, R.; Schubert, S.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Soil moisture variations have a straightforward impact on overlying air temperatures, wetter soils can induce higher evaporative cooling of the soil and thus, locally, cooler temperatures overall. Not known, however, is the degree to which soil moisture variations can affect remote air temperatures through their impact on the atmospheric circulation. In this talk we describe a two-pronged analysis that addresses this question. In the first segment, an extensive ensemble of NASA/GSFC GEOS-5 atmospheric model simulations is analyzed statistically to isolate and quantify the contributions of various soil moisture states, both local and remote, to the variability of air temperature at a given local site. In the second segment, the relevance of the derived statistical relationships is evaluated by applying them to observations-based data. Results from the second segment suggest that the GEOS-5-based relationships do, at least to first order, hold in nature and thus may provide some skill to forecasts of air temperature at subseasonal time scales, at least in certain regions.

  5. Soil Moisture and Temperature Measuring Networks in the Tibetan Plateau and Their Hydrological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Chen, Yingying; Qin, Jun; Lu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Multi-sphere interactions over the Tibetan Plateau directly impact its surrounding climate and environment at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. Remote sensing and modeling are expected to provide hydro-meteorological data needed for these process studies, but in situ observations are required to support their calibration and validation. For this purpose, we have established two networks on the Tibetan Plateau to measure densely two state variables (soil moisture and temperature) and four soil depths (0 5, 10, 20, and 40 cm). The experimental area is characterized by low biomass, high soil moisture dynamic range, and typical freeze-thaw cycle. As auxiliary parameters of these networks, soil texture and soil organic carbon content are measured at each station to support further studies. In order to guarantee continuous and high-quality data, tremendous efforts have been made to protect the data logger from soil water intrusion, to calibrate soil moisture sensors, and to upscale the point measurements. One soil moisture network is located in a semi-humid area in central Tibetan Plateau (Naqu), which consists of 56 stations with their elevation varying over 4470 4950 m and covers three spatial scales (1.0, 0.3, 0.1 degree). The other is located in a semi-arid area in southern Tibetan Plateau (Pali), which consists of 25 stations and covers an area of 0.25 degree. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the former network were analyzed, and a new spatial upscaling method was developed to obtain the regional mean soil moisture truth from the point measurements. Our networks meet the requirement for evaluating a variety of soil moisture products, developing new algorithms, and analyzing soil moisture scaling. Three applications with the network data are presented in this paper. 1. Evaluation of Current remote sensing and LSM products. The in situ data have been used to evaluate AMSR-E, AMSR2, SMOS and SMAP products and four modeled outputs by the Global Land Data

  6. [Effects of tillage and mulching on orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liao, Yun-Cheng; Gao, Mao-Sheng; Yin, Rui-Jing

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system (no-tillage, rotary tillage, and plow tillage) and mulching (straw mulch, sod mulch, and film mulch) on the orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau. Under different tillage system, the soil moisture content in 0-1 m layer differed significantly in May, with the sequence of no-tillage (14.28%) > rotary tillage (14.13%) > plow tillage (13.57%), but had less difference in September. Straw mulch induced significantly higher soil moisture content than sod mulch, film mulch, and no-mulch. Among the treatments tillage plus mulching, no-tillage plus straw mulch resulted in the greatest soil water storage. The average soil temperature at daytime was in order of film mulch > no-mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch, and the change range of soil temperature was no-mulch > film mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch. Soil water storage under different mulching treatments was not always negatively correlated with soil temperature, but depended on the water conservation effect and heat-preserved capacity of mulching material. Above all, the main conservation tillage system for the orchards in Loess Plateau would be no tillage plus straw mulch.

  7. Measurements of Coastal Winds and Temperature. Sensor Evaluation, Data Quality, and Wind Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggem, Tore

    1997-12-31

    The long Norwegian coastline has excellent sites for wind power production. This thesis contains a documentation of a measurement station for maritime meteorological data at the coast of Mid-Norway, and analysis of temperature and wind data. It discusses experience with different types of wind speed and wind direction sensors. Accurate air temperature measurements are essential to obtain information about the stability of the atmosphere, and a sensor based on separately calibrated thermistors is described. The quality of the calibrations and the measurements is discussed. A database built up from measurements from 1982 to 1995 has been available. The data acquisition systems and the programs used to read the data are described, as well as data control and gap-filling methods. Then basic statistics from the data like mean values and distributions are given. Quality control of the measurements with emphasis on shade effects from the masts and direction alignment is discussed. The concept of atmospheric stability is discussed. The temperature profile tends to change from unstable to slightly stable as maritime winds passes land. Temperature spectra based on two-year time series are presented. Finally, there is a discussion of long-term turbulence spectra calculated from 14 years of measurements. The lack of a gap in the one-hour region of the spectra is explained from the overweight of unstable atmospheric conditions in the dominating maritime wind. Examples of time series with regular 40-minute cycles, and corresponding effect spectra are given. The validity of local lapse rate as a criterion of atmospheric stability is discussed. 34 refs., 86 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Distributed Soil Moisture Profiles by Active Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, F.; Van De Giesen, N.; Assouline, S.; Huwald, H.; Lunati, I.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and measuring the fluctuations of soil moisture at large scales in the filed remains a challenge. Although sensors based on measurement of dielectric properties such as Time Domain Reflectometers (TDR) and capacity-based probes can guarantee reasonable responses, they always operate on limited spatial ranges. On the other hand optical fibers, attached to a Distribute Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, can allow for high precision soil temperature measurements over distances of kilometers. A recently developed technique called Active DTS (ADTS) and consisting of a heat pulse of a certain duration and power along the metal sheath covering the optical fiber buried in the soil, has proven a promising alternative to spatially-limited probes. Two approaches have been investigated to infer distributed soil moisture profiles in the region surrounding the optic fiber cable by analyzing the temperature variations during the heating and the cooling phases. One directly relates the change of temperature to the soil moisture (independently measured) to develop specific calibration curve for the soil used; the other requires inferring the thermal properties and then obtaining the soil moisture by inversion of known relationships. To test and compare the two approaches over a broad range of saturation conditions a large lysimeter has been homogeneously filled with loamy soil and 52 meters of fiber optic cable have been buried in the shallower 0.8 meters in a double coil rigid structure of 15 loops along with a series of capacity-based sensors (calibrated for the soil used) to provide independent soil moisture measurements at the same depths of the optical fiber. Thermocouples have also been wrapped around the fiber to investigate the effects of the insulating cover surrounding the cable, and in between each layer in order to monitor heat diffusion at several centimeters. A high performance DTS has been used to measure the temperature along the fiber optic cable. Several

  9. Physically-based modeling of topographic effects on spatial evapotranspiration and soil moisture patterns through radiation and wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simulations with the Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP model are performed to quantify the spatial variability of both potential and actual evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture content (SMC caused by topography-induced spatial wind and radiation differences. To obtain the spatially distributed ET/SMC patterns, the field scale SWAP model is applied in a distributed way for both pointwise and catchment wide simulations. An adapted radiation model from r.sun and the physically-based meso-scale wind model METRAS PC are applied to obtain the spatial radiation and wind patterns respectively, which show significant spatial variation and correlation with aspect and elevation respectively. Such topographic dependences and spatial variations further propagate to ET/SMC. A strong spatial, seasonal-dependent, scale-relevant intra-catchment variability in daily/annual ET and less variability in SMC can be observed from the numerical experiments. The study concludes that topography has a significant effect on ET/SMC in the humid region where ET is a energy limited rather than water availability limited process. It affects the spatial runoff generation through spatial radiation and wind, therefore should be applied to inform hydrological model development. In addition, the methodology used in the study can serve as a general method for physically-based ET estimation for data sparse regions.

  10. Growth and Yield Quality Parameter of Phyllanthus Amarus as Affected by Moisture and Temperature Stress factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrawanshi, N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of moisture and temperature stress on plant phenological parameters of Phyllanthus amarusplant. A pot experiment was conducted under controlled water stress environment in greenhouse during the Rabi season of 2007 and 2008 at the Experimental Farm area, JNKVV, Jabalpur. Plants were treated with different levels of water and temperature stresses. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. Moisture stress has been given on selected dates for which the sets of pot were first brought to field capacity and the water with hold till wilting. It was found that the Plantheight, Root length, Number of leaves, Number of branches per plants, No. of fruits per plant, Leaf area, Dry weight gm per plant were found maximum in control condition.

  11. Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind driven by temperature anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2017-12-01

    The present paper comprises a review of kinetic instabilities that may be operative in the solar wind, and how they influence the dynamics thereof. The review is limited to collective plasma instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropies. To limit the scope even further, the discussion is restricted to the temperature anisotropy-driven instabilities within the model of bi-Maxwellian plasma velocity distribution function. The effects of multiple particle species or the influence of field-aligned drift will not be included. The field-aligned drift or beam is particularly prominent for the solar wind electrons, and thus ignoring its effect leaves out a vast portion of important physics. Nevertheless, for the sake of limiting the scope, this effect will not be discussed. The exposition is within the context of linear and quasilinear Vlasov kinetic theories. The discussion does not cover either computer simulations or data analyses of observations, in any systematic manner, although references will be made to published works pertaining to these methods. The scientific rationale for the present analysis is that the anisotropic temperatures associated with charged particles are pervasively detected in the solar wind, and it is one of the key contemporary scientific research topics to correctly characterize how such anisotropies are generated, maintained, and regulated in the solar wind. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date theoretical development on this research topic, largely based on the author's own work.

  12. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  13. Modeling the hysteretic moisture and temperature responses of soil carbon decomposition resulting from organo-mineral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Most existing soil carbon cycle models have modeled the moisture and temperature dependence of soil respiration using deterministic response functions. However, empirical data suggest abundant variability in both of these dependencies. We here use the recently developed SUPECA (Synthesizing Unit and Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation) theory and a published dynamic energy budget based microbial model to investigate how soil carbon decomposition responds to changes in soil moisture and temperature under the influence of organo-mineral interactions. We found that both the temperature and moisture responses are hysteretic and cannot be represented by deterministic functions. We then evaluate how the multi-scale variability in temperature and moisture forcing affect soil carbon decomposition. Our results indicate that when the model is run in scenarios mimicking laboratory incubation experiments, the often-observed temperature and moisture response functions can be well reproduced. However, when such response functions are used for model extrapolation involving more transient variability in temperature and moisture forcing (as found in real ecosystems), the dynamic model that explicitly accounts for hysteresis in temperature and moisture dependency produces significantly different estimations of soil carbon decomposition, suggesting there are large biases in models that do not resolve such hysteresis. We call for more studies on organo-mineral interactions to improve modeling of such hysteresis.

  14. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fécan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semi-arid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w' (depending on the soil texture, these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w' is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w' and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Aerosols and particles · Hydrology (soil moisture

  15. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fécan

    Full Text Available Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semi-arid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w' (depending on the soil texture, these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w' is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w' and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Aerosols and particles · Hydrology (soil moisture

  16. Sensitivity experiments on the response of Vb cyclones to sea surface temperature and soil moisture changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Messmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extratropical cyclones of type Vb, which develop over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward, are major natural hazards that are responsible for heavy precipitation over central Europe. To gain further understanding in the governing processes of these Vb cyclones, the study explores the role of soil moisture and sea surface temperature (SST and their contribution to the atmospheric moisture content. Thereby, recent Vb events identified in the ERA-Interim reanalysis are dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Results indicate that a mean high-impact summer Vb event is mostly sensitive to an increase in the Mediterranean SSTs and rather insensitive to Atlantic SSTs and soil moisture changes. Hence, an increase of +5 K in Mediterranean SSTs leads to an average increase of 24 % in precipitation over central Europe. This increase in precipitation is mainly induced by larger mean upward moisture flux over the Mediterranean with increasing Mediterranean SSTs. This further invokes an increase in latent energy release, which leads to an increase in atmospheric instability, i.e. in convective available potential energy. Both the increased availability of atmospheric moisture and the increased instability of the atmosphere, which is able to remove extra moisture from the atmosphere due to convective processes, are responsible for the strong increase in precipitation over the entire region influenced by Vb events. Precipitation patterns further indicate that a strong increase in precipitation is found at the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea for increased Mediterranean SSTs. This premature loss in atmospheric moisture leads to a significant decrease in atmospheric moisture transport to central Europe and the northeastern flanks of the Alpine mountain chain. This leads to a reduction in precipitation in this high-impact region of the Vb event for an increase in Mediterranean SSTs of +5 K. Furthermore, the

  17. Offshore Wind Energy: Wind and Sea Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    As the land space suitable for wind turbine installations becomes saturated, there is a growing interest for oshore locations. There, available measurements of various environmental parameters are limited and the physical environment is still not well understood. Thus, there is a need for readily......, demonstrate that wind information from SAR is more appropriate when small scale local features are of interest, not resolved by scatterometers. Hourly satellite observations of the sea surface temperature, from a thermal infra-red sensor, are used to identify and quantify the daily variability of the sea...

  18. [The temperature and temperature gradients distribution in the rabbit body thermophysical model with evaporation of moisture from its surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2004-04-01

    On created in laboratory heat-physical model of a rabbit body reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of the body such as: weight, size of a relative surface, heat absorption and heat conduction, heat capacity etc., a change of radial distribution of temperature and size was found across a superficial layer of evaporation of water from its surface, that simulates sweating, with various ratio of environmental temperature and capacity of electrical heater simulating heat production in animal. The experiments have shown that with evaporation of moisture from a surface of model in all investigated cases, there is an increase of superficial layer of body of a temperature gradient and simultaneous decrease of temperature of a model inside and on the surface. It seems that, with evaporation of a moisture from a surface of a body, the size of a temperature gradient in a thin superficial layer dependent in our experiments on capacity for heat production and environmental temperature, is increased and can be used in a live organism for definition of change in general heat content of the body with the purpose of maintenance of its thermal balance with environment.

  19. Microspheres for laser velocimetry in high temperature wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorieshi, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of non-intrusive measurement techniques in wind tunnel experimentation has been a turning point in error free data acquisition. Laser velocimetry has been progressively implemented and utilized in various wind tunnels; e.g. subsonic, transonic, and supersonic. The success of the laser velocimeter technique is based on an accurate measurement of scattered light by seeding particles introduced into the flow stream in the wind tunnel. Therefore, application of appropriate seeding particles will affect, to a large extent the acquired data. The seeding material used depends on the type of experiment being run. Among the seeding material for subsonic tunnel are kerosene, Kaolin, and polystyrene. Polystyrene is known to be the best because of being solid particles, having high index of refraction, capable of being made both spherical and monodisperse. However for high temperature wind tunnel testing seeding material must have an additional characteristic that is high melting point. Typically metal oxide powders such as Al2O3 with melting point 3660 F are used. The metal oxides are, however polydispersed, have a high density, and a tendency to form large agglomerate that does not closely follow the flow velocity. The addition of flame phase silica to metal oxide helps to break up the agglomerates, yet still results in a narrow band of polydispersed seeding. The less desirable utility of metal oxide in high temperature wind tunnels necessitates the search for a better alternative particle seeding which this paper addresses. The Laser Velocimetry (LV) characteristic of polystyrene makes it a prime candidate as a base material in achieving the high temperature particle seeding inexpensively. While polystyrene monodisperse seeding particle reported has been successful in a subsonic wind tunnel, it lacks the high melting point and thus is not practically usable in a high temperature wind tunnel. It is well known that rise in melting point of polystyrene can be

  20. Temperature and moisture regimes in the Enterprise Forest, 1970--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, T.R.; Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Within the Enterprise Radiation Forest, measurements of ambient air temperature, humidity, and precipitation were taken from 1970 through 1973. Temperature and moisture stresses that could alter the responses of organisms to gamma radiation were not evident during irradiation (1972) or during the recovery year 1973. Changes in microclimatic regimes as a result of the destruction of vegetation by gamma radiation were also assessed. Although differences in temperature and vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) were small when considering monthly means, mean maximum and mean minimum temperature and standardized plots of mean daily temperature and mean daily VPD indicated greater extremes in the newly created open environment than under the forest canopy. These relationships parallel those reported in comparisons of open environments to forested environments

  1. Retrieving Temperature and Moisture Profiles from AERI Radiance Observations. AERIPROF Value-Added Product Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Howell, H. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Comstock, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahon, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, W. L. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Woolf, H. M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Sivaraman, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halter, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to collect a long-term series of radiative and atmospheric state observations to improve the parameterization of these processes in global climate models. The ARM Program intended to move away from the traditional approach of directly measuring profiles of temperature and moisture using radiosondes, which is expensive in terms of expendables and manpower, and develop methods to retrieve these profiles with ground-based remote sensors. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), whose radiance data contains information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature, is an integral part of the ARM profiling plan.

  2. Temperature and moisture conditions for life in the extreme arid region of the Atacama desert: four years of observations including the El Nino of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Caceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-01-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5 degrees C and 16.6 degrees C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9 degrees C, and the minimum was -5.7 degrees C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m(-2) in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong fohn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s(-1). During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Nino of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  3. A time series based method for estimating relative soil moisture with ERS wind scatterometer data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, J.; Su, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The radar backscattering coefficient is mainly determined by surface soil moisture, vegetation and land surface roughness under a given configuration of the satellite sensor. It is observed that the temporal variations of the three variables are different, the variation of vegetation and roughness

  4. Soil moisture deficit estimation using satellite multi-angle brightness temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei; Dai, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Accurate soil moisture information is critically important for hydrological modelling. Although remote sensing soil moisture measurement has become an important data source, it cannot be used directly in hydrological modelling. A novel study based on nonlinear techniques (a local linear regression (LLR) and two feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs)) is carried out to estimate soil moisture deficit (SMD), using the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) multi-angle brightness temperatures (Tbs) with both horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarisations. The gamma test is used for the first time to determine the optimum number of Tbs required to construct a reliable smooth model for SMD estimation, and the relationship between model input and output is achieved through error variance estimation. The simulated SMD time series in the study area is from the Xinanjiang hydrological model. The results have shown that LLR model is better at capturing the interrelations between SMD and Tbs than ANNs, with outstanding statistical performances obtained during both training (NSE = 0.88, r = 0.94, RMSE = 0.008 m) and testing phases (NSE = 0.85, r = 0.93, RMSE = 0.009 m). Nevertheless, both ANN training algorithms (radial BFGS and conjugate gradient) have performed well in estimating the SMD data and showed excellent performances compared with those derived directly from the SMOS soil moisture products. This study has also demonstrated the informative capability of the gamma test in the input data selection for model development. These results provide interesting perspectives for data-assimilation in flood-forecasting.

  5. Investigation on stability and moisture absorption of superhydrophobic wood under alternating humidity and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yan; Liu, Ming; Wu, Yiqiang; Jia, Shanshan; Wang, Shuang; Li, Xingong

    The application of superhydrophobic wood is majorly limited by its durability when subjected to natural conditions. Herein, the stability of two representative superhydrophobic woods (i.e., Poplar (Populus tomentosa) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)), were prepared via a one-step hydrothermal process using tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OC4H9)4, TBOT) and vinyltriethoxysilane (CH2CHSi(OC2H5)3, VTES) as a co-precursor and sequentially tested under different humidity and temperature conditions. The variables including morphology, water contact angle (WCA), color parameter, chemical components of the surface, and moisture absorption property were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), WCA measurement, a colorimeter, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and a moisture absorption test, respectively. It was found that initial static WCAs of superhydrophobic wood were larger than 150°. Micron-sized cracks were formed on the coatings after the alternating humidity and temperature aging cycles. This lowered the water repellency, but the WCA was still greater than 140°. There was nearly no chemical change of wood after the aging test; the color change between the same species of untreated and superhydrophobic wood was very small, only with a difference of 0.42 and 4.05 in overall color change ΔE∗ values for Chinese fir and poplar, respectively. The superhydrophobic coatings had a trivial influence on wood moisture absorption property, which only lowered 3% in poplar and 2% in Chinese fir, respectively.

  6. Electron temperature anisotropy constraints in the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Maksimovic, M.; Marsch, E.; Fazakerley, A.; Scime, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, A3 /2008/ (2008), A03103/1-A03103/10 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solar wind electrons * temperature anisotropy * radial Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  7. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecan, F.; Marticorena, B.; Bergametti, G. [Paris-7 Univ. (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semiarid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension) are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w` (depending on the soil texture), these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w` is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w` and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.) 24 refs.

  8. Global patterns of the trends in satellite-derived crop yield proxy, temperature and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Iizumi, T.; Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.

    2014-12-01

    Crop productivity (yield) is sensitive to climate variability and change. To inform stakeholders, including food agencies in food-importing countries, about future variations in food supply associated with climate variability and change, understanding major climatic drivers of the spatiotemporal variations in crop yield over global cropland during the last few decades is crucial. Although remote sensing has difficulty distinguishing individual crops and misses entire cropping cycles in areas where extensive cloud cover during the monsoon limits satellite observations, it is still useful in deriving a proxy of crop yield over large spatial domain and estimating the impacts on crop yield proxy due to climate, including land-surface temperature and surface-layer soil moisture. This study presents an attempt to globally depict the impact of climate change on crop yield proxy by applying a time series analysis to MODIS and AMSR-E satellite images. The crop yield proxy used was the annual maximum or integrated MODIS-derived NDVI during the growing period predefined on the basis of the global crop calendar. The trends in the crop yield proxy in the interval 2001-2013 appeared positive in higher latitudes and negative in lower latitudes. In higher latitudes (and thus colder regions), the increased land-surface temperature led to an increase in crop yield in part due to the enhanced photosynthesis rate. In contrast, the crop yield proxy showed negative correlation with land-surface temperature in lower latitudes. The increased temperature might decrease crop yield by increasing evapotranspiration rate, plant respiration and/or heat stress. The crop yield proxy was also correlated with the AMSR-E-derived soil moisture, although the geographical distribution of soil moisture was highly heterogeneous.

  9. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Jessica M.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Ogle, Kiona; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell; Scott, Russell L.; Williams, David G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2012-03-01

    A greater abundance of shrubs in semiarid grasslands affects the spatial patterns of soil temperature, moisture, and litter, resulting in fertile islands with potentially enhanced soil metabolic activity. The goal of this study was to quantify the microsite specificity of soil respiration in a semiarid riparian ecosystem experiencing shrub encroachment. We quantified the response of soil respiration to different microsite conditions created by big mesquite shrubs (near the trunk and the canopy edge), medium-sized mesquite, sacaton bunchgrasses, and open spaces. We hypothesized that soil respiration would be more temperature sensitive and less moisture sensitive and have a greater magnitude in shrub microsites compared with grass and open microsites. Field and incubation soil respiration data were simultaneously analyzed in a Bayesian framework to quantify the microsite-specific temperature and moisture sensitivities and magnitude of respiration. The analysis showed that shrub expansion increases the heterogeneity of respiration. Respiration has greater temperature sensitivity near the shrub canopy edge, and respiration rates are higher overall under big mesquite compared with those of the other microsites. Respiration in the microsites beneath medium-sized mesquites does not behave like a downscaled version of big mesquite microsites. The grass microsites show more similarity to big mesquite microsites than medium-sized shrubs. This study shows there can be a great deal of fine-scale spatial heterogeneity that accompanies shifts in vegetation structure. Such complexity presents a challenge in scaling soil respiration fluxes to the landscape for systems experiencing shrub encroachment, but quantifying this complexity is significantly important in determining overall ecosystem metabolic behavior.

  10. Microwave brightness temperature and thermal inertia - towards synergistic method of high-resolution soil moisture retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Mateusz; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Sagan, Joanna; Szlazak, Radoslaw; Gluba, Lukasz; Rojek, Edyta

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter in many environmental studies, as it influences the exchange of water and energy at the interface between the land surface and the atmosphere. Accurate assessment of the soil moisture spatial and temporal variations is crucial for numerous studies; starting from a small scale of single field, then catchment, mesoscale basin, ocean conglomeration, finally ending at the global water cycle. Despite numerous advantages, such as fine accuracy (undisturbed by clouds or daytime conditions) and good temporal resolution, passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, e.g. SMOS and SMAP, are not applicable to a small scale - simply because of too coarse spatial resolution. On the contrary, thermal infrared-based methods of soil moisture retrieval have a good spatial resolution, but are often disturbed by clouds and vegetation interferences or night effects. The methods that base on point measurements, collected in situ by monitoring stations or during field campaigns, are sometimes called "ground truth" and may serve as a reference for remote sensing, of course after some up-scaling and approximation procedures that are, unfortunately, potential source of error. Presented research concern attempt to synergistic approach that join two remote sensing methods: passive microwave and thermal infrared, supported by in situ measurements. Microwave brightness temperature of soil was measured by ELBARA, the radiometer at 1.4 GHz frequency, installed at 6 meters high tower at Bubnow test site in Poland. Thermal inertia around the tower was modelled using the statistical-physical model whose inputs were: soil physical properties, its water content, albedo and surface temperatures measured by an infrared pyrometer, directed at the same footprint as ELBARA. The results coming from this method were compared to in situ data obtained during several field campaigns and by the stationary agrometeorological stations. The approach seems to be

  11. Solar wind proton temperature anisotropy: Linear theory and WIND/SWE observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel; Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 9 (2006), L09101/1-L09101/4 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042403 Grant - others:ESA(XE) PECS 98024; NASA (US) NAG-10915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : proton temperature anisotropy * solar wind * in situ observations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2006

  12. An improved two-layer algorithm for estimating effective soil temperature in microwave radiometry using in situ temperature and soil moisture measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lv, S.; Wen, J.; Zeng, Yijian; Tian, H.; Su, Zhongbo

    2014-01-01

    The effective soil temperature (Teff) is essential for the retrieval of soil moisture information, when satellite microwave remote sensing data are used. In this investigation, a new two-layer scheme (Lv's scheme) is developed to estimate Teff considering wavelength, soil moisture, sampling depth,

  13. Precipitation, temperature, and moisture transport variations associated with two distinct ENSO flavors during 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.

    2016-11-01

    Interannual precipitation and temperature variations during 1979-2014 are investigated by examining the effects of two distinct flavors of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), i.e., the tropical eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) ENSO events. Satellite- and ground-based observations with global coverage are applied including the monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and surface temperature anomalies from the NASA-GISS surface temperature anomaly analysis. Related variations in other water-cycle components including atmospheric moisture transport are also examined by using the outputs from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). While the second leading mode from an EOF analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies between 30°N and 30°S is dominated by interdecadal-scale variability that is not a focus of this study, the first and third leading modes represent well the EP and CP events, respectively. The corresponding principal components (PC1 and PC3) are then applied as indices to estimate the influences of the two ENSO flavors on various physical components through linear regression. Because of their distinct SST configurations in the tropical Pacific, the two ENSO flavors manifest different spatial features of precipitation anomalies as shown in past studies. Differences can also be readily seen in satellite-retrieved tropospheric layered temperatures and oceanic columnar water vapor content. General agreements between observations and MERRA outputs can be obtained as judged by consistent respective anomalies corresponding to the two ENSO flavors, suggesting that MERRA could provide an accurate account of variations on the interannual time scale. Interannual variations in MERRA vertically integrated moisture transport (VIMT) are further examined to explore possible relations between precipitation and tropospheric moisture transport corresponding to the

  14. Statistical modeling of temperature, humidity and wind fields in the atmospheric boundary layer over the Siberian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, N. Ya.

    2017-11-01

    The work presents the results of the applied climatic division of the Siberian region into districts based on the methodology of objective classification of the atmospheric boundary layer climates by the "temperature-moisture-wind" complex realized with using the method of principal components and the special similarity criteria of average profiles and the eigen values of correlation matrices. On the territory of Siberia, it was identified 14 homogeneous regions for winter season and 10 regions were revealed for summer. The local statistical models were constructed for each region. These include vertical profiles of mean values, mean square deviations, and matrices of interlevel correlation of temperature, specific humidity, zonal and meridional wind velocity. The advantage of the obtained local statistical models over the regional models is shown.

  15. Midlatitude daily summer temperatures reshaped by soil moisture under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, H.; Colin, J.; Krug, E.; Cattiaux, J.; Thao, S.

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in daily temperatures are highly model dependent, particularly in the summer midlatitudes where the spread in the response of heat waves represents a major obstacle for the design of adaptation strategies. Understanding the main reasons for such uncertainties is obviously a research priority. Here we use a set of global atmospheric simulations to assess the contribution of the soil moisture feedback to changes in the full distribution of daily maximum summer temperatures projected in the late 21st century. Results show that this feedback (i) accounts for up to one third of the mean increase in daily maximum temperatures, (ii) dominates changes in the shape of the distribution, and (iii) explains about half of the increase in the severity of heat waves over densely populated areas of the northern midlatitudes. A dedicated intercomparison project is therefore needed to assess and constrain land surface feedbacks in the new generation Earth System Models.

  16. Future soil moisture and temperature extremes imply expanding suitability for rainfed agriculture in temperate drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Duniway, Michael C.; Hall, Sonia A.; Jia, Gensuo; Jamiyansharav, Khishigbayar; Munson, Seth M.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tietjen, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of rainfed agriculture is expected to respond to climate change and human population growth. However, conditions that support rainfed agriculture are driven by interactions among climate, including climate extremes, and soil moisture availability that have not been well defined. In the temperate regions that support much of the world’s agriculture, these interactions are complicated by seasonal temperature fluctuations that can decouple climate and soil moisture. Here, we show that suitability to support rainfed agriculture can be effectively represented by the interactive effects of just two variables: suitability increases where warm conditions occur with wet soil, and suitability decreases with extreme high temperatures. 21st century projections based on ecohydrological modeling of downscaled climate forecasts imply geographic shifts and overall increases in the area suitable for rainfed agriculture in temperate regions, especially at high latitudes, and pronounced, albeit less widespread, declines in suitable areas in low latitude drylands, especially in Europe. These results quantify the integrative direct and indirect impact of rising temperatures on rainfed agriculture.

  17. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y.

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia. In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. PMID:27402618

  18. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  20. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion. PMID:24982973

  1. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1 The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2 Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3 Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  2. Wind directing correlation and vertical temperature gradient correlation with the wind direction amplitud variation at Angra dos Reis site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1982-08-01

    Two studies are presented: an analysis of air flow characteristics at the Itaorna site, in Angra dos Reis by correlation of wind directions measured simultaneosly on four meteorological masts, and a tentative correlation of vertical temperature gradient with the wind fluctuation standard deviation. It's concluded that the wind directions change vertical and horizontally and the wind direction fluctuation amplitude holds no correlation with the vertical temperature gradient, and therefore it should not be used as an alternative for determination of stability categories. (Author) [pt

  3. Multivariate assimilation of coarse scale soil moisture, cosmic-ray soil moisture, land surface temperature and leaf area index in CLM4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xujun; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Schalge, Bernd; Baroni, Gabriele; Rihani, Jehan; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    The land surface plays a central role in the atmosphere - land surface - subsurface continuum. Surface soil moisture for instance impacts the partitioning of absorbed radiation in heating ground and atmosphere and thus impacts resulting evapotranspiration. The land surface also drives partitioning of rainfall between infiltration which ends up as groundwater recharge and surface runoff contributing to stream discharge. It is therefore expected that the use of observations for characterizing and predicting the land surface state also leads to improved state estimations and predictions in all the other sub-compartments of the system we consider: groundwater, stream discharge and atmosphere. To test this hypothesis requires efficient data assimilation schemes that are capable to take up specific requirements of different compartments, such as different time windows of observations. In this study we will derive such data assimilation methods and quantify the improvement of predictions in the different compartments due to assimilation of multiple observations, and evaluate to what extent assimilation of land surface observations will also improve predictions of land surface states and fluxes for atmosphere and groundwater. We argue that improvements can be achieved by implementing a data assimilation methodology that is capable of simultaneous assimilation of many data sources (remote sensing soil moisture, cosmic-ray measurement for soil moisture, land surface temperature and leaf area index) at different spatial scales ranging from 102 m to 104 m. The multivariate data assimilation system for the land-surface component will be developed and extended to assimilate the coarse scale remote sensing soil moisture, cosmic-ray soil moisture, land surface temperature and leaf area index, and their different combinations using the local ensemble transform Kalman filter. The multivariate data assimilation will be evaluated using a synthetic study which mimics the Neckar

  4. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnov, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects) were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7), North America (7), Japan (4), Hawaii (1), Australia (2), and Antarctic (1).

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternati...

  5. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum.......235-0.488yr(-1) at 55°C, indicating that higher temperatures resulted in higher k-values. It was observed that H2 can be produced by biocorrosion of iron, aluminum, and zinc and it was shown that produced H2 can be utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogens to convert CO2 to CH4. Addition of iron and copper...

  6. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mialon, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Mahmoodi, Ali; Tarot, Stéphane; Parrens, Marie; Al-Yaari, Amen; Pellarin, Thierry; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO) surface soil moisture (SM) and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB) products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD) compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD) using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO) retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM) are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an open licence and

  7. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al Bitar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO surface soil moisture (SM and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an

  8. The Mechanical Properties of Wood of Different Moisture Content Within -200 Degrees to +200 Degrees C Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Franz

    1941-01-01

    Systematic experiments were undertaken with special reference to the effect of gross specific weight (specific weight inclusive of pores) and the moisture content of wood. It was found that the modules of elasticity of wood at room temperature and frozen at -8 degrees is practically the same. The effect of moisture on the compression strength of frozen wood was explored as well as the flexural and impact strength of frozen wood and frozen laminated wood.

  9. Effect of sugar addition on glass transition temperatures of cassava starch with low to intermediate moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Yetzury; Guevara, Marvilan; Pérez, Adriana; Cova, Aura; Sandoval, Aleida J; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    This work studies how sucrose (S) addition modifies the thermal properties of cassava starch (CS). Neat CS and CS-S blends with 4, 6 and 8% sugar contents (CS-S-4%, CS-S-6% and CS-S-8%) were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), in a wide range of moisture levels (2-20%). In equilibrated samples with moisture contents lower than 10%, twoendothermic steps were observed during first DSC heating scans and two corresponding relaxation maxima in tan δ were detected by DMTA. The first transition, detected at around 45-55°C by both DSC and DMTA, is frequently found in starchy foods, while the second observed at higher temperatures is associated to the glass transition temperature of the blends. At higher moisture contents, only one thermal transition was observed. Samples analyzed immediately after cooling from the melt (i.e., after erasing their thermal history), exhibited a single glass transition temperature, regardless of their moisture content. Addition of sugar promotes water plasticization of CS only at high moisture contents. In the low moisture content range, anti-plasticization was observed for both neat and sugar-added CS samples. Addition of sugar decreases the moisture content needed to achieve the maximum value of the glass transition temperature before plasticization starts. The results of this work may be valuable for the study of texture establishment in low moisture content extruded food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar wind control of stratospheric temperatures in Jupiter's auroral regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James Andrew; Orton, Glenn; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Tao, Chihiro; Waite, J. Hunter; Cravens, Thomas; Houston, Stephen; Fletcher, Leigh; Irwin, Patrick; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2017-10-01

    Auroral emissions are the process through which the interaction of a planet’s atmosphere and its external magnetosphere can be studied. Jupiter exhibits auroral emission at a multitude of wavelengths including the X-ray, ultraviolet and near-infrared. Enhanced emission of CH4 and other stratospheric hydrocarbons is also observed coincident with Jupiter’s shorter-wavelength auroral emission (e.g. Caldwell et al., 1980, Icarus 44, 667-675, Kostiuk et al., 1993, JGR 98, 18823). This indicates that auroral processes modify the thermal structure and composition of the auroral stratosphere. The exact mechanism responsible for this auroral-related heating of the stratosphere has however remained elusive (Sinclair et al., 2017a, Icarus 292, 182-207, Sinclair et al., 2017b, GRL, 44, 5345-5354). We will present an analysis of 7.8-μm images of Jupiter measured by COMICS (Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrograph, Kataza et al., 2000, Proc. SPIE(4008), 1144-1152) on the Subaru telescope. These images were acquired on January 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, February 4, 5th and May 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th in 2017, allowing the daily variability of Jupiter’s auroral-related stratospheric heating to be tracked. Preliminary results suggest lower stratospheric temperatures are directly forced by the solar wind dynamical pressure. The southern auroral hotspot exhibited a significant increase in brightness temperature over a 24-hour period. Over the same time period, a solar wind propagation model (Tao et al. 2005, JGR 110, A11208) predicts a strong increase in the solar wind dynamical pressure at Jupiter.

  11. Effects of moisture and temperature during grain storage on the functional properties and isoflavone profile of soy protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Hoffmann, Jéssica Fernanda; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of moisture and temperature during grain storage on the functional properties and isoflavone profile of soy protein concentrate. The protein concentrate was extracted from soybeans on the first day of storage and after 12months of storage, at 12 and 15% moisture and at temperatures of 11, 18, 25, and 32°C. The protein concentrate obtained from grains stored at 32°C showed decreased extraction yield (51.6% with 15% of moisture) and protein solubility (24.8% with 15% of moisture) with increased emulsifying capacity (52.2% with 12% of moisture) and foam formation, compared with sample obtained at the start of the storage period. The isoflavone profile showed a decrease in the concentrations of glycosylated, malonyl, and acetyl isoflavones and a corresponding increase in the concentrations of aglycone isoflavones, with the magnitude of these changes increasing with increasing storage temperature and moisture content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling of simultaneous effect of moisture and temperature on A. niger growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi-Esfahani, Z.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a two factorial design of experiments was applied to study the simultaneous effect of temperature and moisture on A. niger growth in the solid-state fermentation (SSF). The increase of water content to more than 55% at the temperatures 35 and 40degreesC decreases microorganism

  13. Temperature Knowledge and Model Correlation for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Reflector Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Dawson, Douglas; Kwack, Eug

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth observing Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 km near-polar, sun synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its 3 year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within 3 days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, a temperature knowledge of 60 deg C for the mesh reflector is required. In order to show compliance, a thermal vacuum test was conducted using a portable solar simulator to illuminate a non flight, but flight-like test article through the quartz window of the vacuum chamber. The molybdenum wire of the antenna mesh is too fine to accommodate thermal sensors for direct temperature measurements. Instead, the mesh temperature was inferred from resistance measurements made during the test. The test article was rotated to five separate angles between 10 deg and 90 deg via chamber breaks to simulate the maximum expected on-orbit solar loading during the mission. The resistance measurements were converted to temperature via a resistance versus temperature calibration plot that was constructed from data collected in a separate calibration test. A simple thermal model of two different representations of the mesh (plate and torus) was created to correlate the mesh temperature predictions to within 60 deg C. The on-orbit mesh

  14. Effects of freezing on soil temperature, freezing front propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Nagare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are not many studies that report water movement in freezing peat. Soil column studies under controlled laboratory settings can help isolate and understand the effects of different factors controlling freezing of the active layer in organic covered permafrost terrain. In this study, four peat Mesocosms were subjected to temperature gradients by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost. Soil water movement towards the freezing front (from warmer to colder regions was inferred from soil freezing curves, liquid water content time series and from the total water content of frozen core samples collected at the end of freezing cycle. A substantial amount of water, enough to raise the upper surface of frozen saturated soil within 15 cm of the soil surface at the end of freezing period appeared to have moved upwards during freezing. Diffusion under moisture gradients and effects of temperature on soil matric potential, at least in the initial period, appear to drive such movement as seen from analysis of freezing curves. Freezing front (separation front between soil zones containing and free of ice propagation is controlled by latent heat for a long time during freezing. A simple conceptual model describing freezing of an organic active layer initially resembling a variable moisture landscape is proposed based upon the results of this study. The results of this study will help in understanding, and ultimately forecasting, the hydrologic response of wetland-dominated terrain underlain by discontinuous permafrost.

  15. Linking increases in hourly precipitation extremes to atmospheric temperature and moisture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenderink, Geert; Van Meijgaard, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Relations between hourly precipitation extremes and atmospheric temperature and moisture derived for the present-day climate are studied with the aim of understanding the behavior (and the uncertainty in predictions) of hourly precipitation extremes in a changing climate. A dependency of hourly precipitation extremes on the daily mean 2 m temperature of approximately two times the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation is found for temperatures above 10 deg. C. This is a robust relation obtained in four observational records across western Europe. A dependency following the CC relation can be explained by the observed increase in atmospheric (absolute) humidity with temperature, whereas the enhanced dependency (compared to the CC relation) appears to be caused by dynamical feedbacks owing to excess latent heat release in extreme showers. Integrations with the KNMI regional climate model RACMO2 at 25 km grid spacing show that changes in hourly precipitation extremes may indeed considerably exceed the prediction from the CC relation. The results suggests that increases of + 70% or even more are possible by the end of this century. However, a different regional model (CLM operated at ETHZ) predicts much smaller increases; this is probably caused by a too strong sensitivity of this model to a decrease in relative humidity.

  16. Spatial Soil Temperature and Moisture Monitoring Across the Transylvanian Plain, in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Weindorf, David; Haggard, Beatrix; Moraru, Paula Ioana; Sopterean, Mara Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The Transylvanian Plain, Romania is an important region for agronomic productivity. However, limited soils data and adoption of best management practices hinder land productivity. Soil temperatures of the Transylvanian Plain were evaluated using a set of twenty datalogging stations positioned throughout the plain. Soil temperatures were monitored at the surface and at 10, 30, and 50 cm depths, and soil moisture was monitored at 10 cm. Preliminary results indicate that most soils of the Transylvanian Plain will have a mesic temperature regime. However, differences in seasonal warming and cooling trends across the plain were noted. These have important implications for planting recommendations. Growing degree days (GDDs) are preferred over maturity ratings, because they can account for temperature anomalies. The crop being considered for this study was corn. The base temperature (BT) was set at 10oC, and the upper threshold was 30oC. Two methods were used to calculate GDDs; 1) minimum and maximum daily temperatures, and 2) 24 h of averaged temperature data. Growing degree days were run from 110-199 day of year (DOY) to represent approximate planting date to tasseling. The DOY that 694 accumulated growing degree days (AGDDs) was reached at each site was then analyzed to identify differences across the TP. Three sites failed to reach 694 AGDDs by DOY 199, and were excluded from comparisons to other results. Averaged values were used to create spline interpolation maps with ArcMap 9.2 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). The southeastern portion of the TP was found to tassel a month earlier assuming a planting date of 109 DOY. Four DeKalb® corn hybrids were then selected based on GDDs to tasseling, drydown, drought tolerance, and insect resistance. With a better understanding of the GDD trends across the TP, more effective planting and harvesting could be accomplished by Romanian farmers to maximize agronomic production.

  17. Degradation of [14C]isofenphos in soil in the laboratory under different soil pH's, temperatures, and moistures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Assaf, N.; Coats, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of three soil pH's, three soil temperatures, and three soil moistures on [ 14 C]isofenphos degradation were investigated. All three factors interacted strongly and significantly affected the persistence of isofenphos as well as the formation of the degradation products (p less than 1%). Isofenphos degradation was greatest at the higher temperatures 35 0 C greater than 25 0 C greater than 15 0 C (except under alkaline pH's), medium moisture 25% greater than 30% greater than 15%, and in both alkaline (pH = 8) and acidic soils (pH = 6) compared with neutral soil (pH = 7). Isofenphos oxon formation was greatest at higher temperatures 35 0 C compared with 25 0 C and 15 0 C, in acidic soil greater than neutral soil greater than alkaline soil, and under high moisture (30%) compared with the 15% and 22.5% moistures. The formation of soil-bound residues was greatest at higher temperatures 35 0 C greater than 25 0 C greater than 15 0 C, higher moisture 30% compared with 15% and 22.5%, and in alkaline soil compared with neutral and acidic soils

  18. Effects of whey protein concentrate, feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of a rice-based extruded flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez

    2017-08-01

    The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3 2 central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of Wind Velocity and Temperature Change Near an Escarpment-Shaped Road Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to changes in the wind velocity and temperature around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological changes (wind velocity and temperature due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify changes in wind velocity and temperature before and after the construction of embankments around roads. Changes in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In changes in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding temperatures. The degree of temperature change was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity changes were small.

  20. Characteristics of Wind Velocity and Temperature Change Near an Escarpment-Shaped Road Embankment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl

    2014-01-01

    Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to changes in the wind velocity and temperature around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological changes (wind velocity and temperature) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify changes in wind velocity and temperature before and after the construction of embankments around roads. Changes in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In changes in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding temperatures. The degree of temperature change was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity changes were small. PMID:25136681

  1. [The relationship between the variation rate of MODIS land surface temperature and AMSR-E soil moisture and its application to downscaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Qi; Xie, Chao; Shi, Jian-Cheng; Gong, Hui-Li

    2013-03-01

    Using AMSR-E soil moisture, MODIS land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index product, the authors discuss the relationship between the variation rate of land surface temperature and surface soil moisture. Selecting the plains region of central United States as the study area, the authors propose the distribution triangle of the variation rate of land surface temperature and soil moisture. In the present paper, temperature variation and vegetation index (TVVI), a new index containing the information of temperature variation and vegetation, is introduced. The authors prove that TVVI and soil moisture show a steady relationship of exponential function; and build a quantitative model of soil moisture(SM) and instantaneous surface temperature variation (VTs). The authors later achieve downscaling of AMSR-E soil moisture data, through the above stated functional relationships and high-resolution MODIS data. Comparison with measured data on ground surface indicates that this method of downscaling is of high precision

  2. Sensitivity Experiments on the Impact of Vb-Cyclones to Ocean Temperature and Soil Moisture Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Martina; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.

    2016-04-01

    Cyclones developing over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward are a major source of extreme weather and responsible for heavy precipitation over Central Europe. Gaining insight into these processes is crucial to improve the projection of changes in frequency and severity of these so-called Vb-cyclones under future climate change scenarios. This study explores the impact of climate change on Vb-events through a number of idealized sensitivity experiments that assess the role of the sea surface temperature (SST) and soil moisture and their contribution to the moisture content in the atmosphere in recent Vb-events. To achieve this task, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to dynamically downscale the ERA Interim reanalysis, simulating five prominent Vb-events that led to extreme precipitation in Central Europe. WRF allows simulating a physical consistent response of Vb-cyclones to different SSTs and soil water volumes. The changes in SSTs are designed to follow the expected temperature changes in a future climate scenario. Additionally the corresponding uncertainty in such projections is considered. Results indicate that although an increase of the Mediterranean SSTs leads to increased precipitation over Central Europe, e.g. 136% greater precipitation in the +5 K experiment compared to the control simulation, a change in the high-impact region of Vb-events at the northern side of the Alps is not found. This counter-intuitive behavior seems to be related to the increase of atmospheric instability over the artificially heated SSTs. Thereby, precipitation notably increases over the east Adriatic coast in response to warmer SSTs, which corresponds to the first location where the air is lifted. However, Vb-events become less destructive in their high-impact region, due to high loss of atmospheric water. Further experiments demonstrate that changing the SSTs of the Atlantic invokes almost no reaction (around 1% change) with respect to

  3. Unsaturated zone moisture and vapor movement induced by temperature variations in asphalt barrier field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holford, D.J.; Fayer, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. Lysimeters were constructed to evaluate the performance of asphalt barrier formulations under natural environmental conditions. These lysimeters were constructed of 1.7-m lengths of PVC pipe that have a diameter of 30 cm. The lysimeters were filled with layers of gravel, coarse sand, and asphalt. The sand and gravel placed under the asphalt barrier were wet when installed. TOUGH was used to conduct simulations to assess the effect of temperature variations on moisture and vapor movement beneath the asphalt layer in field test lysimeters. All variables in TOUGH were converted to double precision so that simulations could be run on a Sun-4 UNIX workstation. A radially symmetric grid was used to simulate the lysimeter. 8 refs., 9 figs

  4. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitnov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7, North America (7, Japan (4, Hawaii (1, Australia (2, and Antarctic (1. The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternation of layers of well-developed quasi-biennial signals, whose phases gradually change with height and thin transitional layers of ill-developed signals, whose phases change abruptly with height. The amplitudes of the effects depend on height and reach the maxima of 3–6nbar in the lower stratosphere. At the majority of sites the effects are found to be approximately in phase between 20 and 23km. Two types of the vertical structures of the temperature QBO effects are found. At most of the sites located equatorward of about 50° the stratospheric temperature anomalies are characterized by downward propagation, whereas at sites situated poleward of about 50° they look as column-like structures. Near the tropopause the effects frequently reveal dipole-like structure, when the stratospheric and tropospheric anomalies are of opposite signs. The amplitudes of the effects are in the range of 0.5–1°C. The vertical structures of the QBO effects of horizontal wind components reveal a diversity of patterns. The amplitudes of the QBO effects of the meridional and zonal winds are comparable and lie in the range of 0.5–2m s–1. As a rule, the maxima of the effects are noticed slightly below the tropopause, as well as in the middle stratosphere. In general, a statistical assurance of the obtained QBO effects is rather poor. However, a considerable part of them reveal similarity, which can be hardly explained by chance. Furthermore, the results agree with possible physical mechanisms of off-equatorial influence of the QBO, as well

  5. The Mathematical Representation of Wind Speed and Temperature Profiles in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, C.A.

    1970-01-01

    Analytical expressions which specify non-dimensionalized wind speed and potential temperature gradients as functions of stability are integrated. The integrated equations are tested against Swinhank's wind and temperature profiles measured at Kerang, Australia. It is found that a representation...... suggested independently by Businger and by Dyer gives the best fit to temperature profiles and describes the wind profiles equally as well as a relation suggested by Panofsky et al....

  6. Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Temperatures equally important for Land Climate in the Warm Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    Both sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and soil moisture (SM) are important drivers of climate variability over land. In this study we present a comprehensive comparison of SM versus SST impacts on land climate in the warm season. We perform ensemble experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) where we set SM or SSTs to median conditions, respectively, to remove their inter-annual variability, whereby the other component - SST or SM - is still interactively computed. In contrast to earlier experiments performed with prescribed SSTs, our experiments suggest that SM is overall as important as SSTs for land climate, not only in the midlatitudes but also in the tropics and subtropics. Mean temperature and precipitation are reduced by 0.1-0.5 K and 0-0.2 mm, respectively, whereas their variability at different time scales decreases by 10-40% (temperature) and 0-10% (precipitation) when either SM or SSTs are prescribed. Also drought occurrence is affected, with mean changes in the maximum number of cumulative dry days of 0-0.75 days. Both SM and SST-induced changes are strongest for hot temperatures (up to 0.7 K, and 50%), extreme precipitation (up to 0.4 mm, and 20%), and strong droughts (up to 2 days). Local climate changes in response to removed SM variability are controlled - to first order - by the land-atmosphere coupling and the natural SM variability. SST-related changes are partly controlled by the relation of local temperature or precipitation with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Moreover removed SM or SST variabilities both induce remote effects by impacting the atmospheric circulation. Our results are similar for the present day and the end of the century. We investigate the inter-dependency between SM and SST and find a sufficient degree of independence for the purpose of this study. The robustness of our findings is shown by comparing the response of CESM to removed SM variability with four other global climate models. In summary, SM and SSTs

  7. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  8. The effects of wind and temperature on cuticular transpiration of Picea abies and Pinus cembra and their significance in dessication damage at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M N; Tranquillini, W

    1980-01-01

    The importance of high winter winds and plant temperatures as causes of winter desiccation damage at the alpine treeline were studied in the Austrian Alps. Samples of 1- and 2-year twigs of Picea abies and Pinus cembra were collected from the valley bottom (1,000 m a.s.l.), forestline (1,940 m a.s.l.), kampfzone (2.090 m a.s.l.), wind-protected treeline (2,140 m a.s.l.), and wind-exposed treeline (2,140 m a.s.l.). Cuticular transpiration was measured at three different levels of wind speed (4, 10, and 15 ms -1 ) and temperature (15°, 20°, and 25° C). At elevated wind speeds slight increases in water loss were observed, whereas at higher temperatures much greater increases occurred. Studies on winter water relations show a significant decline in the actual moisture content and osmotic potentials of twigs, especially in the kampfzone and at treeline. The roles of high winds and temperatures in depleting the winter water economy and causing desiccation damage in the alpine treeline environment are discussed.

  9. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In this study, methane (CH 4 ) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, and copper) contained in SW to provide electrons for methanogens resulting in gas compositions with high CH 4 contents and very low CO 2 contents was investigated. The BMP of SW was 1.5-6.2kg CH 4 /ton waste. The highest BMP was observed in fresh SW samples, while the lowest was observed in sieved samples (fine fraction of SW). Abiotic production of CH 4 was not observed in laboratory incubations. The biotic experiments showed that when the moisture content was 35% w/w and the temperature was 20-25°C, CH 4 production was extremely low. Increasing the temperature from 20-25°C to 37°C resulted in significantly higher CH 4 production while increasing the temperature from 37°C to 55°C resulted in higher CH 4 production, but to a lower extent. Increasing the moisture and inoculum content also increased CH 4 production. The k-values were 0.033-0.075yr -1 at room temperature, 0.220-0.429yr -1 at 37°C and 0.235-0.488yr -1 at 55°C, indicating that higher temperatures resulted in higher k-values. It was observed that H 2 can be produced by biocorrosion of iron, aluminum, and zinc and it was shown that produced H 2 can be utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogens to convert CO 2 to CH 4 . Addition of iron and copper to SW resulted in inhibition of CH 4 production, while addition of aluminum and zinc resulted in higher CH 4 production. This suggested that aluminum and

  10. Cyclotron instabilities driven by temperature anisotropy in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, N.; Yoon, P. H.; Zaheer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Kinetic plasma instabilities are important for regulating the temperature anisotropies of electrons and ions in solar wind. For the low beta regime, it is known that electromagnetic ion/electron cyclotron instabilities are important, but in the literature these unstable modes are discussed under the assumption of parallel propagation. The present paper extends the analysis to two (or with cylindrical symmetry, three) dimensions. The analysis is further extended to include quasilinear description with the assumption of the bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. Such an analysis lays the foundation for an eventual study in which cyclotron instabilities as well as obliquely propagating unstable modes such as the mirror instability are simultaneously taken into account. The present paper first lays down the basis for such future efforts in which the two- or three dimensional linear and quasilinear theories of cyclotron instabilities in the low beta regime are formulated.

  11. Surprisingly robust projections of soil temperature and moisture for North American drylands in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J. B.; Schlaepfer, D.; Palmquist, K. A.; Lauenroth, W.

    2017-12-01

    Climate projections for western North America suggest temperature increases that are relatively consistent across climate models. However, precipitation projections are less consistent, especially in the Southwest, promoting uncertainty about the future of soil moisture and drought. We utilized a daily time-step ecosystem water balance model to characterize soil temperature and moisture patterns at a 10-km resolution across western North America for historical (1980-2010), mid-century (2020-2050), and late century (2070-2100). We simulated soil moisture and temperature under two representative concentration pathways and eleven climate models (selected strategically to represent the range of variability in projections among the full set of models in the CMIP5 database and perform well in hind-cast comparisons for the region), and we use the results to identify areas with robust projections, e.g. areas where the large majority of models agree in the direction of change in long-term average soil moisture or temperature. Rising air temperatures will increase average soil temperatures across western North America and expand the area of mesic and thermic soil temperature regimes while decreasing the area of cryic and frigid regimes. Future soil moisture conditions are relatively consistent across climate models for much of the region, including many areas with variable precipitation trajectories. Consistent projections for drier soils are expected in most of Arizona and New Mexico, similar to previous studies. Other regions with projections for declining soil moisture include the central and southern U.S. Great Plains and large parts of southern British Columbia. By contrast, areas with robust projections for increasing soil moisture include northeastern Montana, southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, and many areas in the intermountain west dominated by big sagebrush. In addition, seasonal moisture patterns in much of the western US drylands are expected to shift toward

  12. Influence of ambient temperature and minute ventilation on passive and active heat and moisture exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Qader, Siham; Taillé, Solenne; Lyazidi, Aissam; Brochard, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    During invasive mechanical ventilation, inspired gases must be humidified. We previously showed that high ambient temperature greatly impaired the hygrometric performance of heated wire-heated humidifiers. The aim of this bench and clinical study was to assess the humidification performance of passive and active heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and the impact of ambient temperature and ventilator settings. We first tested on the bench a device with passive and active humidification properties (Humid-Heat, Teleflex), and 2 passive hydrophobic/hygroscopic HMEs (Hygrobac and Hygrobac S, Tyco Healthcare). The devices were tested at 3 different ambient temperatures (from 22 to 30 °C), and at 2 minute ventilation settings (10 and 20 L/min). Inspired gas hygrometry was measured at the Y-piece with the psychrometric method. In addition to the bench study, we measured the hygrometry of inspired gases in 2 different clinical studies. In 15 mechanically ventilated patients, we evaluated Humid-Heat at different settings. Additionally, we evaluated Humid-Heat and compared it with Hygrobac in a crossover study in 10 patients. On the bench, with the Hygrobac and Hygrobac S the inspired absolute humidity was ∼ 30 mg H2O/L, and with the Humid-Heat, slightly Heat provided inspired humidity in a range from 28.5 to 42.0 mg H2O/L, depending on settings, and was only weakly influenced by the patient's body temperature. In this study both passive and active HMEs had stable humidification performance with negligible influence of ambient temperature and minute ventilation. This contrasts with previous findings with heated wire-heated humidifiers. Although there are no clear data demonstrating that higher humidification impacts outcomes, it is worth noting that humidity was significantly higher with the active HME.

  13. Effects of chemical composite, puffing temperature and intermediate moisture content on physical properties of potato and apple slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabtaing, S.; Paengkanya, S.; Tanthong, P.

    2017-09-01

    Puffing technique is the process that can improve texture and volumetric of crisp fruit and vegetable. However, the effect of chemical composite in foods on puffing characteristics is still lack of study. Therefore, potato and apple slices were comparative study on their physical properties. Potato and apple were sliced into 2.5 mm thickness and 2.5 cm in diameter. Potato slices were treated by hot water for 2 min while apple slices were not treatment. After that, they were dried in 3 steps. First step, they were dried by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their moisture content reached to 30, 40, and 50 % dry basis. Then they were puffed by hot air at temperature of 130, 150, and 170°C for 2 min. Finally, they were dried again by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their final moisture content reached to 4% dry basis. The experimental results showed that chemical composite of food affected on physical properties of puffed product. Puffed potato had higher volume ratio than those puffed apple because potato slices contains starch. The higher starch content provided more hard texture of potato than those apples. Puffing temperature and moisture content strongly affected on the color, volume ratio, and textural properties of puffed potato slices. In addition, the high drying rate of puffed product observed at high puffing temperature and higher moisture content.

  14. Moisture and temperature in a proppant-enveloped silt block of a recharge dam reservoir: Laboratory experiment and 1-D mathematical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Kacimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic 3-D cascade of parallelepiped-shaped silt blocks, which sandwich sand- lled cracks, has been discovered in the eld and tested in lab experiments. Controlled wetting-drying of these blocks, collected from a dam reservoir, mimics field ponding-desiccation conditions of the topsoil layer subject to caustic solar radiation, high temperature and wind, typical in the Batinah region of Oman. In 1-D analytical modelling of a transient Richards’ equation for vertical evaporation, the method of small perturbations is applied, assuming that the relative permeability is Avery-anov’s 3.5-power function of the moisture content and capillary pressure is a given (measured function. A linearized advective dispersion equation is solved with respect to the second term in the series expansion of the moisture content as a function of spatial coordinates and time. For a single block of a nite thickness we solve a boundary value problem with a no- ow condition at the bottom and a constant moisture content at the surface. Preliminary comparisons with theta-, TDR- probes measuring the moisture content and temperature at several in-block points are made. Results corroborate that a 3-D heterogeneity of soil physical properties, in particular, horizontal and vertical capillary barriers emerging on the interfaces between silt and sand generate eco-niches with stored soil water compartments favourable for lush vegetation in desert conditions. Desiccation significantly increases the temperature in the blocks and re-wetting of the blocks reduces the daily average and peak temperatures, the latter by almost 15°C. This is important for planning irrigation in smartly designed soil substrates and sustainability of wild plants in the region where the top soil peak temperature in the study area exceeds 70°C in Summer but smartly structured soils maintain lash vegetation. Thee layer of dry top-blocks acts as a thermal insulator for the subjacent layers of wet blocks that

  15. Reduced moisture-induced degradation of YBaCuO superconducting films by silver and high deposition temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.

    1988-01-01

    Moisture-induced degradation of the YBaCuO superconducting films is studied using layer structures deposited at low temperatures with and without a silver covering layer, and using films deposited at high temperatures with a silver barrier layer. For the former, Ag/Cu/BaO/Y 2 O 3 /YSZ and Cu/BaO/Y 2 O 3 /YSZ are compared, where YSZ stands for yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. Superconducting films with zero resistance between 80 and 87 K are obtained, depending on the annealing temperatures. Upon removing the samples from liquid nitrogen and warming in flowing nitrogen, a large rise in film resistivity is observed for the structures without silver, resulting in reduced temperatures for zero resistance and reduced critical current density at 77 K. Much less degradation is observed, however, with the samples containing a silver layer. For the samples deposited at high temperatures, no degradation is observed from similar moisture exposures

  16. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The SST–wind relation is analyzed using data both from the buoy and satellite. As a result, the low- SST is associated with low-wind condition (positive slope) in the northern part of the Bay of Bengal (BoB), while low SST values are associated with high wind conditions (negative slope) over the southern BoB. Moreover, the ...

  17. Effect of temperature and moisture on the mineralization and humification of leaf litter in a model incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Maltseva, A. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Bykhovets, S. S.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2017-04-01

    The mineralization and humification of leaf litter collected in a mixed forest of the Prioksko-Terrasny Reserve depending on temperature (2, 12, and 22°C) and moisture (15, 30, 70, 100, and 150% of water holding capacity ( WHC)) has been studied in long-term incubation experiments. Mineralization is the most sensitive to temperature changes at the early stage of decomposition; the Q 10 value at the beginning of the experiment (1.5-2.7) is higher than at the later decomposition stages (0.3-1.3). Carbon losses usually exceed nitrogen losses during decomposition. Intensive nitrogen losses are observed only at the high temperature and moisture of litter (22°C and 100% WHC). Humification determined from the accumulation of humic substances in the end of incubation decreases from 34 to 9% with increasing moisture and temperature. The degree of humification CHA/CFA is maximum (1.14) at 12°C and 15% WHC; therefore, these temperature and moisture conditions are considered optimal for humification. Humification calculated from the limit value of litter mineralization is almost independent of temperature, but it significantly decreases from 70 to 3% with increasing moisture. A possible reason for the difference between the humification values measured by two methods is the conservation of a significant part of hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin during the transformation of litter and the formation of a complex of humic substances with plant residues, where HSs fulfill a protectoral role and decrease the decomposition rate of plant biopolymers.

  18. An Operational In Situ Soil Moisture & Soil Temperature Monitoring Network for West Wales, UK: The WSMN Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P; McCalmont, Jon P

    2017-06-23

    This paper describes a soil moisture dataset that has been collecting ground measurements of soil moisture, soil temperature and related parameters for west Wales, United Kingdom. Already acquired in situ data have been archived to the autonomous Wales Soil Moisture Network (WSMN) since its foundation in July 2011. The sites from which measurements are being collected represent a range of conditions typical of the Welsh environment, with climate ranging from oceanic to temperate and a range of the most typical land use/cover types found in Wales. At present, WSMN consists of a total of nine monitoring sites across the area with a concentration of sites in three sub-areas around the region of Aberystwyth located in Mid-Wales. The dataset of composed of 0-5 (or 0-10) cm soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and other ancillary data. WSMN data are provided openly to the public via the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) platform. At present, WSMN is also rapidly expanding thanks to funding obtained recently which allows more monitoring sites to be added to the network to the wider community interested in using its data.

  19. Assimilation of Global Radar Backscatter and Radiometer Brightness Temperature Observations to Improve Soil Moisture and Land Evaporation Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Miralles, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Active radar backscatter (s?) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) to improve its simulations of soil moisture and land evaporation. To enable s? and TB assimilation, GLEAM is coupled to the Water Cloud Model and the L-band Microwave Emission from the Biosphere (L-MEB) model. The innovations, i.e. differences between observations and simulations, are mapped onto the model soil moisture states through an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The validation of surface (0-10 cm) soil moisture simulations over the period 2010-2014 against in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) shows that assimilating s? or TB alone improves the average correlation of seasonal anomalies (Ran) from 0.514 to 0.547 and 0.548, respectively. The joint assimilation further improves Ran to 0.559. Associated enhancements in daily evaporative flux simulations by GLEAM are validated based on measurements from 22 FLUXNET stations. Again, the singular assimilation improves Ran from 0.502 to 0.536 and 0.533, respectively for s? and TB, whereas the best performance is observed for the joint assimilation (Ran = 0.546). These results demonstrate the complementary value of assimilating radar backscatter observations together with brightness temperatures for improving estimates of hydrological variables, as their joint assimilation outperforms the assimilation of each observation type separately.

  20. WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 (LPRM_WINDSAT_DY_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil...

  1. WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 (LPRM_WINDSAT_NT_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil...

  2. Assessment of tracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized individuals and the influence of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J.K.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; de Jongh, F.H.C.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The beneficial function of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) is undisputed, but knowledge of their effects on intra-airway temperature and humidity is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of a new airway climate explorer (ACE) and to assess the HME's

  3. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Rocha, Da H.R.; Freitas, De H.C.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Manzi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil

  4. Complex terrain alters temperature and moisture limitations of forest soil respiration across a semiarid to subalpine gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Barnard, H.R.; Adams, H.R.; Burns, M.A.; Gallo, E.; Brooks, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Forest soil respiration is a major carbon (C) flux that is characterized by significant variability in space and time. We quantified growing season soil respiration during both a drought year and a nondrought year across a complex landscape to identify how landscape and climate interact to control soil respiration. We asked the following questions: (1) How does soil respiration vary across the catchments due to terrain-induced variability in moisture availability and temperature? (2) Does the relative importance of moisture versus temperature limitation of respiration vary across space and time? And (3) what terrain elements are important for dictating the pattern of soil respiration and its controls? Moisture superseded temperature in explaining watershed respiration patterns, with wetter yet cooler areas higher up and on north facing slopes yielding greater soil respiration than lower and south facing areas. Wetter subalpine forests had reduced moisture limitation in favor of greater seasonal temperature limitation, and the reverse was true for low-elevation semiarid forests. Coincident climate poorly predicted soil respiration in the montane transition zone; however, antecedent precipitation from the prior 10 days provided additional explanatory power. A seasonal trend in respiration remained after accounting for microclimate effects, suggesting that local climate alone may not adequately predict seasonal variability in soil respiration in montane forests. Soil respiration climate controls were more strongly related to topography during the drought year highlighting the importance of landscape complexity in ecosystem response to drought.

  5. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in

  6. Persistence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in loess soil under different combinations of temperature, soil moisture and light/darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Yang, Xiaomei; Gort, Gerrit; Xue, Sha; Dam, van Ruud; Zomer, Paul; Mol, Hans G.J.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation kinetics of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were studied in loess soil, under biotic and abiotic conditions, as affected by temperature, soil moisture (SM) and light/darkness. Nonsterile and sterile soil samples were spiked with 16 mg kg

  7. Effect of site treatments on soil temperature and moisture and oak and pine growth and nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder

    2003-01-01

    Five years after planting, measurements of soil moisture and temperature, leaf nutrient concentrations and growth, were compared for plots of northern red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine for treatment combinations that included two levels each of harvesting intensity (organic matter removal), site disturbance (soil compaction), and weed control (control of the...

  8. Determination of land surface temperature and soil moisture from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/Microwave Imager remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, J.; Su, Z.; Ma, Y.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical algorithm for the determination of land surface temperature and soil moisture from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/Microwave Imager (TRMM/TMI) remote sensing data has been developed in this study. The error analyses indicate that the uncertainties of the enrolled parameters

  9. Single-sided natural ventilation driven by wind pressure and temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    Even though opening a window for ventilation of a room seems very simple, the flow that occurs in this situation is rather complicated. The amount of air going through the window opening will depend on the wind speed near the building, the temperatures inside and outside the room, the wind direct...... on the ratio between the forces and the wind direction. This change is also found in the velocity profiles measured in the opening, which might change from wind dominated to temperature dominated under the same wind direction but with increasing temperature difference.......Even though opening a window for ventilation of a room seems very simple, the flow that occurs in this situation is rather complicated. The amount of air going through the window opening will depend on the wind speed near the building, the temperatures inside and outside the room, the wind......-scale wind tunnel experiments have been made with the aim of making a new expression for calculation of the airflow rate in single-sided natural ventilation. During the wind tunnel experiments it was found that the dominating driving force differs between wind speed and temperature difference depending...

  10. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing interpre......A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing...... interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA...

  11. Diurnal experiment data report, 19-20 March 1974. [temperature and wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Yamasaki, Y.; Motta, A.; Brynsztein, S.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature and wind data are presented from 70 small meteorological sounding rockets launched from eight selected launch sites in the Western Hemisphere. Table 1 gives a complete listing of the launch sites involved and the altitude of temperature and wind observations successfully completed.

  12. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitnov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7, North America (7, Japan (4, Hawaii (1, Australia (2, and Antarctic (1.

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternation of layers of well-developed quasi-biennial signals, whose phases gradually change with height and thin transitional layers of ill-developed signals, whose phases change abruptly with height. The amplitudes of the effects depend on height and reach the maxima of 3–6nbar in the lower stratosphere. At the majority of sites the effects are found to be approximately in phase between 20 and 23km.

    Two types of the vertical structures of the temperature QBO effects are found. At most of the sites located equatorward of about 50° the stratospheric temperature anomalies are characterized by downward propagation, whereas at sites situated poleward of about 50° they look as column-like structures. Near the tropopause the effects frequently reveal dipole-like structure, when the stratospheric and tropospheric anomalies are of opposite signs. The amplitudes of the effects are in the range of 0.5–1°C.

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of horizontal wind components reveal a diversity of patterns. The amplitudes of the QBO effects of the meridional and zonal winds are comparable and lie in the range of 0.5–2m s–1. As a rule, the maxima of the effects are noticed slightly below the tropopause, as well as in the middle stratosphere.

    In general, a statistical assurance of the obtained QBO effects is rather poor. However, a considerable part of them reveal similarity

  13. Summer season soil temperature conditions, and soil moisture properties on the extensive green roofs in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, green roofs have been investigated more and more in order to improve the quality of municipal environment particularly to reduce the urban heat island effect and storm water runoff. Soil temperature and soil moisture are therefore two key factors in this respect. They should also be considered as important elements for plant distribution and community composition on extensive green roofs. The aim of this study is to investigate summer season soil temperature conditions, and soil ...

  14. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  15. Spatial downscaling of SMAP soil moisture using MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI during SMAPVEX15

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission provides global surface soil moisture product at 36 km resolution from its L-band radiometer. While the coarse resolution is satisfactory to many applications there are also a lot of applications which would benefit from a higher resolution soil moistu...

  16. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan

    2018-03-01

    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  17. Moisture and temperature influence on mechanical behavior of PPS/buckypapers carbon fiber laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J. A.; Santos, L. F. P.; Costa, M. L.; Ribeiro, B.; Botelho, E. C.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were dispersed in water with the assistance of water based surfactant and then sonicated in order to obtain a very well dispersed solution. The suspension was filtrate under vaccum conditions, generating a thin film called buckypapers (BP). Poly (phenylene sulphide) (PPS) reinforced carbon fiber (CF) and PPS reinforced CF/BP composites were manufactured through hot compression molding technique. Subsequently the samples were exposed to extreme humidity (90% of moisture) combined with high temperature (80 °C). The mechanical properties of the laminates were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis, compression shear test, interlaminar shear strength and impulse excitation of vibration. Volume fraction of pores were 10.93% for PPS/CF and 16.18% for PPS/BP/CF, indicating that the hot compression molding parameters employed in this investigation (1.4 MPa, 5 min and 330 °C) affected both the consolidation quality of the composites and the mechanical properties of the final laminates.

  18. Evaluating the Capabilities of Soil Enthalpy, Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature in Predicting Seasonal Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changyu; Chen, Haishan; Sun, Shanlei

    2018-04-01

    Soil enthalpy ( H) contains the combined effects of both soil moisture ( w) and soil temperature ( T) in the land surface hydrothermal process. In this study, the sensitivities of H to w and T are investigated using the multi-linear regression method. Results indicate that T generally makes positive contributions to H, while w exhibits different (positive or negative) impacts due to soil ice effects. For example, w negatively contributes to H if soil contains more ice; however, after soil ice melts, w exerts positive contributions. In particular, due to lower w interannual variabilities in the deep soil layer (i.e., the fifth layer), H is more sensitive to T than to w. Moreover, to compare the potential capabilities of H, w and T in precipitation ( P) prediction, the Huanghe-Huaihe Basin (HHB) and Southeast China (SEC), with similar sensitivities of H to w and T, are selected. Analyses show that, despite similar spatial distributions of H-P and T-P correlation coefficients, the former values are always higher than the latter ones. Furthermore, H provides the most effective signals for P prediction over HHB and SEC, i.e., a significant leading correlation between May H and early summer (June) P. In summary, H, which integrates the effects of T and w as an independent variable, has greater capabilities in monitoring land surface heating and improving seasonal P prediction relative to individual land surface factors (e.g., T and w).

  19. Simulated Seasonal Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Soil Moisture, Temperature, and Net Radiation in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Howington, Stacy E.; Cinnella, Pasquale; Smith, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The temperature and moisture regimes in a forest are key components in the forest ecosystem dynamics. Observations and studies indicate that the internal temperature distribution and moisture content of the tree influence not only growth and development, but onset and cessation of cambial activity [1], resistance to insect predation[2], and even affect the population dynamics of the insects [3]. Moreover, temperature directly affects the uptake and metabolism of population from the soil into the tree tissue [4]. Additional studies show that soil and atmospheric temperatures are significant parameters that limit the growth of trees and impose treeline elevation limitation [5]. Directional thermal infrared radiance effects have long been observed in natural backgrounds [6]. In earlier work, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal imaging [7-8]. In this paper, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal, and net radiation in a adeciduous forest using our recently developed three-dimensional, macro-scale computational tool that simulates the heat and mass transfer interaction in a soil-root-stem systems (SRSS). The SRSS model includes the coupling of existing heat and mass transport tools to stimulate the diurnal internal and external temperatures, internal fluid flow and moisture distribution, and heat flow in the system.

  20. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  1. Joint assimilation of SMOS brightness temperature and GRACE terrestrial water storage observations for improved soil moisture estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, M.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G.; Rodell, M.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from recent soil moisture missions (e.g. SMOS) have been used in innovative data assimilation studies to provide global high spatial (i.e. 40 km) and temporal resolution (i.e. 3-days) soil moisture profile estimates from microwave brightness temperature observations. In contrast with microwave-based satellite missions that are only sensitive to near-surface soil moisture (0-5 cm), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides accurate measurements of the entire vertically integrated terrestrial water storage column but, it is characterized by low spatial (i.e. 150,000 km2) and temporal (i.e. monthly) resolutions. Data assimilation studies have shown that GRACE-TWS primarily affects (in absolute terms) deeper moisture storages (i.e., groundwater). This work hypothesizes that unprecedented soil water profile accuracy can be obtained through the joint assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage and SMOS brightness temperature observations. A particular challenge of the joint assimilation is the use of the two different types of measurements that are relevant for hydrologic processes representing different temporal and spatial scales. The performance of the joint assimilation strongly depends on the chosen assimilation methods, measurement and model error spatial structures. The optimization of the assimilation technique constitutes a fundamental step toward a multi-variate multi-resolution integrative assimilation system aiming to improve our understanding of the global terrestrial water cycle.

  2. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  3. Preferential flows and soil moistures on a Benggang slope: Determined by the water and temperature co-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; He, Yangbo; Duan, Xiaoqian; Zou, Ziqiang; Lin, Lirong; Chen, Jiazhou

    2017-10-01

    Soil preferential flow (PF) has important effects on rainfall infiltration, moisture distribution, and hydrological and ecological process; but it is very difficult to monitor and characterize on a slope. In this paper, soil water and soil temperature at 20, 40, 60, 80 cm depths in six positions were simultaneously monitored at high frequency to confirm the occurrence of PF at a typical Benggang slope underlain granite residual deposits, and to determine the interaction of soil moisture distribution and Benggang erosion. In the presence of PF, the soil temperature was first (half to one hour) governed by the rainwater temperature, then (more than one hour) governed by the upper soil temperature; in the absence of PF (only matrix flow, MF), the soil temperature was initially governed by the upper soil temperature, then by the rainwater temperature. The results confirmed the water replacement phenomenon in MF, thus it can be distinguished from PF by additional temperature monitoring. It indicates that high frequency moisture and temperature monitoring can determine the occurrence of PF and reveal the soil water movement. The distribution of soil water content and PF on the different positions of the slope showed that a higher frequency of PF resulted in a higher variation of average of water content. The frequency of PF at the lower position can be three times as that of the upper position, therefore, the variation coefficient of soil water content increased from 4.67% to 12.68% at the upper position to 8.18%-33.12% at the lower position, where the Benggang erosion (soil collapse) was more possible. The results suggest strong relationships between PF, soil water variation, and collapse activation near the Benggang wall.

  4. Biological soil crust succession impact on soil moisture and temperature in the sub-surface along a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaady, E.; Yizhaq, H.; Ashkenazy, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Biological soil crusts produce mucilage sheets of polysaccharides that cover the soil surface. This hydrophobic coating can seal the soil micro-pores and thus cause reduction of water permeability and may influence soil temperature. This study evaluates the impact of crust composition on sub-surface water and temperature over time. We hypothesized that the successional stages of biological soil crusts, affect soil moisture and temperature differently along a rainfall gradient throughout the year. Four experimental sites were established along a rainfall gradient in the western Negev Desert. At each site three treatments; crust removal, pure sand (moving dune) and natural crusted were monitored. Crust successional stage was measured by biophysiological and physical measurements, soil water permeability by field mini-Infiltrometer, soil moisture by neutron scattering probe and temperature by sensors, at different depths. Our main interim conclusions from the ongoing study along the rainfall gradient are: 1. the biogenic crust controls water infiltration into the soil in sand dunes, 2. infiltration was dependent on the composition of the biogenic crust. It was low for higher successional stage crusts composed of lichens and mosses and high with cyanobacterial crust. Thus, infiltration rate controlled by the crust is inverse to the rainfall gradient. Continuous disturbances to the crust increase infiltration rates, 3. despite the different rainfall amounts at the sites, soil moisture content below 50 cm is almost the same. We therefore predict that climate change in areas that are becoming dryer (desertification) will have a positive effect on soil water content and vice versa.

  5. Shallow subsurface temperature and moisture monitoring at rock walls during freeze thaw cycles in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The process of frost weathering as well as the contribution of further weathering processes (e.g. hydration, thermal fatigue) is poorly understood. For this purpose, different measuring systems were set up in two study areas (Dachstein massif - permafrost area (2700m asl, 47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E) and Gesäuse mountains - non permafrost area (900m asl, 47° 35' 19″ N, 14° 39' 32″ E) located in Styria, Austria within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS (FWF-P2444). A key to understand frost weathering is to observe the rock temperature with several high resolution temperature sensors from the rock surface down to -20cm depth. The temperatures are measured hourly at north and south exposed rock walls since 2012 in the headwalls of the Dachstein glacier at the Koppenkarstein (built up of limestone) in about 2600m asl. Since 2013 the same measurement setup is installed in the lower Johnsbachtal (Gesäuse mountains, prevailing rock type is dolomite) in about 800m asl. To know the temperature is crucial to understand internal heat flow and transport and latent heat effects during freezing and thawing caused by night frost (lasting some hours), cold fronts (lasting some days) or winter frost of several weeks or months. At these study points we also have installed small-scale 2D-geoelectric survey lines, supplemented by moisture sensors. Moisture is determined by means of resistivity measurements which are difficult to calibrate, but provide good time series. Additional novel moisture sensors were developed which use the heat capacity of the surrounding rock as a proxy of water content. These sensors give point readings from a defined depth and are independent from soluble salt contents. First results from the Dachstein show that short term latent heat effects during the phase change have crucial influence on the moisture content. The moisture distribution and movements during temperature changes inside the rock are discussed upon the two main

  6. Some atmospheric dispersion, wind and temperature statistics from Jervis Bay, Australian Capital Territory 1972 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.

    1985-07-01

    A meteorological study of winds, temperatures and Pasquill stability categories was conducted in the coastal conditions at Jervis Bay. Three Pasquill stability categorisation schemes were compared. These indicated a predominance of neutral to slightly unstable conditions. During the daytime, north bay breezes and north-east sea breezes were most common together with on-shore south-east winds. Off-shore south-west winds prevailed during winter and were observed most frequently at night

  7. Temperature- and moisture-dependent phase changes in crystal forms of barbituric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencirci, Neslihan; Gstrein, Elisabeth; Langes, Christoph [Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Griesser, Ulrich J. [Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: ulrich.griesser@uibk.ac.at

    2009-03-10

    The dihydrate of barbituric acid (BAc) and its dehydration product, form II were investigated by means of moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, solution calorimetry, IR- and Raman-spectroscopy as well as powder X-ray diffraction. The dihydrate desolvates already at and below 50% relative humidity (RH) at 25 deg. C whereas form II is stable up to 80% RH, where it transforms back to the dihydrate. The thermal dehydration of barbituric acid dihydrate (BAc-H2) is a single step, nucleation controlled process. The peritectic reaction of the hydrate was measured at 77 deg. C and a transformation enthalpy of {delta}{sub trs}H{sub H2-II} = 17.3 kJ mol{sup -1} was calculated for the interconversion between the hydrate and form II. An almost identical value of 17.0 kJ mol{sup -1} was obtained from solution calorimetry in water as solvent ({delta}{sub sol}H{sub H2} = 41.5, {delta}{sub sol}H{sub II} = 24.5 kJ mol{sup -1}). Additionally a high-temperature form (HT-form) of BAc, which is enantiotropically related to form II and unstable at ambient conditions has been characterized. Furthermore, we observed that grinding of BAc with potassium bromide (KBr) induces a tautomeric change. Therefore, IR-spectra recorded with KBr-discs usually display a mixture of tautomers, whereas the IR-spectra of the pure trioxo-form of BAc are obtained if alternative preparation techniques are used.

  8. Retrieving Atmospheric Temperature and Moisture Profiles from NPP CRIS/ATMS Sensors Using Crimss EDR Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Kizer, S.; Barnet, C.; Dvakarla, M.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) mission in collaboration with the U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) and international partners. The NPP Cross-track Infrared Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the infrared (IR) Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the microwave (MW) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The CrIS instrument is hyperspectral interferometer, which measures high spectral and spatial resolution upwelling infrared radiances. The ATMS is a 22-channel radiometer similar to Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU) A and B. It measures top of atmosphere MW upwelling radiation and provides capability of sounding below clouds. The CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithm provides three EDRs, namely the atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP, respectively), with the lower tropospheric AVTP and the AVMP being JPSS Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). The operational CrIMSS EDR an algorithm was originally designed to run on large IBM computers with dedicated data management subsystem (DMS). We have ported the operational code to simple Linux systems by replacing DMS with appropriate interfaces. We also changed the interface of the operational code so that we can read data from both the CrIMSS science code and the operational code and be able to compare lookup tables, parameter files, and output results. The detail of the CrIMSS EDR algorithm is described in reference [1]. We will present results of testing the CrIMSS EDR operational algorithm using proxy data generated from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite data and from the NPP CrIS/ATMS data.

  9. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on biochemical biomarkers in earthworm and microbial activity after exposure to propiconazole and chlorantraniliprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberger, Davorka K; Palijan, Goran; Lončarić, Željka; Jovanović Glavaš, Olga; Hackenberger, Branimir K

    2018-02-01

    Predicted climate change could impact the effects that various chemicals have on organisms. Increased temperature or change in precipitation regime could either enhance or lower toxicity of pesticides. The aim of this study is to assess how change in temperature and soil moisture affect biochemical biomarkers in Eisenia fetida earthworm and microbial activity in their excrements after exposure to a fungicide - propiconazole (PCZ) and an insecticide - chlorantraniliprole (CAP). For seven days, earthworms were exposed to the pesticides under four environmental conditions comprising combinations of two different temperatures (20°C and 25°C) and two different soil water holding capacities (30% and 50%). After exposure, in the collected earthworm casts the microbial activity was measured through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and biofilm forming ability (BFA), and in the postmitochondrial fraction of earthworms the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) respectively. The temperature and the soil moisture affected enzyme activities and organism's response to pesticides. It was determined that a three-way interaction (pesticide concentration, temperature and moisture) is statistically significant for the CAT and GST after the CAP exposure, and for the AChE and CAT after the PCZ exposure. Interestingly, the AChE activity was induced by both pesticides at a higher temperature tested. The most important two-way interaction that was determined occurred between the concentration and temperature applied. DHA and BFA, as markers of microbial activity, were unevenly affected by PCZ, CAP and environmental conditions. The results of this experiment demonstrate that experiments with at least two different environmental conditions can give a very good insight into some possible effects that the climate change could have on the toxicity of pesticides. The interaction of environmental factors should play a more important role in

  10. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  11. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  12. Brightness Temperature and Soil Moisture Validation at Different Scales During the SMOS Validation Campaign in the Rur and Erft Catchments, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye R.; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched in November 2009 and delivers now brightness temperature and soil moisture products over terrestrial areas on a regular three-day basis. In 2010, several airborne campaigns were conducted to validate the SMOS...

  13. Assessing the Impacts of Urbanization-Associated Land Use/Cover Change on Land Surface Temperature and Surface Moisture: A Case Study in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitong Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization-associated land use and land cover (LULC changes lead to modifications of surface microclimatic and hydrological conditions, including the formation of urban heat islands and changes in surface runoff pattern. The goal of the paper is to investigate the changes of biophysical variables due to urbanization induced LULC changes in Indianapolis, USA, from 2001 to 2006. The biophysical parameters analyzed included Land Surface Temperature (LST, fractional vegetation cover, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, impervious fractions evaporative fraction, and soil moisture. Land cover classification and changes and impervious fractions were obtained from the National Land Cover Database of 2001 and 2006. The Temperature-Vegetation Index (TVX space was created to analyze how these satellite-derived biophysical parameters change during urbanization. The results showed that the general trend of pixel migration in response to the LULC changes was from the areas of low temperature, dense vegetation cover, and high surface moisture conditions to the areas of high temperature, sparse vegetation cover, and low surface moisture condition in the TVX space. Analyses of the T-soil moisture and T-NDWI spaces revealed similar changed patterns. The rate of change in LST, vegetation cover, and moisture varied with LULC type and percent imperviousness. Compared to conversion from cultivated to residential land, the change from forest to commercial land altered LST and moisture more intensively. Compared to the area changed from cultivated to residential, the area changed from forest to commercial altered 48% more in fractional vegetation cover, 71% more in LST, and 15% more in soil moisture Soil moisture and NDWI were both tested as measures of surface moisture in the urban areas. NDWI was proven to be a useful measure of vegetation liquid water and was more sensitive to the land cover changes comparing to soil moisture. From a change forest to

  14. Estimate of Hurricane Wind Speed from AMSR-E Low-Frequency Channel Brightness Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new parameters (W6H and W6V were defined that represent brightness temperature increments for different low-frequency channels due to ocean wind. We developed a new wind speed retrieval model inside hurricanes based on W6H and W6V using brightness temperature data from AMSR-E. The AMSR-E observations of 12 category 3–5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2011 and corresponding data from the H*wind analysis system were used to develop and validate the AMSR-E wind speed retrieval model. The results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the AMSR-E retrieved wind speeds with respect to H*wind (HRD Real-time Hurricane Wind Analysis System analysis data were −0.01 m/s and 2.66 m/s, respectively. One case study showed that W6H and W6V were less sensitive to rain than the observed AMSR-E C-band and X-band brightness temperature data. The AMSR-E retrieval model was further validated by comparing the retrieved wind speeds against stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The comparison showed an RMS difference of 3.41 m/s and a mean bias of 0.49 m/s.

  15. Temperature and Moisture Conditions for Life in the Extreme Arid Region of the Atacama Desert: Four Years of Observations Including the El Niño of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Cáceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-06-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5°C and 16.6°C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9°C, and the minimum was -5.7°C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m-2 in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong föhn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s-1. During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Niño of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  16. Role of the Soil Thermal Inertia in the short term variability of the surface temperature and consequences for the soil-moisture temperature feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruy, Frederique; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Ait Mesbah, Sonia; Grandpeix, Jean-Yves; Wang, Fuxing

    2017-04-01

    A simple model based on the surface energy budget at equilibrium is developed to compute the sensitivity of the climatological mean daily temperature and diurnal amplitude to the soil thermal inertia. It gives a conceptual framework to quantity the role of the atmospheric and land surface processes in the surface temperature variability and relies on the diurnal amplitude of the net surface radiation, the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes to the surface temperature and the thermal inertia. The performances of the model are first evaluated with 3D numerical simulations performed with the atmospheric (LMDZ) and land surface (ORCHIDEE) modules of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate model. A nudging approach is adopted, it prevents from using time-consuming long-term simulations required to account for the natural variability of the climate and allow to draw conclusion based on short-term (several years) simulations. In the moist regions the diurnal amplitude and the mean surface temperature are controlled by the latent heat flux. In the dry areas, the relevant role of the stability of the boundary layer and of the soil thermal inertia is demonstrated. In these regions, the sensitivity of the surface temperature to the thermal inertia is high, due to the high contribution of the thermal flux to the energy budget. At high latitudes, when the sensitivity of turbulent fluxes is dominated by the day-time sensitivity of the sensible heat flux to the surface temperature and when this later is comparable to the thermal inertia term of the sensitivity equation, the surface temperature is also partially controlled by the thermal inertia which can rely on the snow properties; In the regions where the latent heat flux exhibits a high day-to-day variability, such as transition regions, the thermal inertia has also significant impact on the surface temperature variability . In these not too wet (energy limited) and not too dry (moisture-limited) soil moisture (SM

  17. Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    As a non-fossil technology, wind power has an enormous advantage over coal because of its role in climate change mitigation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity will affect emission reductions, changes in radiative forcing and rising temperatures, particularly in the context of emission limits. We developed an integrated methodology that includes two parts: an energy-economy-environmental (3E) integrated model and an emission-temperature response model. The former is used to simulate the dynamic relationships between economic output, wind energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; the latter is used to evaluate changes in radiative forcing and warming. Under the present development projection, wind energy cannot serve as a major force in curbing emissions, even under the strictest space-restraining scenario. China's temperature contribution to global warming will be up to 21.76% if warming is limited to 2 degrees. With the wind-for-coal power substitution, the corresponding contribution to global radiative forcing increase and temperature rise will decrease by up to 10% and 6.57%, respectively. Substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity has positive effects on emission reductions and warming control. However, wind energy alone is insufficient for climate change mitigation. It forms an important component of the renewable energy portfolio used to combat global warming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the mineralizable pool of soil organic matter to changes in temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, A. S.; Semenov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of the potentially mineralizable pool of soil organic matter (Cpm) to changes in temperature and moisture has been assessed from the temperature coefficient ( Q10) and the moisture coefficient ( W 10), which indicate how much the Cpm size changes, when the temperature changes by 10°C and the soil water content changes by 10 wt %, respectively. Samples of gray forest soil, podzolized chernozem, and dark chestnut soil taken from arable plots have been incubated at 8, 18, and 28°C and humidity of 10, 25, and 40 wt %. From the data on the production of C-CO2 by soil samples during incubation for 150 days, the content of Cpm has been calculated. It has been shown that, on average for the three soils, an increase in temperature accounts for 63% of the rise in the pool of potentially mineralizable organic matter, whereas an increase in moisture accounts for 8% of that rise. The temperature coefficients of the potentially mineralizable pool are 2.71 ± 0.64, 1.27 ± 0.20, and 1.85 ± 0.30 in ranges of 8-18, 18-28, and 8-28°C, respectively; the moisture coefficients are 1.19 ± 0.11, 1.09 ± 0.05, and 1.14 ± 0.06 in ranges of 10-25, 25-40, and 10-40 wt %, respectively. The easily mineralizable fraction (C1, k 1 > 0.1 days-1) of the active pool of soil organic matter is less sensitive to temperature than the hardly mineralizable fraction (C3, 0.01 > k 3 > 0.001 days-1); their Q 10 values are 0.91 ± 0.15 and 2.40 ± 0.31, respectively. On the contrary, the easily mineralizable fraction is more sensitive to moistening than the hardly mineralizable fraction: their W 10 values are 1.22 ± 0.06 and 1.03 ± 0.08, respectively. The intensification of mineralization with rising temperature and water content during a long-term incubation results in the exhausting of the active pool, which reduces the production of CO2 by the soils during the repeated incubation under similar conditions nonlimiting mineralization.

  19. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.

    1992-12-01

    Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions

  20. Effects of soil moisture content and temperature on methane uptake by grasslands on sandy soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Van Dasselaar, van den A.; Beusichem, van M.L.; Oenema, O.

    1998-01-01

    Aerobic grasslands may consume significant amounts of atmospheric methane (CH4). We aimed (i) to assess the spatial and temporal variability of net CH4 fluxes from grasslands on aerobic sandy soils, and (ii) to explain the variability in net CH4 fluxes by differences in soil moisture content and

  1. A new method to determine the water activity and the net isosteric heats of sorption for low moisture foods at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Carter, Brady; Tang, Juming

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, research studies have shown that the thermal resistance of foodborne pathogens in the low moisture foods is greatly influenced by the water activity (a w ) at temperatures relevant to thermal treatments for pathogen control. Yet, there has been a lack of an effective method for accurate measurement of a w at those temperatures. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate a new method for measuring a w of food samples at elevated temperatures. An improved thermal cell with a relative humidity and temperature sensor was used to measure the a w of the three different food samples, namely, organic wheat flour, almond flour, and non-fat milk powder, over the temperature range between 20 and 80°C. For a constant moisture content, the a w data was used to estimate the net isosteric heat of sorption (q st ). The q st values were then used in the Clausius Clapeyron equation (CCE) equation to estimate the moisture sorption isotherm for all test food samples at different temperatures. For all the tested samples of any fixed moisture content, a w value generally increased with the temperature. The energy for sorption decreased with increasing moisture content. With the experimentally determined q st value, CCE describes well about the changes in a w of the food samples between 20 and 80°C. This study presents a method to obtain a w of a food sample for a specific moisture content at different temperatures which could be extended to obtain q st values for different moisture contents and hence, the moisture sorption isotherm of a food sample at different temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nanda Kishore Reddy

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... ditions and provides continuous data, which will be helpful to understand the desperate situations that occur in real time scenario. Availability of AMSR-2 low frequencies (6.93 and 10.65 GHz) is used for retrieval of sea surface wind (SSW) and SST even under the cloudy conditions. The microwave.

  3. Application of fuzzy logic to the control of wind tunnel settling chamber temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Humphreys, Gregory L.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC's) to the control of nonlinear processes, typically controlled by a human operator, is a topic of much study. Recent application of a microprocessor-based FLC to the control of temperature processes in several wind tunnels has proven to be very successful. The control of temperature processes in the wind tunnels requires the ability to monitor temperature feedback from several points and to accommodate varying operating conditions in the wind tunnels. The FLC has an intuitive and easily configurable structure which incorporates the flexibility required to have such an ability. The design and implementation of the FLC is presented along with process data from the wind tunnels under automatic control.

  4. Winds and temperatures of the Arctic middle atmosphere during January measured by Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Jens; Baumgarten, Gerd; Fiedler, Jens; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2017-11-01

    We present an extensive data set of simultaneous temperature and wind measurements in the Arctic middle atmosphere. It consists of more than 300 h of Doppler Rayleigh lidar observations obtained during three January seasons (2012, 2014, and 2015) and covers the altitude range from 30 km up to about 85 km. The data set reveals large year-to-year variations in monthly mean temperatures and winds, which in 2012 are affected by a sudden stratospheric warming. The temporal evolution of winds and temperatures after that warming are studied over a period of 2 weeks, showing an elevated stratopause and the reformation of the polar vortex. The monthly mean temperatures and winds are compared to data extracted from the Integrated Forecast System of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Horizontal Wind Model (HWM07). Lidar and ECMWF data show good agreement of mean zonal and meridional winds below ≈ 55 km altitude, but we also find mean temperature, zonal wind, and meridional wind differences of up to 20 K, 20 m s-1, and 5 m s-1, respectively. Differences between lidar observations and HWM07 data are up to 30 m s-1. From the fluctuations of temperatures and winds within single nights we extract the potential and kinetic gravity wave energy density (GWED) per unit mass. It shows that the kinetic GWED is typically 5 to 10 times larger than the potential GWED, the total GWED increases with altitude with a scale height of ≈ 16 km. Since temporal fluctuations of winds and temperatures are underestimated in ECMWF, the total GWED is underestimated as well by a factor of 3-10 above 50 km altitude. Similarly, we estimate the energy density per unit mass for large-scale waves (LWED) from the fluctuations of nightly mean temperatures and winds. The total LWED is roughly constant with altitude. The ratio of kinetic to potential LWED varies with altitude over 2 orders of magnitude. LWEDs from ECMWF data show results similar to the lidar data. From the

  5. Effects of temperature, moisture, and metal salt content on dielectric properties of rice bran associated with radio frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2018-03-13

    Dielectric heating including microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) energy has been regarded as alternative thermal treatments for food processing. To develop effective rice bran (RB) stabilization treatments based on RF and MW heating, dielectric properties (DPs) with dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) of RB samples at frequencies (10-3000 MHz), temperatures (25-100 °C), moisture content (MC, 10.36-24.69% w.b.) and three metal salt levels (0.05-2.00%) were determined by an open-ended coaxial probe and impedance analyzer. Results indicated that both ε' and ε″ of RB samples increased with increasing temperature and MC. The increase rate was greater at higher temperature and moisture levels than at lower levels, especially at frequencies lower than 300 MHz. Cubic order models were developed to best fit the relationship between DPs of RB samples and temperature/MC at five frequencies with R 2 greater than 0.994. Both ε″ and RF heating rate of RB samples increased significantly with added NaCl (2%), KCl (1%) and Na 6 O 18 P 6 (2%). The obtained data are useful in developing computer models and simulating dielectric heating for RB stabilization and may also provide theoretical basis for synergistic stabilization of RB under combined dielectric heating with metal salts.

  6. Effects of temperature and moisture during semi-hermetic storage on the quality evaluation parameters of soybean grain and oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor Ziegler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill is the most cultivated oilseed in the world, being of major importance in food, feed and biodiesel production. The quality of the product being marketed is directly influenced by storage techniques, and the grain moisture, temperature and storage time are primarily responsible for most of the amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and humidity during the semi-hermetic storage on chemical and technological parameters for assessing the quality of soybean. The kernels were stored for 12 months in semi-hermetic system with two combinations temperature (15 to 25 °C and humidity (12 and 16% and then evaluated for the occurrence of plagues, variations in humidity, levels of lipids and proteins, protein solubility, oil quality, carotenoids, color, enthalpy and thousand grain weight. The results showed that the increase in storage time leads to changes in chemical and technological parameters. The preservation of the parameters of acid oil and thousand grain weight was dependent reductions in moisture, while the incidence of pests, protein solubility, enthalpy, carotenoid levels and parameters of color preservation were preserved by reducing temperature.

  7. Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    Background: As a non-fossil technology, wind power has an enormous advantage over coal because of its role in climate change mitigation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity will affect emission reductions, changes in radiative forcing and rising temperatures, particularly in the context of emission limits. Methods: We developed an integrated methodology that includes two parts: an energy-economy-environmental (3E) integrated model and an emission-temperature response model. The former is used to simulate the dynamic relationships between economic output, wind energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; the latter is used to evaluate changes in radiative forcing and warming. Results: Under the present development projection, wind energy cannot serve as a major force in curbing emissions, even under the strictest space-restraining scenario. China's temperature contribution to global warming will be up to 21.76% if warming is limited to 2 degrees. With the wind-for-coal power substitution, the corresponding contribution to global radiative forcing increase and temperature rise will decrease by up to 10% and 6.57%, respectively. Conclusions: Substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity has positive effects on emission reductions and warming control. However, wind energy alone is insufficient for climate change mitigation. It forms an important component of the renewable energy portfolio used to combat global warming. - Highlights: • We assess the warming benefits associated with substitution of wind power for coal. • The effect of emission space limits on climate responses is deeply examined. • China is responsible for at most 21.76% of global warming given the 2-degree target. • Wind power alone may not be sufficient to face the challenge of climate change. • A fertile policy soil and an aggressive plan are necessary to boost renewables.

  8. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  9. Effects of vegetation types on soil moisture estimation from the normalized land surface temperature versus vegetation index space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianjun; Zhou, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable that has been widely used in many environmental studies. Land surface temperature versus vegetation index (LST-VI) space becomes a common way to estimate SM in optical remote sensing applications. Normalized LST-VI space is established by the normalized LST and VI to obtain the comparable SM in Zhang et al. (Validation of a practical normalized soil moisture model with in situ measurements in humid and semiarid regions [J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1055610). The boundary conditions in the study were set to limit the point A (the driest bare soil) and B (the wettest bare soil) for surface energy closure. However, no limitation was installed for point D (the full vegetation cover). In this paper, many vegetation types are simulated by the land surface model - Noah LSM 3.2 to analyze the effects on soil moisture estimation, such as crop, grass and mixed forest. The locations of point D are changed with vegetation types. The normalized LST of point D for forest is much lower than crop and grass. The location of point D is basically unchanged for crop and grass.

  10. Towards the implementation of L-band Soil Moisture Brightness Temperatures in the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Marco; Bilodeau, Bernard; Russell, Albert; Wang, Xihong; Belair, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS) currently runs in Environment Canada (EC) operations and provides the initial conditions for soil moisture and soil temperature to the High-Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS). Errors in screen-level temperature and dew-point temperature are used to analyze soil moisture and soil temperature. The observational gap in soil moisture is being alleviated by significant advances in remote sensing technologies specifically dedicated to the measurement of soil moisture. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in November 2009 and has been providing global coverage of near-surface soil moisture every 3 days. In January 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite was launched by NASA, and similar to SMOS, is equipped with a passive radiometer measuring the soil emission in the highly sensitive L-band frequency. The land-surface modeling component within CaLDAS has been coupled to the CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform) microwave radiative transfer model to allow for the assimilation of L-band brightness temperatures (TB). This study reports upon a series of pre-operational experiments exploring how best to combine the traditional screen-level variables with the more direct measurements of soil moisture provided by SMOS and SMAP for a better analysis of the soil moisture state. The study period will be the warm season periods for 2014 and 2015 over North America. Analyzed soil moistures will be compared against in-situ monitoring networks, but the principal focus will be upon the impacts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) mode. EC's Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS), with 10 km grid spacing, is the principal NWP guidance used by Meteorological Service of Canada forecasters in the 1-2 day range. CaLDAS will be run assimilating different configurations of screen-level data and SMOS/SMAP TBs to

  11. Adaptive Backstepping Control Based on Floating Offshore High Temperature Superconductor Generator for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of offshore wind power, the doubly fed induction generator and permanent magnet synchronous generator cannot meet the increasing request of power capacity. Therefore, superconducting generator should be used instead of the traditional motor, which can improve generator efficiency, reduce the weight of wind turbines, and increase system reliability. This paper mainly focuses on nonlinear control in the offshore wind power system which is consisted of a wind turbine and a high temperature superconductor generator. The proposed control approach is based on the adaptive backstepping method. Its main purpose is to regulate the rotor speed and generator voltage, therefore, achieving the maximum power point tracking (MPPT, improving the efficiency of a wind turbine, and then enhancing the system’s stability and robustness under large disturbances. The control approach can ensure high precision of generator speed tracking, which is confirmed in both the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  12. Role of temperature and free moisture in onion flower blight. [Botrytis squamosa; Botrytis cinerea; and Botrytis allii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G.R.; Lorbeer, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The cardinal temperatures at which onion umbels were blighted (after inoculation when two-thirds of the florets were open) with Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii (isolated from blighted onion florets) were near 9, 21, and 27 C for B. squamosa, near 12, 21, and 30 C for B. cinerea, and near 9, 24, and 30 C for B. allii. The cardinal temperatures for mycelial growth (potato-dextrose agar) of B. squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii were near 5, 22, and 30 C for each fungus. The cardinal temperatures for conidial germination (on purified water agar) were near 6, 15, and 30 C for B. squamosa; 3, 18, and 33 C for B. cinerea; and 6, 24, and 33 C for B. allii. When the duration of free moisture on umbels after inoculation with the three pathogens was increased from 0 to 96 hr. the percentages of unopened florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules blighted at 21 C were increased significantly. Free moisture durations of 12-24, 6-12, and 6-12 hr were necessary for blighting of unopen florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules, respectively, by each pathogen at 21 C. A positive correlation between the amount of July rainfall and the natural incidence of onion flower blight was observed in Orange County, New York, from 1976 to 1981. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  13. What are the relative roles of heating and cooling in generating solar wind temperature anisotropies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruca, B A; Kasper, J C; Bale, S D

    2011-11-11

    Temperature anisotropy in the solar wind results from a combination of mechanisms of anisotropic heating (e.g., cyclotron-resonant heating and dissipation of kinetic Alfvén waves) and cooling (e.g., Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic expansion). In contrast, anisotropy-driven instabilities such as the cyclotron, mirror, and firehose instabilities limit the allowable departure of the plasma from isotropy. This study used data from the Faraday cups on the Wind spacecraft to examine scalar temperature and temperature components of protons. Plasma unstable to the mirror or firehose instability was found to be about 3-4 times hotter than stable plasma. Since anisotropy-driven instabilities are not understood to heat the plasma, these results suggest that heating processes are more effective than cooling processes at creating and maintaining proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind.

  14. Symposium on Wood Moisture Content - Temperature and Humidity Relationships Held at Blacksburg, Virginia on October 29, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-29

    34Recommended We all know this figure, from Al Stamm’s book moisture-content averages for interior-fin- on ood and Cellulose Science, I’m sure. It ishing...is about Stamm: Wood and Cellulose Science 0.100 in. of mercury. Now, if temperature alone is increased, let’s say to 75’ F, EMC The second figure that...of as a st ruc tural sys ten involv ing f il/men/to//s tie ope’ra/tion of lesser it tractivye forces microfibrils , rmostly celliuloqir nd

  15. The Relationships between Wind Speed and Temperature Time Series in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangprasert, N.; Suwanarat, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this research we investigate the relationships between wind speed and temperature time series data in Bangkok, Thailand, from the time interval of January 2009 to December 2011 using wavelet transform (WT), cross wavelet transform (XWT) and wavelet coherence (WTC). The results from all three wavelet analysis show the strong periodicity around period 1 day (hourly data) and period band 256-450 days (daily data) variations that are exhibited in both wind speed and temperature data across the entire power spectrum from 2009 to 2011. These two oscillations are connected with the natural day time effects and the annual natural season cycle. Although the daily periodic for the temperature is appeared nearly uniform all year but it is not the case for wind speed. In 2009 this wind speed oscillations appear only from mid-February to mid-April in summer and from the fourth week of May to the third week of August in rainy season. XWT also detects strong high common power between the wind speed and temperature at a period band of 14-25 days in summer 2009, a period band of 4-8 days in summer 2009, July 2009, summer 2010 and summer 2011. WTC shows the coherence period band around 10-30 days appeared in summer and rainy season and 32-50 days in summer 2009 and rainy season in 2010. From these three wavelet analysis, the wind speed and temperature time series data show the strong correlation especially at 1 day and 256-450 days period band and also at several different scales. This studied will be helpful in predicting the wind speed and temperature for the future used.

  16. Short Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen...... at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator’s equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short circuit faults. Afterwards, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10 MW HTS wind turbine generator under four different short...

  17. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  18. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  19. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    ), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......Soil moisture is one of the most important dynamic factors determining soil erodibility, because it affects the stability of soil aggregates and threshold velocities for particle detachment by wind. Soil moisture should, therefore, be included in wind erosion risk assessments. However, despite its...... importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration...

  20. MHD-IPS analysis of relationship among solar wind density, temperature, and flow speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2016-08-01

    The solar wind properties near the Sun are a decisive factor of properties in the rest of heliosphere. As such, determining realistic plasma density and temperature near the Sun is very important in models for solar wind, specifically magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models. We had developed a tomographic analysis to reconstruct three-dimensional solar wind structures that satisfy line-of-sight-integrated solar wind speed derived from the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observation data and nonlinear MHD equations simultaneously. In this study, we report a new type of our IPS-MHD tomography that seeks three-dimensional MHD solution of solar wind, matching additionally near-Earth and/or Ulysses in situ measurement data for each Carrington rotation period. In this new method, parameterized relation functions of plasma density and temperature at 50 Rs are optimized through an iterative forward model minimizing discrepancy with the in situ measurements. Satisfying three constraints, the derived 50 Rs maps of plasma quantities provide realistic observation-based information on the state of solar wind near the Sun that cannot be well determined otherwise. The optimized plasma quantities exhibit long-term variations over the solar cycles 21 to 24. The differences in plasma quantities derived from the optimized and original IPS-MHD tomography exhibit correlations with the source-surface magnetic field strength, which can in future give new quantitative constrains and requirements to models of coronal heating and acceleration.

  1. Short Circuits of a 10-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Direct Drive high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits take...... place at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator's equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short-circuit faults. Afterward, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10-MW HTS wind turbine generator under four...... show that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The findings presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator....

  2. Impact of air temperature on physically-based maximum precipitation estimation through change in moisture holding capacity of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, K.; Ohara, N.; Kavvas, M. L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Anderson, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    Impact of air temperature on the Maximum Precipitation (MP) estimation through change in moisture holding capacity of air was investigated. A series of previous studies have estimated the MP of 72-h basin-average precipitation over the American River watershed (ARW) in Northern California by means of the Maximum Precipitation (MP) estimation approach, which utilizes a physically-based regional atmospheric model. For the MP estimation, they have selected 61 severe storm events for the ARW, and have maximized them by means of the atmospheric boundary condition shifting (ABCS) and relative humidity maximization (RHM) methods. This study conducted two types of numerical experiments in addition to the MP estimation by the previous studies. First, the air temperature on the entire lateral boundaries of the outer model domain was increased uniformly by 0.0-8.0 °C with 0.5 °C increments for the two severest maximized historical storm events in addition to application of the ABCS + RHM method to investigate the sensitivity of the basin-average precipitation over the ARW to air temperature rise. In this investigation, a monotonous increase was found in the maximum 72-h basin-average precipitation over the ARW with air temperature rise for both of the storm events. The second numerical experiment used specific amounts of air temperature rise that is assumed to happen under future climate change conditions. Air temperature was increased by those specified amounts uniformly on the entire lateral boundaries in addition to application of the ABCS + RHM method to investigate the impact of air temperature on the MP estimate over the ARW under changing climate. The results in the second numerical experiment show that temperature increases in the future climate may amplify the MP estimate over the ARW. The MP estimate may increase by 14.6% in the middle of the 21st century and by 27.3% in the end of the 21st century compared to the historical period.

  3. Soil temperature and moisture fluctuations during and after prescribed fire in mixed-oak forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Todd F. Hutchinson; Todd F. Hutchinson

    2002-01-01

    Prescribed fires were conducted in March 1999, in mixed-oak forests in Vinton County, Ohio, USA, that had been burned either once in 1996 or annually from 1996 to 1999. During the fires, seven electronic sensors recorded soil temperatures every 2 seconds at a depth of 1 cm. Following the fires, soil temperatures were monitored with 12 sensors on burned and unburned...

  4. The influence of soil moisture, temperature and oxygen on the oxic decay of organic archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of organic-rich archaeological layers at Bryggen in Bergen, Norway, to changes in soil temperatures, water contents and oxygen concentrations is investigated. This is done by linking measurements of oxic decay at varying temperatures and water contents with on-site monitoring data...

  5. Estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes from land surface temperature and soil moisture using the particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from land surface temperature (LST) time series and soil moisture observations. Surface turbulent heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and play a crucial role in meteorology, hydrology and other climate-related fields, but in-situ measurements are costly and difficult. It has been demonstrated that the time series of LST contains information of energy partitioning and that surface turbulent heat fluxes can be determined from assimilation of LST. These studies are mainly based on two assumptions: (1) a monthly value of bulk heat transfer coefficient under neutral conditions (CHN) which scales the sum of the fluxes, and (2) an evaporation fraction (EF) which stays constant during the near-peak hours of the day. Previous studies have applied variational and ensemble approaches to this problem. Here the newly developed particle batch smoother (PBS) algorithm is adopted to test its capability in this application. The PBS can be seen as an extension of the standard particle filter (PF) in which the states and parameters within a fix window are updated in a batch using all observations in the window. The aim of this study is two-fold. First, the PBS is used to assimilate only LST time series into the force-restore model to estimate fluxes. Second, a simple soil water transfer scheme is introduced to evaluate the benefit of assimilating soil moisture observations simultaneously. The experiments are implemented using the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) (FIFE) data. It is shown that the restored LST time series using PBS agrees very well with observations, and that assimilating LST significantly improved the flux estimation at both daily and half-hourly time scales. When soil moisture is introduced to further constrain EF, the accuracy of estimated EF is greatly improved. Furthermore, the RMSEs of retrieved fluxes are effectively reduced at both

  6. Impacts of Initial Soil Moisture and Vegetation on the Diurnal Temperature Range in Arid and Semiarid Regions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Lei; Liang, Jiening; Cao, Xianjie; Guo, Qi; Yang, Zhaohong

    2017-11-01

    To assess the impacts of initial soil moisture (SMOIS) and the vegetation fraction (Fg) on the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in arid and semiarid regions in China, three simulations using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model are conducted by modifying the SMOIS, surface emissivity and Fg. SMOIS affects the daily maximum temperature (Tmax) and daily minimum temperature (Tmin) by altering the distribution of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day and by altering the surface emissivity at night. Reduced soil wetness can increase both the Tmax and Tmin, but the effect on the DTR is determined by the relative strength of the effects on Tmax and Tmin. Observational data from the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) and the Shapotou Desert Research and Experimental Station (SPD) suggest that the magnitude of the SMOIS effect on the distribution of available energy during the day is larger than that on surface emissivity at night. In other words, SMOIS has a negative effect on the DTR. Changes in Fg modify the surface radiation and the energy budget. Due to the depth of the daytime convective boundary layer, the temperature in daytime is affected less than in nighttime by the radiation and energy budget. Increases in surface emissivity and decreases in soil heating resulting from increased Fg mainly decrease Tmin, thereby increasing the DTR. The effects of SMOIS and Fg on both Tmax and Tmin are the same, but the effects on DTR are the opposite.

  7. Seasonal reversal of temperature-moisture response of net carbon exchange of biocrusted soils in a cool desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Reed, S.; Howell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon cycling associated with biological soil crusts, which occur in interspaces between vascular plants in drylands globally, may be an important part of the coupled climate-carbon cycle of the Earth system. A major challenge to understanding CO2 fluxes in these systems is that much of the biotic and biogeochemical activity occurs in the upper few mm of the soil surface layer (i.e., the `mantle of fertility'), which exhibits highly dynamic and difficult to measure temperature and moisture fluctuations. Here, we report data collected in a cool desert ecosystem over one year using a multi-sensor approach to simultaneously measuring temperature and moisture of the biocrust surface layer (0-2 mm), and the deeper soil profile (5-20 cm), concurrent with automated measurement of surface soil CO2 effluxes. Our results illuminate robust relationships between microclimate and field CO2 pulses that have previously been difficult to detect and explain. The temperature of the biocrust surface layer was highly variable, ranging from minimum of -9 °C in winter to maximum of 77 °C in summer with a maximum diurnal range of 61 °C. Temperature cycles were muted deeper in the soil profile. During summer, biocrust and soils were usually hot and dry and CO2 fluxes were tightly coupled to pulse wetting events experienced at the biocrust surface, which consistently resulted in net CO2 efflux (i.e., respiration). In contrast, during the winter, biocrust and soils were usually cold and moist, and there was sustained net CO2 uptake via photosynthesis by biocrust organisms, although during cold dry periods CO2 fluxes were minimal. During the milder spring and fall seasons, short wetting events drove CO2 loss, while sustained wetting events resulted in net CO2 uptake. Thus, the upper and lower bounds of net CO2 exchange at a point in time were functions of the seasonal temperature regime, while the actual flux within those bounds was determined by the magnitude and duration of biocrust

  8. Influence of moisture content and temperature on degree of carbonation and the effect on Cu and Cr leaching from incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Sun, Xiaolong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of moisture content and temperature on the degree of carbonation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration bottom ash (IBA) from two different incineration plants in Singapore. The initial rate of carbonation was affected by the nominal moisture content used. Carbonation temperature seemed to play a part in changing the actual moisture content of IBA during carbonation, which in turn affected the degree of carbonation. Results showed that 2h of carbonation was sufficient for the samples to reach a relatively high degree of carbonation that was close to the degree of carbonation observed after 1week of carbonation. Both Cu and Cr leaching also showed significant reduction after only 2h of carbonation. Therefore, the optimum moisture content and temperature were selected based on 2h of carbonation. The optimum moisture content was 15% for both incineration plants while the optimum temperature was different for the two incineration plants, at 35°C and 50°C. The effect on Cu and Cr leaching from IBA after accelerated carbonation was evaluated as a function of carbonation time. Correlation coefficient, Pearson's R, was used to determine the dominant leaching mechanism. The reduction in Cu leaching was found to be contributed by both formation of carbonate mineral and reduction of DOC leaching. On the other hand, Cr leaching seemed to be dominantly controlled by pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Electron Temperature and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind. Comparison of the Core and Halo Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 7 (2016), s. 2165-2179 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17490S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar wind * electron velocity distributions * temperature anisotropy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  10. The electron temperature and anisotropy in the solar wind. Comparison of the core and halo populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 7 (2016), s. 2165-2179 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * electron velocity distributions * temperature anisotropy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11207-016-0961-7

  11. Granger causality estimate of information flow in temperature fields is consistent with wind direction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2014), EGU2014-12768 ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly /11./. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Granger causality * climate * information flow * surface air temperature * wind Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  12. Topology Optimization of a High-Temperature Superconducting Field Winding of a Synchronous Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Matias; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents topology optimization (TO) of the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field winding of an HTS synchronous machine. The TO problem is defined in order to find the minimum HTS material usage for a given HTS synchronous machine design. Optimization is performed using a modified...

  13. Soil Moisture Controls on Rainfall and Temperature Variability: A Modeler Searches Through Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which atmospheric processes respond to variations in soil moisture - a potentially important but largely untapped element of subseasonal to seasonal prediction - can be determined easily and directly for an atmospheric model but cannot be determined directly for nature through an analysis of observations. In atmospheric models) directions of causality can be artificially manipulated; we can avoid difficulties associated with the fact that atmospheric variations have a much larger impact on land state variations than vice-versa. In nature) on the other hand) the dominant direction of causality (the atmosphere forcing the ground) cannot be artificially "turned off") and the statistics associated with this dominant direction overwhelm those of the feedback signal. Observational data) however) do allow a number of indirect measures of landatmosphere feedback. This seminar reports on a series of joint analyses of observational and model data designed to illuminate the degree of land-atmosphere feedback present in the real world. The indirect measures do in fact suggest that feedback in nature, though small) is significant - enough to warrant the development of realistic land initialization strategies for subseasonal and seasonal forecasts.

  14. Effects of temperature and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and...

  15. Effects of temperature and immersion time on diffusion of moisture and minerals during rehydration of osmotically treated pork meat cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the changes in osmotically treated pork meat during rehydration. Meat samples were osmotically treated in sugar beet molasses solution, at temperature of (23±2°C for 5 hours. After being osmotically treated, meat samples were rehydrated at constant temperature (20- 40°C during different times (15-60 min in distilled water. The effective diffusivity were between 8.35 and 9.11•10-10 (m2•s-1 for moisture, 6.30-6.94 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Na, 5.73-7.46 10-10 (m2•s-1, for K, 4.43-6.25 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Ca, 5.35-6.25 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Mg, 4.67-6.78 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Cu, 4.68-5.33 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Fe, 4.21-5.04 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Zn and 5.44-7.16 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Mn. Zugarramurdi and Lupin’s model was used to predict the equilibrium condition, which was shown to be appropriate for moisture uptake and solute loss during rehydration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31055: Osmotic dehydration of food - energy and environmental aspects of sustainable production

  16. Dynamics of change in fermentation and fatty acid profiles in high moisture alfalfa silage during ensiling at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinhua Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of present study was to investigate the dynamics of change in fermentation and fatty acid profiles in high moisture (DM=232g/kg FW alfalfa silages during ensiling at 45°C, 30°C and 15°C. After ensiling for 1, 3, 7, 21, 39 and 65 days, silages was sampled and examined. Lactic fermentation changing into butyric fermentation in silage ensiled at 30°C and 45°C occurred on ensiling for 21 and 65 days, respectively, as accompanied with high ammonia-N content ( >150g/kg N, which subsequently resulted in a sudden increase of pH (P < 0.05. In contrast, the increase of lactic acid content was observed in silage ensiled at 15°C during ensiling for 65 days (P<0.05. As the ensiling temperature rose, considerable losses in total FA, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3 increased after ensiling for 1 day as compared with alfalfa before ensiling (P < 0.05 mainly due to thermolability of polyunsaturated FA and multiplication of lactic acid bacteria. Contents of total FA, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 fluctuated in silage stored at 30°C and 45°C during ensiling from 3 to 65 days (P < 0.05, but decreased at 15°C due to the intervention of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and lipoxygenase. Therefore, after ensiling for 65 days, high moisture alfalfa silage ensiling at 15°C had better fermentation quality than at 30°C and 45°C. Temperature had significant influence on dynamics of change in FA profile in alfalfa silage during ensiling.

  17. Centennial-Scale Relationship Between the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, D. A.; Perren, B.; Roberts, S. J.; Sime, L. C.; Verleyen, E.; Van Nieuwenhuyze, W.; Vyverman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Recent changes in the intensity and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SHW) have been implicated in a number of important physical changes in the Southern High Latitudes. These include changes in the efficiency of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink through alterations in ocean circulation, the loss of Antarctic ice shelves through enhanced basal melting, changes in Antarctic sea ice extent, and warming of the Antarctic Peninsula. Many of these changes have far-reaching implications for global climate and sea level rise. Despite the importance of the SHW in global climate, our current understanding of the past and future behaviour of the westerly winds is limited by relatively few reconstructions and measurements of the SHW in their core belt over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current; the region most relevant to Southern Ocean air-sea gas exchange. The aim of this study was to reconstruct changes in the relative strength of the SHW at Marion Island, one of a small number of sub-Antarctic islands that lie in the core of the SHWs. We applied independent diatom- and geochemistry- based methods to track past changes in relative wind intensity. This mutiproxy approach provides a validation that the proxies are responding to the external forcing (the SHW) rather than local (e.g. precipitation ) or internal dynamics. Results show that that the strength of the SHW are intrinsically linked to extratropical temperatures over centennial timescales, with warmer temperatures driving stronger winds. Our findings also suggest that large variations in the path and intensity of the westerly winds are driven by relatively small variations in temperature over these timescales. This means that with continued climate warming, even in the absence of anthropogenic ozone-depletion, we should anticipate large shifts in the SHW, causing stronger, more poleward-intensified winds in the decades and centuries to come, with attendant impacts on ocean circulation, ice shelf stability, and

  18. On the electron temperature downstream of the solar wind termination shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the temperatures of electrons convected with the solar wind to large solar distances and finally transported over the solar wind termination shock. Nearly nothing, unless at high energies in the cosmic ray regime, is known about the thermodynamical behaviour of these distant electrons from in~situ plasma observations. Hence it is tacitly assumed these electrons, due to their adiabatic behaviour and vanishing heat conduction or energization processes, have rapidly cooled off to very low temperatures once they eventually arrive at the solar wind termination shock (at about 100 AU. In this paper we show that such electrons, however, at their passage over the termination shock due to the shock–electric field action undergo an over-adiabatic heating and therefore appear on the downstream side as a substantially heated plasma species. Looking quantitatively into this heating process we find that solar wind electrons achieve temperatures of the order of 2–4 × 106 K downstream of the termination shock, depending on the upstream solar wind bulk velocity and the shock compression ratio. Hence these electrons therewith play an important dynamical role in structuring this shock and determining the downstream plasma flow properties. Furthermore, they present an additional ionization source for incoming neutral interstellar hydrogen and excite X-ray emission. They also behave similar to cosmic ray electrons and extend to some limited region upstream of the shock of the order of 0.1 AU by spatial diffusion and thereby also modify the upstream solar wind properties.

  19. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastistella, Luciane; Rousset, Patrick; Aviz, Antonio; Caldeira-Pires, Armando; Humbert, Gilles; Nogueira, Manoel

    2018-02-09

    New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens , Cyclobalanopsis glauca , Trigonostemon huangmosun , and Bambusa vulgaris , and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%), two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g), and two particle sizes (powder and piece). Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  20. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bastistella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Trigonostemon huangmosun, and Bambusa vulgaris, and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%, two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g, and two particle sizes (powder and piece. Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  1. New results on equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures from Ethiopia, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tesema

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of equatorial thermospheric winds, temperatures, and 630 nm relative intensities were obtained using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI, which was recently deployed at Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia (11.6° N, 37.4° E, 3.7° N magnetic. The results obtained in this study cover 6 months (53 nights of useable data between November 2015 and April 2016. The monthly-averaged values, which include local winter and equinox seasons, show the magnitude of the maximum monthly-averaged zonal wind is typically within the range of 70 to 90 ms−1 and is eastward between 19:00 and 21:00 LT. Compared to prior studies of the equatorial thermospheric wind for this local time period, the magnitude is considerably weaker as compared to the maximum zonal wind speed observed in the Peruvian sector but comparable to Brazilian FPI results. During the early evening, the meridional wind speeds are 30 to 50 ms−1 poleward during the winter months and 10 to 25 ms−1 equatorward in the equinox months. The direction of the poleward wind during the winter months is believed to be mainly caused by the existence of the interhemispheric wind flow from the summer to winter hemispheres. An equatorial wind surge is observed later in the evening and is shifted to later local times during the winter months and to earlier local times during the equinox months. Significant night-to-night variations are also observed in the maximum speed of both zonal and meridional winds. The temperature observations show the midnight temperature maximum (MTM to be generally present between 00:30 and 02:00 LT. The amplitude of the MTM was  ∼  110 K in January 2016 with values smaller than this in the other months. The local time difference between the appearance of the MTM and a pre-midnight equatorial wind was generally 60 to 180 min. A meridional wind reversal was also observed after the appearance of the MTM (after 02:00 LT. Climatological

  2. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil temperature and moisture and on yield formation of spring wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Fengmin; Song, Qiuhua; Li, Shiqing

    2003-02-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of plastic film mulching on soil temperature and moisture, and on yield formation of spring wheat. The results showed that plastic film mulching could increase soil temperature with "U" variances in the whole growth period of spring wheat. Plastic film mulching could also increase soil available water by restraining evaporation and elevating deep water to the layer useable for roots. The promotion of soil temperature and soil water content under plastic film mulching was favorable to the development and water use of spring wheat in its earlier stage. Root developments were restrained when mulching in later stage of spring wheat, with decreases in crop water consumption and water use efficiency, and there was no significant effects on yield formation. The spring wheat yields under control (CK), pre-sowing irrigation (W), mulching for whole stage (M), pre-sowing irrigation adding mulching for 30 days (WM30), pre-sowing irrigation adding mulching for 60 days (WM60), and pre-sowing irrigation adding mulching for whole stage (WMw) were 2 554, 2,424, 2,750, 3,138, 3,305, and 3,123 kg.hm-2, respectively, and the optimum mulching time was at 40-60 days.

  3. The wind chill temperature effect on a large-scale PV plant—an exergy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed exergetic analysis based on the variation of meteorological parameters was performed for a solar power generation system. All wind and solar energy and exergy characteristics were examined in order to identify the variables that affect the power output of the photovoltaic...... disregarded atmospheric variables in planning new PV plants, in fact, do play a significant role on the plant's overall exergetic efficiency as wind chill temperature. The solar potential around a windy coastal hilly area was studied and presented on the basis of field measurements and simulations...

  4. The calculating study of the moisture transfer influence at the temperature field in a porous wet medium with internal heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzevanov, V. S.; Garyaev, A. B.; Zakozhurnikova, G. S.; Zakozhurnikov, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    A porous wet medium with solid and gaseous components, with distributed or localized heat sources was considered. The regimes of temperature changes at the heating at various initial material moisture were studied. Mathematical model was developed applied to the investigated wet porous multicomponent medium with internal heat sources, taking into account the transfer of the heat by heat conductivity with variable thermal parameters and porosity, heat transfer by radiation, chemical reactions, drying and moistening of solids, heat and mass transfer of volatile products of chemical reactions by flows filtration, transfer of moisture. The algorithm of numerical calculation and the computer program that implements the proposed mathematical model, allowing to study the dynamics of warming up at a local or distributed heat release, in particular the impact of the transfer of moisture in the medium on the temperature field were created. Graphs of temperature change were obtained at different points of the graphics with different initial moisture. Conclusions about the possible control of the regimes of heating a solid porous body by the initial moisture distribution were made.

  5. Increases in plasma sheet temperature with solar wind driving during substorm growth phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C; Watt, C E J; Rae, I J; Fazakerley, A N; Kalmoni, N M E; Freeman, M P; Boakes, P D; Nakamura, R; Dandouras, I; Kistler, L M; Jackman, C M; Coxon, J C; Carr, C M

    2014-01-01

    During substorm growth phases, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause extracts ∼1015 J from the solar wind which is then stored in the magnetotail lobes. Plasma sheet pressure increases to balance magnetic flux density increases in the lobes. Here we examine plasma sheet pressure, density, and temperature during substorm growth phases using 9 years of Cluster data (>316,000 data points). We show that plasma sheet pressure and temperature are higher during growth phases with higher solar wind driving, whereas the density is approximately constant. We also show a weak correlation between plasma sheet temperature before onset and the minimum SuperMAG AL (SML) auroral index in the subsequent substorm. We discuss how energization of the plasma sheet before onset may result from thermodynamically adiabatic processes; how hotter plasma sheets may result in magnetotail instabilities, and how this relates to the onset and size of the subsequent substorm expansion phase. PMID:26074645

  6. Calibration of soil moisture flow simulation models aided by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sobrino, Fernando Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Most of the studies dealing with the development of water flow simulation models in soils, are calibrated using experimental data measured by soil probe sensors or tensiometers which locate at specific points in the study area. However since the beginning of the XXI century, the use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, its application combined with an active heating pulses technique (AHFO) has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m , with 2 % accuracy , every second. This study presents the calibration of a soil water flow model (developed in Hydrus 2D) with the AHFO technique. The model predicts the distribution of soil water content of a green area irrigated by sprinkler irrigation. Several irrigation events have been evaluated in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistemas in Madrid where an installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth is deployed. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m. Data logged in the DTS unit before, during and after the irrigation event were used to calibrate the estimations in the Hydrus 2D model during the infiltration and redistribution of soil water content within the irrigation interval. References: Karandish, F., & Šimůnek, J. (2016). A field-modeling study for assessing temporal variations of soil-water-crop interactions under water-saving irrigation strategies. Agricultural Water Management, 178, 291-303. Li, Y., Šimůnek, J., Jing, L., Zhang, Z., & Ni, L. (2014). Evaluation of

  7. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  8. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  9. Modeling temperature and moisture state effects on acoustic velocity in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; X. Wang; L. Wang; R.B. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has proved the concept of acoustic wave propagation methods for evaluating wood quality of trees and logs during forest operations. As commercial acoustic equipment is implemented in field for various purposes, one has to consider the influence of operating temperature on acoustic velocity — a key parameter for wood property prediction. Our field...

  10. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    generator and the set-up in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the set-up is a good surrogate...... for these that would be used in the full generator. The FE simulations also tell that the maximum tangential force generated in the set-up is 3.77% lower than that in the full generator. Good agreement between the values of interest in the set-up and those projected in the full generator has revealed a costeffective......A 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) generator with 24 pole pairs has been designed for the wind turbine application. In order to identify potential challenges and obtain practical knowledge prior to production, a fullsize stationary experimental set-up, which is one pole pair segment...

  11. A Budget Analysis of the Variances of Temperature and Moisture in Precipitating Shallow Cumulus Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Vera; Seifert, Axel

    2017-06-01

    Large-eddy simulations of an evolving cloud field are used to investigate the contribution of microphysical processes to the evolution of the variance of total water and liquid water potential temperature in the boundary layer. While the first hours of such simulations show a transient behaviour and have to be analyzed with caution, the final portion of the simulation provides a quasi-equilibrium situation. This allows investigation of the budgets of the variances of total water and liquid water potential temperature and quantification of the contribution of several source and sink terms. Accretion is found to act as a strong sink for the variances, while the contributions from the processes of evaporation and autoconversion are small. A simple parametrization for the sink term connected to accretion is suggested and tested with a different set of simulations.

  12. Material degradation due to moisture and temperature. Part 1: mathematical model, analysis, and analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical response, serviceability, and load-bearing capacity of materials and structural components can be adversely affected due to external stimuli, which include exposure to a corrosive chemical species, high temperatures, temperature fluctuations (i.e., freezing-thawing), cyclic mechanical loading, just to name a few. It is, therefore, of paramount importance in several branches of engineering—ranging from aerospace engineering, civil engineering to biomedical engineering—to have a fundamental understanding of degradation of materials, as the materials in these applications are often subjected to adverse environments. As a result of recent advancements in material science, new materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers and multi-functional materials that exhibit high ductility have been developed and widely used, for example, as infrastructural materials or in medical devices (e.g., stents). The traditional small-strain approaches of modeling these materials will not be adequate. In this paper, we study degradation of materials due to an exposure to chemical species and temperature under large strain and large deformations. In the first part of our research work, we present a consistent mathematical model with firm thermodynamic underpinning. We then obtain semi-analytical solutions of several canonical problems to illustrate the nature of the quasi-static and unsteady behaviors of degrading hyperelastic solids.

  13. Exploiting the synergy between SMAP and SMOS to improve brightness temperature simulations and soil moisture retrievals in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Hamzeh, Saeid; Amiraslani, Farshad; Neysani Samany, Najmeh; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to exploit the synergy between SMOS and SMAP based on vegetation optical depth (VOD) to improve brightness temperature (TB) simulations and land surface soil moisture (SM) retrievals in arid regions of the world. In the current operational algorithm of SMAP (level 2), vegetation water content (VWC) is considered as a proxy to compute VOD which is calculated by an empirical conversion function of NDVI. Avoiding the empirical estimation of VOD, the SMOS algorithm is used to retrieve simultaneously SM and VOD from TB observations. The present study attempted to improve SMAP TB simulations and SM retrievals by benefiting from the advantages of the SMOS (L-MEB) algorithm. This was achieved by using a synergy method based on replacing the default value of SMAP VOD with the retrieved value of VOD from the SMOS multi angular and bi-polarization observations of TB. The insitu SM measurements, used as reference SM in this study, were obtained from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) over 180 stations located in arid regions of the world. Furthermore, four stations were randomly selected to analyze the temporal variations in VOD and SM. Results of the synergy method showed that the accuracy of the TB simulations and SM retrievals was respectively improved at 144 and 124 stations (out of a total of 180 stations) in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and unbiased root mean squared error (UbRMSE). Analyzing the temporal variations in VOD showed that the SMOS VOD, conversely to the SMAP VOD, can better illustrate the presence of herbaceous plants and may be a better indicator of the seasonal changes in the vegetation density and biomass over the year.

  14. The effect of temperature and moisture on electrical resistance, strain sensitivity and crack sensitivity of steel fiber reinforced smart cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teomete, Egemen

    2016-07-01

    Earthquakes, material degradations and other environmental factors necessitate structural health monitoring (SHM). Metal foil strain gages used for SHM have low durability and low sensitivity. These factors motivated researchers to work on cement based strain sensors. In this study, the effects of temperature and moisture on electrical resistance, compressive and tensile strain gage factors (strain sensitivity) and crack sensitivity were determined for steel fiber reinforced cement based composite. A rapid increase of electrical resistance at 200 °C was observed due to damage occurring between cement paste, aggregates and steel fibers. The moisture—electrical resistance relationship was investigated. The specimens taken out of the cure were saturated with water and had a moisture content of 9.49%. The minimum electrical resistance was obtained at 9% moisture at which fiber-fiber and fiber-matrix contact was maximum and the water in micro voids was acting as an electrolyte, conducting electrons. The variation of compressive and tensile strain gage factors (strain sensitivities) and crack sensitivity were investigated by conducting compression, split tensile and notched bending tests with different moisture contents. The highest gage factor for the compression test was obtained at optimal moisture content, at which electrical resistance was minimum. The tensile strain gage factor for split tensile test and crack sensitivity increased by decreasing moisture content. The mechanisms between moisture content, electrical resistance, gage factors and crack sensitivity were elucidated. The relations of moisture content with electrical resistance, gage factors and crack sensitivities have been presented for the first time in this study for steel fiber reinforced cement based composites. The results are important for the development of self sensing cement based smart materials.

  15. Atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and wind variations between 50 and 200 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1972-01-01

    Data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 50 and 200 km were collected from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others. These data were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of the irregular atmospheric variations are presented. Time structures of the irregular variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. The observed height variations of irregular winds and densities are found to be in accord with a theoretical relation between these two quantities. The latitude variations (at 50 - 60 km height) show an increasing trend with latitude. A possible explanation of the unusually large irregular wind magnitudes of the White Sands MRN data is given in terms of mountain wave generation by the Sierra Nevada range about 1000 km west of White Sands. An analytical method is developed which, based on an analogy of the irregular motion field with axisymmetric turbulence, allows measured or model correlation or structure functions to be used to evaluate the effective frequency spectra of scalar and vector quantities of a spacecraft moving at any speed and at any trajectory elevation angle.

  16. Influence of Mechanically Activated Electric Arc Furnace Slag on Compressive Strength of Mortars Incorporating Curing Moisture and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of mechanically activated electric arc furnace slag (EAFS was investigated through compressive strength tests on 50 mm mortar cubes. The objective was to convert the wasteful EAFS into a useful binding material to reduce the cement content in concrete without compromising strength and economy. Four different groups of mortar were cast which include control mortar, reference fly ash mortar, mortar containing EAFS to determine its optimum fineness and replacement with cement, mortar blend containing fly ash and EAFS of optimum fineness. EAFS were identified with respect to its fineness as slag ground (SG, slag-fine (SF 100% passing 75 µm sieve, and slag-super-fine (SSF 100% passing 45 µm sieve. Compressive strength was measured according to ASTM C109. Specimens were cured under different temperatures and moisture to incorporate the effects of normal and hot environmental conditions. Compressive strength of mortars increases with fineness of EAFS and its strength activity index matches the ASTM C989 blast furnace slag (BFS Grade 80 up to 30% cement substitution and Grade 100 when 10% cement substituted with SSF. The influence of curing temperatures was also significant in mortars containing SG or 10% SF where strength decreased with increasing curing temperature. However, a 20–30% and 20% cement substitution with SF produced strength comparable to control and reference fly ash mortars under moderate (40 °C and high curing temperature (60 °C, respectively. The utilization of EAFS as binder in concrete may reduce needs for cement, as well as save environment and natural resources from depletion.

  17. Three-Dimensional Temperature and Wind Profiles Obtained Using UAV-Based Acoustic Atmospheric Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, A.

    2017-12-01

    The natural sound generated by an unmanned aerial vehicle is used in conjunction with tomography to remotely sense atmospheric temperature and wind profiles simultaneously. Sound fields recorded onboard the aircraft and by an array of microphones on the ground are compared and converted to sound speed estimates for the ray paths intersecting the intervening medium. Tomographic inversion is then used to transform these sound speed values into vertical cross-sections and 3D volumes of virtual temperature and wind vectors, which enables the atmosphere to be visualised and monitored over time up to altitudes of 1,200m and over baselines of up to 600m. This paper reports on results from two short campaigns during which 2D and 3D profiles of wind and temperature obtained in this way were compared to: measurements taken by co-located mid-range Doppler SODAR and LIDAR; and temperature measurements made by instruments carried by unmanned aircraft flying through the intervening atmosphere. Large eddy simulation of daytime atmospheric boundary layers were also used to examine the anticipated performance of the instruments and the nature of any errors. The observations obtained using all systems are shown to correspond closely.

  18. PWV, Temperature and Wind Statistics at Sites Suitable For mm and Sub-mm Wavelengths Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otarola, Angel; Travouillon, Tony; De Breuck, Carlos; Radford, Simon; Matsushita, Satoki; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan P.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is the main limiting factor of atmospheric transparency in the mm and sub-mm wavelength spectral windows. Thus, dry sites are needed for the installation and successful operation of radio astronomy observatories exploiting those spectral windows. Other parameters that play an important role in the mechanical response of radio telescopes exposed to the environmental conditions are: temperature, and in particular temperature gradients that induce thermal deformation of mechanical structures, as well as wind magnitude that induce pointing jitter affecting this way the required accuracy in the ability to point to a cosmic source during the observations. Temperature and wind are variables of special consideration when planning the installation and operations of large aperture radio telescopes. This work summarizes the statistics of precipitable water vapor (PWV), temperature and wind monitored at sites by the costal mountain range, as well as on t he west slope of the Andes mountain range in the region of Antofagasta, Chile. This information could prove useful for the planning of the Atacama Large-Aperture Submm/mm Telescope (AtLast).

  19. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on preharvest invasion of peanuts by the Aspergillus flavus group and subsequent aflatoxin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R A; Blankenship, P D; Cole, R J; Sanders, T H

    1983-02-01

    Four soil temperature and moisture treatment regimens were imposed on Florunner peanuts 94 days after planting in experimental plots in 1980. At harvest (145 days after planting), the incidence of the Aspergillus flavus group and the aflatoxin concentration were greatest in damaged kernels. Extensive colonization of sound mature kernels (SMK) by the A. flavus group occurred with the drought stress treatment (56% kernels colonized); colonization was less in the irrigated plot (7%) and the drought stress plot with cooled soil (11%) and was intermediate in the irrigated plot with heated soil (26%). Aflatoxin was virtually absent from SMK with the last three treatments, but it was found at an average concentration of 244 ppb (ng/g) in drought-stressed SMK. Colonization of SMK by the A. flavus group and aflatoxin production were greater with hot dry conditions. Neither elevated temperature alone nor drought stress alone caused aflatoxin contamination in SMK. When the ratio of SMK colonized by A. flavus compared with A. niger was greater than 19:1, there was aflatoxin contamination, but there was none if this ratio was less than 9:1. Irrigation caused a higher incidence of A. niger than drought did. This may have prevented the aflatoxin contamination of undamaged peanuts.

  20. Simply Obtained Global Radiation, Soil Temperature and SoilMoisture in an Alley Cropping System in Semi-Arid Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungai, D. N.; Stigter, C. J.; Coulson, C. L.; Ng'ang'a, J. K.

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosystems these results deserve new attention. They quantify, in a simple but detailed manner, the influence of hedgerows on the microclimate of their intercrop and for comparison provide a sole maize (SM) control. Due to inhomogeneity of Cassia and maize, as well as limited budgets, the sampling methodology and the choice of appropriate equipment, including the sensors, demanded special attention. The diurnal patterns of soil temperatures at 7.5cm depth represented well the shading patterns of the hedgerows. This can be developed into an operational auxiliary methodology of integrated shade quantification. With proper precautions, the developed sampling methodologies showed appropriately the time integrated values of the three microclimatic parameters with enough detail to understand yield differences between treatments and between rows. This approach may therefore be recommended for on-farm quantification of even greater spatial variability of parameters. The limitations of the selected methods are highlighted. Experiences with some alternative methods are also discussed.

  1. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  2. Mulching type-induced soil moisture and temperature regimes and water use efficiency of soybean under rain-fed condition in central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is a high water-demand crop and grown under moderate temperature in Japan. To protect the crop from hot summer and to utilize rainfall for its cultivation, selection of appropriate mulching material(s is crucial. For optimum production of the crop, soil moisture and temperature regimes as well as water use efficiency (WUE of the crop were investigated under straw, grass, paper, plastic and bare soil (control mulching under rain-fed condition at Gifu university farm in Japan. The mulching treatments, compared to the control, lowered soil temperature by 2 °C at 5 cm depth and 0.5 °C at 15 and 25 cm depths. The plastic and straw mulching stored the highest quantity of soil moisture at 5 and 15 cm depths; the bare soil stored the lowest quantity. At 25 cm depth, soil-moisture content was the highest under paper mulch but invariable under the other mulches. Plastic mulching reduced evaporation rate from the soil surface and, consequently, the reduced soil-water consumption (SWC from the root zone augmented WUE of soybean. The paper mulching, by conserving soil-moisture and reducing soil temperature, provided better crop growth attributes, while the plastic mulching improved WUE of green soybean. Therefore, the plastic mulch performed best in reducing soil-water consumption and increasing WUE, while the paper mulch was good for soil-moisture conservation and temperature modification that increased soybean yield. Keywords: Mulching, Soil-water consumption, Soil temperature, Water use efficiency

  3. Assessment of tracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized individuals and the influence of a heat and moisture exchanger on tracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J. Karel; Muller, Saar H.; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial function of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) is undisputed, but knowledge of their effects on intra-airway temperature and humidity is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of a new airway climate explorer (ACE) and to assess the HME's influence

  4. Endotracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized patients in a warm and dry environment and the effect of a heat and moisture exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess endotracheal climate in laryngectomized patients in a warm and dry environment and the effects of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Methods: Endotracheal temperature and humidity were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME

  5. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  6. Quantitative model prediction of the combined effect of moisture content and temperature on purple mudstone decay in south-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anqiang; Zhao, Jixia; Lu, Chuanhao; Liu, Gangcai

    2017-10-01

    Rock decay is mainly the result of the combined effects of moisture content and temperature, but little is known about the quantitative relationship between these variables and the rate of rock decay. In this study we develop quantitative calculation models of rock decay rate under laboratory conditions and validate the efficiency of these models by comparing the predicted rock decay mass and that measured for rock exposed in the field. Rainfall and temperature data in the field were standardised to a dimensionless moisture content and temperature variables, respectively, and then the predicted rock decay mass was calculated by the models. The measured rock decay mass was determined by manual sieving. Based on our previously determined relationship between a single factor (moisture content or temperature) and the rate of rock decay in the laboratory, power function models are developed. Results show that the rock decay mass calculated by the model was comparable with field data, with averaged relative errors of 1.53%, 9.00% and 11.82% for the Tuodian group (J3t), Matoushan group (K2m) and Lufeng group (J1l), respectively, which are mainly due to inaccurate transformation of field rainfall into the rock moisture content and artificial disturbance when the samples were sieved in the field. Our results show that the developed models based on laboratory-derived rates can accurately predict the decay rates of mudstones exposed in the field.

  7. Intradiurnal and seasonal variability of soil temperature, heat flux, soil moisture content, and thermal properties under forest and pasture in Rondonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvala, R.C.S.; Gielow, R.; Rocha, H.R.; Freitas, H.C.; Lopes, J.M.; Manzi, A.O.; von Rondow, C.; Dias, M.A.F.S.; Cabral, O.M.R.; Waterloo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Soil temperatures depend on the soil heat flux, an important parameter in meteorological and plant growth-energy balance models. Thus, they were measured, together with soil moisture contents, within the LBA program at forest (Reserva Jaru) and pasture (Fazenda Nossa Senhora) sites in Rondônia,

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature, moisture and surface soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, B. F.; Dane, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this research were to: (l) Relate in-situ measured soil-water content and temperature profiles to remotely sensed surface soil-water and temperature conditions; to model simultaneous heat and water movement for spatially and temporally changing soil conditions; (2) Determine the spatial and temporal variability of surface soil properties affecting emissivity, reflectance, and material and energy flux across the soil surface. This will include physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of primary soil components and aggregate systems; and (3) Develop surface soil classes of naturally occurring and distributed soil property assemblages and group classes to be tested with respect to water content, emissivity and reflectivity. This document is a report of studies conducted during the period funded by NASA grants. The project was designed to be conducted over a five year period. Since funding was discontinued after three years, some of the research started was not completed. Additional publications are planned whenever funding can be obtained to finalize data analysis for both the arid and humid locations.

  9. Low soil moisture during hot periods drives apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dryland ecosystem: A multi-model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Colin; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems (drylands) may dominate the trajectory of biosphere-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux over the coming century. Accordingly, understanding dryland CO2 efflux controls is important for understanding C cycling at the global-scale: key unknowns regarding how temperature and moisture interact to regulate dryland C cycling remain. Further, the patchiness of dryland vegetation can create ‘islands of fertility’, with spatially heterogeneous rates of soil respiration (Rs). At our study site in southeastern Utah, USA we added or removed litter (0 to 650% of control) in paired plots that were either associated with a shrub or with interspaces between vascular plants. We measured Rs, soil temperature, and water content (θ) on eight sampling dates between October 2013 and November 2014. Rs was highest following monsoon rains in late summer when soil temperature was ~30°C. During mid-summer, Rs was low, associated with high soil temperatures (>40°C), resulting in an apparent negative temperature sensitivity of Rs at high temperatures, and positive temperature sensitivity at low-moderate temperatures. We used Bayesian statistical methods to compare multiple competing models capturing a wide range of hypothesized relationships between temperature, moisture, and Rs. The best fit model indicates apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration at high temperatures reflects the control of soil moisture – not high temperatures – in limiting Rs. The modeled Q10 ranged from 2.7 at 5°C to 1.4 at 45°C. Litter addition had no effect on temperature sensitivity or reference respiration (Rref = Rs at 20°C and optimum moisture) beneath shrubs, and little effect on Rref in interspaces, yet Rref was 1.5 times higher beneath shrubs than in interspaces. Together, these results suggest reduced Rs often observed at high temperatures in drylands is dominated by the control of moisture, and that variable litter inputs – at least over the short

  10. Quantifying the effects of LUCCs on local temperatures, precipitation, and wind using the WRF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lishu; Li, Baofu; Chen, Yaning; Chu, Cuicui; Qin, Yanhua

    2017-09-11

    Land use/cover changes (LUCCs) are an important cause of regional climate changes, but the contribution of LUCCs to regional climate changes is not clear. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and statistical methods were used to investigate changes in meteorologic variables in January, April, July, and October 2013 due to local LUCCs from 1990 to 2010 in southern Shandong province, China. The results indicate that the WRF model simulates temperatures in the region well, with high correlation coefficients (0.86-0.97, p wind speed and direction substantially during these four months: average wind speeds increased by 0.02 and 0.01 m/s in January and October, respectively, and decreased by 0.02 and 0.05 m/s in April and July, respectively. Overall, The LUCCs affected spring temperatures the least and summer precipitation the most.

  11. Prediction of windings temperature rise in induction motors supplied with distorted voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2008-01-01

    One of the features of ship power systems is a different level and intensity of disturbances appearing during routine operation - the rms voltage value and frequency deviation, voltage unbalance and waveform voltage distortion. As a result, marine induction machines are exposed to overheating due to the lowered voltage quality. This paper is devoted to windings temperature rise prediction in marine induction cage machines supplied with distorted voltage, which means real voltage conditions. The proposed method of prediction does not require detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of a machine. Although the method was developed for marine induction motors, it is applicable for industry machines supplied with distorted voltage. It can also be generalized and used for estimation of the steady state windings temperature rise of any electrical machinery in various work conditions

  12. Analysis of Temperature and Wind Measurements from the TIMED Mission: Comparison with UARS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Frank; Mayr, Hans; Killeen, Tim; Russell, Jim; Reber, Skip

    2004-01-01

    We report on an analysis of temperature and wind data based respectively on measurements with the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) and TIDI (TIMED Doppler Interferometer) instruments on the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics) mission. Comparisons are made with corresponding results obtained from the HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and CLAES (Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer) instruments on the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft. The TIMED and UARS instruments have important common and uncommon properties in their sampling of the data as a function local solar time. For comparison between the data from the two satellite missions, we present the derived diurnal tidal and zonal-mean variations of temperature and winds, obtained as functions of season, latitude, and altitude. The observations are also compared with results from the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM).

  13. A Method for Assessing the Quality of Model-Based Estimates of Ground Temperature and Atmospheric Moisture Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Schubert, Siegfried; Lin, Ching I.; Stajner, Ivanka; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A method is developed for validating model-based estimates of atmospheric moisture and ground temperature using satellite data. The approach relates errors in estimates of clear-sky longwave fluxes at the top of the Earth-atmosphere system to errors in geophysical parameters. The fluxes include clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (CLR) and radiative flux in the window region between 8 and 12 microns (RadWn). The approach capitalizes on the availability of satellite estimates of CLR and RadWn and other auxiliary satellite data, and multiple global four-dimensional data assimilation (4-DDA) products. The basic methodology employs off-line forward radiative transfer calculations to generate synthetic clear-sky longwave fluxes from two different 4-DDA data sets. Simple linear regression is used to relate the clear-sky longwave flux discrepancies to discrepancies in ground temperature ((delta)T(sub g)) and broad-layer integrated atmospheric precipitable water ((delta)pw). The slopes of the regression lines define sensitivity parameters which can be exploited to help interpret mismatches between satellite observations and model-based estimates of clear-sky longwave fluxes. For illustration we analyze the discrepancies in the clear-sky longwave fluxes between an early implementation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS2) and a recent operational version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation system. The analysis of the synthetic clear-sky flux data shows that simple linear regression employing (delta)T(sub g)) and broad layer (delta)pw provides a good approximation to the full radiative transfer calculations, typically explaining more thin 90% of the 6 hourly variance in the flux differences. These simple regression relations can be inverted to "retrieve" the errors in the geophysical parameters, Uncertainties (normalized by standard deviation) in the monthly mean retrieved parameters range from 7% for

  14. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  15. High Resolution Mapping of Wind Speed Using Active Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayde, C.; Thomas, C. K.; Wagner, J.; Selker, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel approach to continuously measure wind speed simultaneously at thousands of locations using actively heated fiber optics with a distributed temperature sensing system (DTS). Analogous to a hot-wire anemometer, this approach is based on the principal of velocity-dependent heat transfer from a heated surface: The temperature difference between the heated surface and ambient air is a function of the convective cooling of the air flowing past the surface. By knowing the thermal properties of the heated surface, the heating input, and ambient temperature, wind speed can be calculated. In our case, the heated surface consists of a thin stainless steel tube that can exceed several km in length. A fiber optic is enclosed within the stainless steel tube to report the heated tube temperature, which in this case was sampled every 0.125 m. Ambient temperature were measured by an independent fiber optic cable located proximally to the stainless steel tube. We will present the theoretical bases of measuring wind speed using heated fiber optic as well as validation of this method in the field. In the field testing, more than 5000 simultaneous wind speed measurements were obtained every 5.5 second at 3 elevations (2m, 1m, and 0.5 m) every 0.125 m along a 230 m transects located across a shallow gulley in Nunn, CO. This method, which provides both air temperature and wind speed spanning four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.1 - 1,000m) opens up many important opportunities for testing basic theories in micro-meteorology regarding spatial scales of turbulent length scales as a function of distance from the earth, development of internal boundary layers, applicability of Taylors hypothesis, etc. The equipment employed, including the heating system, which is available to all US scientists, was provided by CTEMPs.org thanks to the generous grant support from the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1129003. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or

  16. Reactivity of plasma-sintered beryllium in dry air and moisture at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan, E-mail: kim.jaehwan@jaea.go.jp; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Plasma-sintered Be was fabricated to clarify its reactivity. • Parabolic oxidation of Be was predominant up to 1173 K along the grain boundary. • Activation energy in temperature range of parabolic oxidation was 52 kJ/mol. • Introduction of 1% water vapor facilitated breakaway in Be oxidation. - Abstract: Beryllium (Be) metal is a candidate material of not only neutron-multiplier for fusion reactors but also a water-cooled target material for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy. To investigate its reactivity in dry air and 1% H{sub 2}O/Ar at 873–1273 K, Be samples were fabricated by a novel plasma-sintering method proposed herein. Because of its reactivity in dry atmosphere, parabolic oxidation of Be along grain boundaries was predominant up to 1173 K at an activation energy of 52 kJ/mol, while catastrophic oxidation occurred at 1273 K. The introduction of H{sub 2}O facilitated breakaway in Be oxidation. Hence, the weight and H{sub 2} concentration of Be tested in 1% H{sub 2}O/Ar dramatically increased from 973 K, while samples tested for 24 h were completely oxidized in appearance.

  17. Wind and Temperature Spectrometry of the Upper Atmosphere in Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Wind and Temperature Spectrometry (WATS) is a new approach to measure the full wind vector, temperature, and relative densities of major neutral species in the Earth's thermosphere. The method uses an energy-angle spectrometer moving through the tenuous upper atmosphere to measure directly the angular and energy distributions of the air stream that enters the spectrometer. The angular distribution gives the direction of the total velocity of the air entering the spectrometer, and the energy distribution gives the magnitude of the total velocity. The wind velocity vector is uniquely determined since the measured total velocity depends on the wind vector and the orbiting velocity vector. The orbiting spectrometer moves supersonically, Mach 8 or greater, through the air and must point within a few degrees of its orbital velocity vector (the ram direction). Pointing knowledge is critical; for example, pointing errors 0.1 lead to errors of about 10 m/s in the wind. The WATS method may also be applied without modification to measure the ion-drift vector, ion temperature, and relative ion densities of major ionic species in the ionosphere. In such an application it may be called IDTS: Ion-Drift Temperature Spectrometry. A spectrometer-based coordinate system with one axis instantaneously pointing along the ram direction makes it possible to transform the Maxwellian velocity distribution of the air molecules to a Maxwellian energy-angle distribution for the molecular flux entering the spectrometer. This implementation of WATS is called the gas kinetic method (GKM) because it is applied to the case of the Maxwellian distribution. The WATS method follows from the recognition that in a supersonic platform moving at 8,000 m/s, the measurement of small wind velocities in the air on the order of a few 100 m/s and less requires precise knowledge of the angle of incidence of the neutral atoms and molecules. The same is true for the case of ion-drift measurements. WATS also

  18. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2014-01-01

    to a moisture content (MC) of 18% before TSt tests at 20°C, 60°C, and 90°C were carried out. The maximum stress results of the disc simulations by FEM were compared with the experimental strength results at the same temperature levels. There is a rather good agreement between the results of modeling......Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments...... and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...

  19. Volume 9 No. 9 December 2009 1824 EFFECTS OF JUNE WINDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... temperatures in the Indian subcontinent, which in turn affects available soil moisture for crop growth. The results also ... Given that rains occur as a result of moisture and energy transfer by global wind systems, and that every ocean has its ..... condensation and cloud formation. This explains the decrease in ...

  20. Simulated convective systems using a cloud resolving model: Impact of large-scale temperature and moisture forcing using observations and GEOS-3 reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, C.-L.; Tao, W.-K.; Hou, A.; Lin, X.

    2006-01-01

    The GCE (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble) model, which has been developed and improved at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center over the past two decades, is considered as one of the finer and state-of-the-art CRMs (Cloud Resolving Models) in the research community. As the chosen CRM for a NASA Interdisciplinary Science (IDS) Project, GCE has recently been successfully upgraded into an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version with which great improvement has been achieved in computational efficiency, scalability, and portability. By basically using the large-scale temperature and moisture advective forcing, as well as the temperature, water vapor and wind fields obtained from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) field experiments such as SCSMEX (South China Sea Monsoon Experiment) and KWAJEX (Kwajalein Experiment), our recent 2-D and 3-D GCE simulations were able to capture detailed convective systems typical of the targeted (simulated) regions. The GEOS-3 [Goddard EOS (Earth Observing System) Version-3] reanalysis data have also been proposed and successfully implemented for usage in the proposed/performed GCE long-term simulations (i.e., aiming at producing massive simulated cloud data -- Cloud Library) in compensating the scarcity of real field experimental data in both time and space (location). Preliminary 2-D or 3-D pilot results using GEOS-3 data have generally showed good qualitative agreement (yet some quantitative difference) with the respective numerical results using the SCSMEX observations. The first objective of this paper is to ensure the GEOS-3 data quality by comparing the model results obtained from several pairs of simulations using the real observations and GEOS-3 reanalysis data. The different large-scale advective forcing obtained from these two kinds of resources (i.e., sounding observations and GEOS-3 reanalysis) has been considered as a major critical factor in producing various model results. The second objective of this paper is therefore to

  1. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation programing determines when and how much water apply to fulfill the plant water requirements depending of its phenology stage and location, and soil water content. Thus, the amount of water, the irrigation time and the irrigation frequency are variables that must be estimated. Likewise, irrigation programing has been based in approaches such as: the determination of plant evapotranspiration and the maintenance of soil water status between a given interval or soil matrix potential. Most of these approaches are based on the measurements of soil water sensors (or tensiometers) located at specific points within the study area which lack of the spatial information of the monitor variable. The information provided in such as few points might not be adequate to characterize the soil water distribution in irrigation systems with poor water application uniformity and thus, it would lead to wrong decisions in irrigation scheduling. Nevertheless, it can be overcome if the active heating pulses distributed fiber optic temperature measurement (AHFO) is used. This estimates the temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic and then, it is correlated with the soil water content. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m (with 2 % accuracy) , every second. This study presents the results obtained in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistesmas in Madrid. The area is irrigated by an sprinkler irrigation system which applies water with low uniformity. Also, it has deployed and installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) with spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 1 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2

  2. Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in Two Different Soil Types at Various Moisture Levels and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underthun, Kristina; De, Jaysankar; Gutierrez, Alan; Silverberg, Rachael; Schneider, Keith R

    2018-01-01

    With the increased consumption of fresh produce, a proportional increase in numbers of produce-related foodborne illness has been observed. An estimate of foodborne illness during 1998 to 2008 attributed ∼46% of the incidences to produce. Any foodborne illness associated with produce can have devastating consequences to the industry. The most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implicate leafy vegetables, vine-stalk vegetables, root vegetables, and sprouts as the most common cause of produce-related foodborne outbreaks. Excess rainfall or flooding, mainly by altering levels of soil moisture and oxygen content, affects the microbial community in soil. The goal of this research was to determine the survivability of a three-serovar Escherichia coli and a five-serovar Salmonella enterica cocktail in microcosms prepared with Candler sand (CS) and Orangeburg sandy loam (OSL) soils. Microcosms were prepared with low, medium, and high volumetric water contents and were incubated at 20 and 30°C. Serotyping was used to determine which E. coli or Salmonella serovar(s) from each cocktail persisted. Microcosm inoculation levels were ∼7.0 log CFU/g. Sampling for CS and OSL microcosms incubated at 20°C ended on day 364 and 357, respectively. The reduction of Salmonella and E. coli to below the limit of detection (extinction) in CS microcosms (incubated at 30°C at all volumetric water content [VWC] levels) was reached on day 168 and 56, respectively. Extinction of Salmonella and E. coli in OSL microcosms (incubated at 30°C at all VWCs) was reached on day 168 and 224, respectively. Of the Salmonella and E. coli serovars analyzed, Salmonella Javiana persisted the longest in both soil types, whereas E. coli O104:H4 and E. coli O145 persisted the longest in CS and OSL microcosms, respectively. Results from the current study suggest that soil type and temperature influenced pathogen persistence in CS and OSL soils more than moisture level and

  3. Diagnosing potential changes in Asian summer monsoon onset and duration in IPCC AR4 model simulations using moisture and wind indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huqiang; Moise, A.; Hanson, L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, A Partnership between the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, GPO Box 1289k, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Liang, Ping [China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai Regional Climate Center, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-15

    Using daily precipitable water (PW) and 850 hPa monsoon wind, which represent large-scale moisture and dynamic conditions for monsoon development, we analyze potential changes in Asian monsoon onset, retreat and duration simulated by 13 IPCC AR4 models. Most models are able to reproduce the observed temporal and spatial evolution patterns of the Asian monsoon system. Nevertheless, there are significant model biases and some models fail in reproducing the broad structure. Under a warmed climate, changes in onset and duration days are only moderate (about 3-10 days), with significant discrepancies among the models, particularly over the East Asia land area where the models are almost equally divided. In the tropical Indian Ocean, maritime continent and Indochina Peninsula, the majority of the models tend to simulate delayed onset and shortened duration while in the western North Pacific most models exhibit an early onset and longer duration. There are two reasons leading to such uncertainties: (1) the key processes determining the Asian monsoon onset/retreat are different among the models. Some are more influenced by ENSO-like processes. But in some models, monsoon onset/retreat is more significantly correlated to circulations in the tropics. (2) The model-simulated changes in these dominant processes are different. In some models, surface warming is more intense in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with El Nino-like patterns, while others do not show such features. If the model-simulated monsoon onset/retreat is correlated to the central and eastern Pacific warming and at the same time the model simulates much larger warming of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean, then it is very likely that these models will show significant delay of south Asian monsoon onset and shortened duration. In some models, the delayed onsets are more related to the reduction of westerlies in the west of the warm pool region. The patterns of anomalous SST and wind conditions

  4. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Werner; Emmel, Carmen; Wolf, Sebastian; Buchmann, Nina; McFadden, Joseph P.; Whiteman, Charles David

    2017-12-01

    The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8-70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET). Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF) sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE). A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports), with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range ≈ 1700-2700 m a. s. l., but not at lower

  5. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8–70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET. Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE. A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports, with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range

  6. Remote sensing of temperature and wind using acoustic travel-time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Manuela; Fischer, Gabi; Raabe, Armin; Weisse, Frank [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie; Ziemann, Astrid [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Meteorologie

    2013-04-15

    A remote sensing technique to detect area-averaged temperature and flow properties within an area under investigation, utilizing acoustic travel-time measurements, is introduced. This technique uses the dependency of the speed of acoustic signals on the meteorological parameters temperature and wind along the propagation path. The method itself is scalable: It is applicable for investigation areas with an extent of some hundred square metres as well as for small-scale areas in the range of one square metre. Moreover, an arrangement of the acoustic transducers at several height levels makes it possible to determine profiles and gradients of the meteorological quantities. With the help of two examples the potential of this remote sensing technique for simultaneously measuring averaged temperature and flow fields is demonstrated. A comparison of time histories of temperature and wind values derived from acoustic travel-time measurements with point measurements shows a qualitative agreement whereas calculated root-mean-square errors differ for the two example applications. They amount to 1.4 K and 0.3 m/s for transducer distances of 60 m and 0.4 K and 0.2 m/s for transducer distances in the range of one metre. (orig.)

  7. Dryness Indices Based on Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Land Surface Temperature for Evaluating the Soil Moisture Status in Cropland-Forest-Dominant Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Moon and Minha Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI was derived from the relationship between remotely sensed vegetation indices and land surface temperature (TS in this study for assessing the soil moisture status at regional scale in South Korea. The Leaf Area Index (LAI is newly applied in this method to overcome the increasing uncertainty of using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI at high vegetation conditions. Both dryness indices were found to be well correlated with in situ soil moisture and 8-day average precipitation at most of the in situ measurement sites. The dryness indices accuracy was found to be influenced by rainfall events. An average correlation coefficient was improved from -0.253 to -0.329 when LAI was used instead of NDVI in calculating the TVDI. In the spatial analysis between the dryness indices and Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM using geographically weighted regression (GWR, the results showed the average negative correlation (R between the variables, while LAI-induced TVDI was more strongly correlated with SSM on average with the R value improved from -0.59 to -0.62. Both dryness indices and ASCAT SSM mappings generally showed coherent patterns under low vegetation and dry conditions. Based on these results, the LAI-induced TVDI accuracy as an index for soil moisture status was validated and found appropriate for use as an alternative and complementary method for NDVI-induced TVDI.

  8. Mixed convective/dynamic roll vortices and their effects on initial wind and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Tracy; Shirer, Hampton N.

    1991-01-01

    The onset and development of both dynamically and convectively forced boundary layer rolls are studied with linear and nonlinear analyses of a truncated spectral model of shallow Boussinesq flow. Emphasis is given here on the energetics of the dominant roll modes, on the magnitudes of the roll-induced modifications of the initial basic state wind and temperature profiles, and on the sensitivity of the linear stability results to the use of modified profiles as basic states. It is demonstrated that the roll circulations can produce substantial changes to the cross-roll component of the initial wind profile and that significant changes in orientation angle estimates can result from use of a roll-modified profile in the stability analysis. These results demonstrate that roll contributions must be removed from observed background wind profiles before using them to investigate the mechanisms underlying actual secondary flows in the boundary layer. The model is developed quite generally to accept arbitrary basic state wind profiles as dynamic forcing. An Ekman profile is chosen here merely to provide a means for easy comparison with other theoretical boundary layer studies; the ultimate application of the model is to study observed boundary layer profiles. Results of the analytic stability analysis are validated by comparing them with results from a larger linear model. For an appropriate Ekman depth, a complete set of transition curves is given in forcing parameter space for roll modes driven both thermally and dynamically. Preferred orientation angles, horizontal wavelengths and propagation frequencies, as well as energetics and wind profile modifications, are all shown to agree rather well with results from studies on Ekman layers as well as with studies on near-neutral and convective atmospheric boundary layers.

  9. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We coupled a radiative transfer model and a soil hydrologic model (HYDRUS 1D) with an optimization routine to derive soil hydraulic parameters, surface roughness, and soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot using measured brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band), rainfall, and potential soil evaporation. The robustness of the approach was evaluated using five 28-d data sets representing different meteorological conditions. We considered two soil hydraulic property models: the unimodal Mualem-van Genuchten and the bimodal model of Durner. Microwave radiative transfer was modeled by three different approaches: the Fresnel equation with depth-averaged dielectric permittivity of either 2-or 5-cm-thick surface layers and a coherent radiative transfer model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related to the dielectric permittivity and soil moisture in a 2-cm-thick surface layer. The surface roughness parameter that was derived from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling was similar to direct estimates from laser profiler measurements. The laboratory-derived water retention curve was bimodal and could be retrieved consistently for the different periods from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling. A unimodal soil hydraulic property function underestimated the hydraulic conductivity near saturation. Surface soil moisture contents simulated using retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were compared with in situ measurements. Depth-specific calibration relations were essential to derive soil moisture from near-surface installed sensors. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

  10. SMEX03 Little Washita Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains volumetric soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity, soil salinity, and surface temperature data collected during the Soil Moisture...

  11. The influence of ventilation on moisture conditions in facades with wooden cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    A ventilated cavity behind the cladding of timber frame walls is often considered good building practice that facilitates the removal of moisture from the construction. However, moisture will only be removed from the construction by ventilating it with dry air, whereas ventilating with humid air...... might add moisture to the construction. Full-size wall elements with wooden cladding placed in a test building were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. Temperature and moisture conditions inside the wall elements and climate parameters were monitored....... Test parameters included cavity/unventilated cavity/no cavity, cavity size, vent geometry, type of cladding and type of wind barrier. The potential durability of the wooden façade claddings was evaluated by coupling the measured time series of moisture content, temperature and time by means of a model...

  12. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, Matthew; Hazelton, Craig; Kano, Kimi

    2010-12-31

    The development of highly reliable downhole equipment is an essential element in enabling the widespread utilization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The downhole equipment used in these systems will be required to operate at high voltages and temperatures on the order of 200 to 250°C (and eventually to 300°C). These conditions exceed the practical operating ranges of currently available thermoplastic wire insulations, and thus limit the operating lifetime of tools such as Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). In this work, high-temperature insulations based on composite materials were developed and demonstrated. The products of this work were found to exhibit electrical resistivities and dielectric breakdown strengths that PEEK at temperatures above 250C. In addition, sub-scale motor windings were fabricated and tested to validate the performance of this technology

  13. Effects of moisture and extrusion temperatures on the oxidative stability of milling oat products with granularity below 532 µm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research had as objective to study the effects of moisture and extrusion temperatures on the oxidative stability of oat fine (Estudos foram realizados com o objetivo avaliar os efeitos de umidade inicial da matéria-prima e da temperatura de extrusão na estabilidade oxidativa de produtos de aveia (Avena sativa L. Cariopses de aveia foram moídas em moinho de rolos Brabender e obtidas frações de granulometrias superior e inferior a 532 µm. A fração de granulometria inferior a 532 µm, de alto teor de a,mido e baixos teores de proteínas, lipídios e fibra alimentar, foi condicionada na umidade desejada (15,5-25,5% e extrusada em extrusor de laboratório Brabender monorosca. As condições usadas na extrusão foram taxa de compressão de 3:1, rotação de 100 rpm, matriz de 6 mm de diâmetro e temperaturas entre 77,6 e 162,4ºC nas 2ª e 3ª zonas e de 80ºC na 1ª zona. O material extrusado foi seco em estufa, moído, acondicionado em sacos plásticos e utilizado periodicamente nas determinações de peróxidos e de n-hexanal. O conteúdo de ácidos graxos insaturados no óleo da fração de aveia estudada foi elevado (79,20%. Independentemente do teor de umidade inicial da matéria-prima, todos os produtos extrusados em temperaturas inferiores a 120 ºC apresentaram baixa rancidez oxidativa.

  14. Effects of temperature and moisture on dilute-acid steam explosion pretreatment of corn stover and cellulase enzyme digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Melvin P; Kim, Kyoung H; Newman, Mildred M; Nguyen, Quang A

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is emerging as a viable feedstock for producing bioethanol from renewable resources. Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover can solubilize a significant portion of the hemicellulosic component and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of the remaining cellulose for fermentation into ethanol. In this study, dilute H2SO4 pretreatment of corn stover was performed in a steam explosion reactor at 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, and 190 degrees C, approx 1 wt % H2SO4, and 70-s to 840-s residence times. The combined severity (Log10 [Ro] - pH), an expression relating pH, temperature, and residence time of pretreatment, ranged from 1.8 to 2.4. Soluble xylose yields varied from 63 to 77% of theoretical from pretreatments of corn stover at 160 and 180 degrees C. However, yields >90% of theoretical were found with dilute-acid pretreatments at 190 degrees C. A narrower range of higher combined severities was required for pretreatment to obtain high soluble xylose yields when the moisture content of the acidimpregnated feedstock was increased from 55 to 63 wt%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed solids from corn stover pretreated at 190 degrees C, using an enzyme loading of 15 filter paper units (FPU)/ g of cellulose, gave ethanol yields in excess of 85%. Similar SSF ethanol yields were found using washed solid residues from 160 and 180 degrees C pretreatments at similar combined severities but required a higher enzyme loading of approx 25 FPU/g of cellulose.

  15. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Luebke, Charles John [Sussex, WI; Habetler, Thomas G [Snellville, GA; Zhang, Pinjia [Atlanta, GA; Becker, Scott K [Oak Creek, WI

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  16. [Soil heterotrophic respiration and its sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture in Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana forests in hilly areas of southeast Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan-hua; Chen, Fang-qing; Wang, Yuan; Li, Jun-qing

    2011-03-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to study the annual dynamics of soil heterotrophic respiration and soil temperature and moisture in Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana forests in hilly areas of southeast Hubei Province, China. At the same time, laboratory experiment was performed to study the heterotrophic respiration rate along soil profile, and the sensitivity of surface soil (0-5 cm) heterotrophic respiration to soil temperature and moisture. Then, a model was established to valuate the potential effects of warming change on the soil heterotrophic respiration in study area. In L. formosana and P. massoniana forests, the soil heterotrophic respiration rate in 0-5 cm layer was 2.39 and 2.62 times, and 2.01 and 2.94 times of that in 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers, respectively, illustrating that soil heterotrophic respiration mainly occurred in 0-5 cm surface layer. The temperature sensitivity factor (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm layers was 2.10, 1.86, and 1.78 in L. formosana forest, and 1.86, 1.77, and 1.44 in P. massoniana forest, respectively. The relationship between surface soil heterotrophic respiration and temperature (T) well fitted exponential function R = alphaexp (beta3T), and that between surface soil heterotrophic respiration and moisture (W) well fitted quadratic function R = a+bW+cW2. Therefore, the relationship of surface soil heterotrophic respiration with soil temperature and moisture could be described by the model lnR = a+bW+cW2 +dT+eT2, which suggested that the response of soil heterotrophic respiration to soil moisture was depended on soil temperature, i.e., the sensitivity decreased with decreasing soil temperature. The calculation of the annual soil heterotrophic respiration rate in the two forests with the established model showed that the calculated respiration rate was a slightly higher in L. formosana forest but close to the measured one in P. massoniana forest, illustrating the applied

  17. Fire and grazing effects on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Lance T; Wester, David B; Mitchell, Robert B; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2005-01-01

    Selective grazing of burned patches can be intense if animal distribution is not controlled and may compound the independent effects of fire and grazing on soil characteristics. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of patch burning and grazing on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature in sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia Torr.) mixed prairie. We selected 24, 4-ha plots near Woodward, OK. Four plots were burned during autumn (mid-November) and four during spring (mid-April), and four served as nonburned controls for each of two years. Cattle were given unrestricted access (April-September) to burned patches (erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature were measured monthly. Wind erosion varied by burn, year, and sampling height. Wind erosion was about 2 to 48 times greater on autumn-burned plots than nonburned plots during the dormant period (December-April). Growing-season (April-August) erosion was greatest during spring. Erosion of spring-burned sites was double that of nonburned sites both years. Growing-season erosion from autumn-burned sites was similar to nonburned sites except for one year with a dry April-May. Soil water content was unaffected by patch burn treatments. Soils of burned plots were 1 to 3 degrees C warmer than those of nonburned plots, based on mid-day measurements. Lower water holding and deep percolation capacity of sandy soils probably moderated effects on soil water content and soil temperature. Despite poor growing conditions following fire and heavy selective grazing of burned patches, no blowouts or drifts were observed.

  18. Quality assurance of sensitive goods by means of advanced moisture and temperature control; Qualitaetssicherung sensibler Waren durch neue Feuchte- und Temperaturregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F. [Friedhelm Meyer GmbH und Co. KG, Allendorf/Eder (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    In chilled rooms with unpackaged goods like sausages, cheese, apples or flowers, humidity is observed to vary considerably in all seasons, maybe because of different loads. Standard refrigerators can regulate the room temperature with high accuracy but with no effect on humidity. Humidity control, on the other hand, is indispensable for optimum storage. The contribution presents a novel control concept which provides an optimum solution without auxiliary moisturizing units. (orig.)

  19. New results on equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures from Ethiopia, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    F. Tesema; F. Tesema; F. Tesema; R. Mesquita; J. Meriwether; B. Damtie; M. Nigussie; J. Makela; D. Fisher; B. Harding; E. Yizengaw; S. Sanders

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of equatorial thermospheric winds, temperatures, and 630 nm relative intensities were obtained using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI), which was recently deployed at Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia (11.6° N, 37.4° E, 3.7° N magnetic). The results obtained in this study cover 6 months (53 nights of useable data) between November 2015 and April 2016. The monthly-averaged values, which include local winter and equinox seasons, show the magnitude of the ...

  20. Remote SST Forcing and Local Land-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling as Drivers of Amazon Temperature and Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, P. A.; Xu, M.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Interannual variability of climatic conditions in the Amazon rainforest is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and ocean-atmosphere interactions in the North Atlantic. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in these remote ocean regions drive teleconnections with Amazonian surface air temperature (T), precipitation (P), and net ecosystem production (NEP). While SST-driven NEP anomalies have been primarily linked to T anomalies, it is unclear how much the T anomalies result directly from SST forcing of atmospheric circulation, and how much result indirectly from decreases in precipitation that, in turn, influence surface energy fluxes. Interannual variability of P associated with SST anomalies lead to variability in soil moisture (SM), which would indirectly affect T via partitioning of turbulent heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. To separate the direct and indirect influence of the SST signal on T and NEP, we performed a mechanism-denial experiment to decouple SST and SM anomalies. We used the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACMEv0.3), with version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model and version 4.5 of the Community Land Model. We forced the model with observed SSTs from 1982-2016. We found that SST and SM variability both contribute to T and NEP anomalies in the Amazon, with relative contributions depending on lag time and location within the Amazon basin. SST anomalies associated with ENSO drive most of the T variability at shorter lag times, while the ENSO-driven SM anomalies contribute more to T variability at longer lag times. SM variability and the resulting influence on T anomalies are much stronger in the eastern Amazon than in the west. Comparing modeled T with observations demonstrate that SST alone is sufficient for simulating the correct timing of T variability, but SM anomalies are necessary for simulating the correct magnitude of the T variability. Modeled NEP indicated that variability in carbon fluxes

  1. Temperature-moisture biases in ECMWF analyses based on clear sky longwave simulations constrained by SSMI and MSU measurements and comparisons to ERBE estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju

    1994-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiation fluxes for the summer of 1988 and winter of 1989 have been simulated with a radiative transfer model that includes detailed treatment of atmospheric gas absorption. The input data to the model are humidity and temperature profiles from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses and surface temperature measurements from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. To reduce the inherent uncertainties in humidity profiles, the ECMWF moisture fields have been adjusted, based on the climatological relationship between the moisture profile and total precipitable water (PW), so that the ECMWF PW is equal to that derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) data. SSMI and ECMWF PW patterns are generally similar, but significant differences in magnitude are found in the low latitudes, particularly over the subtropical oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. At the same time the tropospheric brightness temperature (T(sub B)) at 53.74 GHz has been computed using a microwave transfer model with ECMWF temperature and humidity fields as inputs. The comparison of computed T(sub B) with the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channel 2 T(sub B) revealed differences larger than 1.5 K over most of the oceans, suggesting that the ECMWF model atmosphere has a cold bias. Maximum biases greater than 3 K are found in low latitudes. After removing the bias from the ECMWF temperature field, a new set of temperature profiles yielding brightness temperature equal to MSU channel 2 T(sub B) has been obtained. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that inclusion of satellite estimates of PW and T(sub B) enhances the accuracy of the clear sky LW flux simulation, substantially reducing the differences from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) estimates. Global averages indicate that the model-derived top-of-atmosphere (TOA) clear sky fluxes from the adjusted moisture and temperature profiles are in very good agreement with

  2. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  3. Analysis of the Processes of Short-Currents Limiting by Transformer with High-Temperature Superconducting Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An important advantage of transformers with high-temperature superconducting winding is their ability to limit the short-circuit currents. The article discusses a physico-mathematical model that analyses transient processes at short-circuit currents in electrical networks containing transformers with a high-temperature superconducting winding. One of the main ideas and objectives of this work is to investigate the process of short-circuit currents limiting by means of a transformer with a high-temperature superconductor winding, which makes it possible to combine two series-connected elements in one device: transformer and a reactor. The effectiveness of this method is due to the fact that when the short-circuit currents exceed the critical value of the temperature of the superconductor winding, it goes to the normal state with high winding resistance for short-circuit currents. It is important to know when a superconductor should go over to a normal state with the loss of superconductivity. For this purpose, a program was developed to determine the amount of heat generated by a short-circuit current flowing before it is disconnected. For a transformer with high-temperature superconducting winding with a capacity of 40 MVA, a short circuit must be eliminated after 0.1 seconds, without switching off the transformer. To limit the short-circuit current; it is intended to use a hybrid winding. The performed assessment showed that the return of the winding to the superconducting state, first, depends on the ratio of the short-circuit currents to the operating current. This is the criterion for the return/non-return to the superconducting state.

  4. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of GEOSAT sea surface height, SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Zlotnicki, V.; Newman, J.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly mean global distributions for 1988 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map. Distributions are included for sea surface height variation estimated from GEOSAT; surface wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on NOAA spacecrafts; and the Cartesian components of the 10m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  5. Maintenance of coastal surface blooms by surface temperature stratification and wind drift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Carmen Ruiz-de la Torre

    Full Text Available Algae blooms are an increasingly recurrent phenomenon of potentially socio-economic impact in coastal waters globally and in the coastal upwelling region off northern Baja California, Mexico. In coastal upwelling areas the diurnal wind pattern is directed towards the coast during the day. We regularly found positive Near Surface Temperature Stratification (NSTS, the resulting density stratification is expected to reduce the frictional coupling of the surface layer from deeper waters and allow for its more efficient wind transport. We propose that the net transport of the top layer of approximately 2.7 kilometers per day towards the coast helps maintain surface blooms of slow growing dinoflagellate such as Lingulodinium polyedrum. We measured: near surface stratification with a free-rising CTD profiler, trajectories of drifter buoys with attached thermographs, wind speed and direction, velocity profiles via an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, Chlorophyll and cell concentration from water samples and vertical migration using sediment traps. The ADCP and drifter data agree and show noticeable current shear within the first meters of the surface where temperature stratification and high cell densities of L. polyedrum were found during the day. Drifters with 1m depth drogue moved towards the shore, whereas drifters at 3 and 5 m depth showed trajectories parallel or away from shore. A small part of the surface population migrated down to the sea floor during night thus reducing horizontal dispersion. The persistent transport of the surface bloom population towards shore should help maintain the bloom in favorable environmental conditions with high nutrients, but also increasing the potential socioeconomic impact of the blooms. The coast wise transport is not limited to blooms but includes all dissolved and particulate constituents in surface waters.

  6. Shaping the solar wind electron temperature anisotropy by the interplay of core and suprathermal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban Hamd, S. M.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Pierrard, V.; Štverák

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of an advanced parametrization of the temperature anisotropy of electrons in the slow solar wind and the electromagnetic instabilities resulting from the interplay of their thermal core and suprathermal halo populations. A large set of observational data (from the Ulysses, Helios and Cluster missions) is used to parametrize these components and establish their correlations. Comparative analysis demonstrates for the first time a particular implication of the suprathermal electrons which are less dense but hotter than thermal electrons. The instabilities are significantly stimulated by the interplay of the core and halo populations, leading to lower thresholds which shape the observed limits of the temperature anisotropy for both the core and halo populations. This double agreement strongly suggests that the selfgenerated instabilities play the major role in constraining the electron anisotropy.

  7. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all Pheating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  8. A real time measurement of junction temperature variation in high power IGBT modules for wind power converter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    is decreased at higher fundamental frequency due to change in on-state time from the change in output frequency. The junction temperature is estimated using the on-state collector-emitter voltage of the IGBT module. Lower output frequency is thermally a higher stressing zone for wind power converters, hence......This paper presents a real time measurement of on-state forward voltage and estimating the junction temperature for a high power IGBT module during a power converter operation. The power converter is realized as it can be used for a wind turbine system. The peak of the junction temperature...

  9. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Prasad, A S; Sharath, U; Asokan, S; Nagarjun, V; Hegde, G M

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other. (paper)

  10. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  11. [Nitrification of biological soil crusts and soil system during drought process and its response to temperature and moisture: A case study in the Shapotou region, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-xin; Chen, Yong-le; Hu, Yi-gang; Zhang, Zhi-shan; Li, Gang; Li, Meng-ru; Chen, Dong

    2015-04-01

    Two types of soil covered by biological soil crusts (BSCs) , i.e. moss and algae, and moving sand in the natural vegetation area at the southeast fringe of the Tengger Desert were collected intactly. They were incubated continuously for 20 days under two different temperatures (15 degrees C and 25 degrees C) and moistures (10% and 25%) condition in the laboratory, and soil NO3(-)-N contents were measured after 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 20 days of incubation and net nitrification rate was evaluated during dehydration. The results showed that NO3(-)-N content of the moss-covered soil (2.29 mg x kg(-1)) was higher than that of the algae-covered soil (1.84 mg x kg(-1)) and sand (1.59 mg x kg(-1)). Net nitrification rate of the three soil types ranged from -3.47 to 2.97 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). For the moss-covered soil and algae-covered soil at 10% and 25% moisture levels, the net nitrification rates at 15 degrees C were 75.1%, 0.7% and 99.1%, 21.3% higher than those at 25 degrees C, respectively. Also, the net nitrification rates at 15 degrees C and 10% moisture levels were 193.4% and 107.3% higher than those at 25 degrees C and 25% moisture levels, respectively. The results suggested that regardless of soil moisture increasing or decreasing under the global warming senior, the net nitrification rate of BSCs-soil system in the desert would probably be limited to some extent during drought process.

  12. Intra-seasonal Oscillations (ISO of zonal-mean meridional winds and temperatures as measured by UARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Huang

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an empirical analysis of measurements with the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI on the UARS spacecraft in the upper mesosphere (95km, persistent and regular intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO with periods of about 2 to 4 months have recently been reported in the zonal-mean meridional winds. Similar oscillations have also been discussed independently in a modeling study, and they were attributed to wave-mean-flow interactions. The observed and modeled meridional wind ISOs were largely confined to low latitudes. We report here on an analysis of concurrent UARS temperature measurements, which produces oscillations similar to those seen in the meridional winds. Although the temperature oscillations are observed at lower altitudes (55km, their phase variations with latitude are qualitatively consistent with the inferred properties seen in the meridional winds and thus provide independent evidence for the existence of ISOs in the mesosphere.

  13. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values. PMID:24578617

  14. A Quasi-Global Approach to Improve Day-Time Satellite Surface Soil Moisture Anomalies through the Land Surface Temperature Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Parinussa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave observations from various spaceborne sensors have been linked to the soil moisture of the Earth’s surface layer. A new generation of passive microwave sensors are dedicated to retrieving this variable and make observations in the single theoretically optimal L-band frequency (1–2 GHz. Previous generations of passive microwave sensors made observations in a range of higher frequencies, allowing for simultaneous estimation of additional variables required for solving the radiative transfer equation. One of these additional variables is land surface temperature, which plays a unique role in the radiative transfer equation and has an influence on the final quality of retrieved soil moisture anomalies. This study presents an optimization procedure for soil moisture retrievals through a quasi-global precipitation-based verification technique, the so-called Rvalue metric. Various land surface temperature scenarios were evaluated in which biases were added to an existing linear regression, specifically focusing on improving the skills to capture the temporal variability of soil moisture. We focus on the relative quality of the day-time (01:30 pm observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, as these are theoretically most challenging due to the thermal equilibrium theory, and existing studies indicate that larger improvements are possible for these observations compared to their night-time (01:30 am equivalent. Soil moisture data used in this study were retrieved through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, and in line with theory, both satellite paths show a unique and distinct degradation as a function of vegetation density. Both the ascending (01:30 pm and descending (01:30 am paths of the publicly available and widely used AMSR-E LPRM soil moisture products were used for benchmarking purposes. Several scenarios were employed in which the land surface temperature input for

  15. A Quasi-Global Approach to Improve Day-Time Satellite Surface Soil Moisture Anomalies through the Land Surface Temperature Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinussa, Robert M.; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; van Der Schalie, Robin; Crow, Wade T.; Lei, Fangni; Holmes, Thomas R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Passive microwave observations from various spaceborne sensors have been linked to the soil moisture of the Earth's surface layer. A new generation of passive microwave sensors are dedicated to retrieving this variable and make observations in the single theoretically optimal L-band frequency (1-2 GHz). Previous generations of passive microwave sensors made observations in a range of higher frequencies, allowing for simultaneous estimation of additional variables required for solving the radiative transfer equation. One of these additional variables is land surface temperature, which plays a unique role in the radiative transfer equation and has an influence on the final quality of retrieved soil moisture anomalies. This study presents an optimization procedure for soil moisture retrievals through a quasi-global precipitation-based verification technique, the so-called Rvalue metric. Various land surface temperature scenarios were evaluated in which biases were added to an existing linear regression, specifically focusing on improving the skills to capture the temporal variability of soil moisture. We focus on the relative quality of the day-time (01:30 pm) observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), as these are theoretically most challenging due to the thermal equilibrium theory, and existing studies indicate that larger improvements are possible for these observations compared to their night-time (01:30 am) equivalent. Soil moisture data used in this study were retrieved through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), and in line with theory, both satellite paths show a unique and distinct degradation as a function of vegetation density. Both the ascending (01:30 pm) and descending (01:30 am) paths of the publicly available and widely used AMSR-E LPRM soil moisture products were used for benchmarking purposes. Several scenarios were employed in which the land surface temperature input for the radiative

  16. Harvest residue and competing vegetation affect soil moisture, soil temperature, N availability, and Douglas-fir seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Constance A. Harrington; Thomas A. Terry

    2005-01-01

    Decisions made during stand regeneration that affect subsequent levels of competing vegetation and residual biomass can have important short-term consequences for early stand growth, and may affect long-term site productivity. Competing vegetation clearly affects the availability of site resources such as soil moisture and nutrients. Harvest residues can also impact...

  17. Perception of temperature and wind by users of public outdoor spaces: relationships with weather parameters and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria-João; Oliveira, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    We aim to understand the relationship between people's declared bioclimatic comfort, their personal characteristics (age, origin, clothing, activity and motivation, etc.) and the atmospheric conditions. To attain this goal, questionnaire surveys were made concurrently with weather measurements (air temperature, relative humidity, solar and long-wave radiation and wind speed) in two open leisure areas of Lisbon (Portugal), during the years 2006 and 2007. We analysed the desire expressed by the interviewees to decrease, maintain or increase the values of air temperature and wind speed, in order to improve their level of comfort. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the quantitative relation between preference votes and environmental and personal parameters. The preference for a different temperature depends on the season and is strongly associated with wind speed. Furthermore, a general decrease of discomfort with increasing age was also found. Most people declared a preference for lower wind speed in all seasons; the perception of wind shows significant differences depending on gender, with women declaring a lower level of comfort with higher wind speed. It was also found that the tolerance of warmer conditions is higher than of cooler conditions, and that adaptive strategies are undertaken by people to improve their level of comfort outdoors.

  18. OGCM Simulations of Equatorial Pacific Current and Temperature to ERS-1, FSU and NMC Surface Winds and to Assimilation of Subsurface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    1995-01-01

    The relative accuracies of three surface wind data products for the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 1992 to March 1994 were examined by analyzing temperature and current fields along the equator, which were simulated with an ocean general circulation model. Simulations were made with and without assimilation of surface and subsurface temperature data. Simulated currents were compared with observations at three sites (170oW, 140oW, 110oW) at the equator. Model-generated currents and temperatures indicated that the ERS-1 westward wind speeds were low compared to the FSU and NMC winds. With data assimilation, the agreement between simulated and observed currents was highest at 170oW and lowest at 110oW.

  19. Systematic approach for the calibration of humidity sensitive polyimide recoated fibre Bragg gratings for measuring humidity and temperature and their application for measuring moisture absorption in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T J; Lodeiro, M J; Gower, M R L; Sassi, M B

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic method for calibrating polyimide recoated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical fibres and the associated models used to measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) from 20 to 70 °C and 20% RH to 80% RH. The method was validated by comparing known values of temperature and RH with calculated values from two FBG sensors with different thicknesses of polyimide recoat. Results show good agreement, with a standard deviation error of 0.5 °C and 4.8% RH for temperature and humidity respectively. Drift in the measured wavelength was observed for both thicknesses of polyimide coating under the combined effect of elevated temperature and high humidity. This drift was reversed after a reduction in the humidity. Additional results are provided on the use of embedded polyimide recoated FBG optical fibres for measuring moisture ingress within polymers and composites. (paper)

  20. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition

  1. Soil moisture applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of ground, aircraft and satellite investigations conducted to evaluate the potential of the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) to monitor soil moisture and the depth of shallow ground water. The investigations were carried out over eastern South Dakota to evaluate the relation between directly measured soil temperatures and water content at various stages of canopy development, aircraft thermal scanner measurements of apparent canopy temperature and the reliability of actual HCMM data. The results demonstrate the possibility of evaluating soil moisture on the basis of HCMM apparent canopy temperature and day-night soil temperature difference measurements. Limitations on the use of thermal data posed by environmental factors which influence energy balance interactions, including phase transformations, wind patterns, topographic variations and atmospheric constituents are pointed out.

  2. Influence of the tilting reflection mirror on the temperature and wind velocity retrieved by a polarizing atmospheric Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmin; Li, Ying

    2012-09-20

    The principles of a polarizing atmospheric Michelson interferometer are outlined. The tilt of its reflection mirror results in deflection of the reflected beam and affects the intensities of the observed inteferogram. This effect is systematically analyzed. Both rectangular and circular apertures are considered. The theoretical expression of the modulation depth and phase of the interferogram are derived. These parameters vary with the inclination angle of the mirror and the distance between the deflection center and the optical axis and significantly influence the retrieved temperature and wind speed. If the wind and temperature errors are required to be less than 3 m/s and 5 K, the deflection angle must be less than 0.5°. The errors are also dependent on the shape of aperture. If the reflection mirror is deflected in one direction, the temperature error is smaller for a circular aperture (1.3 K) than for a rectangular one (2.6 K), but the wind velocity errors are almost the same (less than 3 m/s). If the deflection center and incident light beam are coincident, the temperature errors are 3 × 10(-4) K and 0.45 K for circular and rectangular apertures, respectively. The wind velocity errors are 1.2 × 10(-3) m/s and 0.06 m/s. Both are small. The result would be helpful for theoretical research and development of the static polarization wind imaging interferometer.

  3. [Effects of plastic film mulching with double ridges and furrow planting on soil moisture and temperature and soybean yield on a semiarid dryland of Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Ke; Wang, Li-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2013-11-01

    Taking soybean cultivar Jindou 23 as test object, a field experiment was conducted at the Zhenyuan experimental station of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences to study the effects of various plastic mulching treatments on the soil moisture and temperature and soybean grain yield on a semiarid dryland of Northwest China. Four treatments were installed, i. e., plastic film mulching with double ridges and furrow planting (FMRFC), plastic film mulching without ridges and with furrow planting (FMFC), plastic film mulching with strip planting (FMSC), and no mulch strip planting (NMSC, CK). During the drought year (the precipitation in soybean growth period was 246.3 mm) and wet year (407 mm), the daily soil temperature in 0-20 cm layer in all mulching treatments varied in "S" shape, and its fluctuation became smaller with soybean growth. The mulching treatments raised the daily average soil temperature in 0-20 cm layer by an average of 0.5-2.5 degrees C from the seedling (VE-V3) to seed filling (R6) stage, with the average soil temperature in whole growth period raised by 1.3-1.6 degrees C. Both in dry year and in wet year, mulching treatments promoted the soil moisture consumption in 0-120 cm layer, by soybean, but increased the average soil moisture content and water storage in 0-200 cm layer by 1.2%-1.4% and 62.7-70.3 mm, respectively. As compared to CK, treatments FMRFC and FMFC had significant effects in improving the soil temperature and moisture environment in dry year, and greatly improved the yield-related traits such as plant height, branching number, pods per plant, and 100-seed mass. FMRFC increased the yield by 27.7%-51.1% and raised the water use efficiency (WUE) by 47.7%- 56.3%, whereas FMFC increased the yield by 10.2% -25.2% and raised the WUE by 33.3%-35.4%, as compared to CK. It was suggested that FMRFC and FMFC could be the most efficient planting systems for the soybean production in the dryland farming of Northwest China.

  4. Effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Marine induction machines are exposed to various power quality disturbances appearing simultaneously in ship power systems: frequency and voltage rms value deviation, voltage unbalance and voltage waveform distortions. As a result, marine induction motors can be seriously overheated due to lowered supply voltage quality. Improvement of the protection of marine induction machines requires an appropriate method of power quality assessment and modification of the power quality regulations of ship classification societies. This paper presents an analytical model of an induction cage machine supplied with voltage of lowered quality, used in part II of the work (effect of power quality on windings temperature of marine induction motors. Part II. Results of investigations and recommendations for related regulations) for power quality assessment in ship power systems, and for justification of the new power quality regulations proposal. The presented model is suitable for implementation in an on-line measurement system.

  5. A Study of Spatial Soil Moisture Estimation Using a Multiple Linear Regression Model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data Corrected by Conditional Merging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunggil Jung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate spatial soil moisture in South Korea (99,000 km2 from January 2013 to December 2015 using a multiple linear regression (MLR model and the Terra moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS land surface temperature (LST and normalized distribution vegetation index (NDVI data. The MODIS NDVI was used to reflect vegetation variations. Observed precipitation was measured using the automatic weather stations (AWSs of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA, and soil moisture data were recorded at 58 stations operated by various institutions. Prior to MLR analysis, satellite LST data were corrected by applying the conditional merging (CM technique and observed LST data from 71 KMA stations. The coefficient of determination (R2 of the original LST and observed LST was 0.71, and the R2 of corrected LST and observed LST was 0.95 for 3 selected LST stations. The R2 values of all corrected LSTs were greater than 0.83 for total 71 LST stations. The regression coefficients of the MLR model were estimated seasonally considering the five-day antecedent precipitation. The p-values of all the regression coefficients were less than 0.05, and the R2 values were between 0.28 and 0.67. The reason for R2 values less than 0.5 is that the soil classification at each observation site was not completely accurate. Additionally, the observations at most of the soil moisture monitoring stations used in this study started in December 2014, and the soil moisture measurements did not stabilize. Notably, R2 and root mean square error (RMSE in winter were poor, as reflected by the many missing values, and uncertainty existed in observations due to freezing and mechanical errors in the soil. Thus, the prediction accuracy is low in winter due to the difficulty of establishing an appropriate regression model. Specifically, the estimated map of the soil moisture index (SMI can be used to better understand the severity of droughts with the

  6. Method for measuring temperatures and densities in hypersonic wind tunnel air flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Mckenzie, Robert L.; Fletcher, Douglas G.

    1990-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen, in combination with Raman scattering, is shown to be an accurate means by which temperature, density, and their fluctuations owing to turbulence can be measured in air flows associated with high-speed wind tunnels. For temperatures above 60 K and densities above 0.01 amagat, the uncertainties in the temperature and density measurements can be less than 2 percent, if the signal uncertainties are dominated by photon statistical noise. The measurements are unaffected by collisional quenching and can be achieved with laser fluences for which nonlinear effects are insignificant. Temperature measurements using laser-induced fluorescence alone have been demonstrated at known densities in the range of low temperatures and densities which are expected in a hypersonic wind tunnel.

  7. A method for measuring temperatures and densities in hypersonic wind tunnel air flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen, in combination with Raman scattering, is shown to be an accurate means by which temperature, density, and their fluctuations due to turbulence can be measured in air flows associated with high-speed wind tunnels. For temperatures above 60 K and densities above 0.01 amagat, the uncertainty in the temperature and density measurements can be less than 2 and 3 percent, respectively, if the signal uncertainties are dominated by photon-statistical noise. The measurements are unaffected by collisional quenching and can be achieved with laser fluences for which nonlinear effects are insignificant. Temperature measurements using laser-induced fluorescence alone have been demonstrated at known densities in the range of low temperatures and densities which are expected in a hypersonic wind tunnel.

  8. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) and biomass turnover of soil microbial communities as affected by bedrock, land management and soil temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing; Hu, Yuntao; Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the proportion of organic C taken up that is allocated to microbial growth, represents an important synthetic representation of microbial community C metabolism that describes the flux partitioning between microbial respiration and growth. Therefore, studying microbial CUE is critical for the understanding of soil C cycling. Microbial CUE is thought to vary with environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and soil moisture). Microbial CUE is thought to decrease with increasing temperature and declining soil moisture, as the latter may trigger stress responses (e.g. the synthesis of stress metabolites), which may consequently lower microbial community CUE. However, these effects on microbial CUE have not been adequately measured so far due to methodological restrictions. The most widely used methods for microbial CUE estimation are based on tracing 13C-labeled substrates into microbial biomass and respiratory CO2, approaches that are known to overestimate microbial CUE of native organic matter in soil. Recently, a novel substrate-independent approach based on the measurement of (i) respiration rates and (ii) the incorporation rates of 18O from labelled water into newly formed microbial DNA has been developed in our laboratory for measuring microbial CUE. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previously used methods and has already been shown to yield realistic estimations of soil microbial CUE. This approach can also be applied to concurrently measure microbial biomass turnover rates, which also influence the sequestration of soil organic C. Microbial turnover rates are also thought to be impacted by environmental factors, but rarely have been directly measured so far. Here, we aimed at determining the short-term effects of environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on microbial CUE and microbial biomass turnover rates based on the novel 18O approach. Soils from three land-use types (arable

  9. Study on effects of temperature, moisture and pH in degradation and degradation kinetics of aldrin, endosulfan, lindane pesticides during full-scale continuous rotary drum composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muntjeer; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, Naseem

    2014-05-01

    Study focused on effects of temperature, moisture and pH on degradation and degradation kinetics of aldrin, endosulfan (α), endosulfan (β) and lindane during vegetable waste composting using full-scale continuous rotary drum composter (FSCRDC). Extraction, concentration and quantification of pesticides were made from waste material at different stages by ultra-sonification, silica gel column and GC-MS analysis. Removal efficiency of aldrin, endosulfan α, endosulfan β and lindane was found 85.67%, 84.95%, 83.20% and 81.36% respectively due to optimum temperature, moisture, pH and enhanced microbial activity. Maximum temperature in inlet zone was found 60-65°C which is most suitable for complex microbial population. After feeding and turning in inlet zone, temperature reduced to 38°C from 60 to 65°C and regained it within 7-8h, and pH reduced to 5.3±0.2 from 7.5±0.3 in 4h and regained it in 10h. Heterotrophic bacteria Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Lactobacillus sp. also decreased from 4.4×10(3) to 7.80×10(2)CFU g(-1) in 2 h due to gradual variation in temperature and pH. No significant temperature change was found in middle and outlet zones during feeding and turning. Degradation of pesticides was observed as first order kinetics and half-life of aldrin, endosulfan α, endosulfan β and lindane was reduced to 25.54, 18.43, 18.43 and 27.43 d from 1095, 60, 270 and 160 d respectively. Thus, the observations in contrast of removal and degradation kinetics of organochlorine pesticides residues in vegetable waste though full-scale rotary drum composting proved it the best suited technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus...... in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions...... in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies...

  11. Effects of temperature, soil moisture and photoperiod on diapause termination and post-diapause development of the wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weining; Long, Zhiren; Zhang, Yudong; Liang, Tingting; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2017-11-01

    Sitodiplosis mosellana, one of the most important wheat pests, goes through larval diapause in a cocooned form. It is univoltine, but some individuals exhibit prolonged diapause. In this study, we documented diapause termination rate of cocooned larvae at different diapausing periods and time required for adult emergence when they were brought to 25°C from the field in northern China. We found that field larvae all entered diapause by June, but none terminated diapause until late September when the daily average temperature dropped to below 20°C. Furthermore, termination rate increased significantly as diapausing larvae underwent increasing chilling duration, reaching >95% from early December to early March. Our results suggest that chilling was necessary for diapause to terminate and that field diapause termination ended in early December. To explore low temperature and duration required, we cold-treated field diapausing larvae of different periods at different low temperatures for various lengths of time prior to the 25°C incubation. Chilling at 4-8°C for 60-90days resulted in a higher termination rate (>90%) and shorter adult emergence time in general. Additionally, we investigated the combined effect of temperature (18-30°C) and soil moisture (20-60%, on dry weight basis) as well as the effect of photoperiod (24:0-0:24L:D) on post-diapause development. While photoperiod did not affect adult emergence, soil moisture ranging from 30 to 50% and temperature from 22 to 26°C resulted in the highest adult emergence rates (>46%) within relatively short time (<18days). Mortality and/or prolonged diapause rate drastically increased when incubation conditions were outside the optimal range, especially at 30°C. These findings provide new insight into the diapause process of S. mosellana, and information will be useful for development of field forecasting and laboratory rearing techniques of this pest insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy from 0.3 to 2.5 AU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Hellinger, Petr; Pantellini, F.; Maksimovic, M.; Velli, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Marsch, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 20 (2007), L20105/1-L20105/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Grant - others:ASI(IT) I/015/07/0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Proton temperature anisotropy * solar wind * radial evolution * observations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2007

  13. Using sonic anemometer temperature to measure sensible heat flux in strong winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Burns

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sonic anemometers simultaneously measure the turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind (w' and sonic temperature (Ts', and are commonly used to measure sensible heat flux (H. Our study examines 30-min heat fluxes measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer above a subalpine forest. We compared H calculated with Ts to H calculated with a co-located thermocouple and found that, for horizontal wind speed (U less than 8 m s−1, the agreement was around ±30 W m−2. However, for U ≈ 8 m s−1, the CSAT H had a generally positive deviation from H calculated with the thermocouple, reaching a maximum difference of ≈250 W m−2 at U ≈ 18 m s−1. With version 4 of the CSAT firmware, we found significant underestimation of the speed of sound and thus Ts in high winds (due to a delayed detection of the sonic pulse, which resulted in the large CSAT heat flux errors. Although this Ts error is qualitatively similar to the well-known fundamental correction for the crosswind component, it is quantitatively different and directly related to the firmware estimation of the pulse arrival time. For a CSAT running version 3 of the firmware, there does not appear to be a significant underestimation of Ts; however, a Ts error similar to that of version 4 may occur if the CSAT is sufficiently out of calibration. An empirical correction to the CSAT heat flux that is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the Ts error is presented. Within a broader context, the surface energy balance is used to evaluate the heat flux measurements, and the usefulness of side-by-side instrument comparisons is discussed.

  14. Summer planetary-scale oscillations: aura MLS temperature compared with ground-based radar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Meek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of satellite based sampling brings with it the opportunity to examine virtually any part of the globe. Aura MLS mesospheric temperature data are analysed in a wavelet format for easy identification of possible planetary waves (PW and aliases masquerading as PW. A calendar year, 2005, of eastward, stationary, and westward waves at a selected latitude is shown in separate panels for wave number range −3 to +3 for period range 8 h to 30 days (d. Such a wavelet analysis is made possible by Aura's continuous sampling at all latitudes 82° S–82° N. The data presentation is suitable for examination of years of data. However this paper focuses on the striking feature of a "dish-shaped" upper limit to periods near 2 d in mid-summer, with longer periods appearing towards spring and fall, a feature also commonly seen in radar winds. The most probable cause is suggested to be filtering by the summer jet at 70–80 km, the latter being available from ground based medium frequency radar (MFR. Classically, the phase velocity of a wave must be greater than that of the jet in order to propagate through it. As an attempt to directly relate satellite and ground based sampling, a PW event of period 8d and wave number 2, which appears to be the original rather than an alias, is compared with ground based radar wind data. An appendix discusses characteristics of satellite data aliases with regard to their periods and amplitudes.

  15. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1991 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free-drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components of the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  16. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1990 are proposed with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (US) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components on the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation values are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  17. Poynting Vector in High-Temperature Superconducting Transformers with a Separate Excitation Winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, E. P.; Dzhafarov, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The HTSC transformer with a separate winding for excitation of the mutual magnetic flux is considered; the windings of the transformer are performed of first- or second-generation HTSC wires. The article presents the design and the electrical circuit of the transformer, the equations of electromagnetic balance, and the total resistance of the primary and secondary power windings and the separate excitation winding. The transfer of the electromagnetic field energy is considered in a single-phase HTSC transformer with the separate excitation winding using the Poynting vector. The temporal change in the reactive and active components of the Poynting vector and the decrease in the leakage energy flux of the separate excitation winding are shown, which causes an increase in the critical current density of the HTSC power windings, a decrease in the energy losses in the latter, and an increase the in the specific power of the HTSC transformer.

  18. Temperature and wind speed data from XBT and bucket casts from the R/V OCEANOGRAPHER AND R/V RESEARCHER I (NODC Accession 7700678)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Air temperature, water temperature, and wind speed data were collected using XBT and bucket casts from the R/V OCEANGRAPHER AND R/V RESEARCHER I.

  19. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, AMI surface wind velocity, TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height, and ECMWF surface wind velocity during 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Fu, L.; Knauss, W.; Pihos, G.; Brown, O.; Freilich, M.; Wentz, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1993 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (U.S.) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite; 10-m height wind speed and direction estimated from the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) on the European Space Agency (ESA) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1) satellite; sea surface height estimated from the joint U.S.-France Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON spacecraft; and 10-m height wind speed and direction produced by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of annual mean, monthly mean, and sampling distributions are displayed.

  20. High Time-Resolved Kinetic Temperatures of Solar Wind Minor Ions Measured with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Solar wind heavy ions with an atomic number Z > 2 are referred to as minor ions since they represent a fraction of less than one percent of all solar wind ions. They can be therefore regarded as test particles, only reacting to but not driving the dynamics of the solar wind plasma, which makes them a unique diagnostic tool for plasma wave phenomena both in the solar atmosphere and the extended heliosphere. In the past, several studies have investigated the kinetic temperatures of minor ions, but due to low counting statistics these studies are based on ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) recorded over time periods of several hours. The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) provides solar wind heavy ion 1D radial VDFs with excellent charge state separation, an unprecedented cadence of 5 minutes and very high counting statistics, exceeding similar state-of-the-art instruments by a factor of ten. In our study, based on CTOF measurements at Langrangian point L1 between DOY 150 and DOY 220 in 1996, we investigate systematically the influence of the VDF time resolution on the derived kinetic temperatures for solar wind silicon and iron ions. The selected ion set spans a wide range of mass-per-charge from 3 amu/e heavy ions with ion-cyclotron waves.

  1. Flutuações de temperatura e umidade do solo em resposta à cobertura vegetal Soil temperature and moisture fluctuations in response to vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milson L. de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar as flutuações de temperatura e umidade do solo em resposta à cobertura vegetal, realizou-se um experimento com sete diferentes situações de cobertura do solo, constituídas por solo sem cobertura, presença de vegetação espontânea, cultivo de mucuna e plantio de milho a 0, 30, 60 e 90º em relação ao eixo leste-oeste. Dois meses após a semeadura, em janeiro de 1999, por igual período determinou-se o sombreamento nas entrelinhas do milho, às 8:30, 12:30 e 16:30 h, como também, para todos os tratamentos, a temperatura e umidade do solo nas profundidades de 2,5, 5,0 e 7,5 cm; constatou-se diferença no sombreamento entre o cultivo de milho a 0º e os outros ângulos testados nas determinações matutina e vespertina, mas tais diferenças não foram acompanhadas pela temperatura do solo que, neste caso, registrou valores intermediários entre o solo sem cobertura e os tratamentos com vegetação espontânea e mucuna. No tratamento sem cobertura verificou-se a maior amplitude de variação da temperatura ambiente acima da superfície do solo, registrando-se os menores valores de umidade e os maiores de temperatura do solo.An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the fluctuations of temperature and soil moisture in response to vegetation cover, using the following treatments: bare soil, natural weed cover, velvet bean, and maize at 0, 30, 60 and 90º in relation to a east-west axis. Two months after sowing in January 1999, for similar period the shadowed area between the lines at 8:30, 12:30 and 16:30 h, as well as for all treatments, the temperature and soil moisture at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 cm depths were measured. Differences in shadowing between maize cultivated at 0º and all other angles were observed in both morning and afternoon measurements. However, these differences were not accompanied by soil temperature, which showed intermediary values between the bare soil and the treatments with natural

  2. Surface wind, pressure and temperature fields near tornadic and non-tornadic narrow cold-frontal rainbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew; Parker, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Narrow cold frontal rainbands (NCFRs) occur frequently in the UK and other parts of northwest Europe. At the surface, the passage of an NCFR is often marked by a sharp wind veer, abrupt pressure increase and a rapid temperature decrease. Tornadoes and other instances of localised wind damage sometimes occur in association with meso-gamma-scale vortices (sometimes called misocyclones) that form along the zone of abrupt horizontal wind veer (and associated vertical vorticity) at the leading edge of the NCFR. Using one-minute-resolution data from a mesoscale network of automatic weather stations, surface pressure, wind and temperature fields in the vicinity of 12 NCFRs (five of which were tornadic) have been investigated. High-resolution surface analyses were obtained by mapping temporal variations in the observed parameters to equivalent spatial variations, using a system velocity determined by analysis of the radar-observed movement of NCFR precipitation segments. Substantial differences were found in the structure of surface wind and pressure fields close to tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Tornadic NCFRs exhibited a large wind veer (near 90°) and strong pre- and post-frontal winds. These attributes were associated with large vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence across the front. Tornadoes typically occurred where vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence were increasing. Here, we present surface analyses from selected cases, and draw comparisons between the tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Some Doppler radar observations will be presented, illustrating the development of misocyclones along parts of the NCFR that exhibit strong, and increasing, vertical vorticity stretching. The influence of the stability of the pre-frontal air on the likelihood of tornadoes will also be discussed.

  3. Using dry spell dynamics of land surface temperature to evaluate large-scale model representation of soil moisture control on evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher M.; Harris, Philip P.; Gallego-Elvira, Belen; Folwell, Sonja S.

    2017-04-01

    The soil moisture control on the partition of land surface fluxes between sensible and latent heat is a key aspect of land surface models used within numerical weather prediction and climate models. As soils dry out, evapotranspiration (ET) decreases, and the excess energy is used to warm the atmosphere. Poor simulations of this dynamic process can affect predictions of mean, and in particular, extreme air temperatures, and can introduce substantial biases into projections of climate change at regional scales. The lack of reliable observations of fluxes and root zone soil moisture at spatial scales that atmospheric models use (typically from 1 to several hundred kilometres), coupled with spatial variability in vegetation and soil properties, makes it difficult to evaluate the flux partitioning at the model grid box scale. To overcome this problem, we have developed techniques to use Land Surface Temperature (LST) to evaluate models. As soils dry out, LST rises, so it can be used under certain circumstances as a proxy for the partition between sensible and latent heat. Moreover, long time series of reliable LST observations under clear skies are available globally at resolutions of the order of 1km. Models can exhibit large biases in seasonal mean LST for various reasons, including poor description of aerodynamic coupling, uncertainties in vegetation mapping, and errors in down-welling radiation. Rather than compare long-term average LST values with models, we focus on the dynamics of LST during dry spells, when negligible rain falls, and the soil moisture store is drying out. The rate of warming of the land surface, or, more precisely, its warming rate relative to the atmosphere, emphasises the impact of changes in soil moisture control on the surface energy balance. Here we show the application of this approach to model evaluation, with examples at continental and global scales. We can compare the behaviour of both fully-coupled land-atmosphere models, and land

  4. Leaf temperature and transpiration of rice plants in relation to short-wave radiation and wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, D.; Haseba, T.

    1984-01-01

    Leaf temperature and transpiration amount of rice plants were measured in a steady environment in a laboratory and in field situations. The plants set in Wagner pots were used. Experiments were carried out at the tillering and booting stages, and on the date of maturity. Measured leaf temperatures and transpiration rates were analyzed in connection with incident short-wave radiation on a leaf and wind speed measured simultaneously.Instantaneous supplying and turning-off of steady artificial light caused cyclic changes in leaf temperature and transpiration. Leaf temperature dropped in feeble illumination compared with the steady temperature in the preceeding dark.On the date of maturity, a rice plant leaf was warmer than the air, even in feeble light. Then, the leaf-air temperature difference and transpiration rate showed approximately linear increases with short-wave radiation intensity. On the same date, an increase in wind speed produced a decrease in leaf-air temperature difference, i.e., leaf temperature dropped, and an increase in transpiration rate. The rates of both changes in leaf temperature and transpiration rate were fairly large in a range of wind speed below about 1m/s.For rice plants growing favorably from the tillering stage through the booting stage, the leaves were considerably cooler than the air, even in an intense light and/or solar radiation. The leaf temperature showed the lowest value at short-wave radiations between 0.15 and 0.20ly/min, at above which the leaf temperature rised with an increase in short-wave radiation until it approached the air temperature. Transpiration rate of rice plants increased rapidly with an increase in short-wave radiation ranging below 0.2 or 0.3ly/min, at above which the increase in transpiration rate slowed.The relationships between leaf temperature and/or transpiration rate and wind speed and/or incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) which were obtained experimentally, supported the relationships

  5. A New Focus Lens for Improved Energy Resolution in the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, D.; Herrero, F.; Syrstad, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) is a novel neutral particle sensor capable of simultaneously measuring neutral winds, temperature, composition, and density in the upper atmosphere. This compact, low-power instrument is ideally suited for in situ thermospheric measurements on small-satellite platforms. Building on work previously performed, we detail here endeavors to more fully characterize the effects of proposed instrument modifications, leading to a greater understanding of their impact on overall sensor performance. Additionally, laboratory testing of the WATS seeks to confirm theoretical data previously gathered. WATS utilizes electron impact ionization, a crossed Small Deflection Energy Analyzer (SDEA) pair, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector with linear spatial readout to measure the full 3-D velocity distribution of an incoming neutral stream. A minor weakness in the original WATS design was that a large ion beam divergence at the SDEA entrance led to degraded energy resolution. To address this problem, a simple focusing lens system with a large acceptance angle range, dubbed the Tapered Quad Deflector (TQD), was designed and previously presented. Here, the results of ion trajectory calculations (Simion 3D) and Monte Carlo simulations (Matlab) are used to explore various aspects of the TQD’s functionality. With no modifications to the instrument aside from the addition of the TQD, simulations show an increase in the energy resolution by a factor of two. Further simulations reveal that reducing the width of the instrument’s collimator slit decreases the beam divergence (with a corresponding increase in instrument energy resolution) for both the original and modified WATS. However, this effect is markedly more pronounced in the latter, meaning that the TQD could enable a significant reduction in beam divergence while minimizing the loss of signal that would result from narrowing the collimator slit. Also presented are the results of

  6. Wood-plastic composites with reduced moisture : effects of chemical modification on durability in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca L. Schumann

    2007-01-01

    Although laboratory evaluations of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are helpful in predicting long-term durability, field studies are needed to verify overall long-term durability. Field exposure can encompass numerous degradations i.e., fungal, ultraviolet light, moisture, wind, temperature, freeze/thaw, wet/ dry cycling, termites, mold, etc. that traditionally are...

  7. Using low temperature calorimetry and moisture fixation method to study the pore structure of cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min

    consideration of including the model material in this investigation was to validate the applicability of the chosen methods in the context of pore size determination. In addition, data from literature were used. LTC investigations conducted in this PhD study include the ice content determination from measured...... attention was devoted to investigating important factors influencing the analysis of measured LTC data and using LTC to characterize the pore structure of cement based materials. Besides, the moisture fixation method was selected as a comparison and complementary method to the LTC. Attempts have been made...... data, the impact of sample saturation on the detected porosity, the effect of frost damage on the pore size distribution determination by LTC, the effect of preconditioning the cement paste samples on the freezing and melting behavior of the pore solution, the impact of sample crushing...

  8. Paradox: increased blood perfusion to the face enhances protection against frostbite while it lowers wind chill equivalent temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2007-05-01

    A model of facial heat exchange in cold and windy environments is presented. The tissue is depicted as a hollow cylinder and the model includes heat conduction and heat transport by blood circulation from the warmer core. A steady-state solution facilitating the estimation of wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) as a function of the effective wind velocity, air temperature and blood perfusion rate was obtained. The results quantify and demonstrate the elevation of skin temperatures caused by increased flow of warmer blood from the inner core to the face. Elevated facial temperatures, while enhancing protection against frostbite and other cold-related injuries, also increase heat loss to the colder environment. Paradoxically, such elevated facial temperatures cause WCETs, as estimated by the prevailing definition, to attain lower rather than higher values, indicating, in fact, increased risk of frostbite. The results of this study should be useful in understanding and quantifying the effects of blood perfusion in protection against cold-related injuries. They should also be considered in the re-evaluation and re-formulation of the concept of wind chill, which has been a useful cold weather indicator for decades.

  9. Evaluation of temperature and moisture response surface on the lipase from pumpkin seeds fermentation using Aspergillus niger - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12497

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial waste has shown great potential for use in solid-state fermentation due to its low cost and promoting the growth of microorganisms. This study evaluated the interaction between temperature and moisture response surface on lipase from the fermentation of pumpkin seed flour, using Aspergillus niger. Fermentations were performed in Petri dishes in an experimental design using a 22 matrix with four replications at the center point and four axial points, varying substrate moisture between 30 and 60% and temperature between 30 and 40ºC. The maximum hydrolytic activity (71.88 U g-1 dry weight was obtained using flour with 30% moisture and 30°C temperature in 120 hours of fermentation. The interaction between fermentation temperature and initial moisture content of the residue was the parameter that most influenced the process at 95% significance level. The response surface analysis showed that the maximum lipase production can be obtained under temperature and moisture conditions of the flour ranging from 28 to 34.5°C and 25 to 32.5%; or between 32 and 40°C and 58 and 65%, respectively. Pumpkin seed flour showed potential for obtaining microbial lipase.  

  10. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  11. Effect of moisture and temperature variation on DOC release from a peatland: conflicting results from laboratory, field and historical data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Michael D; Eimers, M Catherine; Watmough, Shaun A

    2011-03-01

    Peatlands are large repositories of atmospheric carbon and concern has been raised over the stability of this carbon store because increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have been observed in peatland drainage waters. A number of potential causes have been proposed in the literature, and conflicting results among studies conducted at different spatial and temporal scales suggest that the methodological approach may be an important confounding factor. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of moisture and temperature on DOC release from a south-central Ontario peatland during the fall (a major export period) following three commonly used approaches: laboratory microcosms, an intensive field study and analysis of long-term data (1980-2008). The effect of variations in temperature and moisture differed among microcosm, field study and analysis of the long-term record. Water content was important at the microcosm scale as DOC concentration and aromaticity increased with peat water-saturation. Drought caused a decrease in DOC concentration and pH, and an increase in sulphate and base cation concentrations. In contrast, the field study indicated that DOC concentration was strongly associated with temperature, and weakly correlated (negatively) with stream discharge. Average fall DOC concentration (but not export) increased over the 29 year record, and was correlated with fall discharge and precipitation (negative) and summer precipitation and fall stream pH (positive). As no common strong predictor of fall DOC was found at three scales of investigation at a single, well-studied site, it may be unreasonable to expect to identify a universal driver behind the widespread increase in DOC concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  13. Increases in the longevity of desiccation-phase developing rice seeds: response to high-temperature drying depends on harvest moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, K J; Hay, F R; Ellis, R H

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the drying conditions routinely used by genebanks may not be optimal for subsequent seed longevity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of hot-air drying and low-temperature drying on subsequent seed longevity for 20 diverse rice accessions and to consider how factors related to seed production history might influence the results. Seeds of rice, Oryza sativa, were produced according to normal regeneration procedures at IRRI. They were harvested at different times [harvest date and days after anthesis (DAA), once for each accession] and dried either in a drying room (DR; 15 % relative humidity, 15 °C) or in a flat-bed heated-air batch dryer (BD; 45 °C, 8 h d(-1)) for up to six daily cycles followed by drying in the DR. Relative longevity was assessed by storage at 10·9 % moisture content and 45 °C. Initial drying in the BD resulted in significantly greater longevity compared with the DR for 14 accessions (seed lots): the period of time for viability to fall to 50 % for seeds dried in the BD as a percentage of that for seeds dried throughout in the DR varied between 1.3 and 372·2 % for these accessions. The seed lots that responded the most were those that were harvested earlier in the season and at higher moisture content. Drying in the BD did not reduce subsequent longevity compared with DR drying for any of the remaining accessions. Seeds harvested at a moisture content where, according to the moisture desorption isotherm, they could still be metabolically active (>16·2 %) may be in the first stage of the post-mass maturity, desiccation phase of seed development and thus able to increase longevity in response to hot-air drying. The genebank standards regarding seed drying for rice and, perhaps, for other tropical species should therefore be reconsidered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  14. Armature reaction effects on a high temperature superconducting field winding of an synchronous machine: experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from the Superwind laboratory setup. Particular focus in the paper has been placed on describing and quantifying the influence of armature reaction on performance of the HTS filed winding. Presented experimental results have confirmed the HTS field winding...

  15. Disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture over West Africa using the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index based on SEVIRI land surface parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, T.; Horion, S.; Nieto, H.

    2018-01-01

    The overarching objective of this study was to produce a disaggregated SMOS Soil Moisture (SM) product using land surface parameters from a geostationary satellite in a region covering a diverse range of ecosystem types. SEVIRI data at 15 minute temporal resolution were used to derive the Tempera...... resolution of SMOS SM, with potential application for local drought/flood monitoring of importance for the livelihood of the population of West Africa....... the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) that served as SM proxy within the disaggregation process. West Africa (3 N, 26 W; 28 N, 26 E) was selected as a case study as it presents both an important North-South climate gradient and a diverse range of ecosystem types. The main challenge was to set up...

  16. Analysis on atmospheric pressure, temperature, and wind speed profiles during total solar eclipse 9 March 2016 using time series clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Wihardi, Yaya; Nurdin, Enjang Ali; Dwi Ardi, Nanang; Puji Asmoro, Cahyo; Wijaya, Agus Fany Chandra; Aria Utama, Judhistira; Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Asep

    2016-11-01

    Air temperature, pressure, and wind speed measurements on the surface taken during the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) of March 9, 2016, are made. They were taken in Terentang Beach, Bangka Island, Indonesia. In this paper, we propose to analyze them by using time series clustering. The following steps are conducted: data collecting, splitting, smoothing, distance calculation, and clustering. The final results show cluster memberships of the three parameters on 3 time frames: one day before, the TSE day, and one day after. After doing some simulations, it can be seen that the profiles of temperature and pressure on the TSE day are on the same cluster while the wind-speed profile on the TSE day is the same as on the one day after.

  17. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k 1 ) and elimination (k 2 ) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k 1 /k 2 . Earthworms showed extremely fast uptake and elimination of Zn, regardless of the exposure level. Climate conditions had no major impacts on the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn, although a tendency towards lower k 1 and k 2 values was observed at 25 °C + 30% WHC. Earthworm Cd concentrations gradually increased with time upon exposure to metal-contaminated soils, especially at 50% WHC, and remained constant or slowly decreased following transfer to non-contaminated soil. Different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content changed the bioaccumulation kinetics of Cd, leading to higher k 1 and k 2 values for earthworms incubated at 25 °C + 50% WHC and slower Cd kinetics at 25 °C + 30% WHC. This resulted in greater BAFs for Cd at warmer and drier environments which could imply higher toxicity risks but also of transfer of Cd within the food chain under the current global warming perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional scale spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and its relationship with meteorological factors over the Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunsang; Choi, Minha

    2014-08-01

    An understanding soil moisture spatio-temporal variability is essential for hydrological and meteorological research. This work aims at evaluating the spatio-temporal variability of near surface soil moisture and assessing dominant meteorological factors that influence spatial variability over the Korean peninsula from May 1 to September 29, 2011. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests for goodness of fit showed that all applied distributions (normal, log-normal and generalized extreme value: GEV) were appropriate for the datasets and the GEV distribution described best spatial soil moisture patterns. The relationship between the standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV) of soil moisture with mean soil moisture contents showed an upper convex shape and an exponentially negative pattern, respectively. Skewness exhibited a decreasing pattern with increasing mean soil moisture contents and kurtosis exhibited the U-shaped relationship. In this regional scale (99,720 km2), we found that precipitation indicated temporally stable features through an ANOVA test considering the meteorological (i.e. precipitation, insolation, air temperature, ground temperature and wind speed) and physical (i.e. soil texture, elevation, topography, and land use) factors. Spatial variability of soil moisture affected by the meteorological forcing is shown as result of the relationship between the meteorological factors (precipitation, insolation, air temperature and ground temperature) and the standard deviation of relative difference of soil moisture contents (SDRDt) which implied the spatial variability of soil moisture. The SDRDt showed a positive relationship with the daily mean precipitation, while a negative relationship with insolation, air temperature and ground temperature. The variation of spatial soil moisture pattern is more sensitive to change in ground temperature rather than air temperature changes. Therefore, spatial variability of soil moisture is greatly affected

  19. Brillouin distributed temperature sensing system for monitoring of submarine export cables of off-shore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Benjamin; Rath, Alexander; Kolm, Frederick; Schröder, Andreas; Buntebarth, Christian; Dreß, Albrecht; Hill, Wieland

    2016-05-01

    For high-voltage cables, the maximum temperature of the insulation must never be exceeded at any location and at any load condition. The local temperatures depend not only on the cable design and load history, but also on the local thermal environment of the cable. Therefore, distributed temperature monitoring of high-voltage cables is essential to ensure the integrity of the cable at high load. Especially, the load of the export cables of wind farms varies strongly in dependence on weather conditions. In this field study, we demonstrate the measurement performance of a new, robust Brillouin distributed temperature sensing system (Brillouin-DTS). The system is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering and does not require a fibre loop. This is essential for long submarine high-voltage cables, where normally no loop can be formed in the seabed. It is completely passively cooled and does not contain any moving or wearing parts. The instrument is dedicated for use in industrial and other rough environments. With a measuring time below 10 min, the temperature resolution is better than 1 °C for distances up to 50 km. In the field study, the submarine export cable of an off-shore wind farm has been monitored. The temperature profile of the export cable shows several hot spots, mostly located at cable joints, and also several cold spots.

  20. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi; Reny Syafriny

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical ...

  1. Moisture sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) roots at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, L; Kubínová, J; Juszczak, L; Witczak, M

    2012-02-01

    Sorption isotherms of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root samples were obtained at 25 °C. Elecampe exhibited hysteresis loop in the range of 0.35-0.90 a(w) , whereas burdock roots showed significant differences between adsorption and desorption isotherms from 0.65 to 0.80 a(w) . Blahovec-Yanniotis was considered to give the best fit over the whole range of a(w) tested. Various parameters describing the properties of sorbed water derived from GAB, Henderson and Blahovec-Yanniotis models have been discussed. Differential scanning calorimetric method was used to measure the glass transition temperature (T (g)) of root samples in relation to water activity. The safe moisture content was determined in 12.01 and 14.96 g/100 g d. b. for burdock and elecampe root samples at 25 °C, respectively. Combining the T (g) line with sorption isotherm in one plot, it was found that the glass transition temperature concept overestimated the temperature stability for both root samples.

  2. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  3. A model on the effect of temperature and moisture on pollen longevity in air-dry storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Buitink, J.; Walters, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Crane, J.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the survival of pollen ofTypha latifoliaL. stored for up to 261 d over seven different saturated salt solutions (providing 0.5 to 66% relative humidity) and six different constant temperatures (from −5 to +45 °C) were analysed to quantify the effect of air-dry storage environment on pollen

  4. Extraction of wind and temperature information from hybrid 4D-Var assimilation of stratospheric ozone using NAVGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Allen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of wind and temperature information from stratospheric ozone assimilation is examined within the context of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM hybrid 4-D variational assimilation (4D-Var data assimilation (DA system. Ozone can improve the wind and temperature through two different DA mechanisms: (1 through the flow-of-the-day ensemble background error covariance that is blended together with the static background error covariance and (2 via the ozone continuity equation in the tangent linear model and adjoint used for minimizing the cost function. All experiments assimilate actual conventional data in order to maintain a similar realistic troposphere. In the stratosphere, the experiments assimilate simulated ozone and/or radiance observations in various combinations. The simulated observations are constructed for a case study based on a 16-day cycling truth experiment (TE, which is an analysis with no stratospheric observations. The impact of ozone on the analysis is evaluated by comparing the experiments to the TE for the last 6 days, allowing for a 10-day spin-up. Ozone assimilation benefits the wind and temperature when data are of sufficient quality and frequency. For example, assimilation of perfect (no applied error global hourly ozone data constrains the stratospheric wind and temperature to within ∼ 2 m s−1 and ∼ 1 K. This demonstrates that there is dynamical information in the ozone distribution that can potentially be used to improve the stratosphere. This is particularly important for the tropics, where radiance observations have difficulty constraining wind due to breakdown of geostrophic balance. Global ozone assimilation provides the largest benefit when the hybrid blending coefficient is an intermediate value (0.5 was used in this study, rather than 0.0 (no ensemble background error covariance or 1.0 (no static background error covariance, which is consistent with other hybrid DA studies. When

  5. Extraction of wind and temperature information from hybrid 4D-Var assimilation of stratospheric ozone using NAVGEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas R.; Hoppel, Karl W.; Kuhl, David D.

    2018-03-01

    Extraction of wind and temperature information from stratospheric ozone assimilation is examined within the context of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) hybrid 4-D variational assimilation (4D-Var) data assimilation (DA) system. Ozone can improve the wind and temperature through two different DA mechanisms: (1) through the flow-of-the-day ensemble background error covariance that is blended together with the static background error covariance and (2) via the ozone continuity equation in the tangent linear model and adjoint used for minimizing the cost function. All experiments assimilate actual conventional data in order to maintain a similar realistic troposphere. In the stratosphere, the experiments assimilate simulated ozone and/or radiance observations in various combinations. The simulated observations are constructed for a case study based on a 16-day cycling truth experiment (TE), which is an analysis with no stratospheric observations. The impact of ozone on the analysis is evaluated by comparing the experiments to the TE for the last 6 days, allowing for a 10-day spin-up. Ozone assimilation benefits the wind and temperature when data are of sufficient quality and frequency. For example, assimilation of perfect (no applied error) global hourly ozone data constrains the stratospheric wind and temperature to within ˜ 2 m s-1 and ˜ 1 K. This demonstrates that there is dynamical information in the ozone distribution that can potentially be used to improve the stratosphere. This is particularly important for the tropics, where radiance observations have difficulty constraining wind due to breakdown of geostrophic balance. Global ozone assimilation provides the largest benefit when the hybrid blending coefficient is an intermediate value (0.5 was used in this study), rather than 0.0 (no ensemble background error covariance) or 1.0 (no static background error covariance), which is consistent with other hybrid DA studies. When perfect global ozone is

  6. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moist......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  7. All-Weather Sounding of Moisture and Temperature From Microwave Sensors Using a Coupled Surface/Atmosphere Inversion Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukabara, S. A.; Garrett, K.

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional variational retrieval system has been developed, capable of producing temperature and water vapor profiles in clear, cloudy and precipitating conditions. The algorithm, known as the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MiRS), is currently running operationally at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS), and is applied to a variety of data from the AMSU-A/MHS sensors on board the NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A/B polar satellite platforms, as well as SSMI/S on board both DMSP F-16 and F18, and from the NPP ATMS sensor. MiRS inverts microwave brightness temperatures into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, along with hydrometeors and surface parameters, simultaneously. This atmosphere/surface coupled inversion allows for more accurate retrievals in the lower tropospheric layers by accounting for the surface emissivity impact on the measurements. It also allows the inversion of the soundings in all-weather conditions thanks to the incorporation of the hydrometeors parameters in the inverted state vector as well as to the inclusion of the emissivity in the same state vector, which is accounted for dynamically for the highly variable surface conditions found under precipitating atmospheres. The inversion is constrained in precipitating conditions by the inclusion of covariances for hydrometeors, to take advantage of the natural correlations that exist between temperature and water vapor with liquid and ice cloud along with rain water. In this study, we present a full assessment of temperature and water vapor retrieval performances in all-weather conditions and over all surface types (ocean, sea-ice, land, and snow) using matchups with radiosonde as well as Numerical Weather Prediction and other satellite retrieval algorithms as references. An emphasis is placed on retrievals in cloudy and precipitating atmospheres, including extreme weather events

  8. Do heat and moisture exchangers in the anaesthesia breathing circuit preserve body temperature in dogs undergoing anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenissi, Latifa; Covey-Crump, Gwen; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) preserves body temperature in dogs weighing dogs. Dogs were assigned randomly to a treatment group [HME (n = 16) or no HME (n = 15)]. Dogs were pseudorandomised according to the premedication they were administered, either dexmedetomidine or no dexmedetomidine. Induction agents were not standardised. General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane vaporised in 100% oxygen delivered using a T-piece and a fresh gas flow of 600 mL kg -1 minute -1 . Rectal temperature was measured before premedication (T1), after induction (T2), before moving to the MRI unit (T3) and at the end of the MRI scan (T4). Ambient temperatures were measured in the induction room, outside and inside the MRI unit. Data were analysed using a general linear model with T4 as the outcome variable. Linear correlations were performed between T1, T2, T3 and T4, and variables that predicted T4 were investigated. Sex, age and body mass were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature between groups at any time point (group with HME at the end of MRI = 36.3 ± 1.1 °C; group with no HME at the end of MRI = 36.2 ± 1.4 °C) but at the end of the MRI, dogs administered dexmedetomidine (36.6 ± 0.7 °C) had a higher rectal temperature compared with dogs not administered dexmedetomidine (35.9 ± 1.6 °C) for premedication. Rectal temperature varied directly with ambient temperature in MRI scanning room and inversely with anaesthetic duration. Using an HME did not alter body temperature in dogs weighing <10 kg undergoing an MRI, but including dexmedetomidine in the premedication regimen seemed to preserve the body temperature during anaesthesia. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  10. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality's energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality's energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies on neighbouring areas as an electricity buffer though. The costs of the scenario are at a comparable level with the reference situation, but with significantly higher needs for investments and lower fuel costs. Implementation of the scenario would therefore have a positive socio-economic impact as investments are more local labour-intensive than fuel supply. (author)

  11. Sources of glacial moisture in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records from Mesoamerica document the interplay between Atlantic and Pacific sources of precipitation during the last glacial stage and Holocene. Today, and throughout much of the Holocene, the entire region receives its principal moisture in the summer from an interaction of easterly trade winds with the equatorial calms. Glacial records from sites east of 95?? W in Guatemala, Florida, northern Venezuela and Colombia record dry conditions before 12 ka, however. West of 95?? W, glacial conditions were moister than in the Holocene. For example, pollen and diatom data show that Lake Pa??tzcuaro in the central Mexican highlands was cool, deep and fresh during this time and fossil pinyon needles in packrat middens in Chihuahua, Sonora, Arizona, and Texas indicate cooler glacial climates with increased winter precipitation. Cold Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperatures and reduced strength of the equatorial calms can explain arid full and late glacial environments east of 95?? W whereas an intensified pattern of winter, westerly air flow dominated hydrologic balances as far south as 20?? N. Overall cooler temperatures may have increased effective moisture levels during dry summer months in both areas. ?? 1997 INQUA/ Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Response of Soil Respiration to Soil Temperature and Moisture in a 50-Year-Old Oriental Arborvitae Plantation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

    2011-01-01

    China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (Rs) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO2 m−2s−1, with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly Rs and soil temperature (Ts), explaining 82% of the variation in Rs over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m−2 year−1. The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of Rs. The logistic model will potentially overestimate Rs at high Ts and low VWC. Seasonally, Rs increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, Rs showed a positively exponential relationship with Ts. The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to Ts (Q10) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting. PMID:22163012

  13. Response of soil respiration to soil temperature and moisture in a 50-year-old oriental arborvitae plantation in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxiao Yu

    Full Text Available China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (R(s ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1, with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly R(s and soil temperature (T(s, explaining 82% of the variation in R(s over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m(-2 year(-1. The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC, which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of R(s. The logistic model will potentially overestimate R(s at high T(s and low VWC. Seasonally, R(s increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, R(s showed a positively exponential relationship with T(s. The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to T(s (Q(10 ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting.

  14. Land surface model evaluation using a new soil moisture dataset from Kamennaya Steppe, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Robock, A.; Speranskaya, N.

    2004-12-01

    The land surface affects the atmosphere through the transfer of energy and moisture and serves as the lower boundary in numerical weather prediction and climate models. To obtain good forecasts, these models must therefore accurately portray the land surface. Actual in situ measurements are vital for testing and developing these models. It is with this in mind that we have obtained a dataset of soil moisture, soil temperature and meteorological measurements from Kamennaya Steppe, Russia. The meteorological dataset spans the time period 1965-1991, while the soil moisture dataset runs from 1956-1991. The soil moisture dataset contains gravimetric volumetric total soil moisture measurements for 10 layers taken from forest, agricultural and grassland soils. The meteorological dataset contains 3-hourly measurements of precipitation, temperature, wind speed, pressure and relative humidity. We obtained longwave and shortwave radiation data from standard formulae. The data will be made available to the public via the Rutgers University Center for Environmental Prediction Global Soil Moisture Data Bank. Soil temperature is important in determining the timing, duration and intensity of runoff and snowmelt, particularly at the beginning and end of the winter when the ground is only partially frozen. Soil temperature can in turn be affected by the vertical distribution of roots. The soil temperature data are for 1969-1991. The data are daily averaged for every 20 cm to 1.2 meters in depth. These data are used to investigate the natural sensitivity of soil temperature to vegetation type and root distribution. We also use the temperature data, as well as water balance and snowfall data to test the sensitivity of the Noah land surface model (LSM) soil temperature to vertical root distribution, and what effect that has on the hydrology of the site. In addition to soil temperature data, we also have soil moisture data for several vegetation types. We compare the soil moisture time

  15. Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture using Semi-Concurrent Radar and Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ouellette, J. D.; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Walker, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature both have well-documented sensitivity to surface soil moisture, particularly in the microwave regime. While radiometer-derived soil moisture retrievals have been shown to be stable and accurate, they are only available at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. Backscatter from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is similarly sensitive to soil moisture but can yield higher spatial resolutions, with pixel sizes about an order of magnitude smaller. Soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter is more difficult, however, due to the combined sensitivity of radar scattering to surface roughness, vegetation structure, and soil moisture. The algorithm uses a time-series of SAR data to retrieval soil moisture information, constraining the SAR-derived soil moisture estimates with radiometer observations. This effectively combines the high spatial resolution offered by SAR with the precision offered by passive radiometry. The algorithm is a change detection approach which maps changes in the radar backscatter to changes in surface soil moisture. This new algorithm differs from existing retrieval techniques in that it does not require ancillary vegetation information, but assumes vegetation and surface roughness are stable between pairs of consecutive radar overpasses. Furthermore, this method does not require a radar scattering model for the vegetation canopy, nor the use of a training data set. The algorithm works over a long time series, and is constrained by hard bounds which are defined using a coarse-resolution radiometer soil moisture product. The presentation will include soil moisture retrievals from Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) SAR data. Two sets of optimization bounds will constrain the radar change detection algorithm: one defined by SMAP radiometer retrievals and one defined by WindSat radiometer retrievals. Retrieved soil moisture values will be presented on a world map and will

  16. Large Scale Variability of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, Temperature, Clouds, and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface temperature, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly variability is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal variability in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with temperature in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface temperature of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal temperature or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging variable and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.

  17. Dynamical relationship between wind speed magnitude and meridional temperature contrast: Application to an interannual oscillation in Venusian middle atmosphere GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    We derive simple dynamical relationships between wind speed magnitude and meridional temperature contrast. The relationship explains scatter plot distributions of time series of three variables (maximum zonal wind speed UMAX, meridional wind speed VMAX, and equator-pole temperature contrast dTMAX), which are obtained from a Venus general circulation model with equatorial Kelvin-wave forcing. Along with VMAX and dTMAX, UMAX likely increases with the phase velocity and amplitude of a forced wave. In the scatter diagram of UMAX versus dTMAX, points are plotted along a linear equation obtained from a thermal-wind relationship in the cloud layer. In the scatter diagram of VMAX versus UMAX, the apparent slope is somewhat steep in the high UMAX regime, compared with the low UMAX regime. The scatter plot distributions are qualitatively consistent with a quadratic equation obtained from a diagnostic equation of the stream function above the cloud top. The plotted points in the scatter diagrams form a linear cluster for weak wave forcing, whereas they form a small cluster for strong wave forcing. An interannual oscillation of the general circulation forming the linear cluster in the scatter diagram is apparent in the experiment of weak 5.5-day wave forcing. Although a pair of equatorial Kelvin and high-latitude Rossby waves with a same period (Kelvin-Rossby wave) produces equatorward heat and momentum fluxes in the region below 60 km, the equatorial wave does not contribute to the long-period oscillation. The interannual fluctuation of the high-latitude jet core leading to the time variation of UMAX is produced by growth and decay of a polar mixed Rossby-gravity wave with a 14-day period.

  18. Mixed convective-dynamic roll vortices and their effects on initial wind and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Tracy; Shirer, Hampton N.

    1992-01-01

    A new nonlinear 14-coefficient spectral model of two-dimensional shallow Boussinesq flow is developed and used to investigate the onset and development of both dynamically and convectively forced boundary-layer rolls. The model is developed to accept arbitrary basic-state wind profiles as dynamic forcing, using an Ekman profile to provide a means for easy comparison with other studies. The results are qualitatively compared with those of previous theoretical and observational investigations. The rolls are shown to significantly alter the initial wind profile in the sense found by Faller and Kaylor (1967) and Brown (1970), but via a mechanism independent of the Coriolis force.

  19. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  20. Soil respiration in Tibetan alpine grasslands: belowground biomass and soil moisture, but not soil temperature, best explain the large-scale patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Geng

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau is an essential area to study the potential feedback effects of soils to climate change due to the rapid rise in its air temperature in the past several decades and the large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC stocks, particularly in the permafrost. Yet it is one of the most under-investigated regions in soil respiration (Rs studies. Here, Rs rates were measured at 42 sites in alpine grasslands (including alpine steppes and meadows along a transect across the Tibetan Plateau during the peak growing season of 2006 and 2007 in order to test whether: (1 belowground biomass (BGB is most closely related to spatial variation in Rs due to high root biomass density, and (2 soil temperature significantly influences spatial pattern of Rs owing to metabolic limitation from the low temperature in cold, high-altitude ecosystems. The average daily mean Rs of the alpine grasslands at peak growing season was 3.92 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1, ranging from 0.39 to 12.88 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1, with average daily mean Rs of 2.01 and 5.49 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1 for steppes and meadows, respectively. By regression tree analysis, BGB, aboveground biomass (AGB, SOC, soil moisture (SM, and vegetation type were selected out of 15 variables examined, as the factors influencing large-scale variation in Rs. With a structural equation modelling approach, we found only BGB and SM had direct effects on Rs, while other factors indirectly affecting Rs through BGB or SM. Most (80% of the variation in Rs could be attributed to the difference in BGB among sites. BGB and SM together accounted for the majority (82% of spatial patterns of Rs. Our results only support the first hypothesis, suggesting that models incorporating BGB and SM can improve Rs estimation at regional scale.

  1. Soil Respiration in Tibetan Alpine Grasslands: Belowground Biomass and Soil Moisture, but Not Soil Temperature, Best Explain the Large-Scale Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Wang, Yonghui; Yang, Kuo; Wang, Shaopeng; Zeng, Hui; Baumann, Frank; Kuehn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an essential area to study the potential feedback effects of soils to climate change due to the rapid rise in its air temperature in the past several decades and the large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, particularly in the permafrost. Yet it is one of the most under-investigated regions in soil respiration (Rs) studies. Here, Rs rates were measured at 42 sites in alpine grasslands (including alpine steppes and meadows) along a transect across the Tibetan Plateau during the peak growing season of 2006 and 2007 in order to test whether: (1) belowground biomass (BGB) is most closely related to spatial variation in Rs due to high root biomass density, and (2) soil temperature significantly influences spatial pattern of Rs owing to metabolic limitation from the low temperature in cold, high-altitude ecosystems. The average daily mean Rs of the alpine grasslands at peak growing season was 3.92 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, ranging from 0.39 to 12.88 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, with average daily mean Rs of 2.01 and 5.49 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 for steppes and meadows, respectively. By regression tree analysis, BGB, aboveground biomass (AGB), SOC, soil moisture (SM), and vegetation type were selected out of 15 variables examined, as the factors influencing large-scale variation in Rs. With a structural equation modelling approach, we found only BGB and SM had direct effects on Rs, while other factors indirectly affecting Rs through BGB or SM. Most (80%) of the variation in Rs could be attributed to the difference in BGB among sites. BGB and SM together accounted for the majority (82%) of spatial patterns of Rs. Our results only support the first hypothesis, suggesting that models incorporating BGB and SM can improve Rs estimation at regional scale. PMID:22509373

  2. Soil respiration in Tibetan alpine grasslands: belowground biomass and soil moisture, but not soil temperature, best explain the large-scale patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Wang, Yonghui; Yang, Kuo; Wang, Shaopeng; Zeng, Hui; Baumann, Frank; Kuehn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an essential area to study the potential feedback effects of soils to climate change due to the rapid rise in its air temperature in the past several decades and the large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, particularly in the permafrost. Yet it is one of the most under-investigated regions in soil respiration (Rs) studies. Here, Rs rates were measured at 42 sites in alpine grasslands (including alpine steppes and meadows) along a transect across the Tibetan Plateau during the peak growing season of 2006 and 2007 in order to test whether: (1) belowground biomass (BGB) is most closely related to spatial variation in Rs due to high root biomass density, and (2) soil temperature significantly influences spatial pattern of Rs owing to metabolic limitation from the low temperature in cold, high-altitude ecosystems. The average daily mean Rs of the alpine grasslands at peak growing season was 3.92 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), ranging from 0.39 to 12.88 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), with average daily mean Rs of 2.01 and 5.49 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) for steppes and meadows, respectively. By regression tree analysis, BGB, aboveground biomass (AGB), SOC, soil moisture (SM), and vegetation type were selected out of 15 variables examined, as the factors influencing large-scale variation in Rs. With a structural equation modelling approach, we found only BGB and SM had direct effects on Rs, while other factors indirectly affecting Rs through BGB or SM. Most (80%) of the variation in Rs could be attributed to the difference in BGB among sites. BGB and SM together accounted for the majority (82%) of spatial patterns of Rs. Our results only support the first hypothesis, suggesting that models incorporating BGB and SM can improve Rs estimation at regional scale.

  3. [Effects of plastic mulch on soil moisture and temperature and limiting factors to yield increase for dryland spring maize in the North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Yao; Zhang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Jian-Ming; Fan, Feng-Cui; Shi, Yu-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Four treatments, including ridge tillage with plastic mulch (RP), ridge tillage without mulch (RB), flat tillage with plastic mulch (FP) and flat tillage without mulch (FB), were carried out to examine the tillage type and mulch on the effects of soil moisture and temperature, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of dry land spring maize in the North China. Results showed that the average soil temperature was increased by 1-3 °C and the accumulated soil temperature was increased by 155.2-280.9 °C from sowing to tasseling by plastic mulch, and the growing duration was extended by 5.9-10.7 d. The water conservation effect of plastic mulch was significant from sowing to the seedling establishment, with WUE being increased by 81.6%-136.4% under mulch as compared with that without mulch. From the seedling to jointing stage, which coincided with the dry period in the region, soil water utilization by the maize under mulch could reach the depth of 80-100 cm, and its WUE was about 17.0%-21.6% lower than the maize without mulch, since the latter was affected by dry stress. With the coming of rainy season around the trumpeting stage, soil water in each treatment was replenished and maintained at relative high level up to harvest. Yield of maize was increased by 9.5% under RP as compared with RB. However, yield was reduced by 5.0% under FP, due to the plastic film under flat tillage prevented the infiltration of rainfall and waterlogging occurred. No significant difference in yield was found between RB and FB. Higher yield of spring maize was limited because of the mismatching in water supply and demand characterized by soil water shortage before the rainy season and abundant soil water storage after the rainy season.

  4. Hybrid simulations of the expanding solar wind: Temperatures and drift velocities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel; Mangeney, A.; Grappin, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2003), s. 15-1-15-4 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB3042106 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) PICS 1175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : expanding solar wind * hybrid simulations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.422, year: 2003

  5. Mixing the Solar Wind Proton and Electron Scales: Effects of Electron Temperature Anisotropy on the Oblique Proton Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A.; Poedts, S.

    2016-01-01

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons,? unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma ß and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  6. Enhancement of Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals using Visible/Infrared Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, D.; Li, L.; Bowles, J. H.; Gao, B. C.; Lamela, G.

    2015-12-01

    Passive microwave (PM) observations of soil moisture (SM), like those produced from data observed by the AMSR-E, WindSat, AMSR2, and SMOS instruments, provide global soil moisture data sets with moderate resolution (~25km), reasonable accuracy (±10%), and short revisit times (2-3 days). A principal source of the current error in these SM data sets is due to heterogeneous topography below the native resolution of the PM instrument. A single PM antenna footprint may encompass surface water, dense and/or sparse vegetation, and bare soil. We show that by using high resolution (~250m) visible/infrared (VIS/IR) observations to estimate the fractions of water, vegetation, and bare soil in each PM footprint, we can deconvolve the brightness temperatures from each individual component. This allows for greatly increased accuracy in the remotely sensed soil moisture content. We will present our results in applying this technique to the WindSat soil moisture algorithm using WindSat PM data and vegetation and water fraction estimates derived from MODIS VIS/IR data.

  7. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    .05 probability level. Nitrogen mineralization and nitri?cation were higher at the higher temperature and higher soil water content. Significant effects of urine application and moisture were found (P

  8. Simultaneous fine structure observation of wind and temperature profiles by the Arecibo 430-MHz radar and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Bertin, F.; Petitdidier, M.; Teitelbaum, H.; Woodman, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A simultaneous campaign of balloon and radar measurements took place on March 14 to 16, 1984, above the Arecibo 430-MHz radar. This radar was operating with a vertical resolution of 150 m following two antenna beam directions: 15 deg. from the zenith, respectively, in the N-S and E-W directions. The main results concerning the comparison between the flight and simultaneous radar measurements obtained on March 15, 1984 are analyzed. The radar return power profile (S/N ratio in dB) exhibits maxima which are generally well correlated with step-like structures in the potential temperature profile. These structures are generally considered as the consequence of the mixing processes induced by the turbulence. A good correlation appears in the altitude range 12.5 to 19 km between wind shears induced by a wave structure observed in the meridional wind and the radar echo power maxima. This wave structure is characterized by a vertical wavelength of about 2.5 km, and a period in the range 30 to 40 hours. These characteristics are deduced from the twice daily rawinsonde data launched from the San Juan Airport by the National Weather Service. These results pointed out an example of the interaction between wave and turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Turbulent layers are observed at locations where wind shears related to an internal inertia-gravity wave are maxima.

  9. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  10. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    of the full generator, has been built and tested. The experimental setup comprises a consequent-pole HTS rotor and a conventional three-phase copper stator. This paper first presents the electromagnetic designs of the full generator and the setup, then it goes to compare the performance of the full generator...... and the setup in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the setup is a good surrogate for these that would be used...... in the full generator. The FE simulations also tell that the maximum tangential force generated in the setup is 3.77% lower than that in the full generator. Good agreement between the values of interest in the setup and those projected in the full generator has revealed a cost-effective prototyping...

  11. Microcontroller based Stator Winding Resistance Determination of Induction Motor Drive on Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Ahmed T; Sukhdeo Sao; K.S.R Anjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an experiment has been conducted to determine the online stator winding resistance of an induction motor, in industries as well as domestic purpose induction motors is largely utilized, as it has both applications of variable and constant torque operation nature. The major requirement of an electric drive system is its independent control of torque and speed; this is achieved in DC motor Drive but has more disadvantages. With the help of fast acting switching devices it is possi...

  12. Modeling the contributions of global air temperature, synoptic-scale phenomena and soil moisture to near-surface static energy variability using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2017-12-01

    The static energy content of the atmosphere is increasing on a global scale, but exhibits important subglobal and subregional scales of variability and is a useful parameter for integrating the net effect of changes in the partitioning of energy at the surface and for improving understanding of the causes of so-called warming holes (i.e., locations with decreasing daily maximum air temperatures (T) or increasing trends of lower magnitude than the global mean). Further, measures of the static energy content (herein the equivalent potential temperature, θe) are more strongly linked to excess human mortality and morbidity than air temperature alone, and have great relevance in understanding causes of past heat-related excess mortality and making projections of possible future events that are likely to be associated with negative human health and economic consequences. New nonlinear statistical models for summertime daily maximum and minimum θe are developed and used to advance understanding of drivers of historical change and variability over the eastern USA. The predictor variables are an index of the daily global mean temperature, daily indices of the synoptic-scale meteorology derived from T and specific humidity (Q) at 850 and 500 hPa geopotential heights (Z), and spatiotemporally averaged soil moisture (SM). SM is particularly important in determining the magnitude of θe over regions that have previously been identified as exhibiting warming holes, confirming the key importance of SM in dictating the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat and dictating trends in near-surface T and θe. Consistent with our a priori expectations, models built using artificial neural networks (ANNs) out-perform linear models that do not permit interaction of the predictor variables (global T, synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and SM). This is particularly marked in regions with high variability in minimum and maximum θe, where more complex models

  13. Influence of wind velocity fluctuation on air temperature difference between the fan and ground levels and the effect of frost protective fan operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, T.; Matsuo, K.; Miyama, D.; Sumikawa, O.; Araki, S.

    2008-01-01

    We invested the influence of wind velocity fluctuation on air temperature difference between the fan (4.8 m) and ground levels (0.5 m) and the effect of frost protective fan operation in order to develop a new method to reduce electricity consumption due to frost protective fan operation. The results of the investigations are summarized as follows: (1) Air temperature difference between the fan (4.8 m) and ground levels (0.5 m) was decreased following an increase in wind velocity, and the difference was less than 1°C for a wind velocity more than 3.0 m/s at a height of 6.5 m. (2) When the wind velocity was more than 2-3 m/s, there was hardly any increase in the temperature of the leaves. In contrast, when the wind velocity was less than 2-3 m/s, an increase in the temperature of the leaves was observed. Based on these results, it is possible that when the wind velocity is greater than 2-3 m, it prevents thermal inversion. Therefore, there would be no warmer air for the frost protective fan to return to the tea plants and the air turbulence produced by the frost protective fan would not reach the plants under the windy condition

  14. A GIS Approach to Wind,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhalili, Seyedhamzeh

    2016-07-01

    Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio-molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as Phytoplankton. Like plants on land, Phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis. Where Phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. In this research a GIS Approach using ARCGIS software and QuikSCAT satellite data was applied to visualize WIND,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea.Results indicate that increase in chlorophyll concentration in coastal areas is primarily driven by terrestrial nutrients and does not imply that warmer SST will lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentration and consequently Phytoplankton abundance.

  15. Comparison of different modelling approaches of drive train temperature for the purposes of wind turbine failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz-Weinert, J.; Watson, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    Effective condition monitoring techniques for wind turbines are needed to improve maintenance processes and reduce operational costs. Normal behaviour modelling of temperatures with information from other sensors can help to detect wear processes in drive trains. In a case study, modelling of bearing and generator temperatures is investigated with operational data from the SCADA systems of more than 100 turbines. The focus is here on automated training and testing on a farm level to enable an on-line system, which will detect failures without human interpretation. Modelling based on linear combinations, artificial neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, support vector machines and Gaussian process regression is compared. The selection of suitable modelling inputs is discussed with cross-correlation analyses and a sensitivity study, which reveals that the investigated modelling techniques react in different ways to an increased number of inputs. The case study highlights advantages of modelling with linear combinations and artificial neural networks in a feedforward configuration.

  16. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Moisture and Temperature Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates and Neat Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternstein, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of high performnce composites which are strongly dependent on the physical properties of the matrix resin were studied. Moisture adversely affect the properties of both neat epoxy resin and epoxy matrix composites. Inhomogeneous swelling as to the moisture degradation of mechanical properties, both in the neat resin and the composite. It is postulated that the postcuring process can change structure/moisture interactions and partially alleviate its adverse effects. The study is directed toward are understanding of the physical/mechanical/thermodynamic aspects of this problem.

  18. An induction/synchronous motor with high temperature superconductor/normal conductor hybrid double-cage rotor windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T; Matsumura, K

    2009-01-01

    We propose hybrid double-cage rotor windings that consist of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) and a normal conductor, which are introduced into an HTS induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM). The motor rotates as a conventional induction motor when the operating temperature of the hybrid rotor is above the critical temperature of the HTS bars, i.e., in the normal conducting state. On the other hand, the HTS-ISM rotates as a synchronous motor when the temperature is below the critical temperature, i.e., in the superconducting (zero resistance) state. In other words, we do not always need to take care of the cooling conditions, if the HTS-ISM is automatically, as well as appropriately, controlled, depending upon the rotation mode. Namely, the above-mentioned hybrid double-cage HTS-ISM is possibly a breakthrough in solving the cooling problems of HTS rotating machines, especially for industrial applications. The experimental results of the aforementioned motor are reported. An example of an operation flowchart of the motor is also presented and discussed.

  19. Large scale evaluation of soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinussa, R.; Holmes, T. R.; Crow, W. T.; De Jeu, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture from the Earth's surface. Several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and WindSat have been used for this purpose using multi-channel observations. Large scale validation of these retrievals is generally hampered by a lack of ground-based observation networks with sufficient spatial density to be accurately up-scaled to the resolution of satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In response to this challenge, two new global evaluation techniques have been proposed which circumvent the need for extensive ground-based soil moisture observations. The first technique (Rvalue) is based on calculating the correlation coefficient between known rainfall errors and Kalman filter analysis increments realized during the assimilation of remotely sensed soil moisture into an antecedent precipitation index. The second technique is based on a so-called Triple Collocation (TC) analysis, which is a statistical tool for estimating the root mean square error (RMSE) of a set of three linearly related data sources with independent error structures. These two newly-developed, large-scale soil moisture evaluation techniques are applied for cross-verification on a global scale. Both techniques are also used to determine the sensitivity of soil moisture retrievals to land surface temperature estimates by artificially degrading the satellite signal used for the retrieval of this important parameter. Instead of coincident land surface temperature observations from the same satellite, external sources for land surface temperature are also evaluated using the same evaluation techniques. Finally, both day- and night-time observations are evaluated separately to determine the impact of the different physical conditions during day- and night-time. The evaluation results produced by the Rvalue and TC soil moisture verification approaches show a high mutual

  20. Estimation of the variations of ventilation rate and indoor radon concentration using the observed wind velocity and indoor-outdoor temperature difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Katsuhiro; Inose, Yuichi; Kojima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration in the building depends on the ventilation rate. Measurement results of indoor-outdoor pressure difference showed the ventilation rate correlated closely with the indoor-outdoor pressure difference. The observation results showed that one of factor of indoor-outdoor pressure difference was the wind velocity. When the wind velocity is small, the ventilation rate is affected by the indoor-outdoor temperature difference and the effect depends on the wind velocity. The temporal variation of indoor radon concentration was predicted by the time depending indoor radon balance model and the ventilation rate estimated from the wind velocity and the indoor-outdoor temperature difference. The temporal variations of predicted radon concentration gave good agreement with the experimental values. The measurement method, indoor radon concentration and ventilation rate, factors of temporal variation of ventilation rate, and prediction of indoor radon concentration are reported. (S.Y.)

  1. A simple interpretation of the surface tenperature/vegetation index space for assessment of soil moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, J.; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2002-01-01

    Remote Sensing, soil moisture, surface temperature, vegetation index, hydrology, Africa, Senegal, semiarid......Remote Sensing, soil moisture, surface temperature, vegetation index, hydrology, Africa, Senegal, semiarid...

  2. Single-sided Natural Ventilation Driven by a Combination of Wind Pressure and Temperature Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    . In both situations the aim is to obtain a good indoor environment but to control the amount of air, some basic knowledge of the flow through an opening is necessary. The amount of air going through the window opening in single-sided ventilation will depend on the wind speed near the building......Natural ventilation is a commonly used principle when ventilation systems for buildings are designed. The ventilation can either be obtained by automatically controlled openings in the building envelope, or it can just be the simple action of opening a door or a window to let the fresh air in...

  3. [Effects of whole field-surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow on soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield in arid area of Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-li; Zhang, Xu-cheng; Song, Shang-you; Ma, Yi-Fan; Yu, Xian-feng; Liu, Yan-lan

    2011-10-01

    Taking spring corn (Zea mays) cultivar Shendan 16 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of the treatments whole-field surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow (PMF), whole-field surface sand mulching and flat planting (SM), and uncovered and flat planting (CK) on the soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield on the dry land of arid area (annual average precipitation 415 mm) in middle Gansu Province. Comparing with CK, treatments PMF and SM increased the average temperature in 0-25 cm soil layer before tasselling stage, with the highest increment in treatment PMF. As for the soil water consumption, its depth in the three treatments increased with increasing years of planting. In the first year of planting, the soil water consumption was the most in 20-120 cm soil layer; whereas in the second year, the consumption was the most in 120-200 cm soil layer, with the soil water loss being the highest in treatment PMF. Treatment PMF had the highest grain number, grain weight per spike, and 100-grain weight, followed by treatment SM, and CK. In 2009 and 2010, the average grain number, average grain weight per spike, and average 100-grain weight in treatment PMF were increased by 13.5% and 114.2%, 29.8% and 321.1%, and 14.4% and 95.4% respectively, as compared to treatments SM and CK, and the grain yield and water use efficiency in treatments PMF and SM were increased by 333.1% and 240.2%, and 290.6% and 227.6%, respectively, as compared to CK. After two years continuous cropping of corn, the soil water loss in 120-200 cm soil layer in treatment PMF was up to 72 mm, being significantly higher than that in treatments SM (45 mm) and CK (40 mm). It was suggested that PMF could increase the soil temperature at seedling-tasselling stage, promote the corn growth in its early growth period, improve the soil water use by corn, and consequently, increase the grain number per spike and 100-grain weight, manifesting a good effect in

  4. Intraseasonal Variability of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Observed from Sea Surface Height, Wind, and Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2007-01-01

    The forcing of the equatorial Indian Ocean by the highly periodic monsoon wind cycle creates many interesting intraseasonal variabilities. The frequency spectrum of the wind stress observations from the European Remote Sensing Satellite scatterometers reveals peaks at the seasonal cycle and its higher harmonics at 180, 120, 90, and 75 days. The observations of sea surface height (SSH) from the Jason and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeters are analyzed to study the ocean's response. The focus of the study is on the intraseasonal periods shorter than the annual period. The semiannual SSH variability is characterized by a basin mode involving Rossby waves and Kelvin waves traveling back and forth in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10(deg)S and 10(deg)N. However, the interference of these waves with each other masks the appearance of individual Kelvin and Rossby waves, leading to a nodal point (amphidrome) of phase propagation on the equator at the center of the basin. The characteristics of the mode correspond to a resonance of the basin according to theoretical models. The theory also calls for similar modes at 90 and 60 days.

  5. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-12-15

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20°C vs. 25°C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus. Enchytraeids were exposed for 21d to a dilution series of the agricultural soil with Lufa 2.2 control soil under four climate situations: 20°C+50% WHC (standard conditions), 20°C+30% WHC, 25°C+50% WHC, and 25°C+30% WHC. Survival, reproduction and bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were obtained as endpoints. Reproduction was more sensitive to both climate factors and metal(loid) pollution. High soil salinity (electrical conductivity~3dSm -1 ) and clay texture, even without the presence of high metal(loid) concentrations, affected enchytraeid performance especially at drier conditions (≥80% reduction in reproduction). The toxicity of the agricultural soil increased at drier conditions (10% reduction in EC10 and EC50 values for the effect on enchytraeid reproduction). Changes in enchytraeid performance were accompanied by changes in As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn bioaccumulation, with lower body concentrations at drier conditions probably due to greater competition with soluble salts in the case of Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. This study shows that apart from high metal(loid) concentrations other soil properties (e.g. salinity and texture) may be partially responsible for the toxicity of metal(loid)-polluted soils to soil invertebrates, especially under changing climate conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SMEX02 Watershed Vitel Network Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include soil moisture, temperature, conductivity,...

  7. Relationship between wind energy production and temperature over the November 2010-February 2011 period; Relation entre production eolienne et temperature sur la periode de Novembre 2010 a Fevrier 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flocard, H.

    2011-07-01

    As consumption peaks occur during the coldest periods between November and February, the author used some data published by RTE to assess the wind energy share during these periods. The author comments the wind energy daily production data with respect to daily average temperatures measured on a given site. As there is no wind when the weather is very cold, it appears that this renewable energy will not help France to face the challenge of future winter peaks. On the other hand, wind energy production is higher when electricity demand is lower. Therefore, he concludes that the management of the production-consumption balance will become more difficult as the installed wind energy power will increase

  8. Effects of predicted future and current atmospheric temperature and [CO2] and high and low soil moisture on gas exchange and growth of Pinus taeda seedlings at cool and warm sites in the species range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2012-07-01

    Predicted future changes in air temperature and atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), coupled with altered precipitation, are expected to substantially affect tree growth. Effects on growth may vary considerably across a species range, as temperatures vary from sub-optimal to supra-optimal for growth. We performed an experiment simultaneously at two locations in the current range of loblolly pine, a cool site and a warm site, to examine the effect of future climate conditions on growth of loblolly pine seedlings in contrasting regions of the species range. At both sites 1-year-old loblolly pine seedlings were grown in current (local ambient temperature and [CO(2)]) and predicted future atmospheric conditions (ambient +2 °C temperature and 700 μmol mol(-1) [CO(2)]). Additionally, high and low soil moisture treatments were applied within each atmospheric treatment at each site by altering the amount of water provided to the seedlings. Averaged across water treatments, photosynthesis (A(net)) was 31% greater at the cool site and 34% greater at the warm site in elevated temperature and [CO(2)] compared with ambient temperature. Biomass accumulation was also stimulated by 38% at the cool site and by 24% at the warm site in that treatment. These results suggest that a temperature increase of 2 °C coupled with an increase in [CO(2)] (predicted future climate) will create conditions favorable for growth of this species. Reduced soil moisture decreased growth in both current and predicted atmospheric conditions. Biomass accumulation and A(net) were reduced by ∼39 and 17%, respectively, in the low water treatment. These results suggest that any benefit of future atmospheric conditions may be negated if soil moisture is reduced by altered precipitation patterns.

  9. A note on the correlation between circular and linear variables with an application to wind direction and air temperature data in a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototzis, M.; Papadopoulos, G. K.; Droulia, F.; Tseliou, A.; Tsiros, I. X.

    2018-04-01

    There are several cases where a circular variable is associated with a linear one. A typical example is wind direction that is often associated with linear quantities such as air temperature and air humidity. The analysis of a statistical relationship of this kind can be tested by the use of parametric and non-parametric methods, each of which has its own advantages and drawbacks. This work deals with correlation analysis using both the parametric and the non-parametric procedure on a small set of meteorological data of air temperature and wind direction during a summer period in a Mediterranean climate. Correlations were examined between hourly, daily and maximum-prevailing values, under typical and non-typical meteorological conditions. Both tests indicated a strong correlation between mean hourly wind directions and mean hourly air temperature, whereas mean daily wind direction and mean daily air temperature do not seem to be correlated. In some cases, however, the two procedures were found to give quite dissimilar levels of significance on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis of no correlation. The simple statistical analysis presented in this study, appropriately extended in large sets of meteorological data, may be a useful tool for estimating effects of wind on local climate studies.

  10. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE 2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    During the period of May 11 and 12, 1974, NASA conducted its second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) over the eastern United States. In this time interval, two Nimbus 5 orbits crossed the AVE II area, providing a series of ITPR soundings as well as THIR data. Horizontal temperature mapping of the AVE II cloud field is examined using two grid print map scales. Implied cloud top heights are compared with maximum radar-echo top reports. In addition, shelter temperatures in areas of clear sky are compared with the surface temperatures as determined from 11.5 micrometer radiometer data of the THIR experiment. The ITPR sounding accuracy is evaluated using interpolated radiosonde temperatures at times nearly coincident with the ITPR soundings. It was found that mean differences between the two data sets were as small as 1.3 C near 500 mb and as large as 2.9 C near the tropopause. The differences between ITPR and radiosonde temperatures at constant pressure levels were sufficient to induce significant differences in the horizontal temperature gradient. Cross sections of geostrophic wind along the orbital tracks were developed using a thermal wind buildup based on the ITPR temperature data and the radiosonde temperature data. Differences between the radiosonde and ITPR geostrophic winds could be explained on the basis of differences in the ITPR and radiosonde temperature gradients.

  11. A method of optimized neural network by L-M algorithm to transformer winding hot spot temperature forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B. G.; Wu, X. Y.; Yao, Z. F.; Huang, H.

    2017-11-01

    Transformers are essential devices of the power system. The accurate computation of the highest temperature (HST) of a transformer’s windings is very significant, as for the HST is a fundamental parameter in controlling the load operation mode and influencing the life time of the insulation. Based on the analysis of the heat transfer processes and the thermal characteristics inside transformers, there is taken into consideration the influence of factors like the sunshine, external wind speed etc. on the oil-immersed transformers. Experimental data and the neural network are used for modeling and protesting of the HST, and furthermore, investigations are conducted on the optimization of the structure and algorithms of neutral network are conducted. Comparison is made between the measured values and calculated values by using the recommended algorithm of IEC60076 and by using the neural network algorithm proposed by the authors; comparison that shows that the value computed with the neural network algorithm approximates better the measured value than the value computed with the algorithm proposed by IEC60076.

  12. Climatology of mesopause region nocturnal temperature, zonal wind, and sodium density observed by sodium lidar over Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Ban, C.; Fang, X.; Li, J.; Wu, Z.; Xiong, J.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Science and Technology of China narrowband sodium temperature/wind lidar, located in Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E), was installed in November 2011 and have made routine nighttime measurements since January 2012. We obtained 154 nights ( 1400 hours) of vertical profiles of temperature, sodium density, and zonal wind, and 83 nights ( 800 hours) of vertical flux of gravity wave (GW) zonal momentum in the mesopause region (80-105 km) during the period of 2012 to 2016. In temperature, it is likely that the diurnal tide dominates below 100 km in spring, while the semidiurnal tide dominates above 100 km throughout the year. A clear semiannual variation in temperature is revealed near 90 km, likely related to the tropical mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). The variability of sodium density is positively correlated with temperature, suggesting that in addition to dynamics, the chemistry may also play an important role in the formation of sodium atoms. The observed sodium peak density is 1000 cm-3 higher than that simulated by the model. In zonal wind, the diurnal tide dominates in both spring and fall, while semidiurnal tide dominates in winter. The observed semiannual variation in zonal wind near 90 km is out-of-phase with that in temperature, consistent with tropical MSAO. The GW zonal momentum flux is mostly westward in fall and winter, anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind. The annual mean flux averaged over 87-97 km is -0.3 m2/s2 (westward), anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind of 10 m/s. The comparisons of lidar results with those observed by satellite, nearby radar, and simulated by model show generally good agreements.

  13. The influence of small-scale sea surface temperature gradients on surface vector winds and subsequent impacts on oceanic Ekman pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul J.

    Satellite observations have revealed a small-scale (air--sea coupling in regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients (e.g., fronts, currents, eddies, and tropical instability waves), where the surface wind and wind stress are modified. Surface winds and wind stresses are persistently higher over the warm side of the SST front compared to the cool side, causing perturbations in the dynamically and thermodynamically curl and divergence fields. Capturing this small-scale SST--wind variability is important because it can significantly impact both local and remote (i.e., large scale) oceanic and atmospheric processes. The SST--wind relationship is not well represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models, and the relative importance of the physical processes that are proposed to be responsible for this relationship is actively and vehemently debated. This study focuses on the physical mechanisms that are primarily responsible for the SST-induced changes in surface wind and wind stress, and on the physical implication on ocean forcing through Ekman pumping. The roles that SST-induced atmospheric baroclinicity and boundary-layer stability play in modifying the surface vector wind in regions of strong SST gradients are examined with an idealized model. Modeled changes in surface wind speed due to changes in atmospheric boundary-layer stability and baroclinicity are largely between -2.0 and 2.0 m s-1, which is consistent with past observational findings. The baroclinic-related changes in the surface vector wind are found to have a largely linear dependence on the SST gradient, whereas the stability-related changes are highly non-linear. The linearity of the baroclinic impacts matches that of the observed (satellite and in situ) SST--wind relationship. This result suggests that the baroclinic-related mechanism is the leading factor in driving the observed surface wind response to strong open ocean SST fronts on scales greater than 25 km

  14. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  15. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Oklahoma study...

  16. SMEX02 Iowa Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric and volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and soil temperature. This data set is part of the Soil Moisture...

  17. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  18. Inference of sea surface temperature, near surface wind, and atmospheric water by Fourier analysis of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer measures thermal microwave emission from the earth in both polarizations at wavelengths of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.6 cm. Similar instruments were launched on Nimbus 7 and Seasat. Both spatial resolution on the earth and relative sensitivity to different geophysical parameters change with wavelength. Therefore, spatial Fourier components of geophysical parameters are inferred from the corresponding Fourier components of the radiometer measurements, taking into account the different dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on spatial frequency for each radiometer wavelength. The geophysical parameters are sea surface temperature, near-surface wind speed, integrated water vapor mass, integrated liquid water mass, and the product of rainfall rate with height of the rain layer. The capabilities and limitations of the inversion method are illustrated by means of data from the North Atlantic and from tropical storms.

  19. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    Monthly heat fluxes and wind stresses are used to force the Oberhuber isopycnic ocean general-circulation (OPYC) model of the Pacific basin over a two-decade period from 1970 to 1988. The surface forcings are constructed from COADS marine observations via bulk formulae. Monthly anomalies of the fluxes and stresses are superimposed upon model climatological means of these variables, which were saved from a long spin-up. Two aspects of this work are highlighted, both aimed at a better understanding of the atmosphere-ocean variability and exchanges and at diagnosing the performance of the OPYC model in simulating monthly to decadal-scale variability. The first is the evaluation of the data used to force the model ocean, along with its relationship to other observed data. The second is the diagnosis of the processes revealed in the model that are associated with sea surface temperature (SST) variability, including their seasonal and geographic structure.

  20. Combined effects of wind and solar irradiance on the spatial variation of midday air temperature over a mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Dae-Jun; Shim, Kyo Moon; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-08-01

    When the midday temperature distribution in a mountainous region was estimated using data from a nearby weather station, the correction of elevation difference based on temperature lapse caused a large error. An empirical approach reflecting the effects of solar irradiance and advection was suggested in order to increase the reliability of the results. The normalized slope irradiance, which was determined by normalizing the solar irradiance difference between a horizontal surface and a sloping surface from 1100 to 1500 LST on a clear day, and the deviation relationship between the horizontal surface and the sloping surface at the 1500 LST temperature on each day were presented as simple empirical formulas. In order to simulate the phenomenon that causes immigrant air parcels to push out or mix with the existing air parcels in order to decrease the solar radiation effects, an advection correction factor was added to exponentially reduce the solar radiation effect with an increase in wind speed. In order to validate this technique, we estimated the 1500 LST air temperatures on 177 clear days in 2012 and 2013 at 10 sites with different slope aspects in a mountainous catchment and compared these values to the actual measured data. The results showed that this technique greatly improved the error bias and the overestimation of the solar radiation effect in comparison with the existing methods. By applying this technique to the Korea Meteorological Administration's 5-km grid data, it was possible to determine the temperature distribution at a 30-m resolution over a mountainous rural area south of Jiri Mountain National Park, Korea.

  1. Qualidade dos grãos de milho em função da umidade de colheita e da temperatura de secagem Quality of corn grains as a function of harvesting moisture content and drying air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson M. Alves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito imediato e latente de quatro teores de umidade de colheita, associados a quatro níveis de temperatura do ar de secagem sobre a qualidade do milho, colhido com 25, 22, 16,5 e 15% b.u. e secado nas temperaturas de 40, 60, 80 e 100 ºC, até a umidade final de 13% b.u. Os grãos foram submetidos às análises de teor de impureza e matéria estranha, massa específica aparente, índice de danos, índice de trincas e susceptibilidade à quebra. De modo geral, pode-se inferir que os grãos colhidos com os teores de umidade de 15 e 16,5% e secos nas temperaturas do ar de secagem de 40 e 60 ºC, foram os tratamentos que menos afetaram a qualidade do milho.The objective of this work was to evaluate the immediate and latent effects of four harvesting moisture contents associated with four levels of drying-air temperature on the corn quality, harvested with 25, 22, 16.5 and 15% wb. moisture content and dried with air temperatures of 40, 60, 80 and 100 ºC until the final moisture content of 13% wb. The grains were submitted to analyses of impurity content and foreign materials, apparent specific mass, index of damages, index of creaking and breakage susceptibility. In general, it may be mentioned that the grains harvested with moisture contents of 15 and 16.5% and dried at air temperatures of 40 and 60 ºC resulted in better corn quality.

  2. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  3. Evaluation of HCMM satellite data for estuarine tidal circulation patterns and thermal inertia soil moisture measurements. [Delaware Bay, Cooper River, and the Potomac River estuaries; Luverne, Minnesota, soil moisture, and water temperature of Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Matson, M.; Pritchard, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Digital thermal maps of the Cooper River (SC) and the Potomac River estuaries were prepared from heat capacity mapping radiometer (HCMR) tapes. Tidal phases were correctly interpreted and verified. Synoptic surface circulation patterns were charted by location thermal fronts and water mass boundaries within the estuaries. Thermal anomalies were detected adjacent of a conventional power plant on the Potomac. Under optimum conditions, estuaries as small as the Cooper River can be monitored for generalized thermal/tidal circulation patterns by the HCMM-type IR sensors. The HCMM thermal inertia approach to estimating soil moisture at the Luverne (MN) test site was found to be unsatisfactory as a NESS operational satellite technique because of cloud cover interference. Thermal-IR data show similar structure of the Baltimore and Washington heat islands when compared to NOAA AVHRR thermal-IR data. Thermal anomalies from the warm water discharge water of a nuclear power plant were mapped in Lake Anna, Virginia.

  4. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  5. The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, L. W. A.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Adema, E. H.

    The influence of wind velocity, air temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air (VPD) on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was examined using a leaf chamber. The measurements suggested a transition in the properties of the leaf boundary layer at a wind velocity of 0.3-0.4 ms -1 which corresponds to a Recrit value of about 2000. At higher wind velocities the leaf boundary layer resistance ( rb) was 1.5-2 times lower than can be calculated from the theory. Nevertheless, the assessed relationships between rb and wind velocity appeared to be similar to the theoretical derived relationship for rb. The NH 3 flux and in particular the SO 2 flux into the leaf strongly increased at a VPD decline. The increase of the NH 3 flux could be attributed to an increase of the stomatal conductance ( gs). However, the increase of the SO 2 flux could only partly be explained by an increase of gs. An apparent additional uptake was also observed for the NH 3 uptake at a low temperature and VPD. The SO 2 flux was also influenced by air temperature which could be explained by a temperature effect on gs. The results suggest that calculation of the NH 3 and SO 2 flux using data of gs gives a serious understimation of the real flux of these gases into leaves at a low temperature and VPD.

  6. Comparison of Wind Speeds and Temperatures Simulated by the Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System with Those observed at AWSs in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, D. J.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the characteristics of 10-m wind speeds and 2-m temperatures predicted by the local data assimilation and prediction system (LDAPS) in Korea meteorological administration (KMA) were analyzed by comparing those observed at automatic weather stations (AWSs). The LDAPS is a currently operating meteorology prediction system with the horizontal resolution of about 1.5 km. We classified the AWSs into four categories (urban, rural, coastal, and mountainous areas) based on the surrounding land-use types and locations of the AWSs and selected 30 AWSs for each category. For each category, we investigated how well the LDAPS predicted 10-m wind speeds and 2-m temperatures at the AWSs and statistically analyzed the LDAPS characteristics in predicting the meteorological variables. In the mountainous area, the LDAPS underestimated 2-m temperatures due to the resolution and coordinate system of the LDAPS. In the urban area, the LDAPS overestimated the 10-m wind speeds and underestimated the 2-m temperatures, implying that the LDAPS should consider the physical process to reflect the urban effects on wind speeds and temperatures in urban areas.

  7. A Full-Size High-Temperature Superconducting Coil Employed in a Wind Turbine Generator Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    of the full generator. This paper deals with the HTS coil employed in the setup. The coil utilizing YBCO tapes is double-layered with 152 turns per layer and is wound on an FeNi9 iron core. Several sensors are installed to monitor the operating status of the coil, e.g., temperature, field, and voltage...

  8. Structural studies on volatile, air and moisture sensitive liquids at ambient and elevated temperatures using liquid X-ray scattering. The structure of liquid gallium (III) chloride systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvenlund, Stefan; Bengtsson, Lars A.

    1994-09-01

    An X-ray scattering method is presented which provides accurate structural information on air and moisture sensitive liquids at ambient and elevated temperatures using a standard θ-θ X-ray diffractometer. The method utilizes capillary glass tubes as sample containers and requires no corrections for sample container absorption or scattering, as shown by structural studies of well-known systems such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride and antimony trichloride. Artefacts produced by the sample holder are insignificant and very easy to correct for. The major drawback of the method is the long time of experiment, due to the small (compared with the standard set-up) area/volume ratio of the liquid which contributes to the intensity of the scattered radiation. However, the time required is not unduly long except for liquids containing light elements only (very low scattering power) or very heavy ones (high liner absorptivity). Liquid GaCl 3 is shown to have a dimeric structure consisting of edge-sharing GaCl 4 tetrahedra. This structure is analogous to that previously found for GaCl 3 in the gaseous and solid state and for AlCl 3 in the gaseous and liquid state. Concentrated solutions of GaCl 3 in benzene have been shown to comprise monomeric GaCl 3 units with C3v symmetry. However, it is suggested that such units form as a result of a radiolytically induced cleavage of the Ga 2Cl 6 moieties. No GaC correlation is resolved, which is explained by assuming a σ-type complex GaCl 3 and benzene and/or an ill-defined interaction between the GaCl 3 unit and benzene. The former sitution would most probably produce too few GaC correlation to be observable by the present method, whereas the latter situation would produce a very broad GaC correlation difficult to separate from the background. However, the deviation from the D3h symmetry adopted by GaCl 3 in the gas phase indicates a specific interation between GaCl 3 and benzene.

  9. Four Decades of Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture Observations: Product validation and inter-satellite comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanka, K.; Pan, M.; Wanders, N.; Kumar, D. N.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    The satellite based passive and active microwave sensors enhanced our ability to retrieve soil moisture at global scales. It has been almost four decades since the first passive microwave satellite sensor was launched in 1978. Since then soil moisture has gained considerable attention in hydro-meteorological, climate, and agricultural research resulting in the deployment of two dedicated missions in the last decade, SMOS and SMAP. Signifying the four decades of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, this work aims to present an overview of how our knowledge in this field has improved in terms of the design of sensors and their accuracy of retrieving soil moisture. We considered daily coverage, temporal performance, and spatial performance to assess the accuracy of products corresponding to eight passive sensors (SMMR, SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, WindSAT, AMSR2, SMOS and SMAP), two active sensors (ERS-Scatterometer, MetOp-ASCAT), and one active/passive merged soil moisture product (ESA-CCI combined product), using 1058 ISMN in-situ stations and the VIC LSM soil moisture simulations (VICSM) over the CONUS. Our analysis indicated that the daily coverage has increased from 30 % during 1980s to 85 % (during non-winter months) with the launch of dedicated soil moisture missions SMOS and SMAP. The temporal validation of passive and active soil moisture products with the ISMN data place the range of median RMSE as 0.06-0.10 m3/m3 and median correlation as 0.20-0.68. When TMI, AMSR-E and WindSAT are evaluated, the AMSR-E sensor is found to have produced the brightness temperatures with better quality, given that these sensors are paired with same retrieval algorithm (LPRM). The ASCAT product shows a significant improvement during the temporal validation of retrievals compared to its predecessor ERS, thanks to enhanced sensor configuration. The SMAP mission, through its improved sensor design and RFI handling, shows a high retrieval accuracy under all-topography conditions

  10. Quasi-geostrophic dynamics in the presence of moisture gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Joy M.; Sukhatme, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The derivation of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) system from the rotating shallow water equations on a midlatitude beta-plane coupled with moisture is presented. Condensation is prescribed to occur whenever the moisture at a point exceeds a prescribed saturation value. It is seen that a slow condensation time scale is required to obtain a consistent set of equations at leading order. Further, since the advecting wind fields are geostrophic, changes in moisture (and hence, precipitation) occur only ...

  11. SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Downscaling in CONUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has been providing soil moisture observations for the study of the global hydrological cycle for land-air interactions, ecology and agriculture. Passive microwave sensors that have provided operational products include AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System), AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2), SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), as and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active/Passive). The SMAP radiometer provides soil moisture with a grid resolution of 9 km. However, higher spatial resolution soil moisture is still required for various applications in weather, agriculture and watershed studies. This study focuses on providing a higher resolution product by downscaling the SMAP soil moisture over CONUS (Contiguous United States). This algorithm is based on the long term thermal inertia relationship between daily temperature variation and average soil moisture modulated by vegetation. This relationship is modeled using the variables from the NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation System) and LTDR (Land Long Term Data Record) from 1981-2016 and is applied to calculate 1 km soil moisture from MODIS land data products and then used to downscale SMAP Level-3 9 km radiometer soil moisture to 1 km over CONUS. The downscaled results are evaluated by comparison with in situ observations from ISMN (International Soil Moisture Network), SMAPVEX (SMAP Validation Experiment), MESONET (Mesoscale Network), Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) and other established networks.

  12. A New Prediction Model for Transformer Winding Hotspot Temperature Fluctuation Based on Fuzzy Information Granulation and an Optimized Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Winding hotspot temperature is the key factor affecting the load capacity and service life of transformers. For the early detection of transformer winding hotspot temperature anomalies, a new prediction model for the hotspot temperature fluctuation range based on fuzzy information granulation (FIG and the chaotic particle swarm optimized wavelet neural network (CPSO-WNN is proposed in this paper. The raw data are firstly processed by FIG to extract useful information from each time window. The extracted information is then used to construct a wavelet neural network (WNN prediction model. Furthermore, the structural parameters of WNN are optimized by chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO before it is used to predict the fluctuation range of the hotspot temperature. By analyzing the experimental data with four different prediction models, we find that the proposed method is more effective and is of guiding significance for the operation and maintenance of transformers.

  13. Seasonal Variability of Saturn's Tropospheric Temperatures, Winds and Para-H2 from Cassini Far-IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, P. G. J; Achterberg, R. K.; Orton, G. S.; Flasar, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    temperatures, para-H2 and winds. Quantitative differences between the Cassini and Voyager epochs suggest that the oscillation is not in phase with the seasonal cycle at these tropospheric depths (i.e., it should be described as quasi-periodic rather than 'semi annual'). Variability in the zonal wind field derived from latitudinal thermal gradients is small (less than 10 m/s per scale height near the tropopause) and mostly affects the broad retrograde jets, with the notable exception of large variability on the northern flank of the equatorial jet. The meridional potential vorticity (PV) gradient, and hence the 'staircase of PV' associated with spatial variations in the vigour of vertical mixing, has varied over the course of the mission but maintained its overall shape. PV gradients in latitude and altitude are used to estimate the atmospheric refractive index for the propagation of stationary planetary (Rossby) waves, predicting that such wave activity would be confined to regions of real refractivity (tropical regions plus bands at 35-45 in both hemispheres). The penetration depth of these regions into the upper troposphere is temporally variable (potentially associated with stratification changes), whereas the latitudinal structure is largely unchanged over time (associated with the zonal jet system).

  14. Seasonal variability of Saturn's tropospheric temperatures, winds and para-H2 from Cassini far-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Achterberg, R. K.; Orton, G. S.; Flasar, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Far-IR 16-1000 μ m spectra of Saturn's hydrogen-helium continuum measured by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) are inverted to construct a near-continuous record of upper tropospheric (70-700 mbar) temperatures and para-H2 fraction as a function of latitude, pressure and time for a third of a saturnian year (2004-2014, from northern winter to northern spring). The thermal field reveals evidence of reversing summertime asymmetries superimposed onto the belt/zone structure. The temperature structure is almost symmetric about the equator by 2014, with seasonal lag times that increase with depth and are qualitatively consistent with radiative climate models. Localised heating of the tropospheric hazes (100-250 mbar) create a distinct perturbation to the temperature profile that shifts in magnitude and location, declining in the autumn hemisphere and growing in the spring. Changes in the para-H2 (fp) distribution are subtle, with a 0.02-0.03 rise over the spring hemisphere (200-500 mbar) perturbed by (i) low-fp air advected by both the springtime storm of 2010 and equatorial upwelling; and (ii) subsidence of high-fp air at northern high latitudes, responsible for a developing north-south asymmetry in fp . Conversely, the shifting asymmetry in the para-H2 disequilibrium primarily reflects the changing temperature structure (and hence the equilibrium distribution of fp), rather than actual changes in fp induced by chemical conversion or transport. CIRS results interpolated to the same point in the seasonal cycle as re-analysed Voyager-1 observations (early northern spring) show qualitative consistency from year to year (i.e., the same tropospheric asymmetries in temperature and fp), with the exception of the tropical tropopause near the equatorial zones and belts, where downward propagation of a cool temperature anomaly associated with Saturn's stratospheric oscillation could potentially perturb tropopause temperatures, para-H2 and winds. Quantitative

  15. PROTON TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: EFFECTS OF KINETIC INSTABILITIES ON CURRENT SHEET STABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Velli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Florence (Italy); Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We investigate the role of kinetic instabilities driven by a proton anisotropy on the onset of magnetic reconnection by means of two-dimensional hybrid simulations. The collisionless tearing of a current sheet is studied in the presence of a proton temperature anisotropy in the surrounding plasma. Our results confirm that anisotropic protons within the current sheet region can significantly enhance/stabilize the tearing instability of the current. Moreover, fluctuations associated with linear instabilities excited by large proton temperature anisotropies can significantly influence the stability of the plasma and perturb the current sheets, triggering the tearing instability. We find that such a complex coupling leads to a faster tearing evolution in the T{sub Up-Tack} > T{sub ||} regime when an ion-cyclotron instability is generated by the anisotropic proton distribution functions. On the contrary, in the presence of the opposite anisotropy, fire-hose fluctuations excited by the unstable background protons with T{sub ||} < T{sub Up-Tack} are not able to efficiently destabilize current sheets, which remain stable for a long time after fire-hose saturation. We discuss possible influences of this novel coupling on the solar wind and heliospheric plasma dynamics.

  16. Big Ship Data: Using vessel measurements to improve estimates of temperature and wind speed on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Kevin; Kerkez, Branko

    2017-05-01

    The sheer size of many water systems challenges the ability of in situ sensor networks to resolve spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic processes. New sources of vastly distributed and mobile measurements are, however, emerging to potentially fill these observational gaps. This paper poses the question: How can nontraditional measurements, such as those made by volunteer ship captains, be used to improve hydrometeorological estimates across large surface water systems? We answer this question through the analysis of one of the largest such data sets: an unprecedented collection of one million unique measurements made by ships on the North American Great Lakes from 2006 to 2014. We introduce a flexible probabilistic framework, which can be used to integrate ship measurements, or other sets of irregular point measurements, into contiguous data sets. The performance of this framework is validated through the development of a new ship-based spatial data product of water temperature, air temperature, and wind speed across the Great Lakes. An analysis of the final data product suggests that the availability of measurements across the Great Lakes will continue to play a large role in the confidence with which these large surface water systems can be studied and modeled. We discuss how this general and flexible approach can be applied to similar data sets, and how it will be of use to those seeking to merge large collections of measurements with other sources of data, such as physical models or remotely sensed products.

  17. High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

  18. Indoor randon concentration. Temperature and wind effects; Concentrazione di radon indoor. Effetto del vento e della temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesana, L.; Benigni, S. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale Applicata

    2000-12-01

    The present study analyses and discusses the behaviour of the indoor radon concentration in a research house. Hourly measurements were carried out in the basement of the house from November 1998 up to June 1999. In many sequences of days radon concentration in the room under analysis shows strong variation all day long with accumulation in the evening and overnight and decrease in the morning and in the afternoon. Measurements of wind velocity, indoor and outdoor temperatures and outdoor-indoor pressure difference were performed and their trend is compared with the observed radon concentration. The exhalation of radon from walls, floor and ceiling and the pressure difference driven exhalation from the soil are discussed, particularly the relation with the temperature differences. The air exchange rates between the house and the outdoor air are studied. [Italian] Si analizza e si discute il comportamento della concentrazione di radon indoor nel seminterrato di una casa di ricerca. Misure orarie sono state effettuate da novembre 1998 a giugno 1999. In molte sequenze di giorni la concentrazione del radon nel locale in analisi presenta forti variazioni nel corso della giornata con un accumulo notturno e decrescita nelle ore diurne. Sono state eseguite misure della velocita' del vento, delle temperature outdoor e indoor e della differenza di pressione outdoor-indoor e il loro andamento e' stato confrontato con quello della concentrazione del radon. Vengono discusse l'esalazione del radon dalle pareti, dal pavimento e dal soffitto e l'esalazione pressure difference driven dal suolo. Il rateo dei ricambi d'aria tra il locale e l'aria outdoor e' studiato.

  19. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  20. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. A soil moisture network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, N.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data of global coverage every three days. Product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and soil temperature sensor...

  2. Development of an Aquarius Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.; Zhao, T.; Cosh, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Aquarius observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to land applications through the retrieval of soil moisture. This research increases the value and impact of the Aquarius mission by including a broader scientific community, allowing the exploration of new algorithm approaches that exploit the active-passive observations, and will contribute to a better understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle. The first stage of our Aquarius soil moisture research focused on the use of the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage that this type of observations has in soil moisture applications. The calibration of the Aquarius radiometer over the entire dynamic range is a key element for the successful implementation of the soil moisture algorithm. Results to date indicate that the Aquarius observations are well calibrated for ocean targets but have a warm bias over land. This bias needed to be addressed if the Aquarius observations are to be used in land applications. Our approach was to use the gain and offsets computed using the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) comparisons to adjust the Aquarius brightness temperatures. The Single Channel Algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations. SCA is also the baseline algorithm for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture product. Aquarius radiometer observations from the three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) surface temperature model forecast were then used to estimate soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters derived based on land cover. The spatial patterns of the soil moisture estimates are consistent with the climatology

  3. Measurements of Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures with a Fabry-Perot Interferometer Network: Results from NATION, South America, and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Makela, J. J.; Ridley, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Results in recent years have demonstrated that studies of thermospheric dynamics over small or large spatial scales are enhanced when measurements of the wind and temperature fields are obtained as a part of a network of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI). In contrast to the all-sky FPI design used in the polar region by Conde and colleagues, these FPIs are narrow-field instruments that utilize a SkyScanner to observe in a series of directions over a region 500-800 km in diameter. The sensitivity of these instruments has increased dramatically over older FPIs, allowing new and interesting phenomena to be investigated. When two or more FPIs are utilized, different observing strategies may then offer advantages regarding the ability to study the thermospheric-ionosphere system response over small and large scale sizes that can not be achieved by a single FPI observatory. Examples of results obtained by the North American Thermospheric and Ionospheric Observing Network (NATION), the five FPIs operating in South America, and the three FPIs observing in Alaska will illustrate the system science advantages provided by such networks.

  4. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  5. Thermal and Pressure Characterization of a Wind Tunnel Force Balance Using the Single Vector System. Experimental Design and Analysis Approach to Model Pressure and Temperature Effects in Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A,

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel research at NASA Langley Research Center s 31-inch Mach 10 hypersonic facility utilized a 5-component force balance, which provided a pressurized flow-thru capability to the test article. The goal of the research was to determine the interaction effects between the free-stream flow and the exit flow from the reaction control system on the Mars Science Laboratory aeroshell during planetary entry. In the wind tunnel, the balance was exposed to aerodynamic forces and moments, steady-state and transient thermal gradients, and various internal balance cavity pressures. Historically, these effects on force measurement accuracy have not been fully characterized due to limitations in the calibration apparatus. A statistically designed experiment was developed to adequately characterize the behavior of the balance over the expected wind tunnel operating ranges (forces/moments, temperatures, and pressures). The experimental design was based on a Taylor-series expansion in the seven factors for the mathematical models. Model inversion was required to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments as a function of the strain-gage readings. Details regarding transducer on-board compensation techniques, experimental design development, mathematical modeling, and wind tunnel data reduction are included in this paper.

  6. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  7. SMEX03 Little River Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parameters for this data set include precipitation, soil temperature, volumetric soil moisture, soil conductivity, and soil salinity measured in the Little River...

  8. New Observations of C-band Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate From the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Buckley, C. D.; Biswas, S.; May, C.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on the WB-57 during NASA's GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August September of 2010. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain cross-track resolution of approximately 3 degrees, out to approximately 60 degrees to each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. This technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP campaign will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the GRIP campaign, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eyewall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  9. Thermal effects influencing measurements in a supersonic blowdown wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Đorđe S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a supersonic r