WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind systems wood

  1. Wood Species Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Bremananth R; Nithya B; Saipriya R

    2009-01-01

    The proposed system identifies the species of the wood using the textural features present in its barks. Each species of a wood has its own unique patterns in its bark, which enabled the proposed system to identify it accurately. Automatic wood recognition system has not yet been well established mainly due to lack of research in this area and the difficulty in obtaining the wood database. In our work, a wood recognition system has been designed based on pre-processing te...

  2. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  3. Charles Burchfield: "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gaynell

    1986-01-01

    Based on Charles Burchfield's watercolor, "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods," the goal of this lesson is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to Burchfield's use of symbolism. (JDH)

  4. Wind pressure testing of tornado safe room components made from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Falk; Deepak Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of a wood tornado safe room to resist wind pressures produced by a tornado, two safe room com-ponents were tested for wind pressure strength. A tornado safe room ceiling panel and door were static-pressure-tested according to ASTM E 330 using a vacuum test system. Re-sults indicate that the panels had load capacities from 2.4 to 3.5 times that...

  5. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  6. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  7. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  8. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  9. Usage of Geoprocessing Services in Precision Forestry for Wood Volume Calculation and Wind Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mikita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the idea of a precision forestry tool for optimizing clearcut size and shape within the process of forest recovery and its publishing in the form of a web processing service for forest owners on the Internet. The designed tool titled COWRAS (Clearcut Optimization and Wind Risk Assessment is developed for optimization of clearcuts (their location, shape, size, and orientation with subsequent wind risk assessment. The tool primarily works with airborne LiDAR data previously processed to the form of a digital surface model (DSM and a digital elevation model (DEM. In the first step, the growing stock on the planned clearcut determined by its location and area in feature class is calculated (by the method of individual tree detection. Subsequently tree heights from canopy height model (CHM are extracted and then diameters at breast height (DBH and wood volume using the regressions are calculated. Information about wood volume of each tree in the clearcut is exported and summarized in a table. In the next step, all trees in the clearcut are removed and a new DSM without trees in the clearcut is generated. This canopy model subsequently serves as an input for evaluation of wind risk damage by the MAXTOPEX tool (Mikita et al., 2012. In the final raster, predisposition of uncovered forest stand edges (around the clearcut to wind risk is calculated based on this analysis. The entire tool works in the background of ArcGIS server as a spatial decision support system for foresters.

  10. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  11. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  12. Wind system documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  13. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  14. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  15. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  16. Wind Power in Electrical Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, large number of wind turbines/wind farms have been installed and connected to power systems. In addition to the large centralised wind farms connected to transmission grids, many distributed wind turbines and wind farms are operated...... as distributed generators in distribution systems. This paper discusses the issues of wind turbines in distribution systems. Wind power conversion systems briefly introduced, the basic features and technical characteristics of distributed wind power system are described, and the main technical demands...

  17. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  18. Application of a regional hurricane wind risk forecasting model for wood-frame houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet Kumar; Davidson, Rachel Ann

    2007-02-01

    Hurricane wind risk in a region changes over time due to changes in the number, type, locations, vulnerability, and value of buildings. A model was developed to quantitatively estimate changes over time in hurricane wind risk to wood-frame houses (defined in terms of potential for direct economic loss), and to estimate how different factors, such as building code changes and population growth, contribute to that change. The model, which is implemented in a simulation, produces a probability distribution of direct economic losses for each census tract in the study region at each time step in the specified time horizon. By changing parameter values and rerunning the analysis, the effects of different changes in the built environment on the hurricane risk trends can be estimated and the relative effectiveness of hypothetical mitigation strategies can be evaluated. Using a case study application for wood-frame houses in selected counties in North Carolina from 2000 to 2020, this article demonstrates how the hurricane wind risk forecasting model can be used: (1) to provide insight into the dynamics of regional hurricane wind risk-the total change in risk over time and the relative contribution of different factors to that change, and (2) to support mitigation planning. Insights from the case study include, for example, that the many factors contributing to hurricane wind risk for wood-frame houses interact in a way that is difficult to predict a priori, and that in the case study, the reduction in hurricane losses due to vulnerability changes (e.g., building code changes) is approximately equal to the increase in losses due to building inventory growth. The potential for the model to support risk communication is also discussed.

  19. Strength and Reliability of Wood for the Components of Low-cost Wind Turbines: Computational and Experimental Analysis and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sharma, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the latest results of the comprehensive program of experimental and computational analysis of strength and reliability of wooden parts of low cost wind turbines. The possibilities of prediction of strength and reliability of different types of wood are studied in the series...... of experiments and computational investigations. Low cost testing machines have been designed, and employed for the systematic analysis of different sorts of Nepali wood, to be used for the wind turbine construction. At the same time, computational micromechanical models of deformation and strength of wood...

  20. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  1. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  2. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...... is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  3. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  4. Wind in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  5. Framing Failures in Wood-Frame Hip Roofs under Extreme Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Stevenson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood-frame residential roof failures are among the most common and expensive types of wind damage. Hip roofs are commonly understood to be more resilient during extreme wind in relation to gable roofs. However, inspection of damage survey data from recent tornadoes has revealed a previously unstudied failure mode in which hip roofs suffer partial failure of the framing structure. In the current study, evidence of partial framing failures and statistics of their occurrence are explored and discussed, while the common roof design and construction practice are reviewed. Two-dimensional finite element models are developed to estimate the element-level load effects on hip roof trusses and stick-frame components. The likelihood of failure in each member is defined based on relative demand-to-capacity ratios. Trussed and stick-frame structures are compared to assess the relative performance of the two types of construction. The present analyses verify the common understanding that toenailed roof-to-wall connections are likely to be the most vulnerable elements in the structure of a wood-frame hip roof. However, the results also indicate that certain framing members and connections display significant vulnerability under the same wind uplift, and the possibility of framing failure is not to be discounted. Furthermore, in the case where the roof-to-wall connection uses hurricane straps, certain framing members and joints become the likely points of failure initiation. The analysis results and damage survey observations are used to expand the understanding of wood-frame residential roof failures, as they relate to the Enhanced Fujita Scale and provide assessment of potential gaps in residential design codes.

  6. Secondary combustion system for wood burning stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Conta, P.E.W.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an improved secondary combustion system for combusting the exhaust gases exiting from a fire box in a wood burning stove comprising: an insulated conduit defining an exhaust passageway leading from an intake opening to an exit opening; screen means interposed across the exhaust passageway in the vicinity of the intake opening to impart a rapid acceleration to a gas stream entering the exhaust passageway; rotation means to impart a rotation to the gas stream in a first portion of the exhaust passageway; counter-rotation means to impart a counter-rotation to the gas stream in a second portion of the exhaust passageway; deceleration means to decelerate the gas stream in the second portion of the exhaust passageway; and secondary air means to inject a source of secondary air into the exhaust passageway.

  7. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  8. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  9. Wood chip production system making its debut in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-21

    The main component of the wood chip production system is a high-performance drum-type wood chipper which feeds the wood to a blower pipe transferring it to a tiltable chip container. Another essential element consists in the feeding system which continuously feeds the chipper with felled wood and other remains and provides for an uninterrupted, speedy and time-saving charging of the chipping unit. A hydraulic crane serves to feed the chipper. Both the feeding process and the chopping process are controlled by the driver. Wood chipper standard equipment moreover comprises built-in overload safety elements, an automatic stopping device responding as the system gets blocked up, a return circuit clearing the mouth of the feeder in case it is blocked, hydraulically controlled feeding and pressing rollers and an automatic speed controlling device. All components are mounted on a support which is installed on a carrier vehicle.

  10. EVALUATION OF WOOD PERFORMANCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THROUGH SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pedreschi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Building construction is considered to be the leading market for the wood industry, in developed and developingcountries. The greatest amount of wood produced in Brazil is consumed as firewood and energy, followed by production of celluloseand third as machined wood. The use of wood from planted forests can be increased. This would lead to a better use of naturalresources, and consequently to an increased sustainability of forest activity in many regions of the country. The performance of woodcan be observed from many different insights: symbolic performance, technical performance and economical performance, conductedby the method of systems approach to architecture. Usages of wood related to the performances of the material, with the redefinitionof parameters of use, elaborating a new culture linked to new technologies were outlined. This work diagnosed the usage of wood inbuilding construction based in system analysis. Through an opinion research related to the acceptation of the use of wood we observethe possibilities of utilization according to physical and mechanical proprieties, aesthetics and appearance performance and postoccupation.According to the results obtained related to the culture and knowledge about the use of wood from planted forest, it canconclude that there is not enough knowledge in this area, and it is, therefore, necessary to create an information system forprofessionals and for people in general.

  11. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  12. Wind energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  13. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  14. Home grown power plants - the case for wood-based energy systems in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, K. [University of California, Berkeley (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2002-12-01

    The article is essentially an overview of the case for wood-based energy systems for Sri Lanka. Such systems are attractive in terms of being local, low-cost, and sustainable. However, development of such systems is hampered by insufficient political support, and concern over deforestation and waste in the context of the proposed large-scale biomass gasification. The article discusses benefits of the system, how it works, costs and economics and biomass potential. Other renewable energy systems discussed include solar, wind and hydro.

  15. Proceedings of the Canadian Wind Energy Association's 2009 wind matters conference : wind and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for wind energy and electric power industry experts to discuss issues related to wind and power systems. An overview of wind integration studies and activities in Canada and the United States was provided. New tools and technologies for facilitating the integration of wind and improve market conditions for wind energy developers were presented. Methods of increasing wind penetration were evaluated, and technical issues related to wind interconnections throughout North America were reviewed. The conference was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) experiences with wind integration, and lessons learned, (2) update on ongoing wind integration initiatives in Canada and the United States, (3) initiatives and tools to facilitate wind integration and market access, (4) developments in wind interconnection and grid codes, (5) wind energy and cold weather considerations, and (6) challenges to achieving the 20 per cent WindVision goal in Canada. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. PSS Controller for Wind Power Generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, J. L.; Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Bianchi, F.; Sumper, A.

    2012-10-01

    Small signal stability analysis for power systems with wind farm interaction is presented. Power systems oscillation modes can be excited by disturbance or fault in the grid. Variable speed wind turbines can be regulated to reduce these oscillations, stabilising the power system. A power system stabiliser (PSS) control loop for wind power is designed in order to increase the damping of the oscillation modes. The proposed power system stabiliser controller is evaluated by small signal analysis.

  17. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  18. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  19. Ambient air pollution associated to domestic wood burning heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friboulet, I.; Durif, M.; Malherbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Main publications are considering effects of wood burning appliances on indoor air quality, which is a major issue in some countries. But impacts on ambient air, close environment and human exposure are rather poorly characterised so far. Besides, woods burning for domestic purpose may develop in the next years while promoting bio fuels. The aim of the ongoing study is to assess in which conditions associated air pollution and population exposure could be significant, this poster shows preliminary results of the impact of a village of 98 houses equipped with a wood burning heating system. (N.C.)

  20. Limiting conditions for decay in wood systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul I. Morris; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under these conditions is required for modellers to predict consequences of decay on building performance. It is well...

  1. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  2. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  3. Considerations on wood energy in a systemic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino D, Juan F; Quintero, Ricardo S

    2008-01-01

    The energy obtained from woody biomass or also called wood energy, takes each time more importance as another of the alternatives to the current energy and environmental crisis associated to the excessive use of fossil fuels. Nevertheless, there still exist a series of prejudices, information gaps and disagreements about wood energy that deserves an adequate treatment and disclosure as it is intended in this paper. For this aim, it's necessary to consider wood energy under a systemic view that means, accounting for each component as an interdependent part that managed all together results in the so called wood energy systems. They integrate aspects as the production, logging and transportation of biomass? Conversion to useful forms of energy and utilization in specific applications. Due to the great diversity of factors and agents involved, is necessary to carry out an adequate process of this type of energy systems planning, using for this purpose tools as the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which can help to obtain the design of optimized systems, that reach their greater potential bringing with them great energy and socio environmental benefits. There are still few experiences in wood energy systems, and especially in Colombia where there is a lack of pilot projects where the convenience of its implementation could be demonstrated offering guidelines for its planning, operation and maintenance. Due to the large opportunities that wood energy presents and its scarce development, it is enormously justified to develop in an ordered and planned way this forgotten sector under a systemic treatment as the one that is considered here.

  4. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  5. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  6. WEP. A wind energy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, H.V.

    1991-11-01

    The report describes the Wind Energy Planning system (WEP). It is intended as a decision support system to be used in the economic evaluation of wind energy projects. Such projects could be minor projects with only a single wind turbine or large wind farm projects consisting of several wind turbine plants. In the WEP system, a wind turbine is described by data on initial investment, possible later reinvestments, O and M costs, expected yearly production, life time, and capacity factor. The raising of loans are modelled, too. Depending on which output report is created, the value of the wind generated electricity is calculated in two different ways: either the electricity is assumed to be sold at a price (time series) given by the user, or the alternative conventional power production is modelled by its specific investment, O and M costs, life time, effectivity, fuel mix, and time series for fuel prices. Using these data, capacity credit and saved fuel and O and M costs are calculated. Due to the flexible data structure of the model, the user can easily create a scenario that models a large scale introduction of wind power. In such a scenario the gradual build up through several years of the wind power capacity can be modelled. The report describes in detail the menu structure, the input facilities, the output reports, and the organization of data. Also included is an example with full input documentation and output reports. (au)

  7. Wind turbine assisted diesel generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienbein, L. A.

    1981-12-01

    The need to reduce the cost of energy in remote communities served by diesel generators has led to the investigation of the use of wind energy to replace some or all of the fuel consumed. The development of wind-turbine-assisted diesel generators in Canada has progressed from the design and testing of a 12-kW unit to the design of a prototype 100-kW wind turbine diesel hybrid. This paper presents the results of the 12-kW tests and the implementation of the test results, and the results of further engineering and cost analyses in the design of a prototype 100-kW wind turbine diesel hybrid system. The value of wind energy in a wind turbine diesel hybrid is greatly improved if the diesel generator system itself is designed to operate more efficiently at part load, with or without wind power assistance. Excess wind energy and wind turbine power fluctuations (which result in voltage and frequency fluctuations) can be minimized by selecting the best rotor operating speed.

  8. Small Wind Energy Systems for the Homeowner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-01

    If you live in a rural or remote location, this publication will help you decide whether a wind system is practical for you. It explains the benefits, helps you assess your wind resource and possible sites, discusses legal and environmental obstacles, and analyzes economic considerations such as pricing.

  9. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  10. On System Identification of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, B.J.

    Recently several methods have been proposed for the system identification of wind turbines which can be considered as a linear time-varying system due to the operating conditions. For the identification of linear wind turbine models, either black-box or grey-box identification can be used....... The operational model analysis (OMA) methodology can provide accurate estimates of the natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the systems as long as the measurements have a low noise to signal ratio. However, in order to take information about the wind turbine into account a grey...

  11. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power...... systems are illustrated....

  12. Durable Feedback Control System for Small Scale Wood Chip Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Bjoerkqvist, T.; Lautala, P. (Tampere Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Automation Science and Engineering, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)). E-mail: timo.korpela@tut.fi

    2008-10-15

    The purpose is to control wood chip combustion in an inexpensive and durable way. A control concept in order to reduce the effect of fluctuation of the fuel feed is introduced. The concept is based on temperature and lambda measurements. The main task of the control system is to set the fuel feed at a desired level after a change in the combustion conditions. Additionally, temporary fluctuations of the degree of filling of feeding screw are compensated. Test results of a 80 kW and a 200 kW commercial wood chip fired systems are introduced. The process experiments indicate that the high level control system is able to adapt to varying combustion conditions and to maintain low emission levels. Furthermore, passive means that can be exploited to stabilize the combustion are discussed. As the control concept is not dependent on the design of the combustion system, the concept is adaptable to present systems

  13. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  15. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  16. Development of Data Acquisition System for Wind Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    西本,澄

    1992-01-01

    A Data acquisiton system developed for wind energy applications will be described in this paper. This system is composed of an anemometer with two blades downwind and a computer which processes wind data. Wind energy calculated from an average wind speed is inaccurate, since wind power increases with the cube of wind velocity. To decide the design and the site for a wind turbine system, it is very important to consider wind data on a long term basis, that is the total wind energy and distribu...

  17. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  18. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  19. McCabe wind energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, R.; McCabe, F.; MacMichael, G.

    1995-01-01

    A wind machine utilizing novel low-speed air foils and shrouds has been developed and is now undergoing a refinement process. Energy generated by the machine at a variety of wind speeds is significant. Use of the machine to compress air, which can serve a variety of applications, simplifies the total power producing system ranking it economical and practical for use at a variety of locations to fill many energy requirements. (author)

  20. McCabe wind energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R. [Wyndmoor (United States); McCabe, F. [Levr/Air, Inc., Doylestown (United States); MacMichael, G. [Regional Technical College, Galway (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    A wind machine utilizing novel low-speed air foils and shrouds has been developed and is now undergoing a refinement process. Energy generated by the machine at a variety of wind speeds is significant. Use of the machine to compress air, which can serve a variety of applications, simplifies the total power producing system ranking it economical and practical for use at a variety of locations to fill many energy requirements. (author)

  1. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems’ deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional powerplants. Therefore, wind turbines also have ...

  2. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    Accurate forecasting of available energy is crucial for the efficient management and use of wind power in the national power grid. With energy output critically dependent upon wind strength there is a need to reduce the errors associated wind forecasting. The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind forecasts for the wind energy industry. To achieve this goal, three methods are being applied. First, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model called WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) is being used to predict wind values over Ireland. Currently, a gird resolution of 10km is used and higher model resolutions are being evaluated to establish whether they are economically viable given the forecast skill improvement they produce. Second, the WRF model is being used in conjunction with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ensemble forecasts to produce a probabilistic weather forecasting product. Due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, a single, deterministic weather forecast can only have limited skill. The ECMWF ensemble methods produce an ensemble of 51 global forecasts, twice a day, by perturbing initial conditions of a 'control' forecast which is the best estimate of the initial state of the atmosphere. This method provides an indication of the reliability of the forecast and a quantitative basis for probabilistic forecasting. The limitation of ensemble forecasting lies in the fact that the perturbed model runs behave differently under different weather patterns and each model run is equally likely to be closest to the observed weather situation. Models have biases, and involve assumptions about physical processes and forcing factors such as underlying topography. Third, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is being applied to the output from the ensemble forecasts in order to statistically post-process the results and achieve a better wind forecasting system. BMA is a promising technique that will offer calibrated

  3. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  4. Performance Analysis of an Island Power System Including Wind Turbines Operating under Random Wind Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Jen Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Guo-Tsai Liu; Sen-Feng Lin

    2013-01-01

    With continuous rise of oil price, how to develop alternative energy source has become a hot topic around the world. This study discussed the dynamic characteristics of an island power system operating under random wind speed lower than nominal wind speeds of wind turbines. The system primarily consists of three diesel engine power generation systems, three constant-speed variable-pitch wind turbines, a small hydraulic induction generation system, and lumped static loads. Detailed models b...

  5. Wind power integration connection and system operational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Wind Power Integration provides a wide-ranging discussion on all major aspects of wind power integration into electricity supply systems. This second edition has been fully revised and updated to take account of the significant growth in wind power deployment in the past few years. New discussions have been added to describe developments in wind turbine generator technology and control, the network integration of wind power, innovative ways to integrate wind power when its generation potential exceeds 50% of demand, case studies on how forecasting errors have affected system operation, and an update on how the wind energy sector has fared in the marketplace. Topics covered include: the development of wind power technology and its world-wide deployment; wind power technology and the interaction of various wind turbine generator types with the utility network; and wind power forecasting and the challenges faced by wind energy in modern electricity markets.

  6. Wind Farms’ Spatial Distribution Effect on Power System Reserves Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The wind power development during last millennium was typically based on small wind turbines dispersed over large areas, leading to a significant smoothing of the wind power fluctuations in a power system balancing area. The present development goes towards much larger wind farms, concentrated...... in smaller areas, which causes the total wind power fluctuations in power system areas to increase significantly. The impact of future large wind farms spatial distribution with respect to the power system reserve requirements is analyzed in this paper. For this purpose, Correlated Wind (CorWind) power time...... series simulation model developed to simulate wind power variability over a large area is used. As a study case, two scenarios for short term offshore wind power development in the West Danish power system region are used. The first scenario assumes that all the wind farms are built in the region...

  7. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  8. Design of functionally graded wood-based board for floor heating system with higher energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Y.; Kanayama, K. [Advanced Wood-based Material Technology Group, Inst. for Structural and Engineering Materials, National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Takeuchi, K.; Kawazoe, M. [NEDO Industrial Technology Researchers, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Recycling of wood building waste has been required and wood boards are prospective recycled materials. The concept of FGM was introduced to the wood board as a base material of a floor heating system to develop an FGM board with higher energy efficiency. Two-dimensional unsteady heat transfer problem in an FGM plate with material properties of wood was analyzed, which modeled the state that the base material was heated partially. The Laplace transform and the perturbation method were applied for the analysis. The tactile warmth of a facing plate in the floor heating system, which touches to human sole directly, was discussed to avoid losing the goodness of wood. (orig.)

  9. Local ownership, smart energy systems and better wind power economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Möller, Bernd; Sperling, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Increasing wind power shares enhances the need to integrate wind power into the energy system and to improve its economy. In this study we propose two ways of achieving this end. One is to increase the value of wind power by integrating the heat and power markets, and thus ensures that wind power...... the acceptance rate of onshore wind. The economy of wind power is thus improved by both increasing its value and reducing its costs....

  10. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Deeper waters and harsher environments are the main factors that make the electricity generated by offshore wind turbines (OWTs) expensive due to high costs of the substructure, operation & maintenance and installation. The key goal of development is to decrease the cost of energy (CoE). In conse......Deeper waters and harsher environments are the main factors that make the electricity generated by offshore wind turbines (OWTs) expensive due to high costs of the substructure, operation & maintenance and installation. The key goal of development is to decrease the cost of energy (Co...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

  11. Dynamic influences of wind power on the power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    The thesis first presents the basics influences of wind power on the power system stability and quality by pointing out the main power quality issues of wind power in a small-scale case and following, the expected large-scale problems are introduced. Secondly, a dynamic wind turbine model that supports power quality assessment of wind turbines is presented. Thirdly, an aggregate wind farm model that support power quality and stability analysis from large wind farms is presented. The aggregate wind farm model includes the smoothing of the relative power fluctuation from a wind farm compared to a single wind turbine. Finally, applications of the aggregate wind farm model to the power systems are presented. The power quality and stability characteristics influenced by large-scale wind power are illustrated with three cases. In this thesis, special emphasis has been given to appropriate models to represent the wind acting on wind farms. The wind speed model to a single wind turbine includes turbulence and tower shadow effects from the wind and the rotational sampling turbulence due to the rotation of the blades. In a park scale, the wind speed model to the wind farm includes the spatial coherence between different wind turbines. Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suitable to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power system quality and stability. The flicker and frequency deviations are the main power quality parameters presented. The power system stability concentrates on the voltage stability and on the power system oscillations. From the cases studied, voltage and the frequency variations were smaller than expected from the large-scale wind power integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting large

  12. A system for visual control of wood imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Udovič, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to present a prototype of an optical wood control system, concretely, an optical measurement system for bamboo boards intended for parquet flooring. We used The Imaging Source DFK 23G018 color cameras for optical detection and measurement. In this thesis we present four methods for processing the images of wooden boards. The first method finds the edges of the boards and measures individual dimensions. By knowing the exact position of the boards in the images, the...

  13. Residential tornado safe room from commodity wood products – impact and wind pressure testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; C. Adam Senalik; Marshall Begel

    2018-01-01

    A tornado safe room is a shelter designed to provide protection during a tornado and is specifically engineered to resist the high wind pressures and debris impact generated by these high wind events. The required performance criteria of these shelters has been established and is found in the International Code Council Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm...

  14. Active system monitoring applied on wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Parbo, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied for...... for an online monitoring of central parameters/elements of the system. Statistical tests are applied on the residual signals for obtaining a correct monitoring....

  15. A High Efficiency Wind Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, M. Z.; Hussain, M. M.; Naveed, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a wind generator system that employs a Fourphase Interleaved Bi-directional DC / DC Converter, a Selective Harmonic Elimination Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SHE SPWM) based Inverter and a PermanentMagnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is studied. The merits of using the topolog...

  16. Wind energy in the electric power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, H.; Peinke, J.; Kramer, O.

    2016-01-01

    have to behave when connected to the power system. In this way, they already incorporate basic ancillary services. However, frequency control is normally not provided as a regular reserve, because this would require reserving parts of the available wind capacity as stand-by capacity. Within R......The ongoing increase in renewable power generation causes a parallel overall decrease in conventional power generation from, in particular, fossil and nuclear power plants. Apart from providing market-based active power schedules, these power plants are crucial for offering ancillary services...... in order to guarantee a reliable stable power supply at any instant in time. Substituting these plants with renewable generation units requires the latter to be capable of providing these ancillary services. The state of the art is that grid codes are used to define the way wind turbines and wind farms...

  17. IEA Wind Task 37 System Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykes, K; Sanchez Perez Moreno, S.; Zahle, Frederik; Ning, A; McWilliam, M.; Zaayer, M B

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common

  18. Optimal wind energy penetration in power systems: An approach based on spatial distribution of wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, Saeed; Riahy, Gholam H.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Golshannavaz, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chronological wind speeds at distinct locations of the wind farm are not the same. • Spatial distribution of wind speed affects wind farm’s output power expectation. • Neglecting wind speed’s spatial doubt leads to mistake in wind energy penetration. • Scenario-based method can be used for effective wind capacity penetration level. - Abstract: Contributing in power system expansions, the present study establishes an efficient scheme for optimal integration of wind energy resources. The proposed approach highly concerns the spatial distribution of wind speed at different points of a wind farm. In mathematical statements, a suitable probability distribution function (PDF) is well-designed for representing such uncertainties. In such conditions, it is likely to have dissimilar output powers for individual and identical wind turbines. Thus, the overall aggregated PDF of a wind farm remarkably influences the critical parameters including the expected power and energy, capacity factor, and the reliability metrics such as loss of load expectation (LOLE) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). Furthermore, the proposed approach is deployed for optimal allocation of wind energy in bulk power systems. Hence, two typical test systems are numerically analyzed to interrogate the performance of the proposed approach. The conducted survey discloses an over/underestimation of harvestable wind energy in the case of overlooking spatial distributions. Thus, inaccurate amounts of wind farm’s capacity factor, output power, energy and reliability indices might be estimated. Meanwhile, the number of wind turbines may be misjudged to be installed. However, the proposed approach yields in a fair judgment regarding the overall performance of the wind farm. Consequently, a reliable penetration level of wind energy to the power system is assured. Extra discussions are provided to deeply assess the promising merits of the founded approach.

  19. System Identification for the Clipper Liberty C96 Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Daniel

    System identification techniques are powerful tools that help improve modeling capabilities of real world dynamic systems. These techniques are well established and have been successfully used on countless systems in many areas. However, wind turbines provide a unique challenge for system identification because of the difficulty in measuring its primary input: wind. This thesis first motivates the problem by demonstrating the challenges with wind turbine system identification using both simulations and real data. It then suggests techniques toward successfully identifying a dynamic wind turbine model including the notion of an effective wind speed and how it might be measured. Various levels of simulation complexity are explored for insights into calculating an effective wind speed. In addition, measurements taken from the University of Minnesota's Clipper Liberty C96 research wind turbine are used for a preliminary investigation into the effective wind speed calculation and system identification of a real world wind turbine.

  20. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  1. Purdue Plane Structures Analyzer II : a computerized wood engineering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. K. Suddarth; R. W. Wolfe

    1984-01-01

    The Purdue Plane Structures Analyzer (PPSA) is a computer program developed specifically for the analysis of wood structures. It uses recognized analysis procedures, in conjunction with recommendations of the 1982 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, to determine stresses and deflections of wood trusses and frames. The program offers several options for...

  2. Wind Turbine and Wind Power Plant Modelling Aspects for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Göksu, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    is not reasonable regarding the focus of the study. Therefore the power system operators should be aware of the modelling aspects of the wind power considering the related stability study and implement the required model in the appropriate power system toolbox. In this paper, the modelling aspects of wind turbines...... and wind power plants are reviewed for power system stability studies. Important remarks of the models are presented by means of simulations to emphasize the impact of these modelling details on the power system.......Large amount of wind power installations introduce modeling challenges for power system operators at both the planning and operational stages of power systems. Depending on the scope of the study, the modeling details of the wind turbine or the wind power plant are required to be different. A wind...

  3. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  4. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  5. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  6. Superconducting Coil Winding Machine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J. M. [Fermilab; Kotelnikov, S. [Fermilab; Makulski, A. [Fermilab; Walbridge, D. [Fermilab; Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    The Spirex coil winding machine is used at Fermilab to build coils for superconducting magnets. Recently this ma-chine was equipped with a new control system, which al-lows operation from both a computer and a portable remote control unit. This control system is distributed between three layers, implemented on a PC, real-time target, and FPGA, providing respectively HMI, operational logic and direct controls. The system controls motion of all mechan-ical components and regulates the cable tension. Safety is ensured by a failsafe, redundant system.

  7. Wind power variability and power system reserves in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Variable renewable generation, primarily from wind and solar, introduces new uncertainties in the operation of power systems. This paper describes and applies a method to quantify how wind power development will affect the use of short-term automatic reserves in the future South African power...... system. The study uses a scenario for wind power development in South Africa, based on information from the South African transmission system operator (Eskom) and the Department of Energy. The scenario foresees 5% wind power penetration by 2025. Time series for wind power production and forecasts...... are simulated, and the duration curves for wind power ramp rates and wind power forecast errors are applied to assess the use of reserves due to wind power variability. The main finding is that the 5% wind power penetration in 2025 will increase the use of short-term automatic reserves by approximately 2%....

  8. Secondary air systems for improved residential wood stove combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirot, R.L.; Sanborn, C.R.

    1982-12-21

    Three wood burning stoves were modified by the addition of preheated secondary air systems to keep burn volatile gases given off during the initial stage of combustion. This report describes the modifications and the performance of the stoves after modification. Stoves tested during the year's study included a Jotul 118, a Garrison IV and a Hearthstone I. After modification, total particulate emissions decreased in the three stoves by 56%, 69% and 4%, respectively. Flue gas CO/sub 2/ (a by-product of combustion and an indicator of the completeness of combustion) increased by 15%, 15% and 17%, respectively. Temperatures in the secondary combustion zones increased by 17%, 50% and 6%. On the basis of these measurements, other internal temperatures and visual observations, we believe the modifications significantly increased the combustion efficiencies of the Jotul and the Garrison. No improvement was discerned in the Hearthstone's performance (possibly due to unrealistic burn rate compared to firebox size). The design concepts developed, refined and tested under this year's study should be readily applicable to the majority of residential wood stoves on the market.

  9. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  10. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  11. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.; Clausen, N.E.; Frandsen, S.; Hansen, L.H.; Hansen, J.C.

    2001-06-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than 'universal solutions' for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present a more unified and generally applicable approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, field measurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end-user demands, analysis of findings and development of proposed guidelines. The project is reported in one main report and four topical reports, all of them issued as Risoe reports. This is the Main Report Risoe-R-1256, summing up the activities and findings of the project and outlining an Implementation Strategy for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donor agencies and development banks. (au)

  12. Wind energy systems solutions for power quality and stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mohd Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases--and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering

  13. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju

    2015-01-01

    -discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. This paper reviews the state of the art of the ESS technologies for wind power integration support from different aspects......With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging...

  14. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  15. Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System With Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygaard; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2012-01-01

    Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants (WPP). In this paper a comprehensive analysis...... is presented which assesses the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine (WT) model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study...

  16. Does reintroducing large wood influence the hydraulic landscape of a lowland river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Adrian; Thoms, Martin; Reid, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of the effectiveness of reintroduced large wood for restoration is largely based on studies from high energy river systems. By contrast, few studies of the effectiveness of reintroducing large wood have been undertaken on large, low energy, lowland river systems: river systems where large wood is a significant physical feature on the in-channel environment. This study investigated the effect of reintroduced large wood on the hydraulic landscape of the Barwon-Darling River, Australia, at low flows. To achieve this, the study compared three hydraulic landscapes of replicated reference (naturally wooded), control (unwooded,) and managed (wood reintroduced) treatments on three low flow periods. These time periods were prior to the reintroduction of large wood to managed reaches; several months after the reintroduction of large wood into the managed reaches; and then more than four years after wood reintroduction following several large flood events. Hydraulic landscapes of reaches were characterised using a range of spatial measures calculated from velocity measurements taken with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler. We hypothesised that reintroduced large wood would increase the diversity of the hydraulic landscape at low flows and that managed reaches would be more similar to the reference reaches. Our results suggest that the reintroduction of large wood did not significantly change the character of the hydraulic landscape at the reach scale after several months (p = 0.16) or several years (p = 0.29). Overall, the character of the hydraulic landscape in the managed reaches was more similar to the hydraulic landscape of the control reaches than the hydraulic landscape of the reference reaches, at low flows. Some variability in the hydraulic landscapes was detected over time, and this may reflect reworking of riverbed sediments and sensitivity to variation in discharge. The lack of a response in the low flow hydraulic landscape to the

  17. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  18. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability...... and unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility......, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented to increase...

  19. Trends in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan Abraham; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the trends in wind turbine generator systems. After discussing some important requirements and basic relations, it describes the currently used systems: the constant speed system with squirrel-cage induction generator, and the three variable speed systems with doubly fed...... induction generator (DFIG), with gearbox and fully rated converter, and direct drive (DD). Then, possible future generator systems are reviewed. Hydraulic transmissions are significantly lighter than gearboxes and enable continuously variable transmission, but their efficiency is lower. A brushless DFIG...... is a medium speed generator without brushes and with improved low-voltage ride-through characteristics compared with the DFIG. Magnetic pseudo DDs are smaller and lighter than DD generators, but need a sufficiently low and stable magnet price to be successful. In addition, superconducting generators can...

  20. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Different Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Li, Hui

    2008-01-01

    With rapid development of wind power technologies and significant growth of wind power capacity installed worldwide, various wind generator systems have been developed and built. The objective of this paper is to evaluate various wind generator systems by optimization designs and comparisons...... and power electronic converter are presented; design optimizations of the investigated wind generator systems are developed with an improved genetic algorithm. Next, the optimization designs are implemented of various wind generator systems at 0.75-MW, 1.5-MW, 3.0-MW, 5.0-MWand 10MW, respectively....... In this paper, seven variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind generator systems are investigated, namely permanent magnet synchronous generators with the direct-driven (PMSG_DD), the single-stage gearbox (PMSG_1G) and three-stage gearbox (PMSG_3G) concepts, doubly fed induction generators with the three...

  1. Electricity generating system. [Wind/diesel/flywheel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, R.L.

    1992-02-05

    An electricity generating system is described which includes a water tank with electric heating elements connected to the water cooling system of a diesel engine which is heated by excess output of the system. Power in excess of that required by a load which is generated by a wind turbine driven generator runs up a flywheel and further excess is absorbed in the tank. A fan associated with a radiator connected to the tank may be operated to dissipate further excess power. When the load requirements exceed the output of the generators linked to the wind turbine and the flywheel the engine operates a synchronous alternator. (author).

  2. Thermal properties of wood reacted with a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the fire-retardant properties of wood in one treatment using a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system. Phosphorus pentoxide and 16 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines were compounded in N,N-dimethylformamide and the resulting solutions containing phosphoramides were reacted with wood. The characteristics of...

  3. Learning in dedicated wood production systems: Past trends, future outlook and implications for bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the learning potential of dedicated wood production systems to boost yields and reduce production costs. In particular, the paper analyses past trends and provides a future outlook of developments in dedicated wood production for three cases: eucalyptus production in Brazil,

  4. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  5. Microcontroller-based data logging instrumentation system for wind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The collected data were transmitted to a PC through an RS-232 serial interface, and were processed using the 208W Data logger support software. Wind speed and direction measured by the microcontroller-based data logging system were analyzed using line graphs, scatter correlation charts and wind roses. Wind speeds ...

  6. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical s...

  7. Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, K.

    2001-01-01

    The South Dakota Consumer's Guide for Small Wind Electric Systems provides consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include: how to make your home more energy efficient, how to choose the right size turbine, the parts of a wind electric system, determining if there is enough wind resource on your site, choosing the best site for your turbine, connecting your system to the utility grid, and if it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a state wind resource map and a list of state incentives and state contacts for more information

  8. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Illinois Consumer's Guide for Small Wind Electric Systems provides consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include: how to make your home more energy efficient, how to choose the right size turbine, the parts of a wind electric system, determining if there is enough wind resource on your site, choosing the best site for your turbine, connecting your system to the utility grid, and if it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. The cover of the guide contains a wind resource map for Illinois and a list of state incentives and state contacts for more information

  9. Communications for Coordinative Control of Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu

    system control strategies for wind power integration, in order to achieve coordinative control for a secure and efficient power system. The project basically contains three main aspects: studies on DGS (Distributed Generation System) characteristics, analysis of communication technologies...... (Fixed Speed Induction Generator) and DFIG (Doubly-Fed Induction Generator) based wind turbine systems. Based on the study, the critical points to stabilize FSWTs (Fixed Speed Wind Turbines), after disturbances, are determined. This demands the latency requirements on the possible control and protection...

  10. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  11. Wind Energy Innovative Systems conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, I. E. [ed.

    1979-12-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 20 of the 22 papers presented concerning innovative wind turbines which vary in design from the standard horizontal-axis propellor-type wind turbines. Two papers have been previously included in the data base.

  12. High wind warning system for Bordeaux, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    "The state of Wyoming has frequent severe wind conditions, particularly in the southeast corner of the state along Interstate : 80 and Interstate 25. The high winds are problematic in many ways including, interfering with the performance of the : tra...

  13. Structure–property characterization of the crinkle-leaf peach wood phenotype: a future model system for wood properties research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Rafael Arévalo; Craig Ledbetter; Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 400 million years of evolution and field-testing by the natural world has given humans thousands of wood types, each with unique structure– property relationships to study, exploit, and ideally, to manipulate, but the slow growth of trees makes them a recalcitrant experimental system. Variations in wood features of two genotypes of peach (Prunus persica L.)...

  14. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified...... and investigated. This paper gives an overview and discusses some development trends in the technologies used for wind power systems. First, the developments of technology and market are generally discussed. Next, several state-of-the-art wind turbine concepts, as well as the corresponding power electronic......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  15. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  16. Possibilities for biomass-based power plant and wind system integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, Francisco [Jaen Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Linares (Jaen) (Spain); Saenz, Jose R. [Univ. of the Basque Country, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, the integration of a biomass-based diesel-wind system is investigated. The system consists of a pitch controlled wind turbine, which is equipped with an induction generator. The induction generator is connected to an ac bus-bar in parallel with a diesel-generator set consisting of a diesel engine driving a synchronous generator. A power plant can generate electric power using biomass from the olive tree in Spain. A gasifier is capable of converting tons of wood chips per day into a gaseous fuel that is fed into a diesel engine. While there are significant systems whose models may be exactly obtained from physical laws and whose states are measured, it is much less realistic to assume that all the parameters, such as the higher heating value of the biogas or wind speed, are exactly known. It is then natural to investigate what happens to control systems involving unknown, or not precisely known, parameters. In this paper, the derived model of biomass-based wind-diesel systems is quite valid for robust control studies. (Author)

  17. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...... that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development...

  18. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  19. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept 3. Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies......, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control...

  20. Control of structurization processes in wood-cement systems at fixed pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, Natalia; Gorlenko, Nikolay; Sarkisov, Yuriy; Naumova, Ludmila; Minakova, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study of structurization processes in the wood-cement systemmixed with the buffer solutions and the improvement of service properties of products produced therefrom. Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis, and pH measurements show that structurization processes in wood-cement systems depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, the behavior of hydration, neutralization, and polycondensation reactions with the formation of polymer products including those with cement grout components and functional groups of wood. It is shown that phosphate buffer solutions used for mixing wood-cement compositions improve their strength properties and reduce water absorption. The optimum acidity of the buffered medium for service properties of the wood-cement systemis pH = 4.8.

  1. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  2. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kacejko; Michał Wydra; Robert Jędrychowski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  3. Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petru, T.

    2001-05-01

    When wind turbines are installed into the electric grid, the power quality is affected. Today, strict installation recommendations often prevail due to a lack of knowledge on this subject. Consequently, it is important to predict the impact of wind turbines on the electric grid before the turbines are installed. The thesis describes relevant power quality issues, discusses different configurations of wind turbines with respect to power quality and draw requirements regarding wind turbine modeling. A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system is introduced and its power quality impact on the electric grid is evaluated. The model is verified with field measurements.

  4. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...... of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher windspeeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation...

  5. Building Chinese wind data for Wind Erosion Prediction System using surrogate US data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a global problem, especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world, which leads to land degradation and atmosphere pollution. The process-based Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), developed by the USDA, is capable of simulating the windblown soil loss with changing weather and...

  6. Coordinated Frequency Control of Wind Turbines in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán Claudio

    generation were studied considering a large share of wind power in the system. Results show the abilities of the architectures to manage the variability of the generated wind power, reducing the impact on the grid frequency and providing suitable frequency regulation service when required. The coordination...

  7. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  8. Unit Commitment: Computational Performance, System Representation and Wind Uncertainty Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, high penetration of variable generating sources, such as wind power, has challenged independent system operators (ISO) in keeping a cheap and reliable power system operation. Any deviation between expected and real wind production must be absorbed by the power system resources

  9. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  10. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  11. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...... oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show...

  12. A system for classifying wood-using industries and recording statistics for automatic data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.W. Fobes; R.W. Rowe

    1968-01-01

    A system for classifying wood-using industries and recording pertinent statistics for automatic data processing is described. Forms and coding instructions for recording data of primary processing plants are included.

  13. Unit commitment for systems with significant wind penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohy, Aidan; Meibom, Peter; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED The stochastic nature of wind alters the unit commitment and dispatch problem. By accounting for this uncertainty when scheduling the system, more robust schedules are produced, which should, on average, reduce expected costs. In this paper, the effects of stochastic wind and load on the unit commitment and dispatch of power systems with high levels of wind power are examined. By comparing the costs, planned operation and performance of the schedules produced, it is shown that st...

  14. Wind diesel systems - design assessment and future potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infield, D.G.; Scotney, A.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-01-01

    Diesels are the obvious form. of back-up electricity generation in small to medium sized wind systems. High wind penetrations pose significant technical problems for the system designer, ranging from component sizing to control specification and dynamic stability. A key role is seen for proven...... system models for assessing both dynamic characteristics and overall performance and economics. An introduction is provided to the Wind Diesel Engineering Design Toolkit currently under development (for implementation on PC) by a consortium of leading wind diesel experts, representing six European...

  15. Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: → Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. → High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. → Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. → Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

  16. DFIG Based Wind Turbines Behavior Improvement during Wind Variations using Fractional Order Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseinabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with behavior analysis and improvement of wind turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG when using a new fractional-order control strategy during wind variations. A doubly fed induction generator, two types of variable frequency power electronic converters and two input wind waveforms are considered. A fractional-order control strategy is proposed for the wind turbine control unit. Output parameters of the wind turbine are drawn by simulations using MATLAB/Simulink for both fractional-order and integer-order (classic control systems and a complete comparison between these two strategies has been presented. Results show a better operation when using fractional-order control system.

  17. Wood pellet use in Sweden. A systems approach to the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2000-01-01

    This empirically based thesis deals with a biofuel market in a systems context with focus on Sweden. Fuel pellets is a new consumer market for wood products. Initially used mainly by large-scale heating plants, wood pellets expanded into the Swedish residential heating market in the mid 1990s. The overall aim of this work is to provide a deeper understanding of the system for small-scale use of densified wood fuels. The objective was to provide a mapping and logistic analysis of fuel and delivery chains primarily for wood pellets. The description includes both technical as well as economic and organisational aspects. The thesis in particular investigates (i) experience from practical densification operations in the past, (ii) wood pellet retailers in Sweden, (iii) wood pellet consumers in Austria, Sweden and the United States, (iv) imports of wood pellets, and (v) forecasting of pellet consumption and inventory management for wood pellet distributors. Previous international studies revealed that the availability of cheap raw materials for fuel production and the price and availability of the most important competing fuels: coal, oil and natural gas were important factors that have guided production and use of densified wood and bark fuels. A major network of wood pellet distributors was mapped. It was concluded from a survey to these retailers that the Swedish residential market was now firmly in place and that the price of wood pellets was competitive with prices of traditional national fuels. A majority of pellet users in Austria, Sweden and the United States were pleased with pellet heating. One way to improve pellet distribution systems would be to optimise inventory management. An internal model for optimising inventory management, Pell-Sim, was constructed. For Sweden, wood pellets in 1997 represented the second most traded biofuel assortment, with 4.35 PJ or 18% of the total biofuel imports. Contrary to trade with other biofuel assortments, wood pellet trade

  18. Analysis of chaos in high-dimensional wind power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hongli; Fan, Wenhui; Ma, Ping

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the chaos of a high-dimensional wind power system is performed in this study. A high-dimensional wind power system is more complex than most power systems. An 11-dimensional wind power system proposed by Huang, which has not been analyzed in previous studies, is investigated. When the systems are affected by external disturbances including single parameter and periodic disturbance, or its parameters changed, chaotic dynamics of the wind power system is analyzed and chaotic parameters ranges are obtained. Chaos existence is confirmed by calculation and analysis of all state variables' Lyapunov exponents and the state variable sequence diagram. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the wind power system chaos will occur when parameter variations and external disturbances change to a certain degree.

  19. Analysis of chaos in high-dimensional wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hongli; Fan, Wenhui; Ma, Ping

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the chaos of a high-dimensional wind power system is performed in this study. A high-dimensional wind power system is more complex than most power systems. An 11-dimensional wind power system proposed by Huang, which has not been analyzed in previous studies, is investigated. When the systems are affected by external disturbances including single parameter and periodic disturbance, or its parameters changed, chaotic dynamics of the wind power system is analyzed and chaotic parameters ranges are obtained. Chaos existence is confirmed by calculation and analysis of all state variables' Lyapunov exponents and the state variable sequence diagram. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the wind power system chaos will occur when parameter variations and external disturbances change to a certain degree.

  20. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  1. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-09-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  2. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...... to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented....

  3. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability......, in the latter case with attention to series connection and parallel connection either electrical or magnetic ones (multiphase/windings machines/transformers). It is concluded that as the power level increases in wind turbines, medium-voltage power converters will be a dominant power converter configuration...

  4. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  5. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  6. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  7. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  8. IEA Task 32: Wind Lidar Systems for Wind Energy Deployment (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Martin; Trabucchi, Davide; Clifton, Andrew; Courtney, Mike; Rettenmeier, Andreas

    2016-05-25

    Under the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement (IEA Wind) Task 11, researchers started examining novel applications for remote sensing and the issues around them during the 51st topical expert meeting about remote sensing in January 2007. The 59th topical expert meeting organized by Task 11 in October 2009 was also dedicated to remote sensing, and the first draft of the Task's recommended practices on remote sensing was published in January 2013. The results of the Task 11 topical expert meetings provided solid groundwork for a new IEA Wind Task 32 on wind lidar technologies. Members of the wind community identified the need to consolidate the knowledge about wind lidar systems to facilitate their use, and to investigate how to exploit the advantages offered by this technology. This was the motivation that led to the start of IEA Wind Task 32 'Lidar Application for Wind Energy Deployment' in November 2011. The kick-off was meeting was held in May 2012.

  9. An expert system for ranking companies and investments: wood industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hliadis Lazaros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood industry is a very important part of both the Greek Rural and industrial sector. The discovery of the differentiation in the level of growth and in the quality of financial management between the Greek wood companies can provide very important aid in the design of an effective rural development policy. The evaluation and ranking of Greek wood companies based on actual financial data is a very complicated task and it requires expertise knowledge and skills. On the other hand a computer expert system can perform validation and evaluation in an efficient way and can substitute human experts. An expert system was designed and developed towards this direction. It uses multicriteria analysis for each one of the wood companies based on actual financial data and it applies fundamental principles of fuzzy logic in order to calculate the expected intervals of flows for the following years. .

  10. Primary reserve studies for high wind power penetrated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2015-01-01

    load shedding. The impact of low inertia caused due to displacement of conventional generators by wind penetration on the power system frequency is investigated in this paper. The possibilities of improving frequency with increase in primary reserve supplied from conventional generators are analyzed....... This paper further explores the capabilities of wind turbines to provide support during underfrequency to prevent load shedding. Maximum wind penetration possible without causing load shedding following a large disturbance is also investigated....

  11. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  12. Wind power electric systems modeling, simulation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2014-01-01

    The book helps readers understand key concepts in standalone and grid connected wind energy systems and features analysis into the modeling and optimization of commonly used configurations through the implementation of different control strategies.Utilizing several electrical machinery control approaches, such as vector control and direct torque control 'Wind Power Electric Systems' equips readers with the means to understand, assess and develop their own wind energy systems and to evaluate the performance of such systems.Mathematical models are provided for each system and a corresponding MAT

  13. The Current State of Additive Manufacturing in Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmer, Sierra [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), , Worcester, MA (United States); Lee, Dominic [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, Dale Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Wind power is an inexhaustible form of energy that is being captured throughout the U.S. to power the engine of our economy. A robust, domestic wind industry promises to increase U.S. industry growth and competitiveness, strengthen U.S. energy security independence, and promote domestic manufacturing nationwide. As of 2016, ~82GW of wind capacity had been installed, and wind power now provides more than 5.5% of the nation’s electricity and supports more than 100,000 domestic jobs, including 500 manufacturing facilities in 43 States. To reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) 2015 Wind Vision study scenario of wind power serving 35% of the nation's end-use demand by 2050, significant advances are necessary in all areas of wind technologies and market. An area that can greatly impact the cost and rate of innovation in wind technologies is the use of advanced manufacturing, with one of the most promising areas being additive manufacturing (AM). Considering the tremendous promise offered by advanced manufacturing, it is the purpose of this report to identify the use of AM in the production and operation of wind energy systems. The report has been produced as a collaborative effort for the DOE Wind Energy Technology Office (WETO), between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  14. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the design of offshore wind turbine substructures with respect to fatigue loads is an important issue in offshore wind energy. A stochastic model is developed for assessing the fatigue failure reliability. This model can be used for direct probabilistic design and for calibration...... of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  15. Constructing China’s wind energy innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klagge, Britta; Liu Zhigao; Campos Silva, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of China as the largest wind energy market worldwide with several global leaders in turbine manufacturing received much attention from both scholarly and policy-analytical work. However, little attention has been given to the innovation activities of the Chinese wind industry. In our paper, we aim to address this gap, based on second-hand sources and over 50 personal interviews with wind energy-related experts. We argue that China’s wind industry has made great progress in terms of manufacturing and installing, but is confronted with various challenges and problems regarding the development of its indigenous innovation capabilities. Using innovation systems approaches as an analytical tool and focusing on institutions, actors, technology and their interaction in supporting innovation activities, we decompose the elements of China’s wind energy innovation system and their role in developing the domestic wind industry. Against this backdrop we identify and discuss challenges and obstacles in the development of an innovation-driven wind industry in China. The paper strongly argues that more attention should be paid to improve the coordination and cooperation among the various actors of the wind energy innovation system, to the build-up of a market-oriented education and training system as well as to intellectual property protection. - Highlights: ► Innovation systems concepts as analytical tool to understand wind energy in China. ► Focus on institutions, actor constellations and technology development in China. ► Analysis of success in manufacturing and the rapid rise of China’s wind industry. ► Identification of challenges and problems regarding innovation activities. ► Recommendation to (better) integrate innovation policy and wind industry policy.

  16. Miniature UAV Wind LIDAR & Flight Extension System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation and Texas A&M University propose a Wind Measurement LIDAR System for extending the flight duration or decreasing...

  17. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...... generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... several potential converter topologies and power semiconductor devices for the future wind power application are presented in respect to the advantages/drawbacks. And then the criteria for evaluating the wind power converter are generally discussed, where the importance of thermal stress in the power...

  18. Emergy-based sustainability evaluation of wind power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Emergy is used to quantify the sustainability level of wind farms. • A GHG-based indicator is incorporated into emergetic accounting. • Possible pathways to achieve sustainable wind farm management are analyzed. - Abstract: With large-scale commercialization of wind technology, one must investigate economical and sustainable wind resource utilization. In this paper, emergy analysis is used to quantify the environmental pressure, renewability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of a typical wind power system, considering the lifetime stages from extraction and processing of raw materials and resources to the final product (electricity) via material transportation, construction and operation. Possible pathways to achieve sustainable management of wind energy supply chain were also analyzed based on scenario analysis. Results show that wind power is a promising means of substituting traditional fossil fuel-based power generation systems, with the lowest transformity of 4.49 × 10 4 sej/J, smaller environmental loading ratio of 5.84, and lower greenhouse gas emission intensity of 0.56 kg/kWh. To shed light on potential pathways to achieve sustainable and low-carbon wind energy supply chain management and make informed choices, a sensitivity analysis was done by establishing scenarios from the perspectives of material recycling and technical development. Results suggest that using new materials of lower energy intensity or recycled materials in upstream wind turbine manufacturing and construction materials are the most effective measures.

  19. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...... results show that the proposed method detects different fault scenarios of wind turbines under the stochastic external condition....

  20. Modeling and Parameter Estimation of a Small Wind Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ramírez Gómez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and parameter estimation of a small wind generation system is presented in this paper. The system consists of a wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator, a three phase rectifier, and a direct current load. In order to estimate the parameters wind speed data are registered in a weather station located in the Fraternidad Campus at ITM. Wind speed data were applied to a reference model programed with PSIM software. From that simulation, variables were registered to estimate the parameters. The wind generation system model together with the estimated parameters is an excellent representation of the detailed model, but the estimated model offers a higher flexibility than the programed model in PSIM software.

  1. A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Negro, S.O.; Harmsen, R.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Luo, L.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large

  2. PMBLDCG based stand-alone wind energy conversion system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with a permanent magnet brushless DC generator (PMBLDCG) based stand-alone wind energy conversion system (WECS) for small scale power generation. A buck-boost DC-DC converter is used for controlling the PMBLDCG speed to achieve optimum energy output from the wind turbine without sensing ...

  3. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven

    2017-12-26

    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  4. Energy Storage System Scheduling in Wind-Diesel Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    This thesis proposes a knowledge based expert system tool that can be used as an online controller for the charging/discharging of an energy storage system in a wind-diesel microgrid. The wind-diesel microgrid is modelled, and a typical energy storage system is implemented to test the functionality of the controller using hourly-discrete power values. The results are compared against an offline optimization that was provided 24-hour lookahead wind values, as well as a controller that was implemented using artificial neural networks. The knowledge based expert system is then used to analyze the cost of energy, by means of a parametric analysis, consisting of varying the wind penetration, energy storage system power rating and energy rating to determine for which wind penetration values a storage system implementation would be technically and economically viable. Different storage technologies are tested in a one-year time frame to determine which would be best suited for this particular application. The energy storage systems are implemented as single-layer and dual-layer, in which the knowledge based expert system is modified for the latter analysis, in order to determine whether or not there are advantages to having a dual-layer storage system. Throughout these analyses, the flexibility of the knowledge based expert system controller to various energy storage systems and microgrid models is verified. It also demonstrates that, in a context of high base generation costs, energy storage can be a viable solution to managing wind power variations.

  5. SIMWEST - A simulation model for wind energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsinger, R. W.; Warren, A. W.; Gordon, L. H.; Chang, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive and efficient computer program for the modeling of wind energy systems with storage. The level of detail of SIMWEST (SImulation Model for Wind Energy STorage) is consistent with evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems with energy storage options. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and control components. The first program is a precompiler which allows the library components to be put together in building block form. The second program performs the technoeconomic system analysis with the required input/output, and the integration of system dynamics. An example of the application of the SIMWEST program to a current 100 kW wind energy storage system is given.

  6. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  7. Market penetration of large wind/diesel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, T.

    1992-01-01

    Burmeister ampersand Wain is developing a large size wind/diesel package in collaboration with Micon, the Danish wind turbine manufacturer, and the Danish utility NESA. The package comprises an initial calculation of the technical feasibility and the economic viability of an actual project, installing the optimum number of large wind turbines, and service, operation, and maintenance as needed. The concept should be seen as an addition to existing diesel-based power stations. Wind turbines are especially advantageous in smaller diesel-based electrical systems in the 1-20 MW range because such systems can have high fuel costs and expensive maintenance. Analysis of the market for the wind/diesel concept indicates islands and remote areas with limited population are likely candidates for implementation of wind/diesel systems. An example of an economic analysis of a wind/diesel application on an isolated island is presented, showing the cost savings possible. To obtain practical experience and to demonstrate the wind/diesel concept, a MW-size demonstration plant is being constructed in Denmark

  8. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated......The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...

  9. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented...

  10. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated....... Simulation results have been presented and the effectiveness of the stability improvement methods has been discussed....

  11. Upper wind observing systems used for meteorological operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nash

    Full Text Available Methods of upper wind measurements used in operational meteorology have been reviewed to provide guidance to those developing wind profiler radar systems. The main limitations of the various methods of tracking weather balloons are identified using results from the WMO radiosonde comparisons and additional tests in the United Kingdom. Costs associated with operational balloon measurements are reviewed. The sampling and quality of operational aircraft wind observations are illustrated with examples from the ASDAR system. Measurement errors in horizontal winds are quantified wherever possible. When tracking equipment is functioning correctly, random errors in southerly and westerly wind component measurements from aircraft and weather balloons are usually in the range 0.5-2 m s-1.

  12. An improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, Q. H.; Song, S. Y.; Mao, W.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional AVC strategy is mainly used in wind farm and only concerns about grid connection point, which is not suitable for distributed wind power system. Therefore, this paper comes up with an improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system. The strategy takes all nodes of distribution network into consideration and chooses the node having the most serious voltage deviation as control point to calculate the reactive power reference. In addition, distribution principles can be divided into two conditions: when wind generators access to network on single node, the reactive power reference is distributed according to reactive power capacity; when wind generators access to network on multi-node, the reference is distributed according to sensitivity. Simulation results show the correctness and reliability of the strategy. Compared with traditional control strategy, the strategy described in this paper can make full use of generators reactive power output ability according to the distribution network voltage condition and improve the distribution network voltage level effectively.

  13. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  14. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  15. Coordinated Control of Wind Turbine and Energy Storage System for Reducing Wind Power Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunghun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the coordinated control of a wind turbine and an energy storage system (ESS. Because wind power (WP is highly dependent on wind speed, which is variable, severe stability problems can be caused in power systems, especially when the WP has a high penetration level. To solve this problem, many power generation corporations or grid operators have begun using ESSs. An ESS has very quick response and good performance for reducing the impact of WP fluctuation; however, its installation cost is high. Therefore, it is important to design the control algorithm by considering both the ESS capacity and WP fluctuation. Thus, we propose a control algorithm to mitigate the WP fluctuation by using the coordinated control between the wind turbine and the ESS by considering the ESS capacity and the WP fluctuation. Using de-loaded control, according to the WP fluctuation and ESS capacity, we can expand the ESS lifespan and improve grid reliability by avoiding the extreme value of state of charge (SoC (i.e., 0 or 1 pu. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated via MATLAB/Simulink by considering a small power system that includes both a wind turbine generator and conventional generators that react to system frequency deviation. We found that the proposed method has better performance in SoC management, thereby improving the frequency regulation by mitigating the impact of the WP fluctuation on the small power system.

  16. On Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System with Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård

    2010-01-01

    Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants. In this paper an analysis is presented which assess...... the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study. Furthermore is the wind power plant...

  17. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  18. Coordinated Control of Wind Turbine and Energy Storage System for Reducing Wind Power Fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Chunghun [Hanyang University; Chung, Chung Choo [Hanyang University

    2017-11-13

    This paper proposes a coordinated control of wind turbine and energy storage system (ESS). Because wind power (WP) is highly dependent on variable wind speed and could induce a severe stability problem to power system especially when the WP has high penetration level. To solve this problem, many power generation corporations or grid operators recently use the ESS. It has very quick response and good performance for reducing the impact of WP fluctuation but has high cost for its installation. Therefore, it is very important to design the control algorithm considering both ESS capacity and grid reliability. Thus, we propose the control algorithm to mitigate the WP fluctuation by using the coordinated control between wind turbine and ESS considering ESS state of charge (SoC) and the WP fluctuation. From deloaded control according to WP fluctuation and ESS SoC management, we can expect the ESS lifespan expansion and improved grid reliability. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated in MATLAB/Simulink considering power system including both wind turbine generator and conventional generators which react to system frequency deviation.

  19. Unit Commitment for Systems With Significant Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuohy, Aidan; Meibom, Peter; Denny, E.

    2009-01-01

    optimization. The impact of planning the system more frequently to account for updated wind and load forecasts is then examined. More frequent planning means more up to date forecasts are used, which reduces the need for reserve and increases performance of the schedules. It is shown that mid-merit and peaking......The stochastic nature of wind alters the unit commitment and dispatch problem. By accounting for this uncertainty when scheduling the system, more robust schedules are produced, which should, on average, reduce expected costs. In this paper, the effects of stochastic wind and load on the unit...

  20. Screening of epoxy systems for high performance filament winding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T. T.; Jessop, E. S.; Penn, L.

    1975-01-01

    Several promising epoxy systems for high performance filament winding applications are described. Viscosities, gel times, and cast resin tensile behavior are given, as well as heat deflection under load and water absorption measurements.

  1. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double...... fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  2. A local heating system using wood fuels from farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Kurvinen, T. [Research and Development Centre of Kajaani, REDEC, Kajaani (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This report is a part of the a project on sustainable biomass utilization chains. The project belongs to a larger group of studies on northern biomass utilization by the Thule Institute and the University of Oulu. A cooperative energy society working in the municipality of Perho (3400 inhabitants) in Finland has been studied in this report. The cooperative energy society delivers energy which is generated from wood chips to the Perho municipality. Generated energy has a competitive price compared with fuel oils. In addition, harvesting, chipping and transporting give the members of the society an extra income. Members need not to make any investments in new equipment in order to work in the co-operative society because the machinery needed is the same as the one they use for other forestry activities. The price of the energy generated by wood chips is bound to the price of alternative fuels. There is a 5 MW district heating plant in Perho municipality containing a 1.4 MW solid fuel fired boiler with grate and 1.6 MW and 2.0 MW oil fired boilers. An investment in a heating plant containing a solid fuel fired boiler is often many times greater than that of one containing an oil fired boiler. There are many advantages which are hard to evaluate in generating energy from wood fuel. E.g. employment, increased income from taxes, an increase in the cash flow in the municipality and the advantages for forest growth. When undersized trees are removed from a forest stand, the remaining trees will grow better. The advantage of forestry is, however, hard to evaluate in cash terms. There has been an estimate that the advantage is 50-100 FIM/ha/a when compared to the yield of unthinned pine forest. Studies have shown that the money paid for energy in the area may be recycled several times in purchasing products and services in the area. In Perho municipality, it has been estimated that over half million FIM of extra cash has been generated and invested in the area by the

  3. Low-emission wood chip firing system. Emissionsarme Holzschnitzelfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-07-01

    A need wood chip heating boiler with automatic ash removal is presented with which an operating temperature of 1100 - 1200deg C can be attained due to a new combustion chamber geometry with horizontal gas neck and fireclay lining. The combustion chamber is devided into three zones: drying and degassing zone, mixing zone and the combustion zone. Structure and mode of operation are explained with a schematic diagram. The plant complies with or even remains below the required emission limits of the LRV 92 (Air Pollution Abatement Regulation). (BWI).

  4. A local heating system using wood fuel from farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Kurvinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a part of the a project on sustainable biomass utilization chains. The project belongs to a larger group of studies on northern biomass utilization by the Thule Institute and the University of Oulu. A cooperative energy society working in the municipality of Perho (3400 inhabitants) in Finland has been studied in this report. The cooperative energy society delivers energy which is generated from wood chips to the Perho municipality. Generated energy has a competitive price compared with fuel oils. In addition, harvesting, chipping and transporting give the members of the society an extra income. Members need not to make any investments in new equipment in order to work in the co-operative society because the machinery needed is the same as the one they use for other forestry activities. The price of the energy generated by wood chips is bound to the price of alternative fuels. There is a 5 MW district heating plant in Perho municipality containing a 1.4 MW solid fuel fired boiler with grate and 1.6 MW and 2.0 MW oil fired boilers. An investment in a heating plant containing a solid fuel fired boiler is often many times greater than that of one containing an oil fired boiler. There are many advantages which are hard to evaluate in generating energy from wood fuel. E.g. employment, increased income from taxes, an increase in the cash flow in the municipality and the advantages for forest growth. When undersized trees are removed from a forest stand, the remaining trees will grow better. The advantage of forestry is, however, hard to evaluate in cash terms. There has been an estimate that the advantage is 50-100 FIM/ha/a when compared to the yield of unthinned pine forest. Studies have shown that the money paid for energy in the area may be recycled several times in purchasing products and services in the area. In Perho municipality, it has been estimated that over half million FIM of extra cash has been generated and invested in the area by the

  5. Study of processes influencing bioavailability of pesticides in wood-soil systems: Effect of different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, J M; Herrero-Hernández, E; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2017-05-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes and by-products containing lignin are now available in large amounts from forestry and industrial activities, and could be promising organic materials for the biosorption of pesticides by soils in order to reduce point-source pollution. Adding these materials to soil requires understanding the process of pesticide sorption-desorption by wood-soils, as sorption capacity could increase, with changes in pesticide bioavailability and final fate. The objective of this work was to study the effect that pine and oak wood added to soils had on the sorption/desorption of the pesticides linuron, alachlor, and metalaxyl. Experiments were conducted with two sandy loam and sandy clay soils each amended with two wood doses (5% and 50%) after different incubation times (0, 5 and 12 months). A low wood dose (5%) had no significant impact on the sorption (K f ) of alachlor, but K f increased for linuron (up to 5.4-1.7 times) and metalaxyl (up to 4.4 and 8.6 times) in all wood-soil systems. The results were not significantly different after different incubation times. The desorption results indicated that wood decreases the sorption irreversibility of alachlor, and increases that of linuron and metalaxyl, with a varying effect of the wood-soil incubation time. The addition of a high wood dose to soil (50%) was more significant for increasing the sorption of all the pesticides, and the sorbed amounts remaining after desorption (>49% for linuron, >33% for alachlor and >6% for metalaxyl), although there was no apparent discrimination between the two types of woods. The role of the nature of the organic carbón (K oc values) for sorption was evidenced for alachlor and metalaxyl, but not for linuron. These outcomes are of interest for extending wood application to soil as a barrier for avoiding environmental risk by point-source pollution due to the use and management of pesticides in farming systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  7. RTE: the integration of wind energy in the power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, Magali; Neau, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power in France grew from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 5500 MW at the end of 2010. This fast growth is set to continue, and the French Government's decision of 15 December 2009 on the country's long-term investment programs in power generation requires France to have at least 25 GW of installed wind capacity (including 6 GW offshore) by 2020. But the French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, and 95 % of them have an output power below 12 MW which means they are mainly connected to the distribution network. As a consequence, this new intermittent and decentralized production is not 'naturally' observable by RTE, whereas it has nevertheless impacts on the operation of the transmission system for which RTE is responsible. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require indeed a change in the traditional way of ensuring balancing between production and demand, of managing day-ahead margins and of controlling the electrical flows. Furthermore RTE operators have to be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. In this context, new tools were necessary to RTE to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production called the 'IPES system'. 'IPES' enables to get information about technical characteristics of the whole wind farms in France and to observe the wind generation by two ways: in real time with tele-metered data and in the short term with a forecast model integrated into the system. In addition, RTE currently carries out studies about the behavior and the forecasting of wind production integrated into the grids, as internal activities (about forecast methods), and in different projects (such as European projects: Safewind for

  8. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...... provides a description of the wind turbine modelling, both at a component level and at a system level....

  9. Global wood production : assessment of industrial round wood supply from forest management systems in different global regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Meer, van der P.J.; Verwer, C.C.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Tolkamp, G.W.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Oorschot, van M.

    2011-01-01

    To meet the global demand for wood the old forest management module of the IMAGE integrated assessment model (Bouwman et al. 2006) only applied clear felling. As a consequence in whole gird cells the forest was completely harvested. In reality, however, there many different ways to produce wood,

  10. Wind Tunnel Management and Resource Optimization: A Systems Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Derya, A.; Aasen, Curtis A.

    2000-01-01

    Time, money, and, personnel are becoming increasingly scarce resources within government agencies due to a reduction in funding and the desire to demonstrate responsible economic efficiency. The ability of an organization to plan and schedule resources effectively can provide the necessary leverage to improve productivity, provide continuous support to all projects, and insure flexibility in a rapidly changing environment. Without adequate internal controls the organization is forced to rely on external support, waste precious resources, and risk an inefficient response to change. Management systems must be developed and applied that strive to maximize the utility of existing resources in order to achieve the goal of "faster, cheaper, better". An area of concern within NASA Langley Research Center was the scheduling, planning, and resource management of the Wind Tunnel Enterprise operations. Nine wind tunnels make up the Enterprise. Prior to this research, these wind tunnel groups did not employ a rigorous or standardized management planning system. In addition, each wind tunnel unit operated from a position of autonomy, with little coordination of clients, resources, or project control. For operating and planning purposes, each wind tunnel operating unit must balance inputs from a variety of sources. Although each unit is managed by individual Facility Operations groups, other stakeholders influence wind tunnel operations. These groups include, for example, the various researchers and clients who use the facility, the Facility System Engineering Division (FSED) tasked with wind tunnel repair and upgrade, the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Fabrication (FAB) group which fabricates repair parts and provides test model upkeep, the NASA and LARC Strategic Plans, and unscheduled use of the facilities by important clients. Expanding these influences horizontally through nine wind tunnel operations and vertically along the NASA management structure greatly increases the

  11. Optimal Sizing of wind power systems in three high wind potential zones in Kuwait for remote housing electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiah, Ali; Sebzali, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a technical study for wind power systems in three sites in Kuwait namely Al-Wafra, Um-Omara and Al-Taweel. Hourly wind speed data for three years are used in order to optimally sizing the wind power systems. Firstly, the Wiebull, function is used to model the wind speed data for each sites. After that a numerical method is used to optimize the energy sources in the power system (wind turbine and battery) using MATLAB. After that the MATLAB is used to analyze the performanc...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The performance characteristics of the new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying time, gloss, ...

  13. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanambal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC link voltage control and grid voltage support controls. Simulation model using MATLAB Simulink has developed to investigate the performance of proposed control techniques for PMSG wind turbine steady and variable wind conditions. This paper shows that the direct driven grid connected PMSG system has excellent performances and confirms the feasibility of the proposed techniques. While the wind turbine market continues to be dominated by conventional gear-driven wind turbine systems, the direct drive is attracting attention. PM machines are more attractive and superior with higher efficiency and energy yield, higher reliability, and power-to-weight ratio compared with electricity-excited machines.

  14. Generic 12-Bus Test System for Wind Power Integration Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels into power systems requires an appropriate power system model when assessing impact on the overall system stability. The model should capture the wide range of dynamics related to the wind integration studies, such as voltage control, synchronizing power control......, inertial response, frequency control, damping of electromechanical oscillations, balanced and unbalanced fault management, etc. Hence, the power system components: conventional power plants with controls, transmission lines, transformers and loads should be represented accurately to achieve realistic power...... system characteristics. Additionally, the power system model should be simple and computationally manageable in order to simulate multiple scenarios with different control parameters in a reasonable time. In this paper, a generic power system model is presented in order to comprehend the wind integration...

  15. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  16. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  17. Impacts of wind energy in-feed on power system small signal stability

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, Hasan UI; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Ying, Shaoqing; Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Integration of large amount of wind energy in an interconnected power system creates concerns about secure, reliable and economical operation of the entire power system. So it becomes very necessary to investigate the impacts of wind power infeed on the dynamic behavior of the power system. This paper presents the impacts of large amount of wind power in feed on the rotor oscillatory stability. Wind turbine generator types currently employed in wind farms, optimal location of the wind farms i...

  18. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Lauren; Valenzuela, Viviana; Botterud, Audun; Zhou, Zhi; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2012-04-03

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  19. Model predictive control of wind energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yaramasu, Venkata Narasimha R

    2017-01-01

    The authors provide a comprehensive analysis on the model predictive control of power converters employed in a wide variety of variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The contents of this book includes an overview of wind energy system configurations, power converters for variable-speed WECS, digital control techniques, MPC, modeling of power converters and wind generators for MPC design. Other topics include the mapping of continuous-time models to discrete-time models by various exact, approximate, and quasi-exact discretization methods, modeling and control of wind turbine grid-side two-level and multilevel voltage source converters. The authors also focus on the MPC of several power converter configurations for full variable-speed permanent magnet synchronous generator based WECS, squirrel-cage induction generator based WECS, and semi-variable-speed doubly fed induction generator based WECS.

  20. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    to perform arbitrage and to alleviate wind power deviations from day-ahead contracts. The strategy is developed with two-price balancing markets in mind. A mixed integer nonlinear optimization formulation is built to determine optimal offers by taking into account expected wind power forecasting errors......Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...... and the power balancing capability of the ESS. A modified gradient descent algorithm is designed to solve this nonlinear problem. A number of case studies validate the computational efficiency and optimality of the algorithm. Compared to the existing strategies, the proposed strategies yield increased economic...

  1. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  2. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  3. Feedback Linearization Controller for a Wind Energy Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthana Alrifai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based variable speed wind turbine power system. A system of eight ordinary differential equations is used to model the wind energy conversion system. The generator has a wound rotor type with back-to-back three-phase power converter bridges between its rotor and the grid; it is modeled using the direct-quadrature rotating reference frame with aligned stator flux. An input-state feedback linearization controller is proposed for the wind energy power system. The controller guarantees that the states of the system track the desired states. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed control scheme. Moreover, further simulation results are shown to investigate the robustness of the proposed control scheme to changes in some of the parameters of the system.

  4. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...

  5. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  6. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  7. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  8. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  9. Intelligent Heat System – high energy efficient wood stoves with low emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun

    2016-01-01

    This development and demonstration project conducted by HWAM A/S and DTU Chemical Engineering has contributed to the development of an automatically controlled wood stove (HWAM IHS), which is on the market today. The new digital control system ensures optimal combustion conditions by keeping...... optimal temperatures and overall oxygen concentrations in the combustion chamber throughout a complete wood log combustion cycle. This improved performance has been verified by field tests in private homes where measurements showed significant reduced emissions and higher efficiency for the IHS stoves....... Emission measurements at the research wood stove set-up at DTU Chemical Engineering showed generally low emissions of particles, well below current standards, and high energy efficiency. The highest emissions of CO, VOC and PM were seen in the ignition phase while only a small particle peak was observed...

  10. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Cambridge, MA

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  11. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  12. A morphing trailing edge flap system for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Athanasios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The development of a morphing trailing edge system for wind turbines, also called a flap system, is presented. The functionality is simple as the flap deflection is controlled by pressurized air or a fluid in a number of voids in the flap made of an elastic material. It is thus a robust system...

  13. Towards a Danish power system with 50% wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Gordon, Mark; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The new Danish Energy Strategy implies 50% wind power penetration for the Danish electric power system by 2025. Accordingly, it is the vision to develop the Danish electric power system into world's best renewable based electricity system, and many research and development activities have taken...

  14. Estimation of power system variability due to wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Verboomen, J.; Van der Sluis, L.

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of wind power generation to the power system leads to an increase in the variability of the system power flows. The assessment of this variability is necessary for the planning of the necessary system reinforcements. For the assessment of this variability, the uncertainty in the

  15. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity....... This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...

  16. Transient Stability Enhancement of the Power System with Wind Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Chandel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient stability analysis of a power system with wind generation has been addressed in this paper. The effects of automatic voltage regulators, power system stabilizers, and static synchronous compensators on transient stability of a power system are investigated. Various simulation results show that addition of power system stabilizer and static synchronous compensators reduce the rotor angle oscillations. However, the static synchronous compensator shows better damping characteristics and improves the stability of the wind integrated system. It has been established that the static synchronous compensator damps out the speed oscillations in the shaft of the constant speed wind turbine. A transient impact index has been proposed to prove that the static compensator damps out the rotor oscillations.

  17. Wind turbine ring/shroud drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-10-04

    A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.

  18. Crash test and evaluation of temporary wood sign support system for large guide signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research task was to evaluate the impact performance of a temporary wood sign support : system for large guide signs. It was desired to use existing TxDOT sign hardware in the design to the extent possible. : The full-scale cras...

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  20. Ecological impacts of Synthetic Natural Gas from wood (SNG) used in current heating and car systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.; Dones, R.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated poster illustrates how synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood is a promising option to partially substitute fossil energy carriers. The comprehensive life cycle-based ecological impact of SNG is compared with that of natural gas, fuel oil, petrol/diesel, and wood chips that deliver the same services. The methods used for comparison, including Eco-indicator '99 perspectives, Eco-scarcity '97 (UBP), IPCC (2001), and external costs are discussed. The results indicate best ecological performance of the SNG system if consumption of fossil resources is strongly weighted. The performance of natural gas and wood-based systems are also discussed. The main negative aspects of the SNG system are discussed, as is the better ecological score of wood when highly-efficient particulate matter filters are installed. SNG is quoted as performing better than oil derivatives. External costs for SNG are examined. The authors recommend that SNG should preferably be used in cars, since the reduction of overall ecological impact and external costs when substituting oil-based fuels is higher for cars than for heating systems.

  1. CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds(C3Winds) A New Wind Observing System to Study Mesoscale Cloud Dynamics and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Kelly, M.A.; Yee, J.-H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E. L.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L. D.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to better understand mesoscale dynamics and their structures in severe weather systems. With potential catastrophic damage and loss of life, strong extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) have profound three-dimensional impacts on the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic structures, producing complex cloud precipitation patterns, strong low-level winds, extensive tropopause folds, and intense stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Employing a compact, stereo IR-visible imaging technique from two formation-flying CubeSats, C3Winds seeks to measure and map high-resolution (2 km) cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and cloud geometric height (CGH) accurately by tracking cloud features within 5-15 min. Complementary to lidar wind observations from space, the high-resolution wind fields from C3Winds will allow detailed investigations on strong low-level wind formation in an occluded ETC development, structural variations of TC inner-core rotation, and impacts of tropopause folding events on tropospheric ozone and air quality. Together with scatterometer ocean surface winds, C3Winds will provide a more comprehensive depiction of atmosphere-boundary-layer dynamics and interactive processes. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with potential of increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  2. An Energy Storage System Sizing Method for Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Combining an energy storage system (ESS with a wind farm is an effective way to increase the penetration rate of wind power. ESS sizing is an important part in wind farm planning nowadays. In this paper, a basic method for determining the optimal capacity of an ESS integrated with a wind power generator to meet the requirements of grid integration is presented. With the proposed method, the necessary ESS capacity which can provide the best benefits between the regulation effects and energy storage size was calculated. The segmentation method and automatic segmentation method are proposed to improve the performance of the basic method. Further work on expanding the method to determine the necessary capacity of ESS for real-time control is studied. The time window method is used to enable the proposed method available under all working conditions. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  4. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  5. Fuzzy logic based variable speed wind generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, M.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. PMC - Mecatronica; Bose, B.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Spiegel, Ronal J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-12-31

    This work demonstrates the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable speed wind generation system. A maximum power point tracker control is performed with three fuzzy controllers, without wind velocity measurement, and robust to wind vortex and turbine torque ripple. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided PWM converter system which pumps the power to a utility grid or supplies to an autonomous system. The fuzzy logic controller FLC-1 searches on-line the generator speed so that the aerodynamic efficiency of the wind turbine is optimized. A second fuzzy controller FLC-2 programs the machine flux by on-line search so as to optimize the machine-converter system wind vortex. Detailed analysis and simulation studies were performed for development of the control strategy and fuzzy algorithms, and a DSP TMS320C30 based hardware with C control software was built for the performance evaluation of a laboratory experimental set-up. The theoretical development was fully validated and the system is ready to be reproduced in a higher power installation. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Design of intelligent controllers for wind generation system with sensorless maximum wind energy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Hong, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Fu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an on-line training recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) controller with a high-performance model reference adaptive system (MRAS) observer for the sensorless control of a induction generator (IG). The modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) is adopted in this study to adapt the learning rates in the back-propagation process of the RFNN to improve the learning capability. By using the proposed RFNN controller with MPSO, the IG system can work for stand-alone power application effectively. The proposed output maximization control is achieved without mechanical sensors such as the wind speed or position sensor, and the new control system will deliver maximum electric power with light weight, high efficiency, and high reliability. The estimation of the rotor speed is based on the MRAS control theory. A sensorless vector-control strategy for an IG operating in a grid-connected variable speed wind energy conversion system can be achieved.

  7. Control design for an autonomous wind based hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Evangelista, C.A. [CONICET, Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC.91, C.P. 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a complete control scheme to efficiently manage the operation of an autonomous wind based hydrogen production system. This system comprises a wind energy generation module based on a multipolar permanent magnet synchronous generator, a lead-acid battery bank as short term energy storage and an alkaline von Hoerner electrolyzer. The control is developed in two hierarchical levels. The higher control level or supervisor control determines the general operation strategy for the whole system according to the wind conditions and the state of charge of the battery bank. On the other hand, the lower control level includes the individual controllers that regulate the respective module operation assuming the set-points determined by the supervisor control. These last controllers are approached using second-order super-twisting sliding mode techniques. The performance of the closed-loop system is assessed through representative computer simulations. (author)

  8. On Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System with Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim H.; Dixon, Andrew; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants. In this paper an analysis is presented which assess the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind tu...

  9. Power system stabilizer control for wind power to enhance power system stability

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez García, José Luís; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol; Bianchi, Fernando Daniel; Sumper, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a small signal stability analysis for power systems with wind farm interaction. Power systems have damping oscillation modes that can be excited by disturbance or fault in the grid. The power converters of the wind farms can be used to reduce these oscillations and make the system more stable. These ideas are explored to design a power system stabilized (PSS) for a network with conventional generators and a wind farm in order to increase the damping of the oscillation...

  10. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  11. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  12. Challenges, problems and possible solutions in wind generator systems from the aspect of forecast, planning and delivery of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovski, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental difficulties of integrating wind energy into the power system arise from its large temporal variability and limited predictability. That's why the integration of wind power presents major challenge for today's operating and planning practices of the power system operators. Accurate predictions of the possible wind power output, in time intervals relevant for creating schedules for production and exchange capacity, allows to system operators and dispatching personnel more efficient power system management. Despite the challenges and problems that arise due to integration of wind power into power systems, which need to be solved or reduced, wind power has its advantages that should be utilized. The effective integration of wind power plants into the transmission grid should allow them to represent the backbone of future energy systems. Modern wind generators represent production units that have the ability to participate in the management of energy systems e.g. in the regulation of frequency, voltage and other network operating requirements. This paper provides a brief overview of global experiences with the challenges, problems and possible solutions that appear in wind generator systems from the aspect of forecasting, planning and delivery of wind energy. (author)

  13. Technologies for small scale wood-fueled combined heat and power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.; Houmoeller, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and compare different technologies for small cogeneration systems (up to 2-3 MW{sub e}), based on wood as fuel. For decentralized cogeneration, i.e. for recovering energy from saw mill wood wastes or heat supply for small villages, it is vital to know the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies. Also, for the decision-makers it is of importance to know the price levels of the different technologies. A typical obstacle for small wood cogeneration systems is the installation costs. The specific price (per kW) is usually higher than for larger plants or plants using fossil fuels. For a saw mill choosing between cogeneration and simple heat production, however, the larger installation costs are counter weighed by the sale of electricity, while the fuel consumption is the same. Whether it is profitable or not to invest in cogeneration is often hard to decide. For many years small wood cogeneration systems have been too expensive, leading to the construction of only heat producing systems due to too high price levels of small steam turbines. In recent years a great deal of effort has been put into research and developing of new technologies to replace this traditional steam turbine. Among these are: Steam engines; Stirling engines; Indirectly fired gas turbines; Pressurized down draft combustion. Along with the small scale traditional steam turbines, these technologies will be evaluated in this study. When some or all these technologies are fully developed and commercial, a strong means of reducing the strain on the environment and the greenhouse effect will be available, as the total efficiency is high (up to 90%) and wood is an energy source in balance with nature. (au) EFP-95. 19 refs.

  14. Dynamic Influences of Wind Power on The Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Pedro Andrè Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    . The flicker and frequency deviations are the main power quality parameters presented. The power system stability concentrates on the voltage stability and on the power system oscillations. From the cases studies, voltage and thefrequency variations were smaller than expected from the large-scale wind power...

  15. Small wind power systems: market, applications, architectures and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roboam, X.

    2005-01-01

    Context and stakes of small wind power systems are described in this paper by situating both supply and demand as well as the main application fields. Technical issues are then concerned in terms of system structure, energy management and network connection. (author)

  16. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  17. Study of LANs access technologies in wind power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Due to the energy challenges in the world, new types of generation technologies, such as renewable energy based generators, attract great attention and are being quickly developed, which results in the dramatic developments and changes in modern power systems, the communication technologies play...... a increasingly important role in guaranteeing the power system’s stability, reliability, and security. In this paper the necessity of communication technologies employed in wind power system are introduced. According the International Standards Organization (ISO) reference 7-layered model, the communication...... power environment are explained and discussed. Furthermore the simulation of application of Ethernet in an offshore wind farm communication network by a software, OPNET, is elaborated. With the investigation of the communication technologies in this paper, the offshore wind farm SCADA system can...

  18. International energy technology collaboration: wind power integration into electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, D.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid growth of wind power since the 1990s has led to notable market shares in some electricity markets. This growth is concentrated in a few countries with effective Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programmes and with policies that support its diffusion into the market place. The speed and depth of its penetration in these electricity markets have amplified the need to address grid integration concerns, so as not to impede the further penetration of wind power. Research on technologies, tools and practices for integrating large amounts of wind power into electricity supply systems is attempting to respond to this need. In recent years, existing international collaborative research efforts have expanded their focus to include grid integration of wind power and new consortia have been formed to pool knowledge and resources. Effective results benefit a few countries that already have a significant amount of wind in their electricity supply fuel mix, as well as to the potential large markets worldwide. This paper focuses on the challenge of bringing significant amounts of intermittent generating sources into grids dominated by large central generating units. It provides a brief overview of the growth of wind power, mainly since 1990, the technical and operational issues related to integration and selected collaborative programmes underway to address grid integration concerns. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the fourth biennial conference and workshop on wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottler, Jr., R. J. [ed.

    1980-06-01

    Separate abstracts are included for papers presented concerning research and development requirements and utility interface and institutional issues for small-scale systems; design requirements and research and development requirements for large-scale systems; economic and operational requirements of large-scale wind systems; wind characteristics and wind energy siting; international activities; wind energy applications in agriculture; federal commercialization and decentralization plans; and wind energy innovative systems.

  20. Analysis of the contribution of wind power plants to damp power system oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez García, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2012-2013, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial Wind power has emerged as one of the most promising renewable energy sources. The very penetration levels of wind energy in power systems have altered several aspects of power system operation, such as system stability. Owing to the large penetration of wind power, transmission system operators (TSOs) have established special grid codes for wind farms connection. These grid codes require wind farms to provide ancill...

  1. Keys to success for wind power in isolated power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.C.; Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.; Hansen, L.; Frandsen, S. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    It is generally expected that wind power could contribute significantly to the electricity supply in power systems of small and medium sized isolated communities. The market for such applications of wind power has not yet materialized. Wind power in isolated power systems have the main market potentials in developing countries. The money available world-wide for this technological development is limited and the necessary R and D and pilot programmes have difficult conditions. Consequently, technology developed exclusively for developing countries rarely becomes attractive for consumers, investors and funding agencies. A Danish research project is aimed at studying development of methods and guidelines rather than `universal solutions` for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. This paper report on the findings of the project regarding barriers removal and engineering methods development, with a focus on analysis and specification of user demand and priorities, numerical modeling requirements as well as wind power impact on power quality and power system operation. Input will be provided on these subjects for establishing of common guidelines on relevant technical issues, and thereby enabling the making of trustworthy project preparation studies. (au) EFP-97. 12 refs.

  2. Wind Generation Participation in Power System Frequency Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-01-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnected power system must be maintained close its nominal level at all times. Excessive under- and overfrequency excursions can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is a rising concern in the electric power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia with a response that is different from that of conventional generation. It is not yet entirely understood how such a response will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The modeling work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of wind generation's provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of instantaneous wind power penetrations (up to 80%). The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system.

  3. A Fault Recognition System for Gearboxes of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiling; Huang, Haiyue; Yin, Zidong

    2017-12-01

    Costs of maintenance and loss of power generation caused by the faults of wind turbines gearboxes are the main components of operation costs for a wind farm. Therefore, the technology of condition monitoring and fault recognition for wind turbines gearboxes is becoming a hot topic. A condition monitoring and fault recognition system (CMFRS) is presented for CBM of wind turbines gearboxes in this paper. The vibration signals from acceleration sensors at different locations of gearbox and the data from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system are collected to CMFRS. Then the feature extraction and optimization algorithm is applied to these operational data. Furthermore, to recognize the fault of gearboxes, the GSO-LSSVR algorithm is proposed, combining the least squares support vector regression machine (LSSVR) with the Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO) algorithm. Finally, the results show that the fault recognition system used in this paper has a high rate for identifying three states of wind turbines’ gears; besides, the combination of date features can affect the identifying rate and the selection optimization algorithm presented in this paper can get a pretty good date feature subset for the fault recognition.

  4. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  5. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  6. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  7. Kongiganak Wind Turbine Replacement and System Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonstra, Patrick [Intelligent Energy Systems, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Native Village of Kongiganak, Alaska was awarded a grant to upgrade the braking systems on five wind turbines and upgrade the monitoring and data collection unit to insure that enough energy is available to power the utility. The project manager for this award is Intelligent Energy Systems, LLC located in Anchorage, Alaska. In addition to accomplishing these upgrades, it was the intent for a local wind tech crew to be trained in Kongiganak so that routine maintenance and future repairs will be made by local workers.

  8. A Semi-active Control System for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Trinchillo, F.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-active (SA) control system based on the use of smart magnetorheological (MR) dampers to control the structural response of a wind turbine is proposed herein. The innovative approach is based on the implementation and use of a variable-properties base restraint. This is able to modify in real......, and a control algorithm that instantaneously commands the latter during the motion, making them to modulate the reactive force as needed to achieve the performance goals. The design and operation of such a system are shown with reference to a case study consisting of an almost 100 m tall wind turbine, realized...

  9. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System Calculations for the Natural Resources... Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) for soil erodibility system calculations scheduled for implementation for... Erosion Equation (WEQ) where applicable. DATES: Effective Date: This is effective December 7, 2010...

  10. Advanced tools for modeling, design and optimization of wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.

    2005-01-01

    As wind turbine technology and control has advanced over the last decade, this has led to a high penetration of wind turbines into the power system. Whether it be for a large wind turbine or an offshore wind farm with hundreds of MW power capacity, the electrical system has become more and more i...

  11. A Reexamination of the Emergy Input to a System from the Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wind energy absorbed in the global boundary layer (GBL, 900 mb surface) is the basis for calculating the wind emergy input for any system on the Earth’s surface. Estimates of the wind emergy input to a system depend on the amount of wind energy dissipated, which can hav...

  12. Distributed generation system using wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buasri, Panhathai

    This dissertation investigates the performance and the operation of a distributed generation (DG) power system using wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell (W/PV/FC). The power system consists of a 2500 W photovoltaic array subsystem, a 500 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack subsystem, 300 W wind turbine, 500 W wind turbine, and 1500 W wind energy conversion subsystems. To extract maximum power from the PV, a maximum power point tracker was designed and fabricated. A 4 kW single phase inverter was used to convert the DC voltage to AC voltage; also a 44 kWh battery bank was used to store energy and prevent fluctuation of the power output of the DG system. To connect the fuel cell to the batteries, a DC/DC controller was designed and fabricated. To monitor and study the performance of the DG system under variable conditions, a data acquisition system was designed and installed. The fuel cell subsystem performance was evaluated under standalone operation using a variable resistance and under interactive mode, connected to the batteries. The manufacturing data and the experimental data were used to develop an electrical circuit model to the fuel cell. Furthermore, harmonic analysis of the DG system was investigated. For an inverter, the AC voltage delivered to the grid changed depending on the time, load, and electronic equipment that was connected. The quality of the DG system was evaluated by investigating the harmonics generated by the power electronics converters. Finally, each individual subsystem of the DG system was modeled using the neuro-fuzzy approach. The model was used to predict the performance of the DG system under variable conditions, such as passing clouds and wind gust conditions. The steady-state behaviors of the model were validated by the experimental results under different operating conditions.

  13. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  14. Evaluation of different operational strategies for lithium ion battery systems connected to a wind turbine for primary frequency regulation and wind power forecast accuracy improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2012-01-01

    High penetration levels of variable wind energy sources can cause problems with their grid integration. Energy storage systems connected to wind turbine/wind power plants can improve predictability of the wind power production and provide ancillary services to the grid. This paper investigates...... economics of different operational strategies for Li-ion systems connected to wind turbines for wind power forecast accuracy improvement and primary frequency regulation....

  15. The Fixation of New Alternative Wood Protection Systems by Means of Oil Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura LIIBERT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the improvement of a combined impregnation process (CIP, also known as the Royal process. This treatment combines the protective properties of a wood protection agent and the hydrophobic properties of a subsequent oil treatment in a wood product. Copper-based wood preservatives, which are traditionally used in CIP, are very effective but their long-term future use is questionable because of environmental concerns, especially the toxicity against water-living organisms. There is a need for new environmentally friendly wood preservative systems for a use in CIP. The substitutes for copper used in this study are natural polymers and organic biocides. The aim of this research is to describe the fixation effectiveness of the following compounds: Chitosan, Propiconazole, Wolmanit CX-8, Tannin, fire protection agent, Alginate. The scots pine sapwood samples (50´25´15 mm were impregnated and oil treated. The treated products were analysed for their preservative-and oil-retention. Preservative fixation time influence on oil treatment was tested. The treated samples were leached according to EN84. Water samples were analyzed for the amount of active ingredient.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.777

  16. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Emissions of Gases and Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Hansen, Brian Brun; Lin, Weigang

    2015-01-01

    A collaboration project between the CHEC research Centre, at DTU Chemical Engineering, and the stove manufacturing company HWAM A/S has been established during the last years and has led to development and marketing of wood stoves (Autopilot IHS) equipped with a digital control system. The improved...... performance has been verified by field tests in private homes. The main components of an Autopilot IHS wood stove are: a modern wood stove with three separate combustion air inlets, and a control system composing of measuring devices for vital process parameters and a system of controlling valves to regulate...

  17. Roof modular system in wood and particle board (OSB to rural construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a material of great applicability in construction, with advantageous properties to form various structural systems, such as walls and roof. Most of the roof structural systems follow models that have remained unchanged for a long time. A roof modular system in distinguished materials is proposed: reforested wood (Pine, oriented strand board (OSB and roof tiles made of recycled long-life packaging material in order to be applied in rural construction. In this alternative, besides the benefit of giving destination packages with long-life thermal comfort, it also highlights the use of reforestated wood being the cultivation of such species that provides incentive for agribusiness. The structural performance of this alternative was evaluated through computer modeling and test results of two modular panels. The analysis is based on the results of vertical displacements, deformations and stresses. A positive correlation between theoretical and experimental values was observed, indicating the model's feasibility for use in roof structures. Therefore, the modular system represents a solution to new architecture conceptions to rural construction, for example, storage construction, cattle handling and poultry, with benefits provided by prefabricated building systems.

  18. Floating frame grounding system. [for wind tunnel static force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a floating frame grounding system (FFGS) for the 40- by 80-foot low speed wind tunnel facility at the NASA Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex is addresssed. When electrical faults are detected, the FFGS ensures a ground path for the fault current. In addition, the FFGS alerts the tunnel operator when a mechanical foul occurs.

  19. Electromagnetic damper system for ground wind load studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L. P.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and adaptation of a model damper system to the 5.5% aeroelastic model of the Saturn 1B/Skylab launch vehicle are reported. The damper is dynamically calibrated over the desired range of additive damping for model conditions prior to wind tunnel testing.

  20. System Identification of Wind Turbines for Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena

    that monitors the system responses and notifies the operator when damages or degradations have been detected. However, some of the response signals that contain important information about the health of the wind turbine components cannot be directly measured, or measuring them is highly complex and costly...

  1. Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations ...

  2. Isolated systems with wind power. An implementation guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, N.E.; Bindner, H.; Frandsen, S.; Hansen, J.C.; Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2001-06-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than 'universal solutions' for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. So far most studies of isolated systems with wind power have been case-oriented and it has proven difficult to extend results from one project to another, not least due to the strong individuality that has characterised such systems in design and implementation. In the present report a unified and generally applicable approach is attempted in order to support a fair assessment of the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. General guidelines and checklists on which facts and data are needed to carry out a project feasibility analysis are presented as well as guidelines how to carry out the project feasibility study and the environmental analysis. The report outlines the results of the project as a set of proposed guidelines to be applied when developing a project containing an application of wind in an isolated power system. It is the author's hope that this will facilitate the development of projects and enhance electrification of small rural communities in developing countries. (au)

  3. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...

  4. Advanced Control of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbines Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Much more efforts have been made on the integration of renewable energies into the grid in order to meet the imperative demand of a clean and reliable electricity generation. In this case, the grid stability and robustness may be violated due to the intermittency and interaction of the solar...... and wind renewables. Thus, in this chapter, advanced control strategies, which can enable the power conversion efficiently and reliably, for both photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines power systems are addressed in order to enhance the integration of those technologies. Related grid demands have been...

  5. Design of multi-energy Helds coupling testing system of vertical axis wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion efficiency of wind energy is the focus of researches and concerns as one of the renewable energy. The present methods of enhancing the conversion efficiency are mostly improving the wind rotor structure, optimizing the generator parameters and energy storage controller and so on. Because the conversion process involves in energy conversion of multi-energy fields such as wind energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy, the coupling effect between them will influence the overall conversion efficiency. In this paper, using system integration analysis technology, a testing system based on multi-energy field coupling (MEFC) of vertical axis wind power system is proposed. When the maximum efficiency of wind rotor is satisfied, it can match to the generator function parameters according to the output performance of wind rotor. The voltage controller can transform the unstable electric power to the battery on the basis of optimizing the parameters such as charging times, charging voltage. Through the communication connection and regulation of the upper computer system (UCS), it can make the coupling parameters configure to an optimal state, and it improves the overall conversion efficiency. This method can test the whole wind turbine (WT) performance systematically and evaluate the design parameters effectively. It not only provides a testing method for system structure design and parameter optimization of wind rotor, generator and voltage controller, but also provides a new testing method for the whole performance optimization of vertical axis wind energy conversion system (WECS).

  6. Smoothing of wind farm output power using prediction based flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farzana

    Being socially beneficial, economically competitive and environment friendly, wind energy is now considered to be the world's fastest growing renewable energy source. However, the stochastic nature of wind imposes a considerable challenge in the optimal management and operation of wind power system. Wind speed prediction is critical for wind energy conversion system since it greatly influences the issues related to effective energy management, dynamic control of wind turbine, and improvement of the overall efficiency of the power generation system. This thesis focuses on integration of energy storage system with wind farm, considering wind speed prediction in the control scheme to overcome the problems associated with wind power fluctuations. In this thesis, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with adjustable speed rotary machine has been considered for smoothing of output power in a wind farm composed of a fixed speed wind turbine generator (FSWTG). Since FESS has both active and reactive power compensation ability, it enhances the stability of the system effectively. An efficient energy management system combined with supervisory control unit (SCU) for FESS and wind speed prediction has been developed to improve the smoothing of the wind farm output effectively. Wind speed prediction model is developed by artificial neural network (ANN) which has advantages over the conventional prediction scheme including data error tolerance and ease in adaptability. The model for prediction with ANN is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and interfaced with PSCAD/EMTDC. Effectiveness of the proposed control system is illustrated using real wind speed data in various operating conditions.

  7. Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N. [McNiff Light Industry, Harborside, ME (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

  8. STATCOM's Effects on Stability Improvement of Induction Generator based Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Large number of wind turbines are being installed and connected to power systems. In some countries or networks, the penetration level of wind power is significant high so as to affect the power system operation and control. Consequently, the stable operation of wind turbine systems is very impor...... important for power system stability. This paper studies the effect of STATCOM on stability improvement of a wind turbine system. The function of the STATCOM in improving the system stability has been demonstrated....

  9. The Value of Wind Technology Innovation: Implications for the U.S. Power System, Wind Industry, Electricity Consumers, and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Improvements to wind technologies have, in part, led to substantial deployment of U.S. wind power in recent years. The degree to which technology innovation will continue is highly uncertain adding to uncertainties in future wind deployment. We apply electric sector modeling to estimate the potential wind deployment opportunities across a range of technology advancement projections. The suite of projections considered span a wide range of possible cost and technology innovation trajectories, including those from a recent expert elicitation of wind energy experts, a projection based on the broader literature, and one reflecting estimates based on a U.S. DOE research initiative. In addition, we explore how these deployment pathways may impact the electricity system, electricity consumers, the environment, and the wind-related workforce. Overall, our analysis finds that wind technology innovation can have consequential implications for future wind power development throughout the United States, impact the broader electricity system, lower electric system and consumer costs, provide potential environmental benefits, and grow the U.S. wind workforce.

  10. System reliability effects in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    from reliability point of view. The present paper discusses the specifics of system reliability behavior of laminated composite sandwich panels, and solves an example system reliability problem for a glass fiber-reinforced composite sandwich structure subjected to in-plane compression.......Laminated composite sandwich panels have a layered structure, where individual layers have randomly varying stiffness and strength properties. The presence of multiple failure modes and load redistribution following partial failures are the reason for laminated composites to exhibit system behavior...

  11. Investigating the Impact of Wind Turbines on Distribution System Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rishabh; Zhang, Yingchen; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-12-12

    Modern wind turbines utilize power electronic converters to regulate their output and optimize their performance. Their impact on the distribution system is not as well understood as for transmission system. The novelty of this work is in studying the impact of wind turbines given its proximity to faults or severe voltage events, and the influence on system stability given its location relative to the substation (representing the conventional grid). This paper presents the frequency and voltage swing plots for various study scenarios. The responses are analyzed two fold - Steady state operation, and performance given a fault or voltage events occurs in the system. The findings are presented, with crucial differences from transmission systems highlighted.

  12. Maximum Wind Power Tracking of Doubly Fed Wind Turbine System Based on Adaptive Gain Second-Order Sliding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive gain second-order sliding mode control strategy to track optimal electromagnetic torque and regulate reactive power of doubly fed wind turbine system. Firstly, wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics and doubly fed induction generator (DFIG modeling are presented. Then, electromagnetic torque error and reactive power error are chosen as sliding variables, and fixed gain super-twisting sliding mode control scheme is designed. Considering that uncertainty upper bound is unknown and is hard to be estimated in actual doubly fed wind turbine system, a gain scheduled law is proposed to compel control parameters variation according to uncertainty upper bound real-time. Adaptive gain second-order sliding mode rotor voltage control method is constructed in detail and finite time stability of doubly fed wind turbine control system is strictly proved. The superiority and robustness of the proposed control scheme are finally evaluated on a 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine system.

  13. Protection performance of some polyurethane surface systems on wood surface in outdoor conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özgenc

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different surface system applied oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. were investigated resistance to the outdoor conditions of the test and control wood. Surface systems were compared as two different property polyurethane-based materials. Outdoor test has been implemented in Sürmene coastal, Uzungol and Hıdırnebi plateaus. Oriental spruce samples were compared based on the discoloration and reduction in fiber to parallel compressive strength in outdoor conditions. The weathering test in Hıdırnebi plateau was found at the lowest discoloration and reduction rate on compressive strength. According to the obtained results; polyester-based material, the oriental spruce wood against discoloration and reduction in compressive strength was determined at outdoor conditions is relatively well preserved

  14. Analysis of Transient Phenomena Due to a Direct Lightning Strike on a Wind Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael B. Rodrigues; Victor M. F. Mendes; João P. S. Catalão

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the protection of wind energy systems against the direct effects of lightning. As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, lightning damages involving wind turbines have come to be regarded as a serious problem. Nevertheless, very few studies exist yet in Portugal regarding lightning protection of wind energy systems using numerical codes. A new case study is presented in this paper, based on a wind turbine with an interconnecting transformer, for the analysi...

  15. France and the Bretton Woods International Monetary System: 1960-1968

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Bordo; Dominique Simard; Eugene White

    1994-01-01

    We reinterpret the commonly held view in the U.S. that France, by following a policy from 1965 to 1968 of deliberately converting their dollar holdings into gold helped perpetuate the collapse of the Bretton Woods International Monetary System. We argue that French international monetary policy under Charles de Gaulle was consistent with strategies developed in the interwar period and the French Plan of 1943. France used proposals to return to an orthodox gold standard as well as conversions ...

  16. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  17. Dynamic modelling and robust control of a wind energy conversion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of wind energy conversion systems for the production of electrical energy requires a cheap and reliable operation. Especially at high wind velocities fluctuations from the wind field result in large mechanical loads of the wind turbine. Also fluctuations in the grid voltage may yield

  18. Financial cost-benefit analysis of investment possibilities in district heating system on wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide feasibility analysis of a long-term sustainable development concept for district heating based on wood residues. In this paper, the experimental study has been conducted starting from the data collected by field researches in municipality of Trstenik (town in Serbia with district heating system currently based on heavy fuel oil and lignite. Using the method of Financial Cost-Benefit Analysis, this study evaluates financial efficiency of investment in district heating plant based on wood residues and energy savings in district heating system. Findings show that such investment could be profitable from the financial point of view: Net Present Value of investment is positive, Financial Rate of Return is high (30.69%, and the pay-back period is relatively favourable (7 years. Moreover, the presented SWOT indicates that there are realistic prospects of implementation of district heating based on wood residues. However, this does not mean everything will go smoothly and easily, keeping in mind a number of challenges that each new concept of district heating contains immanently. Nevertheless, the results of this research could provide useful inputs for the decision makers when selecting appropriate models for improving performance of municipal district heating systems.

  19. Potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  20. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  1. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  2. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS. To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach.

  3. Structured Control of LPV Systems with Application to Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with structured control of linear parameter varying systems (LPV) with application to wind turbines. Instead of attempting to reduce the problem to linear matrix inequalities (LMI), we propose to design the controllersvia an LMI-based iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm can synthesize structured controllers like decentralized, static output and reduced order output feedback for discrete-time LPV systems. Based on a coordinate decent, it relies on a sufficient matrix i...

  4. Velocity Measurement Systems for a Low-speed Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Funds were provided by the ARO for the purchase of TSI hot-wire anemometer equipment and a Dantec particle- image...Velocity Measurement Systems for a Low-speed Wind Tunnel Report Title Funds were provided by the ARO for the purchase of TSI hot-wire anemometer equipment...Funds were provided by the Army Research Office for the purchase of TSI hot-wire anemometer equipment and a Dantec particle-image velocimetry system

  5. Experimental model of a wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasar, C.; Rat, C. L.; Prostean, O.

    2018-01-01

    The renewable energy domain represents an important issue for the sustainable development of the mankind in the actual context of increasing demand for energy along with the increasing pollution that affect the environment. A significant quota of the clean energy is represented by the wind energy. As a consequence, the developing of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in order to achieve high energetic performances (efficiency, stability, availability, competitive cost etc) represents a topic of permanent actuality. Testing and developing of an optimized control strategy for a WECS direct implemented on a real energetic site is quite difficult and not cost efficient. Thus a more convenient solution consists in a flexible laboratory setup which requires an experimental model of a WECS. Such approach would allow the simulation of various real conditions very similar with existing energetic sites. This paper presents a grid-connected wind turbine emulator. The wind turbine is implemented through a real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) emulator, which will be analyzed extensively in the paper. The HIL system uses software implemented in the LabVIEW programming environment to control an ABB ACS800 electric drive. ACS800 has the task of driving an induction machine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The power obtained from the synchronous generator is rectified, filtered and sent to the main grid through a controlled inverter. The control strategy is implemented on a NI CompactRIO (cRIO) platform.

  6. Photovoltaics and Wind Power Systems. Course Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

  7. Wood carbonization systems; Sistemas de carbonizacao da madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, Raquel de Santana [Instituto de Tecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    This work presents the evolution of the charcoal production systems, commenting their advantages and disadvantages, aiming to guide the choice of the ideal option, considering the aimed production, the quality of the products and the local economical situation. The work also points that, in adequate situations, this may be a good choice for energy production 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Description of a straw/wood chip system at the power station of Southern Jutland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, N.B. [The power station of Southern Jutland (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A project concerning combustion of straw and wood chips in separated boilers designed for parallel operation with large coal-fired boilers is described. The concept includes the construction of a new straw and wood chip-fired system at SH (power station of Southern Jutland) in the existing unit 2 of the Ensted Power Station (EV2). This boiler is designed for parallel operation with the coal-fired boiler in unit 3 of the Ensted Power Station (EV3). The current coal/oil-fired EV2 plant was laid up on 1 April 1995. The project will amount to DKK 400 million and is expected to take 37 months to complete. The project was launched on 15 December 1994. (ln)

  9. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  10. Structured Control of LPV Systems with Application to Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with structured control of linear parameter varying systems (LPV) with application to wind turbines. Instead of attempting to reduce the problem to linear matrix inequalities (LMI), we propose to design the controllers via an LMI-based iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm...... can synthesize structured controllers like decentralized, static output and reduced order output feedback for discrete-time LPV systems. Based on a coordinate decent, it relies on a sufficient matrix inequality condition extended with slack variables to an upper bound on the induced L2-norm...... of the closed-loop system. Algorithms for the computation of feasible as well as optimal controllers are presented. The general case where no restrictions are imposed on the parameter dependence is treated here due to its suitability for modeling wind turbines. A comprehensive numerical example of a gain...

  11. Optimization of Multibrid Permanent-Magnet Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Li, H.; Polinder, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost-effective ranges of gearbox ratios and power ratings of multibrid permanent-magnet (PM) wind generator systems by using a design optimization method. First, the analytical model of a multibrid wind turbine concept consisting of a single-stage gearbox and a three......-phase radial-flux PM synchronous generator with a back-to-back power converter is presented. The design optimization is adopted with a genetic algorithm forminimizing generator system cost. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed electromagnetic design model, the optimization results of a 500-k......W direct-drive PM generator and a 1.5-MW multibrid PM generator with various gear ratios are, respectively, compared with those from other methods. Then, the optimal design approach is further employed for a range from 750 kW up to 10 MW. The optimization results of PM generator systems including direct...

  12. LCA of electricity systems with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O' Dwyer, C. O.; Flynn, D.

    capacity, and decreased with the addition of storage. However, a consequence of adding storage was the increased use of base load coal power plants, ultimately leading to an increase in total emissions from the Irish electricity system. Consequently, the present study indicates that while investing in new......Electricity systems are shifting from being based on fossil fuels towards renewable sources to enhance energy security and mitigate climate change. However, by introducing high shares of variable renewables - such as wind and solar - dispatchable power plants are required to vary their output...... to fulfill the remaining electrical demand, potentially increasing their environmental impacts [1,2]. In this study the environmental impacts of potential short-term future electricity systems in Ireland with high shares of wind power (35-50% of total installed capacity) were evaluated using life cycle...

  13. Impact of Wind Power Plants with Full Converter Wind Turbines on Power System Small-Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nygaard Nielsen, Jørgen; Dixon, Andrew

    Wind power is being developed in power systems all around the world, and already today wind power covers more than 20 % of the electricity consumption in some countries. As the size of each wind power plant (WPP) increases and as the levels of penetration reaches certain magnitudes, the inclusion...... of the dynamic properties of the WPPs in the power system stability studies become important. The work presented in this report deal with the impact of WPPs based on full converter wind turbines (WTs) on the power system small-signal rotor angle stability. During small disturbances in the power system, the rotor...... speed of the synchronous machines will eventually return to its steady state if the power system is small-signal stable. The dynamic properties of a WPP are fundamentally dierent from those of a synchronous machine, and the interaction of WPPs with the synchronous machines in power system oscillations...

  14. Feasibility of Floating Platform Systems for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Boone, A.

    2003-11-01

    This paper provides a general technical description of several types of floating platforms for wind turbines. Platform topologies are classified into multiple- or single-turbine floaters and by mooring method. Platforms using catenary mooring systems are contrasted to vertical mooring systems and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Specific anchor types are described in detail. A rough cost comparison is performed for two different platform architectures using a generic 5-MW wind turbine. One platform is a Dutch study of a tri-floater platform using a catenary mooring system, and the other is a mono-column tension-leg platform developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Cost estimates showed that single unit production cost is $7.1 M for the Dutch tri-floater, and $6.5 M for the NREL TLP concept. However, value engineering, multiple unit series production, and platform/turbine system optimization can lower the unit platform costs to $4.26 M and $2.88 M, respectively, with significant potential to reduce cost further with system optimization. These foundation costs are within the range necessary to bring the cost of energy down to the DOE target range of $0.05/kWh for large-scale deployment of offshore floating wind turbines.

  15. Wind plant interaction with series-compensated power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Jayanth R.

    Wind power based generation has been rapidly growing world-wide during the recent past. In order to transmit large amounts of wind power over long distances, system planners may often add series compensation to existing transmission lines owing to several benefits such as improved steady-state power transfer limit, improved transient stability, and efficient utilization of transmission infrastructure. Application of series capacitors has posed resonant interaction concerns such as through subsynchronous resonance (SSR) with conventional turbine-generators. Wind turbine-generators may also be susceptible to such resonant interactions. However, not much information is available in literature and even engineering standards are yet to address these issues. The motivation problem for this research is based on an actual system switching event that resulted in undamped oscillations in a 345-kV series-compensated, typical ring-bus power system configuration. Based on time-domain ATP (Alternative Transients Program) modeling, simulations and analysis of system event records, the occurrence of subsynchronous interactions within the existing 345-kV series-compensated power system has been investigated. Effects of various small-signal and large-signal power system disturbances with both identical and non-identical wind turbine parameters (such as with a statistical-spread) has been evaluated. Effect of parameter variations on subsynchronous oscillations has been quantified using 3D-DFT plots and the oscillations have been identified as due to electrical self-excitation effects, rather than torsional interaction. Further, the generator no-load reactance and the rotor-side converter inner-loop controller gains have been identified as bearing maximum sensitivity to either damping or exacerbating the self-excited oscillations. A higher-order spectral analysis method based on modified Prony estimation has been successfully applied to the field records identifying dominant 9.79 Hz

  16. Impact of Wind Power on the Angular Stability of a Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djemai NAIMI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from conventional generators. Therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to integrate wind power into the power system. Angular stability assessment of wind power generator is one of main issues in power system security and operation. The angular stability for the wind power generator is determined by its corresponding Critical Clearing Time (CCT. In this paper, the effect of wind power on the transient fault behavior is investigated by replacing the power generated by two main types of wind turbine, increasing gradually a rate of wind power penetration and changing the location of wind resources. The simulation analysis was established on a 14 bus IEEE test system by PSAT/Matlab, which gives access to an extensive library of grid components, and relevant wind turbine model.

  17. Coordinated frequency control from offshore wind power plants connected to multi terminal DC system considering wind speed variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated fast primary frequency control scheme from offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) integrated to a three terminal high voltage DC (HVDC) system is proposed in this study. The impact of wind speed variation on the OWPP active power output and thus on the AC grid frequency and DC grid...... the active power support from OWPP with a ramp rate limiter and (iii) An alternative method for the wind turbine overloading considering rotor speed. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated on a wind power plant integrated into a three terminal HVDC system developed in DIg......SILIENT PowerFactory. The results show that the proposed coordinated frequency control method performs effectively at different wind speeds and minimises the secondary effects on frequency and DC voltage....

  18. Space Shuttle Damper System for Ground Wind Load Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. D.; Holt, J. R.; Chang, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    An active damper system which was originally developed for a 5.5% Saturn IB/Skylab Ground Winds Model was modified and used for similar purposes in a Space Shuttle model. A second damper system which was originally used in a 3% Saturn V/Dry Workshop model was also modified and made compatible with the Space Shuttle model to serve as a back-up system. Included in this final report are descriptions of the modified damper systems and the associated control and instrumentation.

  19. Self-Powered Wind Sensor System for Detecting Wind Speed and Direction Based on a Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiyu; Ding, Wenbo; Pan, Lun; Wu, Changsheng; Yu, Hua; Yang, Lijun; Liao, Ruijin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-04-02

    The development of the Internet of Things has brought new challenges to the corresponding distributed sensor systems. Self-powered sensors that can perceive and respond to environmental stimuli without an external power supply are highly desirable. In this paper, a self-powered wind sensor system based on an anemometer triboelectric nanogenerator (a-TENG, free-standing mode) and a wind vane triboelectric nanogenerator (v-TENG, single-electrode mode) is proposed for simultaneously detecting wind speed and direction. A soft friction mode is adopted instead of a typical rigid friction for largely enhancing the output performance of the TENG. The design parameters including size, unit central angle, and applied materials are optimized to enhance sensitivity, resolution, and wide measurement scale. The optimized a-TENG could deliver an open-circuit voltage of 88 V and short-circuit current of 6.3 μA, corresponding to a maximum power output of 0.47 mW (wind speed of 6.0 m/s), which is capable of driving electronics for data transmission and storage. The current peak value of the a-TENG signal is used for analyzing wind speed for less energy consumption. Moreover, the output characteristics of a v-TENG are further explored, with six actual operation situations, and the v-TENG delivers fast response to the incoming wind and accurately outputs the wind direction data. As a wind sensor system, wind speed ranging from 2.7 to 8.0 m/s can be well detected (consistent with a commercial sensor) and eight regular directions can be monitored. Therefore, the fabricated wind sensor system has great potential in wireless environmental monitoring applications.

  20. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  1. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  2. Economics of wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

  3. Research and analysis on response characteristics of bracket-line coupling system under wind load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayu, Zhao; Qing, Sun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of bracket-line coupling system is established based on ANSYS software. Using the wind velocity time series which is generated by MATLAB as a power input, by comparing and analyzing the influence of different wind speeds and different wind attack angles, it is found that when 0 degree wind acts on the structure, wires have a certain damping effect in the bracket-line coupling system and at the same wind speed, the 90 degree direction is the most unfavorable wind direction for the whole structure according to the three kinds of angle wind calculated at present. In the bracket-line coupling system, the bracket structure is more sensitive to the increase of wind speed while the conductors are more sensitive to the change of wind attack angle.

  4. Small scale wood combustion systems and fireplaces. Some existing markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerkove, R.; Belle, J.F. van; Lemaire, P.

    1998-01-01

    Because they are seen as more economical and more environmental respectful, the national authorities intend usually to promote district heating rather than stoves and little boilers. Nevertheless these systems are yet now a very important source of energy for private houses in many European countries. The use of this kind of systems as primary or secondary tool of heating depends principally of the three following parameters: the percentage of area covered by the forest, the existing traditions concerning the use of wood stoves and the presence of local manufacturers or distributors. The aim of this presentation will be to show the situation and the states of the art in several European countries

  5. Application of Satellite-Derived Ocean Surface Winds to the Detection of Weather Systems and the Prediction of Near-Ocean Surface Winds around Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Chyi Yeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian Island chain is surrounded by the open ocean and is an ideal place to conduct the application of QuikSCAT satellite-derived ocean surface winds to the detection of weather systems. With the help of QuikSCAT winds, the associated circulation of the weather systems over the open ocean around Hawaii can be identified. In this study, the obvious cyclonic circulation associated with a Kona storm, the significant wind shift and wind confluence related to the surface cold front, and the anticyclonic circulation related to high-pressure systems for both a strong-wind event and a trade-wind condition are revealed over the open ocean through QuikSCAT winds. The propagation of a cold frontal boundary, defined by the wind shift and wind confluence, also can be clearly detected using the reanalyzed ocean-surface winds.

  6. Measuring vessel dimensions in oak wood (Quercus sp.) on macroscopic level with image analysis system - Lucia G

    OpenAIRE

    Merela, Maks; Oven, Primož; Čufar, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    System for image analysis Lucia G was used for measuring vessel dimensions of oak wood (Quercus sp.) on macroscopic level. We present the problem of sample preparation as well as capturing and processing of images for automatic measurements of diameters, areas and perimeters of early wood vessels. After testing various methods of sample preparation we found out that the best results were obtained when the samples were sanded with paper of granulation 320 and the surface stained with black alc...

  7. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  8. Seawater pumped storage systems and offshore wind parks in islands with low onshore wind potential. A fundamental case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.; Christakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate the effects of introducing a WP-PSS (Wind Powered Pumped Storage System) in isolated electricity systems assuming unfavourable conditions such as low onshore wind potential and low PSS head height. These disadvantages can be compensated with the installation of offshore wind parks, larger reservoirs and double penstocks to allow simultaneous water fall and pumping using pipes of the greatest diameter that are currently commercially available. With the above modifications, the energy efficiency of the WP-PSS improves while the installation costs rise. A new operation algorithm for the WP-PSS is created to fully utilize the capacity of the double penstock and ultimately maximise wind energy penetration. A case study for a WP-PSS on the island of Rhodes is presented in this paper. Despite unfavourable conditions, the WP-PSS model leads to the following results: • Annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50% of the annual electricity consumption. • The WP-PSS exhibits attractive financial induces without including any subsidies. The WP-PSS presented in this paper proved to be technically and economically feasible and revealed that WP-PSSs are a guaranteed choice for large scale penetration of R.E.S. in electrical systems. - Highlights: • Offshore wind parks (WPs) and seawater PSS can guarantee power production in autonomous systems. • The examined system is proved technically and economically feasible under unfavourable conditions. • A new operational algorithm is developed to maximise the wind energy penetration. • The annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50%. The economic indexes are acceptable. • The WP-PSS is a guaranteed choice for wind energy penetration maximisation

  9. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  10. A study of wind hydrogen production of systems for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.Z.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Veziroglu, T.N.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia is looking into the potential of using hydrogen as future fuel. By recognizing the potential of hydrogen fuel, the government had channeled a big amount of money in funds to related organizations to embark on hydrogen research and development programmed. The availability of indigenous renewable resources, high trade opportunities, excellent research capabilities and current progress in hydrogen research at the university are some major advantages for the country to attract government and industry investment in hydrogen. It is envisaged that overall energy demand in Malaysia as stated in the Eighth Malaysia Plan (EMP) report will increase by about 7.8 percent per annum in this decade at the present economic growth. Considering the vast potential inherent in renewable energy (RE), it could be a significant contributor to the national energy supply. Malaysia had been blessed with abundant and varied resources of energy, nevertheless, concerted efforts should be undertaken to ensure that the development of energy resources would continue to contribute to the nation's economic expansion. In this regard, an initial study has been carried out to see the available potential of wind energy towards the hydrogen production, that could be utilized in various applications particularly in Malaysian climate condition via a computer simulation (HYDROGEMS), which built for TRNSYS (a transient system simulation program) version 15. The system simulated in this study consist of one unit (1 kW) wind turbine, an electrolyze (1 kW), a hydrogen (H 2 ) storage tank, and a power conditioning system. A month hourly data of highest wind speed is obtained from the local weather station that is at Kuala Terengganu Air Port located at 5''o 23'' latitude (N) and 103''o 06'' Longitude (E). The results show, wind energy in Malaysian Climate has a potential to generate hydrogen with the minimum rate approximately 9 m 3 /hr and storage capacity of 60 Nm 3 , State of Charge (SOC

  11. Computerized system for building 'the rose' of the winds and defining the velocity and the average density of the wind power for a given place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkov, I.; Dekova, I.; Arnaudov, A.; Kostadinov, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the structure and the working principle of a computerized system for building 'the rose' of the winds. The behaviour of the system has been experimentally investigated and on the basis of the received data 'the rose' of the winds has been built, a diagram of the average wind velocity at a predefined step in the course of time has been made, and the average density of the wind power has been quantitatively defined. The proposed system enables possibilities for creating a data base of wind parameters, their processing and graphical visualizing of the received results. The system allows to improve the work of devices of wild's wind gauge type. (authors)

  12. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  13. Intelligent control with implementation on the wind energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basma, Mohamad Khalil

    1997-05-01

    In this thesis our main job is to compare intelligent control and conventional control algorithms, by applying each scheme to the same control problem. Based on simulation, we analyze and compare the results of applying fuzzy logic and neural networks controllers on a popular control problem: variable speed wind energy conversion system. The reason behind our choice is the challenging nature of the problem where the plant should be controlled to maximize the power generated, while respecting its hardware constraints under varying operating conditions and disturbances. We have shown the effectiveness of fuzzy logic exciter controller for the adopted wind energy generator when compared to a conventional PI exciter. It showed better performance in the whole operating range. However, in the high wind speeds region, both controllers were unable to deliver the rpm requirements. We proposed the use of neural network intelligent techniques to supply us the optimal pitch. Our aim was to develop a simple and reliable controller that can deliver this optimal output, while remaining adaptive to system uncertainties and disturbances. The proposed fuzzy controller with a neural pitch controller showed best dynamic and robust performance as compared to the adaptive pitch controller together with the PI exciter. This study has shown that artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic control algorithms can be implemented for real time control implementations. the neuro-fuzzy control approach is robust and its performance is superior to that of traditional control methods. (author)

  14. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...

  15. Inorganic UV absorbers for the photostabilisation of wood-clearcoating systems: Comparison with organic UV absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, F.; Ahajji, A.; Irmouli, Y.; George, B.; Charrier, B.; Merlin, A.

    2007-02-01

    Inorganic UV absorbers which are widely used today were originally designed neither as a UV blocker in coatings applications, nor for wood protection. In recent years however, there has been extensive interest in these compounds, especially with regard to their properties as a UV blocker in coating applications. In this work, we carried out a comparative study to look into some inorganic and organic UV absorbers used in wood coating applications. The aim of this study is to determine the photostabilisation performances of each type of UV absorbers, to seek possible synergies and the influences of different wood species. We have also searched to find eventual correlation between these performances and the influence of UV absorbers on the film properties. Our study has compared the performances of the following UV absorbers: hombitec RM 300, hombitec RM 400 from the Sachtleben Company; transparent yellow and red iron oxides from Sayerlack as inorganic UV absorbers; organic UV absorbers Tinuvin 1130 and Tinuvin 5151 from Ciba Company. The study was carried out on three wood species: Abies grandis, tauari and European oak. The environmental constraints (in particular the limitation of the emission of volatile organic compounds VOCs) directed our choice towards aqueous formulations marketed by the Sayerlack Arch Coatings Company. The results obtained after 800 h of dry ageing showed that the Tinuvins and the hombitecs present better wood photostabilisations. On the other hand in wet ageing, with the hombitec, there are appearances of some cracks and an increase in the roughness of the surface. This phenomenon is absent when the Tinuvins are used. With regard to these results, the thermomechanical analyses relating to the follow-up of the change of the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the various coating systems, show a different behaviour between the two types of absorbers. However, contrary to organic UV absorbers, inorganic ones tend to increase Tg during ageing

  16. 77 FR 32497 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Generating Sets) Fort Smith... related to the manufacturing of wind turbine nacelles and generating sets at the Mitsubishi Power Systems... special-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle and generating set manufacturing facility of...

  17. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish...

  18. Proceedings of the third biennial conference and workshop on wind energy conversion systems. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T R [ed.

    1978-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 38 papers presented concerning large scale wind systems, small scale wind systems, regional and economic analysis, wind characteristics research, environmental and institutional considerations, and international activities. Four papers were previously input into the energy data base.

  19. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  20. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hybrid Solar – Wind – Diesel Systems for Rural Application in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    )-Wind-Diesel hybrid power systems for supplying electricity to off-grid rural communities in the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia. Using wind resource assessment and solar potential-based data from the. National Meteorological Agency of ...

  2. Unit commitment and system reliability in electric utility systems with independent wind and solar generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, David Christopher

    Concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels and changes in government regulations concerning electric utilities are likely to lead to increased use of wind and solar energy in the generation mix. In many cases, the wind and solar energy conversion systems will be owned by small, independent power producers that sell power to electric utilities. The output of wind and solar energy conversion systems is highly random; therefore, a method is necessary to determine the effects of these sources on the system reliability. This dissertation discusses a method of integrating the behavior of small power producing facilities (SPPFS) into the generation mix. The research method integrates models of wind and solar energy conversion systems with a model of the small power producers. The SPPF model is then integrated into the electric utility unit commitment procedure. System reliability indices such as the loss of load expectation (LOLE ) and the expected unserved energy (EUE) can be calculated once the SPPFs have been integrated into the generation mix. This dissertation demonstrates the procedure and provides results for a large electric utility with SPPFS located in Atlanta, Georgia; Bismark, North Dakota; and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Various combinations of wind and/or solar energy conversion systems are studied. The results include comparisons of the effective utilization of the wind and solar energy conversion systems at the different sites and of the effects on the system reliability.

  3. Isolated systems with wind power. An implementation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Bindner, Henrik W.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2001-01-01

    to extend results from one project to another, not least due to the strong individuality that has characterised such systems in design and implementation. In the present report a unified and generally applicableapproach is attempted in order to support a fair assessment of the technical and economical...... feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. General guidelines and checklists on which facts and data are needed to carry out a projectfeasibility analysis are presented as well as guidelines how to carry out the project feasibility study and the environmental analysis. The report outlines...

  4. Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing System Based on UWB Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2016-01-01

    A microwave sensing system for estimating deflection of a wind turbine blade is presented. The system measures distances at two ultrawideband (UWB) wireless links between one antenna at the tip and two antennas at the root of the blade, which allows for determination of the tip position...... by triangulation. An experimental setup with corner reflector antenna mounted at the tip and horn antennas at the root of a 37.3 m long blade is described. Analyzing the data from the experiment, special attention is given to the propagation aspects of the UWB links, with focus on the multipath effects caused...

  5. System Reduction in Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Rubak, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the system reduction in nonlinear multibody dynamics of wind turbines is investigated for various updating schemes of the moving frame of reference. In one case, the moving frame of reference is updated to a stiff body, relative to which the elastic deformations are fixed at one end....... In the other case, the stiff body motion is defined as the chord line connecting the end points of the beam, and the elastic deformations are simply supported at the end points. The system reduction is performed by discretizing the spatial motion into a set of rigid body modes and linear elastic eigenmodes...

  6. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) System under Uncertainty from Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Flynn, Damian

    2016-01-01

    An automatic voltage control (AVC) system maintains the voltage profile of a power system in an acceptable range and minimizes the operational cost by coordinating the regulation of controllable components. Typically, all of the parameters in the optimization problem are assumed to be certain....... The proposed method improves the performance and the robustness of a scenario based approach by estimating the potential voltage variations due to fluctuating wind power production, and introduces a voltage margin to protect the decision against uncertainty for each scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  7. Wood chip moisture on-line measurement system based on the combination of the different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Teppola, P.; Siikanen, S. (VTT Technical Research Centreof Finland, Kuopio (Finland)); Malinen, J.; Hietala, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu (Finland)); Tiitta, M.; Tomppo, L. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)), email: markku.tiitta@uku.fi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the project is to develop wood chip moisture on-line measurement system based on the combination of different methods based on use of nir-, impedance- and radiometric devices. All the measurements were installed in PDU-scale conveyor facility, which can be used for development and testing fuel and bulk material quality and property measurement technology and devices. The system enables to achieve accurate reference moisture content data within sufficient wide range of moisture content variation in full-scale. The usability and accuracy of the separate measurement methods were studied by testing in variable conditions. As a result, the best combination of different methods for each purpose is proposed. The actual system will be implemented in a separate new project under preparation. Good usability and wide range of applicability is prerequisite for the combination system to be used in variable ambient conditions for different types of wood chip like chips for pulping and logging residue chips and even to other biomass materials. (orig.)

  8. Building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Power System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Larry X. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the characterization and analysis of a high current power supply for the building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The system described in this report became operational in 2013, replacing the original 1968 system which employed an induction voltage regulator. This analysis and testing was completed to help the parent organization understand why an updated and redesigned power system was not delivering adequate power to resistive heater elements in the HWT. This analysis led to an improved understanding of the design and operation of the revised 2013 power supply system and identifies several reasons the revised system failed to achieve the performance of the original power supply installation. Design modifications to improve the performance of this system are discussed.

  9. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-07-01

    This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  10. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  11. System simulation of compressed hydrogen storage based residential wind hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Mandhapati; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the storage of excess wind energy, in a hybrid wind power system, in the form of compressed hydrogen. A system simulation model is developed in Matlab/Simulink platform for the charging and discharging dynamics of compressed hydrogen storage system integrated with the wind turbine and the fuel cell. Wind model is used to estimate the power generation in the wind turbine. When the wind power generation exceeds the load, the excess power is diverted to the electrolyzer to produce hydrogen. As and when the pressure inside the electrolyzer builds, a compressor is operated intermittently (for higher efficiency) to divert the hydrogen into high pressure cylinders. When demand exceeds the power generation, fuel cell supplies the power to the load. A number of fuel cell stacks are provided to meet the required load. The overall efficiency of the storage system, defined as the ratio of the useful energy derived from the storage system to the energy diverted to the storage system is found to be 24.5% for the compressed hydrogen storage based system.

  12. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Qiuwei, Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling,wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  13. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  14. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

  15. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...... with a typical stand-alone wind energy system during wind speed variation as well as transient performance under variable load. The investigated system consists of a variable speed wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), diode rectifier bridge, buck-boost converter, bidirectional charge...... controller, transformer, inverter, ac loads and VRB (to store a surplus of wind energy and to supply power during a wind power shortage). The main purpose is to supply domestic appliances through a single phase 230V, 50Hz inverter. Simulations are accomplished in order to validate the stability of the supply....

  16. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  17. Reference Manual for the System Advisor Model's Wind Power Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Ferguson, T.

    2014-08-01

    This manual describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM) wind power performance model. The model calculates the hourly electrical output of a single wind turbine or of a wind farm. The wind power performance model requires information about the wind resource, wind turbine specifications, wind farm layout (if applicable), and costs. In SAM, the performance model can be coupled to one of the financial models to calculate economic metrics for residential, commercial, or utility-scale wind projects. This manual describes the algorithms used by the wind power performance model, which is available in the SAM user interface and as part of the SAM Simulation Core (SSC) library, and is intended to supplement the user documentation that comes with the software.

  18. A brief review of machine vision in the context of automated wood identification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Hermanson; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    The need for accurate and rapid field identification of wood to combat illegal logging around the world is outpacing the ability to train personnel to perform this task. Despite increased interest in non-anatomical (DNA, spectroscopic, chemical) methods for wood identification, anatomical characteristics are the least labile data that can be extracted from solid wood...

  19. Fungal decay resistance of wood reacted with phosphorus pentoxide-amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9...

  20. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  1. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Power system restoration is very significant for the operation reliability. Although a totally blackout in today's power system rarely happens, the operators still have to make the restoration strategies in advance by using their experience or some strategy supportive systems. Nowadays, as distri...... System. The testing system was modified by replacing traditional generators with wind farms to create a high wind penetration system....

  2. Analysis methods for wind turbine control and electrical system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of new energy technologies into electric power systems requires methods which recognize the full range of dynamic events in both the new generating unit and the power system. Since new energy technologies are initially perceived as small contributors to large systems, little attention is generally paid to system integration, i.e. dynamic events in the power system are ignored. As a result, most new energy sources are only capable of base-load operation, i.e. they have no load following or cycling capability. Wind turbines are no exception. Greater awareness of this implicit (and often unnecessary) limitation is needed. Analysis methods are recommended which include very low penetration (infinite bus) as well as very high penetration (stand-alone) scenarios.

  3. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  4. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  5. Stability improvement of wind turbine penetrated using power system stabilizer (PSS) on South Sulawesi transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Agus; Gunadin, Indar Chaerah; Said, Sri Mawar; Suyuti, Ansar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the stability of interconnection of South Sulawesi system caused by penetration new wind turbine in Sidrap area on bus 2 and in Jeniponto area on bus 34. The method used in this research was via software Power System analysis Toolbox (PSAT) under MATLAB. In this research, there are two problems that are evaluated, the stability of the system before and after penetration wind turbine into the system South Sulawesi system. From the simulation result shows that penetration of wind turbine on bus 2 Sidrap, bus 37 Jeniponto give effect oscillation on the system. The oscillation was damped by installation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) on bus 29 area Sungguminasa, that South Sulawesi system stable according to normal condition.

  6. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  7. Operating the Irish power system with increased levels of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuohy, A.; Denny, E.; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the main impacts of large amounts of wind power installed in the island of Ireland. Using results from various studies performed on this system, it is shown that wind power will impact on all time frames, from seconds to daily planning of the system operation. Results...... from studies examining operation of the system with up to approximately 40% of electricity provided by wind show that some of the most important aspects to be considered include the type of wind turbine technology, the provision of reserve to accommodate wind forecasting error and the method used...

  8. System Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Generation System for Designing Wind Power Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impacts of renewable energy policy on a large-scale power generation system, including thermal power, hydropower, and wind power generation. As one of the most important clean energy, wind energy has been rapidly developed in the world. But in recent years there is a serious waste of wind power equipment and investment in China leading to many problems in the industry from wind power planning to its integration. One way overcoming the difficulty is to analyze the influence of wind power policy on a generation system. This paper builds a system dynamics (SD model of energy generation to simulate the results of wind energy generation policies based on a complex system. And scenario analysis method is used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies. The case study shows that the combinations of lower portfolio goal and higher benchmark price and those of higher portfolio goal and lower benchmark price have large differences in both effectiveness and efficiency. On the other hand, the combinations of uniformly lower or higher portfolio goal and benchmark price have similar efficiency, but different effectiveness. Finally, an optimal policy combination can be chosen on the basis of policy analysis in the large-scale power system.

  9. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    by a systematic concept generation and analysis of different concepts, where a single concept is chosen for further analysis. A preliminary analysis, based on simulations of the NREL 5 MW turbine modified to include a soft yaw system, show that the soft yaw concept chosen leads to signicant load reductions...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... and tested in simulations with success. To verify the results of the new hydraulic soft yaw concept a novel friction model for including coulomb in the yaw system is developed and implemented in the FAST aeroelastic code from NREL in order to include friction phenomena. A cosimulation interface between...

  10. Overview of the Energy Storage Systems for the Wind Power Integration Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Teodorescu, Remus; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    As the installed worldwide wind energy capacity increases about 30% annually and Kyoto protocol that came in force in 2005, wind penetration level in power system is considered to significantly increase in near future. Due to increased penetration and nature of the wind, especially its...

  11. Conceptual Design of a Floating Support Structure and Mooring System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Petter Andreas; Fylling, Ivar; Vita, Luca

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptual design of a floating support structure and mooring system for a 5MW vertical axis offshore wind turbine. The work is carried out as part of the DeepWind project, where the main objective is to investigate the feasibility of a floating vertical axis offshore wind...

  12. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since the...

  13. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  14. Applications of Systems Engineering to the Research, Design, and Development of Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Meadows, R.; Felker, F.; Graf, P.; Hand, M.; Lunacek, M.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Musial, W.; Veers, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper surveys the landscape of systems engineering methods and current wind modeling capabilities to assess the potential for development of a systems engineering to wind energy research, design, and development. Wind energy has evolved from a small industry in a few countries to a large international industry involving major organizations in the manufacturing, development, and utility sectors. Along with this growth, significant technology innovation has led to larger turbines with lower associated costs of energy and ever more complex designs for all major subsystems - from the rotor, hub, and tower to the drivetrain, electronics, and controls. However, as large-scale deployment of the technology continues and its contribution to electricity generation becomes more prominent, so have the expectations of the technology in terms of performance and cost. For the industry to become a sustainable source of electricity, innovation in wind energy technology must continue to improve performance and lower the cost of energy while supporting seamless integration of wind generation into the electric grid without significant negative impacts on local communities and environments. At the same time, issues associated with wind energy research, design, and development are noticeably increasing in complexity. The industry would benefit from an integrated approach that simultaneously addresses turbine design, plant design and development, grid interaction and operation, and mitigation of adverse community and environmental impacts. These activities must be integrated in order to meet this diverse set of goals while recognizing trade-offs that exist between them. While potential exists today to integrate across different domains within the wind energy system design process, organizational barriers such as different institutional objectives and the importance of proprietary information have previously limited a system level approach to wind energy research, design, and

  15. The relative importance of mass and wind data in the FGGE observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Jusem, J. C.; Pfaendtner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of mass and wind data in numerical weather prediction is examined. The applicability of the mass and wind data on the skill of numerical weather prediction is evaluated by real data assimilation experiments using the the NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres analysis/forecast system of Baker (1983) and Kalnay et al. (1983). It is observed that the wind observations are important for small scales and in the tropics and that the wind observations are more accurate than mass observations.

  16. A 1.4 meter electron curing system for the finishing of sheet wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Quintal, B.S.; Nablo, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages of high performance electron curable clear and pigmented topcoats, suitable for both wood and paper application, have been known for some time. Since 1978, great progress has also been made in the application of this technology to laminating for the flexible web converting industry. The combination of these systems with a single electron curing station offers the opportunity for 'single-pass' finishing of laminated board which performs both the lamination and topcoat steps in-line. A system is described which is used for the simultaneous laminating and topcoating of printed paper or vinyl to board. The performance specifications of both the curing unit, and of typical topcoats and adhesives used with this system, will be discussed. The provisions required for inerting and venting of the processor zone when using these 100% reactive coatings will also be presented. (author)

  17. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Guide Produced for the Tennessee Valley Authority (Revised) (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Guide Produced for the Tennessee Valley Authority provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a regional wind resource map and a list of incentives and contacts for more information.

  18. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a regional wind resource map and a list of incentives and contacts for more information.

  19. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  20. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  1. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Operational Experience, Performance Testing, and Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.; Ramsden, T. G.; Kramer, W. E.; Novachek, F. J.

    2009-03-01

    The Wind2H2 system is fully functional and continues to gather performance data. In this report, specifications of the Wind2H2 equipment (electrolyzers, compressor, hydrogen storage tanks, and the hydrogen fueled generator) are summarized. System operational experience and lessons learned are discussed. Valuable operational experience is shared through running, testing, daily operations, and troubleshooting the Wind2H2 system and equipment errors are being logged to help evaluate the reliability of the system.

  2. Development of Distributed Simulation Platform for Power Systems and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The study of wind power system strongly relies on simulations in all kinds of methods. In industry, the feasibility and efficiency of wind power projects also will be verified by simulations at first. However, taking time cost and economy into consideration, simulations in large scales often sacr...... and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Energy Management System (EMS), etc. to realize non-real-time semiphysical simulation for wind farm and power system control researches....

  3. The role of hydrogen in high wind energy penetration electricity systems: the Irish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; McKeogh, E.; Gallachoir, B.O.

    2004-01-01

    The deployment of wind energy is constrained by wind uncontrollability, which poses operational problems on the electricity supply system at high penetration levels, lessening the value of wind-generated electricity to a significant extent. This paper studies the viability of hydrogen production via electrolysis using wind power that cannot be easily accommodated on the system. The potential benefits of hydrogen and its role in enabling a large penetration of wind energy are assessed, within the context of the enormous wind energy resource in Ireland. The exploitation of this wind resource may in the future give rise to significant amounts of surplus wind electricity, which could be used to produce hydrogen, the zero-emissions fuel that many experts believe will eventually replace fossil fuels in the transport sector. In this paper the operation of a wind powered hydrogen production system is simulated and optimised. The results reveal that, even allowing for significant cost-reductions in electrolyser and associated balance-of-plant equipment, low average surplus wind electricity cost and a high hydrogen market price are also necessary to achieve the economic viability of the technology. These conditions would facilitate the installation of electrolysis units of sufficient capacity to allow an appreciable increase in installed wind power in Ireland. The simulation model was also used to determine the CO 2 abatement potential associated with the wind energy/hydrogen production. (author)

  4. Compensation of Reactive Power of Isolated Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Bhatti, T. S.; Ramakrishna, K. S. S.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the automatic reactive power control of an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with a synchronous generator (SG) for a diesel genset and an induction generator (IG) with wind energy conversion systems (WECS) to generate electricity. To reduce the gap between reactive power generation and demand, a variable source of reactive power is used such as static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The mathematical model of the system based on reactive power flow equations is developed. Three examples of the wind-diesel hybrid power systems are considered with different wind power generation capacities to study the effect of the wind power generation on the system performance. The study is based on small signal analysis by considering IEEE type-1 excitation system for the SG. The paper also shows the transient performance of the hybrid systems for 1 % step increase in reactive power load and 1 % step increase in reactive power load plus 1 % step increase in input wind power.

  5. A global condition monitoring system for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik

    The cost of energy generated from wind power plants (particular if located offshore) is challenging societies in terms of desiring cheaper and more environmentally friendly generated electrical energy. The high cost reduction targets can be aided by broad application of condition monitoring systems......, which bear the potential to support plant owners reducing turbine downtime and lowering costs. In this research a global condition monitoring system is proposed, which provides a platform to take advantage of the different information sources available to operators. One of the most common sources...... for information about the component condition is Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data, e.g. temperature, current orvoltage measurements from different components. Using newly developed Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS) models, a normal behavior model based approach is taken...

  6. Design of water pumping system by wind turbine for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Tasnim, Tamanna; Doha, Umnia

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a theoretical analysis has been carried out to analyze the prospect of Wind Pumping System (WPS) for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Wind speed data of three coastal areas of Bangladesh-Kutubdia, Patenga and Sathkhira has been analyzed and an optimal wind turbine viable for this wind speed range has been designed using the simulation software Q-blade. The simulated turbine is then coupled with a rotodynamic pump. The output of the Wind Pumping System (WPS) for the three coastal areas has been studied.

  7. A comparative study between three sensorless control strategies for PMSG in wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahmi, Jemaa; Krichen, Lotfi; Ouali, Abderrazak [Advanced Control and Energy Management Research Unit ENIS, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sfax, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of sliding mode, artificial neural network and model reference adaptive speed observers for a speed sensorless permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in wind energy conversion system (WECS). Wind velocity and position sensorless operating methods for wind generation system using observer are proposed only by measuring phase voltages and currents. Maximum wind energy extraction is achieved by running the wind turbine generator in variable-speed mode. In addition the three speed observers are compared to verify the robustness against parameter variations. (author)

  8. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  9. Power control and management of the grid containing largescale wind power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Fadhil Toufick

    The ever increasing demand for electricity has driven many countries toward the installation of new generation facilities. However, concerns such as environmental pollution and global warming issues, clean energy sources, high costs associated with installation of new conventional power plants, and fossil fuels depletion have created many interests in finding alternatives to conventional fossil fuels for generating electricity. Wind energy is one of the most rapidly growing renewable power sources and wind power generations have been increasingly demanded as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed. Therefore, large-scale integration of wind energy conversion systems is a threat to the stability and reliability of utility grids containing these systems. They disturb the balance between power generation and consumption, affect the quality of the electricity, and complicate load sharing and load distribution managing and planning. Overall, wind power systems do not help in providing any services such as operating and regulating reserves to the power grid. In order to resolve these issues, research has been conducted in utilizing weather forecasting data to improve the performance of the wind power system, reduce the influence of the fluctuations, and plan power management of the grid containing large-scale wind power systems which consist of doubly-fed induction generator based energy conversion system. The aims of this research, my dissertation, are to provide new methods for: smoothing the output power of the wind power systems and reducing the influence of their fluctuations, power managing and planning of a grid containing these systems and other conventional power plants, and providing a new structure of implementing of latest microprocessor technology for controlling and managing the operation of the wind power system. In this research, in order to reduce and smooth the fluctuations, two

  10. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level.

  11. Operation of a Wind Turbine-Flywheel Energy Storage System under Conditions of Stochastic Change of Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  12. Toward an Integrated Optical Data System for Wind Tunnel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruyten, Wim

    1999-01-01

    ...) of the test article in a wind tunnel test. The theory for such P&A determinations is developed and applied to data from a recent pressure sensitive paint test in AEDC's 16 ft transonic wind tunnel...

  13. Evaluation of ecological impacts of synthetic natural gas from wood used in current heating and car systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Remo; Dones, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A promising option to substitute fossil energy carriers by renewables is the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood, as this results in a flexible energy carrier usable via existing infrastructure in gas boilers or passenger cars. The comprehensive life cycle-based ecological impact of SNG is investigated and compared with standard fuels delivering the same service (natural gas, fuel oil, petrol/diesel, and wood chips). Life cycle impact assessment methodologies and external costs from airborne emissions provide measures of overall damage. The results indicate that the SNG system has the best ecological performance if the consumption of fossil resources is strongly weighted. Otherwise natural gas performs best, as its supply chain is energy-efficient and its use produces relatively low emissions. Wood systems are by far the best in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), where SNG emits about twice as much as the wood chips system. The main negative aspects of the SNG system are NO x and particulate emissions and the relatively low total energy conversion efficiency resulting from the additional processing to transform wood to gas. Direct wood combustion has a better ecological score when highly efficient particulate filters are installed. SNG performs better than oil derivatives with all the evaluation methods used. External costs for SNG are the lowest as long as GHG are valued high. SNG should preferably be used in cars, as the reduction of overall ecological impacts and external costs when substituting oil-based fuels is larger for current cars than for heating systems

  14. Evaluation of ecological impacts of synthetic natural gas from wood used in current heating and car systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Remo; Dones, Roberto [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    A promising option to substitute fossil energy carriers by renewables is the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood, as this results in a flexible energy carrier usable via existing infrastructure in gas boilers or passenger cars. The comprehensive life cycle-based ecological impact of SNG is investigated and compared with standard fuels delivering the same service (natural gas, fuel oil, petrol/diesel, and wood chips). Life cycle impact assessment methodologies and external costs from airborne emissions provide measures of overall damage. The results indicate that the SNG system has the best ecological performance if the consumption of fossil resources is strongly weighted. Otherwise natural gas performs best, as its supply chain is energy-efficient and its use produces relatively low emissions. Wood systems are by far the best in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), where SNG emits about twice as much as the wood chips system. The main negative aspects of the SNG system are NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and the relatively low total energy conversion efficiency resulting from the additional processing to transform wood to gas. Direct wood combustion has a better ecological score when highly efficient particulate filters are installed. SNG performs better than oil derivatives with all the evaluation methods used. External costs for SNG are the lowest as long as GHG are valued high. SNG should preferably be used in cars, as the reduction of overall ecological impacts and external costs when substituting oil-based fuels is larger for current cars than for heating systems. (author)

  15. A GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID WIND-SOLAR POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAAMAR TALEB

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid renewable energy system consisting of a photovoltaic generator and a wind driven DC machine is interconnected with the power utilities grid. The interconnection is done through the use of two separate single phase full wave controlled bridge converters. The bridge converters are operated in the “inverter mode of operation”. That is to guaranty the extraction of the real powers from the wind driven generator as well as from the photovoltaic generator and inject them into the power utilities grid. At any pretended surrounding weather conditions, maximum extraction of powers from both renewable energy sources is targeted. This is done through the realization of self-adjusted firing angle controllers responsible of triggering the semiconductor elements of the controlled converters. An active power filter is shunted with the proposed setup to guaranty the sinusoid quality of the power utilities line current. The overall performance of the proposed system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Quite satisfactory and encouraging results have been obtained.

  16. Integration of large wind farms into weak power grids. Emphasis on the Ethiopian interconnected system (ICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantyirga Gessesse, Belachew

    2013-07-18

    The impact of increased wind power on the steady state and dynamic behavior of the Ethiopian power system is the main focus of this thesis. The integration of wind power to the existing grid with conventional generators introduces new set of challenges regarding system security and operational planning, the main cause of the difference arising from the uncertainty of the primary source of energy and the response time following a disturbance. For incorporating wind turbine models into the overall dynamic model of the system and investigating the effect of wind on the dynamic behavior of the wind first models of wind turbine components were put together by reviewing the current state of the art in wind turbine modeling and control concepts. The theoretical insight thus gained was applied to the Ethiopian power system as a case study. Since the models of the installed turbines were either not available or incomplete, an alternative modeling approach based on generic models was adopted. The generic model, in addition to obviating the need for technology or manufacturer specific models, reduces the complexity the dynamic model. Using this procedure, generic dynamic models for wind farm in the system were developed. The capability of dynamic models to reproduce the dynamic response of the system has been verified by comparing simulation results obtained with a detailed and generic wind farm model. It could be shown that the generic wind turbine model is simple, but accurate enough to represent any wind turbine types or entire wind farms for power system stability analysis. The next task was the study of the effect of increased wind power level on the general behavior of the Ethiopian system. It is observed that overall the impact of wind turbines on the operational indices of the system was -as could be expected- more pronounced in the vicinity of the wind farm. But the power angle oscillation following a disturbance was observed across the whole system. Further, as a

  17. Power System Operation with Large-Scale Wind Power in Liberalised Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ummels, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The disadvantages of producing electricity from fossil fuels are that their supply is finite and unevenly distributed across the earth. Conventional power stations also emit greenhouse gases. Therefore, sustainable alternatives must be developed, such as wind power. The disadvantages of wind are that it may or may not blow and that it is unpredictable. Th generation of electricity must however always equal the consumption. This makes the integration of wind power in the electricity system more difficult. This thesis investigates the integration of wind power into the existing power system. Simulation models are developed and used to explore the operation of power systems with a lot of wind power. The simulations provide a picture of the reliability, cost and emission of CO2 of the generation of electricity, with and without wind power. The research also takes into account electricity exchange on international markets. Possible solutions for integrating wind power, such as flexible power plants and energy storage, are investigated as well

  18. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  19. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  20. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  1. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Pierik; Urban Axelsson; Emil Eriksson; Daniel Salomonsson; Pavol Bauer; Balazs Czech

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical an...

  2. Flexible fault ride through strategy for wind farm clusters in power systems with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songyan; Chen, Ning; Yu, Daren; Foley, Aoife; Zhu, Lingzhi; Li, Kang; Yu, Jilai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible fault ride through strategy is proposed. • The strategy comprises of grid code requirements and power restrictions. • Slight faults and moderate faults are the main defending objectives. • Temporary overloading capability of the doubly fed induction generator is considered. - Abstract: This paper investigates a flexible fault ride through strategy for power systems in China with high wind power penetration. The strategy comprises of adaptive fault ride through requirements and maximum power restrictions of the wind farms with weak fault ride through capabilities. The slight faults and moderate faults with high probability are the main defending objective of the strategy. The adaptive fault ride through requirement in the strategy consists of two sub fault ride through requirements, a temporary slight voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a slight fault incident, with a moderate voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a moderate fault. The temporary overloading capability of the wind farm is reflected in both requirements to enhance the capability to defend slight faults and to avoid tripping when the crowbar is disconnected after moderate faults are cleared. For those wind farms that cannot meet the adaptive fault ride through requirement, restrictions are put on the maximum power output. Simulation results show that the flexible fault ride through strategy increases the fault ride through capability of the wind farm clusters and reduces the wind power curtailment during faults

  3. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  4. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...

  5. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Voltage Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    As a common tendency, large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to the transmission system of modern power grids. This introduces some new challenges to the connected power systems, and the transmission system operators (TSOs) have to put some new requirements as part of the grid codes...... on the integration of wind farms. One common requirement to wind farms is the function of system voltage control which can be implemented in the grid-side convertor controller of a variable speed wind turbine. This ancillary voltage control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal...... stability. This paper implements an ancillary voltage control strategy on a direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping ratio values of the dominant oscillation mode within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIg...

  6. Integration of Wind Energy Systems into Power Engineering Education Program at UW-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataramanan, Giri [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lesieutre, Bernard [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jahns, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Desai, Ankur R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This project has developed an integrated curriculum focused on the power engineering aspects of wind energy systems that builds upon a well-established graduate educational program at UW- Madison. Five new courses have been developed and delivered to students. Some of the courses have been offered on multiple occasions. The courses include: Control of electric drives for Wind Power applications, Utility Applications of Power Electronics (Wind Power), Practicum in Small Wind Turbines, Utility Integration of Wind Power, and Wind and Weather for Scientists and Engineers. Utility Applications of Power Electronics (Wind Power) has been provided for distance education as well as on-campus education. Several industrial internships for students have been organized. Numerous campus seminars that provide discussion on emerging issues related to wind power development have been delivered in conjunction with other campus events. Annual student conferences have been initiated, that extend beyond wind power to include sustainable energy topics to draw a large group of stakeholders. Energy policy electives for engineering students have been identified for students to participate through a certificate program. Wind turbines build by students have been installed at a UW-Madison facility, as a test-bed. A Master of Engineering program in Sustainable Systems Engineering has been initiated that incorporates specializations that include in wind energy curricula. The project has enabled UW-Madison to establish leadership at graduate level higher education in the field of wind power integration with the electric grid.

  7. Design and Simulation of Dual Inverter Based Energy Storage Systems for Wind Energy Systems Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

    OpenAIRE

    Harika G,; Jayakumar N

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and simulation of dual inverter based Energy Storage Systems(ESS) for wind energy systems. A dual inverter consists of MAIN inverter which is connected to grid side and an auxiliary inverter for which an energy storage system is interfaced. Typical grid connected wind energy systems includes wind turbine, PMSG, DC-DC converters, three phase dual inverter ,energy storage system and related power electronic devices. The detailed model of design and...

  8. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  9. Small UAS-Based Wind Feature Identification System Part 1: Integration and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Salazar, Leopoldo; Cobano, Jose A; Ollero, Anibal

    2016-12-23

    This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz . Predictions

  10. Small UAS-Based Wind Feature Identification System Part 1: Integration and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Rodriguez Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS. The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain, was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz

  11. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible e...

  12. Some results concerning no-storage wind-diesel systems control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian VLAD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with the dynamics of an autonomous no storage wind-diesel system, comprising a diesel generator and a controlled wind system with a hypo/hyper synchronous cascade. The objective is to maximize the wind energy penetration rate, by an optimization control system, respecting the quality standard concerning the frequency deviation in the AC local grid. Also, the influence of the diesel drive train on the system’s dynamics performances is discussed.

  13. How to improve the design of the electrical system in future wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Bak, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    is to improve the understanding of the main electrical components in wind farms, based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of these projects is to obtain validated models of wind turbine (WT) generators, WT converters, WT transformers, submarine cables, circuit breakers...... and wind farm transformers, and to develop a methodology on how to select appropriate equipment for the power system, control system and protection system....

  14. System Reduction in Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A system reduction scheme is devised related to a multibody formulation from which the dynamic response of a wind turbine is determined. In this formulation each substructure is described in its own frame of reference, which is moving freely in the vicinity of the moving substructure....... The Ritz bases spanning the reduced system comprises of rigid body modes and some dynamic low-frequency elastic eigenmodes compatible to the kinematic constraints of the related substructure. The high-frequency elastic modes are presumed to cause merely quasi-static displacements, and thus are included...... in the expansion via a quasi-static correction. The results show that by using the derived reduction scheme it is only necessary with 2 dynamical modes for the blade substructure when the remaining modes are treated as quasi-static. Moreover, it is shown that it has little to none effect if the gyroscopic...

  15. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter

    (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power......The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles......-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid...

  16. Operation of a Wind Turbine-Flywheel Energy Storage System under Conditions of Stochastic Change of Wind Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author’s opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical pa...

  17. Cost analysis and optimisation of offshore wind energy converter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, S.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this project was to estimate the price of the energy produced by offshore wind energy converters (OWECS), with special respect to the influence of the support structure, the grid connection and operation and maintenance. An economic model based on a physical approach suitable for parameter studies has been developed and implemented in a computer code (SCOptiM or Simple Cost Optimization Program). The model of the wind energy converter system is divided in three main subsystems: the support structure, the tower head (i.e. rotor and machinery) and the grid connection. The manufacturing costs of the support structure are calculated based on the amount of material that is required regarding the extreme loads and other design criteria, e.g. fundamental eigenfrequency, buckling, tower height, etc. The support structure design is a stepped monopile, each section with constant diameter and wall thickness. Each design criterion is expressed as a relation between the diameter and the wall thickness. These relations define the allowed design areas which meet all conditions, for soft-soft, soft-stiff and stiff tower design as well. Three state-of-the-art turbines (0.5 MW, 1.2 MW and 3 MW) were chosen and supplied with the necessary offshore features. The additional costs are estimated with data given by the manufacturers. An estimate of the costs for the grid connection is derived by an empirical model based on the British Phase IIC Study. Finally, the price of the produced energy is calculated by using a simple discounted cash flow analysis that considers the operation costs as well. A recalculation of two former studies and one offshore project showed, that, in its range of validity, the model is an appropriate tool to give a first estimate of the costs of an offshore wind farm. At three reference sites two in the North Sea and one in the IJsselmeer, offshore wind energy farms were placed and optimized regarding the price of energy. The lowest price of

  18. Space-time wind speed forecasting for improved power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2014-02-27

    To support large-scale integration of wind power into electric energy systems, state-of-the-art wind speed forecasting methods should be able to provide accurate and adequate information to enable efficient, reliable, and cost-effective scheduling of wind power. Here, we incorporate space-time wind forecasts into electric power system scheduling. First, we propose a modified regime-switching, space-time wind speed forecasting model that allows the forecast regimes to vary with the dominant wind direction and with the seasons, hence avoiding a subjective choice of regimes. Then, results from the wind forecasts are incorporated into a power system economic dispatch model, the cost of which is used as a loss measure of the quality of the forecast models. This, in turn, leads to cost-effective scheduling of system-wide wind generation. Potential economic benefits arise from the system-wide generation of cost savings and from the ancillary service cost savings. We illustrate the economic benefits using a test system in the northwest region of the United States. Compared with persistence and autoregressive models, our model suggests that cost savings from integration of wind power could be on the scale of tens of millions of dollars annually in regions with high wind penetration, such as Texas and the Pacific northwest. © 2014 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  19. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can......As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...

  20. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption continues to grow and more applications will be based on electricity in the next decades. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. It is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy a...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....... term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power......The electrical energy consumption continues to grow and more applications will be based on electricity in the next decades. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. It is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy...

  1. 8th international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind farms. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Within the 8th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms at 14th to 15th October, 2009 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany), lectures and posters were presented to the following sessions: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) Grid integration studies and experience: Europe; (3) Connection of offshore wind farms; (4) Wind forecast; (5) High voltage direct current (HVDC); (6) German grid code issues; (7) Offshore grid connection; (8) Grid integration studies and experience: North America; (9) SUPWIND - Decision support tools for large scale integration of wind; (10) Windgrid - Wind on the grid: An integrated approach; (11) IEA Task 25; (12) Grid code issues; (13) Market Issues; (14) Offshore Grid; (15) Modelling; (16) Wind power and storage; (17) Power system balancing; (18) Wind turbine performance; (19) Modelling and offshore transformer.

  2. Dynamic security issues in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, I.D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous Generator (DFAG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) – are applied and issues regarding interaction with the power system are investigated. This paper provides conclusions about the dynamic security of non-interconnected power systems with high wind power penetration based...... as for the wind farms are therefore essential for power system studies related to these issues, especially when applied to non interconnected systems with high wind power penetration. Detailed generic models for three different wind turbine technologies – Active Stall Induction Generator (ASIG), Doubly Fed...

  3. Sliding Window Technique for Calculating System LOLP Contributions of Wind Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional electric power generation models do not typically recognize the probabilistic nature of the power variations from wind plants. Most models allow for an accurate hourly representation of wind power output, but do not incorporate any probabilistic assessment of whether the given level of wind power will vary from its expected value. The technique presented in this paper uses this variation to calculate an effective forced-outage rate for wind power plants (EFORW). Depending on the type of wind regime undergoing evaluation, the length and diurnal characteristics of a sliding time window can be adjusted so that the EFORW is based on an appropriate time scale. The algorithm allows us to calculate the loss-of-load probability (LOLP) on an hourly basis, fully incorporating the variability of the wind resource into the calculation. This makes it possible to obtain a more accurate assessment of reliability of systems that include wind generation when system reliability is a concern

  4. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept 3. Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies......, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control...

  5. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  6. Study on Unified Chaotic System-Based Wind Turbine Blade Fault Diagnostic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Che; Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Li, Yu-Chung

    At present, vibration signals are processed and analyzed mostly in the frequency domain. The spectrum clearly shows the signal structure and the specific characteristic frequency band is analyzed, but the number of calculations required is huge, resulting in delays. Therefore, this study uses the characteristics of a nonlinear system to load the complete vibration signal to the unified chaotic system, applying the dynamic error to analyze the wind turbine vibration signal, and adopting extenics theory for artificial intelligent fault diagnosis of the analysis signal. Hence, a fault diagnostor has been developed for wind turbine rotating blades. This study simulates three wind turbine blade states, namely stress rupture, screw loosening and blade loss, and validates the methods. The experimental results prove that the unified chaotic system used in this paper has a significant effect on vibration signal analysis. Thus, the operating conditions of wind turbines can be quickly known from this fault diagnostic system, and the maintenance schedule can be arranged before the faults worsen, making the management and implementation of wind turbines smoother, so as to reduce many unnecessary costs.

  7. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind

  8. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  9. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  10. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  11. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA...

  12. Theoretical analysis of a wind heating conversion and long distance transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Bing-Chuan; Nian, Yong-Le; Han, Bing-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel long distance wind power heating system was proposed. • Heat losses could be reduced effectively due to latent heat transmission. • Power consumption and cost would drop greatly compared to hot water convey system. • The maximum transmission distance is 10 times that of conventional system. - Abstract: As a clean and renewable energy, wind power gets a rapid growth in recent years. With the increasing proportion of wind power generation, the fluctuation and intermittency of wind energy impedes the safe and stable operation of national power grids, which causes wind curtailment and energy waste, hindering further development of wind power industry in China. To solve this problem, wind heating conversion was proposed. However, long distance transmission between wind fields and residential areas for thermal energy is an urgent issue for wind heating. This paper presents a novel wind heating conversion and long distance transmission system. A simple device was utilized for wind heating conversion in the present system, then thermal energy was transported to heat demand site through latent heat transmission of the working fluids. A model of the novel system was built and thermodynamics analysis showed that maximum transmission distance of the novel system could extended to 240 km, 9.6 times of that of typical hot water transmission system. And the novel system also could cut down the cost by greatly reducing pump work and pipe diameter. In addition, efficiency and circulation ratio was almost unchanged while wind power density increased from 350 W/m 2 to 650 W/m 2 .

  13. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Nebraska Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Nebraska Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  14. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Colorado Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-12-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Colorado Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  15. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  16. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Alaska Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: An Alaska Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  17. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  18. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oregon Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oregon Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  19. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  20. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Minnesota Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Minnesota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  1. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  2. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Kansas Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Kansas Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  3. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide provides Utah consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  4. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  5. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Ohio Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: An Ohio Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  6. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Washington Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Washington Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  7. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  8. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Hawaii Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Hawaii Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  9. Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  10. Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  11. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Virginia Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-01-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Virginia Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  12. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  13. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  14. Impact of large scale wind power on the Nordic electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2006-01-01

    Integration costs of wind power depend on how much wind power and where, and the power system: load, generation flexibility, interconnections. When wind power is added to a large interconnected power system there is considerable smoothing effect for the production. Increase of reserve requirements will stay at a low level. 10 percent penetration of wind power is not a problem in Nordic countries, as long as wind power is built to all 4 countries. Increasing the share of wind power will increase the integration costs. 20 percent penetration would need more flexibility in the system. That will not happen in the near future for Nordel, and the power system will probably also contain more flexible elements at that stage, like producing fuel for vehicles (ml)

  15. Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Carolina Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Carolina Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  16. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  17. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  18. Impact of wind generation on the operation and development of the UK electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Shakoor, Anser; Pudjianto, Danny; Black, Mary; Bopp, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although penetration of wind generation may displace a significant amount of energy produced by large conventional plant, there are issues associated with the extent to which wind generation will be able to replace the capacity and flexibility of conventional generating plant. This is important since wind power is variable, so it will be necessary to retain a significant proportion of conventional plant to ensure security of supply especially under conditions of high demand and low wind. Hence, the capacity value of wind generation will be limited as it will not be possible to displace conventional generation capacity on a ''megawatt for megawatt'' basis. Wind power is variable and not easy to predict, hence various forms of additional reserves will be needed to maintain the balance between supply and demand at all times. Additionally, if the majority of wind generation plant is located in Scotland and the North of England, reinforcement of the transmission network will be needed to accommodate the increases in the north-south flow of electricity. In this paper an assessment of the costs and benefits of wind generation on the UK electricity system is carried out, assuming different levels of wind power capacity. Overall, it is concluded that the system will be able to accommodate significant increases in wind power generation with relatively small increases in overall costs of supply, about 5% of the current domestic electricity price in case of 20% energy produced by wind power. (author)

  19. Intelligent Control for the Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of multi-variable compensation control method for the wind energy conversion systems (WECS is presented. Based on wind energy conversion systems, combining artificial neural network (ANN control and PID, a new type of PID NN intelligent controller for steady state torque of the wind generator is designed, by which the steady state torque output is regulated to track the optimal curve of wind power factor and the blade pitch angle is regulated to keep the stable power output. Also, the LPV model of the WECS, LPV compensator for the wind generator is designed to effectively compensate output of the wind generator torque and the blade pitch angle. Finally, simulation models of the control system based on a realistic model of a 8kw wind turbines are built up based on the Dspace platform. The results show that the proposed method can reduce interferences caused by disturbed parameters of the WECS, mechanical shocks of the wind generator speed are reduced while capturing the largest wind energyfluctuation range of wind generator power output is reduced, and the working efficiency of the variable pitch servo system is improved.

  20. Impacts of large amounts of wind power on design and operation of power systems, results of IEA collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Meibom, Peter; Orths, Antje

    2011-01-01

    There are dozens of studies made and ongoing related to wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power collects and shares information on wind generation impacts on power systems, with ...

  1. Siting handbook for small wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegley, H.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Orgill, M.M.; Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This handbook was written to serve as a siting guide for individuals wishing to install small wind energy conversion systems (WECS); that is, machines having a rated capacity of less than 100 kilowatts. It incorporates half a century of siting experience gained by WECS owners and manufacturers, as well as recently developed siting techniques. The user needs no technical background in meteorology or engineering to understand and apply the siting principles discussed; he needs only a knowledge of basic arithmetic and the ability to understand simple graphs and tables. By properly using the siting techniques, an owner can select a site that will yield the most power at the least installation cost, the least maintenance cost, and the least risk of damage or accidental injury.

  2. Lightning protection of flap system for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Madsen, Søren Find

    The aim of this PhD project was to investigate the behaviour of a Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in a wind turbine blade when it is exposed to lightning discharges, and find the best technical solution to protect the CRTEF and the controlling system against lightning, based......, the current transmission, including the study of the induced electromagnetic fields, and the effects of degradation of the flap material due to the exposure to the lightning high electric fields. The main tools for this analysis were the simulation by the finite elements method and testing in the high voltage......, as well as general the general principles of lightning protection and the experience acquired in the analysis of lightning damages in field performed during the PhD, were the base for the design and validation of an vi effective and reliable lightning protection for the flap. Regarding the design...

  3. Technical and economic assessment of tethered wind energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, O.; Maekawa, S.

    1984-08-01

    The wind energy existing at high altitude has been investigated as a potential energy resource in the United States. In terms of the average power density, it can be as high as 16 KW/m/sup 2/ at northeastern U.S. sites such as New York, which can be compared to 0.5 KW/m/sup 2/, the maximum ground level value at the U.S. sites. For a lifting generation device, a VTOL concept, new to this type of TWES, which combines the fixed wing with helicopter technology was extensively studied. The cost of electricity (COE) with such a system was determined and found to be competitive to that of fossil fuel in the near future.

  4. Net-energy analysis of nuclear and wind power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, G.T. Sr.

    1985-01-01

    The following question is addressed: can nuclear power and wind power (a form of solar energy) systems yield enough energy to replicate themselves out of their own energy and leave a residual of net energy in order to provide society with its needs and wants. Evidence is provided showing that there is a proportionality between the real monetary cost and energy inputs. The life-cycle, economic cost of the energy-transformation entity is the basis for calculating the amount of energy needed, as inputs, to sustain energy transformation. This study is unique as follows: others were based on preliminary cost and performance estimates. This study takes advantage of updated cost and performance data. Second, most prior studies did not include the energy cost of labor, government, and financial services, transmission and distribution, and overhead in arriving at energy inputs. This study includes all economic costs as a basis for calculating energy-input estimates. Both static (single-entity analysis) and dynamic (total systems over time) analyses were done and the procedures are shown in detail. It was found that the net-energy yield will be very small and most likely negative. System costs must be substantially lowered or efficiencies materially improved before these systems can become sources of enough net energy to drive the United States economic system at even the present level of economic output

  5. UPEI (University of Prince Edward Island) wood chip boiler to feed second Charlottetown area district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    A new $4.3 million district heating system will deliver heat to 31 subscribers from UPEI's wood-fired heating plant. The plan is to convert UPEI's own campus-wide heat distribution system from steam to more efficient hot water. The total plant output is 13.7 MW, enough to heat the campus and the 31 subcribers' buildings. During the 1987-88 fiscal year, the more northern part of the system will be completed. A year later the system will be extended south. When finished, the project will displace nearly 2 million l of fuel oil annually with just over 7000 green tonnes of wood chips. Hot water from the UPEI boiler plant travels along each route though buried insulated pipes. At the end of a run, the water reverses direction and returns to the boiler in another insulated pipe. It passes through small cylindrical heat exchangers in each building. Boiler and burner maintenance costs are eliminated. Once the user is familiar with the system, the old boiler and hot water tanks can be removed - making space available for other purposes. District heating is virtually noiseless. Insurance costs go down in many cases when boilers and combustion systems are no longer used. The Island's currently underutilized wood resource will be put to better use. These woodchips are made from wood that has been damaged by budworm and other diseases, or wood that is overmature. The project has sound environmental benefits ranging from reduced sulpher emissions to the possible long-term benefit of eliminating a number of underground fuel storage tanks and their potential for leaks.

  6. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ali M. Eltamaly; Mohamed A. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT) an...

  7. Modular Approach of Dynamic Modeling of Type - 3 Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rani M, Deepthi; Kumar M, Satyendra

    2017-01-01

    Modular approach towards type 3 Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is presented in this paper. This consists of design, dynamic modeling, simulation and stability analysis of wind power system which includes Wind Turbine (WT), Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and advanced AC/DC/AC power converters. The dq reference frame is used to obtain the equivalent circuit of the DFIG. MATLAB Simulink has been used as the tool to evaluate the stability analysis of the WECS. It is proved that the...

  8. Contactless system of excitation current measurement in the windings with high inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubraeva, L.; Evseev, E.; Timofeev, S.

    2018-02-01

    The results of development, manufacturing and testing of a special contactless maintenance-free excitation current measurement system intended for the windings with high inductance, typical for superconductive alternators, are presented. The system was assembled on the brushless exciter is intended for 1 MVA wind-power generator with the winding, manufactured of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC). The alternator with brushless exciter were manufactured and successfully tested.

  9. Wind Power Impact to Transient and Voltage Stability of the Power System in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben; Palsson, Magni Thor

    2005-01-01

    Voltage stability, transient stability and reactive power compensation are extremely important issues for largescale integration of wind power in areas distant from the main transmission system in Eastern Denmark. This paper describes the application of a dynamic wind farm model in simulation...... studies for assessments of a large wind power penetration. The simulation results reveal problems with voltage stability due to the characteristic of wind turbine generation as well as the inability of the power system to meet the reactive power demand. Furthermore, the established model is applied...... to analyse challenges in system protection as means to reduce the risk of widespread blackouts....

  10. Waste wood as bioenergy feedstock. Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation. The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related reference case, that emission reductions of up to 91% are possible for non-treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste with low contamination can achieve up to 83% emission savings, similar to untreated waste wood pellets, but in some cases emissions from waste wood based energy can exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference - in the worst case by 126%. Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Copyright © 2017

  11. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture: The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was officially inaugurated in 1985 by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) scientists in response to customer requests, particularly those coming from the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for im...

  12. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  13. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  14. Transient Stability Assessment of Power System with Large Amount of Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Chen, Zhe; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the security and stability of power system with large amount of wind power are the concerned issues, especially the transient stability. In Denmark, the onshore and offshore wind farms are connected to distribution system and transmission system respectively. The control and protection...... methodologies of onshore and offshore wind farms definitely affect the transient stability of power system. In this paper, the onshore and offshore wind farms are modeled in detail in order to assess the transient stability of western Danish power system. Further, the computation of critical clearing time (CCT......) in different scenarios is proposed to evaluate the vulnerable areas in western Danish power system. The result of CCTs in different scenarios can evaluate the impact of wind power on power system transient stability. Besides, some other influencing factors such as the load level of generators in central power...

  15. Increase of the Integration Degree of Wind Power Plants into the Energy System Using Wind Forecasting and Power Consumption Predictor Models by Transmission System Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plants’ (WPPs high penetration into the power system leads to various inconveniences in the work of system operators. This fact is associated with the unpredictable nature of wind speed and generated power, respectively. Due to these factors, such source of electricity must be connected to the power system to avoid detrimental effects on the stability and quality of electricity. The power generated by the WPPs is not regulated by the system operator. Accurate forecasting of wind speed and power, as well as power load can solve this problem, thereby making a significant contribution to improving the power supply systems reliability. The article presents a mathematical model for the wind speed prediction, which is based on autoregression and fuzzy logic derivation of Takagi-Sugeno. The new model of wavelet transform has been developed, which makes it possible to include unnecessary noise from the model, as well as to reveal the cycling of the processes and their trend. It has been proved, that the proposed combination of methods can be used simultaneously to predict the power consumption and the wind power plant potential power at any time interval, depending on the planning horizon. The proposed models support a new scientific concept for the predictive control system of wind power stations and increase their degree integration into the electric power system.

  16. Wind energy basics a guide to home- and community-scale wind energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gipe, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The availability of clean, renewable power is without question going to be the defining challenge and goal of the 21st century, and wind will lead the way. Internationally acclaimed wind energy expert Paul Gipe is as soberly critical of past energy mistakes as he is convincingly optimistic about the future. The overwhelming challenge of transforming our world from one of fossil carbon to one of clean power seems daunting at best-and paralyzingly impractical at worst. "Wind Energy Basics" offers a solution. Wind power can realistically not only replace the lion's share of oil-, coal-, and natural gasndash; fired electrical plants in the U.S., but also can add enough extra power capacity to allow for most of the cars in the nation to run on electricity. Gipe explains why such a startlingly straightforward solution is eminently doable and can be accomplished much sooner than previously thought-and will have the capacity to resuscitate small and regional economies. "Wind Energy Basics" offers a how-to for home-ba...

  17. Determining optimal capacity of wind generation in a conventional power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Shojaeian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of adding different capacities of wind power to the reliability of power systems using Monte Carlo method in order to obtain an optimum limit for that. At first, wind speed of the Swift Carnet Region in Canada, as a typical test area, is simulated and the amount of wind power output of the wind turbine generator is measured. Then, using the Monte Carlo Sequential Method, a model that involves energy generated by conventional and wind power generators is made. The power generated in Monte Carlo Sequence was compared with the system load in order to calculate risk indices. Then values of the ‘loss of load expectation’ and ‘loss of energy expectation’ indices are presented in the adequacy evaluation of the electric power system including the wind power generators.

  18. Incentives and barriers for wind power expansion and system integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg; Meyer, Niels I

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark expansion of on-shore, near-shore and off-shore wind power is planned to increase the wind power share to 50% of electricity consumption by 2020. In this situation a continuation of past policies will not suffice, and a dual-track incentive system that both establishes incentives...... for investing in wind power and integration infrastructure with integration between the electricity, heating and transportation sectors, is required. The current Danish taxation system discourages electricity use and works against this integration. Likewise, the current day-ahead electricity spot market...... is not appropriate for a high-wind future as wind reduces price levels, but integration across sectors can partly assist in increasing demand and prices. The European Emission Trading System does not suffice in providing a level playing field for wind power and thus needs a revision. Another barrier for on...

  19. Dynamic model of frequency control in Danish power system with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the impact of large scale integration of wind power in future power systems when 50% of load demand can be met from wind power. The focus is on active power balance control, where the main source of power imbalance is an inaccurate wind speed forecast. In this study, a Danish...... power system model with large scale of wind power is developed and a case study for an inaccurate wind power forecast is investigated. The goal of this work is to develop an adequate power system model that depicts relevant dynamic features of the power plants and compensates for load generation...... imbalances, caused by inaccurate wind speed forecast, by an appropriate control of the active power production from power plants....

  20. The fault diagnosis of large-scale wind turbine based on expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changzheng; Li, Yun

    2011-10-01

    The wind turbine is the critical equipment for wind power, due to the poor working environment and the long running, the wind turbine components will have a variety of failures. Planned maintenance which has long been used is unable to understand the operational status of equipment comprehensively and timely in a way, especially for large wind machine, the repair work took too long time and cause serious damage. Therefore, fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance becomes more imminent. In this paper, the fault symptoms and corresponding reason of the large-scale wind turbine parts are analyzed and summarized ,such as gear box, generator, yaw system, and so on . And on this basis, the large-scale wind turbine fault diagnosis expert system was constructed by using expert system tool CLIPS and Visual C + +.

  1. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Soerensen, Poul.; Cutululis, N.; Jauch, C.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risoe-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database built-op and developed during several national research projects, carried out at Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and Aalborg University, in the period 2001-2007. The overall objective of these projects was to create a wind turbine model database able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. The main attention in the report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of the following wind turbine concepts: (1) Fixed speed active stall wind turbine concept (2) Variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept (3) Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine

  2. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  3. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shashidhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC to AC, electrical lighting loads, electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. The proposed hybrid solar-wind power generating system can be extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on laboratories and also for demonstrations in the Industrial Technology curriculum. This paper describes an analysis of local PV-wind hybrid systems for supplying electricity to a private house, farmhouse or small company with electrical power depending on the site needs. The major system components, work principle and specific working condition are presented.

  4. Review of DC System Technologies for Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy Systems with Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jie Shao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is the need to place these significantly large structures at off-shore locations. DC grids and associated power transmission technologies provide opportunities for cost reduction and electricity grid impact minimization as the bulk power is concentrated at single point of entry. As a result, planning, optimization and impact can be studied and carefully controlled minimizing the risk of the investment as well as power system stability issues. This paper discusses the key technologies associated with DC grids for offshore wind farm applications.

  5. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF WIND DIESEL POWER SYSTEM WITH FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SUJITH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind-Diesel Hybrid power generation is a viable alternative for generating continuous power to isolated power system areas which have inconsistent but potential wind power. The unpredictable nature of variable power from Wind generator to the system is compensated by Diesel generator, which supplies the deficit in generated power from wind to meet the instantaneous system load. However, one of the major challenges for such a system is the higher probability of transients in the form of wind and load fluctuations. This paper analyses the application of Flywheel Energy storage system (FESS to meet the transients during wind-speed and load fluctuations around high wind operation. The power system architecture, the distributed control mechanism governing the flow of power transfer and the modelling of major system components has been discussed and the system performances have been validated using MATLAB /Simulink software. Two cases of transient stages around the high wind system operation are discussed. The simulation results highlight the effective usage of FESS in reducing the peak overshoot of active power transients, smoothes the active power curves and helps in reducing the diesel consumption during the flywheel discharge period, without affecting the continuous power supply for meeting the instantaneous load demand.

  6. Economic analysis of condition monitoring systems for offshore wind turbine sub-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; MacMillan, David; Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    and their associated costs has been completed for the blades, drive train, tower and foundation. This paper considers what value can be obtained from integrating these additional systems into the maintenance plan. This is achieved by running simulations on an operations and maintenance model for a wind farm over a 20......The use of condition monitoring systems on offshore wind turbines has increased dramatically in recent times. However, their use is mostly restricted to vibration based monitoring systems for the gearbox, generator and drive train. A survey of commercially available condition monitoring systems...... year life cycle. The model uses Hidden Markov Models to represent both the actual system state and the observed condition monitoring state. The CM systems are modelled to include reduced failure types, false alarms, detection rates and 6 month failure warnings. The costs for system failures are derived...

  7. Guide for construction of wood power systems. Construction - economic efficiency - technology; Leitfaden fuer die Errichtung von Holzenergie-Anlagen. Umsetzung - Wirtschaftlichkeit - Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchser, M. [Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Guidebook serves as a handbook for the entire operational sequence, which is necessary for the establishment of a wood combustion plant in Germany with an installed capacity larger than 100 kW{sub th}, for the use of fuel woods such as forest chips, wood and forest residues, pellets, wood waste, etc. within the limits of the laws and regulations prescribed for the respective performance classes. The Guidebook's purpose is to give potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants as well as the appropriate authorities a quick and global overview of the energetic use of wood in order to contribute to an increased application of this technology. The Guidebook introduces a Quality Model in Chapters 2 and 3, which describes the establishment of a wood combustion system in six phases. Eleven Management Aspects are differentiated, which can be helpful during the conversion of a project. Thus, potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants become acquainted with the most important aspects of this kind of project conversion. In addition, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the operating costs of wood combustion plants. The relevant licensing and planning procedures depending on the installed capacity and fuelwood use are comprehensively described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 supplies a concrete overview of the environmental aspects and emissions of wood combustion. Since wood combustion plants must be - as all other investments - financially secured Chapter 7 provides a description of the relevant information on public means and subsidies. Besides all important promotion programmes, the new German Renewable Energy Law (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz - EEG) of April 2000 is described in detail. Many examples of already realised wood combustion plant projects are described in Chapter 8. As an additional service, all significant addresses from ministries to energy agencies and associations are listed in Chapter 9. (orig.)

  8. Modeling & power management of standalone PV-Wind Hybrid energy system for remote location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, M. J. A.

    This thesis mainly focuses on a novel design of a standalone PV-Wind hybrid energy system for remote locations where grid extension is not feasible or is expensive. The Hybrid PV-Wind standalone energy system shows higher reliability compared to Wind or PV standalone systems as wind and solar are complementary. A Matlab/Simulink model of an integrated standalone PV-Wind hybrid system using a battery for storage and backup protection is presented. The individual component of the system is discussed and modeled. A novel and unique control strategy is designed and simulated to control the power flow of the system while maintaining the battery charging and discharging limit. In addition, different converter design and maximum power point tracking control are applied to ensure efficient and reliable power supply under various atmospheric and loading conditions.

  9. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  10. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity...... of wood-pasture systems in Europe, (iii) outline management challenges around wood-pastures, and (iv) provide insights for the policy agenda targeting wood-pastures in Europe. We estimate that wood-pastures cover an area of approximately 203,000km2 in the European Union (EU...

  11. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  12. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability...

  13. Analysis and discussion on anti-thunder scheme of wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Anti-thunder scheme of wind power generation system is discussed in this paper. Through the research and analysis on the harm of the thunder, division of lightning protection zone and lightning protection measures are put forward, which has a certain practical significance on the design and application of wind power generation system.

  14. Modeling and analysis of doubly fed induction generator wind energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Wind Energy Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Control with DFIG provides key information on machine/converter modelling strategies based on space vectors, complex vector, and further frequency-domain variables. It includes applications that focus on wind energy grid integration, with analysis and control explanations with examples. For those working in the field of wind energy integration examining the potential risk of stability is key, this edition looks at how wind energy is modelled, what kind of control systems are adopted, how it interacts with the grid, as well as suitable study

  15. Impact of wind farms on a power system. An eigenvalue analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.D. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Electronica. Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Ciudad Universitaria, Km. 4, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Mantz, R.J.; Battaiotto, P.E. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-08-15

    This paper analyzes the frequency dynamic behavior in a power system with a high wind power penetration. To this end, wind farms equipped with squirrel cage and doubly fed induction generators are compared. Aspects of the modeling of the different kinds of wind generation and power systems are cited. Then, it is shown, through an eigenvalue analysis, that wind farms equipped by doubly fed induction machines, adequately controlled, can contribute to improve the frequency dynamics. Simulations are presented which verify the theoretical results. (author)

  16. Wind power integration studies using a multi-stage stochastic electricity system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Barth, R.; Brand, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large share of integrated wind power causes technical and financial impacts on the operation of the existing electricity system due to the fluctuating behaviour and unpredictability of wind power. The presented stochastic electricity market model optimises the unit commitment considering four...... kinds of electricity markets (e.g. a spot and balancing market) and taking into account the stochastic behaviour of the wind power generation and of the prediction error. It can be used for the evaluation of varying electricity prices and system costs due to wind power integration...

  17. Reliability, energy, and cost effects of wind-powered generation integrated with a conventional generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Buehring, W.A.; Huber, C.C.; Hub, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the potential impacts of incorporating wind turbines, without the aid of energy-storage devices, into a conventional electrical generating system. This study focuses on the contribution to generating-system reliability of wind turbines, and the methods used to calculate these benefits. In addition, a simple cost model was developed to estimate ranges of breakeven costs for wind turbines based on the sum of fuel cost savings, variable operation and maintenance (0 and M) cost savings, and reliability benefits of the wind turbines.

  18. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  19. Advanced Modeling System for Optimization of Wind Farm Layout and Wind Turbine Sizing Using a Multi-Level Extended Pattern Search Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, Bryony; Cagan, Jonathan; Moriarty, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a system of modeling advances that can be applied in the computational optimization of wind plants. These modeling advances include accurate cost and power modeling, partial wake interaction, and the effects of varying atmospheric stability. To validate the use of this advanced modeling system, it is employed within an Extended Pattern Search (EPS)-Multi-Agent System (MAS) optimization approach for multiple wind scenarios. The wind farm layout optimization problem involves optimizing the position and size of wind turbines such that the aerodynamic effects of upstream turbines are reduced, which increases the effective wind speed and resultant power at each turbine. The EPS-MAS optimization algorithm employs a profit objective, and an overarching search determines individual turbine positions, with a concurrent EPS-MAS determining the optimal hub height and rotor diameter for each turbine. Two wind cases are considered: (1) constant, unidirectional wind, and (2) three discrete wind speeds and varying wind directions, each of which have a probability of occurrence. Results show the advantages of applying the series of advanced models compared to previous application of an EPS with less advanced models to wind farm layout optimization, and imply best practices for computational optimization of wind farms with improved accuracy.

  20. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C.; Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2003-12-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1. Active stall wind turbine with induction generator 2. Variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations. (au)

  1. Methodology for choice of harvesting system for energy wood from early thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, J.

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to develop a methodology for estimating the procurement cost of forest chips from early thinnings. The most common logging systems and supply chains of forest chips used in early thinnings in Finland were compared at stand and regional level using productivity models and cost parameters obtained mainly from the substudies of this thesis. Furthermore, a decision tree was constructed for selecting harvesting method for energy wood originating from early thinnings. Forwarding productivity following mechanised cutting was significantly higher compared to productivity after motor-manual cutting. Mechanised cutting by the harvester enables felling and bunching of whole trees into large grapple loads close to strip roads, which facilitates increasing forwarding output and reducing costs. The two-machine system comprised of a harvester and a forwarder was the most cost-efficient logging system due to higher efficiency in cutting and especially in the forwarding phase. The cost of motor-manual whole-tree cutting was equal to mechanised whole-tree cutting, while forwarding cost after motor-manual cutting was almost double that after mechanised cutting. Using a forwarderbased harwarder resulted in the highest logging costs. However, with large tree volumes and removals its costs were almost equal to those of motor-manual-based logging. In order to achieve a breakthrough for the harwarder system, costs must be reduced by improving both machine technology and working techniques. Available volumes and procurement costs of fuel chips made of small-diameter trees were compared at regional level. The trees were harvested either by the multi-stem delimbed shortwood or whole-tree method and chipped by a truck-mounted drum chipper at the roadside. Based on the availability analysis, delimbing reduced regional cutting recovery by 42% compared to whole tree harvesting, when the minimum concentration of energy wood was set at 25 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1

  2. Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems – The Case Study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The most adopted physical modeling for many symbiotic stars is that of interacting binaries: a cool giant, a hot .... envelopes the area behind the hot component; and if mw > 1, the hot wind predom- inates the cool wind. ...... Tomov, N., Tomova, M. 2001, Astrophysics and Space Science, 278, 311. Torbett, M. V., Campbell, B.

  3. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  4. Optimization of Electrical System for Offshore Wind Farms via a Genetic Algorithm Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua

    Offshore wind farms seem to be more attractive than onshore farms. However, offshore wind farms cost more money than onshore wind farms in both installation and maintenance. Due to the fast development of power electronics, more kinds of configurations of offshore wind farm are possible, which lead...... to very different costs, system reliability, power quality, and power losses etc. Therefore, the optimization of electrical system design for offshore wind farms becomes more and more necessary. There are two tasks in this project: 1) the first one is to construct an algorithm for finding the capacity......, and the LTC limitation of transformers, the power generation limits and the voltage operation range are considered as the constraints. The optimization method combined with probabilistic analysis is used to obtain the capacity of a given wind farm site. The OES-OWF is approached by Genetic Algorithm (GA...

  5. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic...... optimal siting and sizing of storage units throughoutthe network. These questions are investigated using an IEEE benchmark system...

  6. Investigating power control in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, Ioannis D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Electric Energy Systems Lab.; Hansen, Anca D.; Sorensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Hatziargyriou, Nikos D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Electric Energy Systems Lab.; Public Power Corporation S.A., Athens (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Increasing levels of wind penetration in autonomous power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Special features of non-interconnected power systems make security issues rather critical, as the operation of large wind farms like conventional power plants is becoming a necessity. This paper includes the study case of Rhodos island, in Greece, where rapidly increasing wind penetration has started to impose serious security issues for the immediate future. The scenarios studied here correspond to reference year of study 2012 and include wind farms with three different wind turbine technologies - namely Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and Active Stall Induction Generator (ASIG) based wind turbines. Aggregated models of the wind farms are being used and results for different load cases are being analyzed and discussed. The ability of wind farms to assist in some of the power system control services traditionally carried out by conventional synchronous generation is being investigated and discussed. The power grid of the island, including speed governors and automatic voltage regulators, is simulated in the dedicated power system simulation program Power Factory from DIgSILENT. (orig.)

  7. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    . Under these circumstances, research on dc network connection with a novel wind power generator system is presented in this thesis, which mainly consists of two major parts: control of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system and development of dc-dc converters for a dc network system in a wind farm...... for generators in wind turbine systems. However, despite all these advantageous features, the SRG has not been widely employed in wind energy applications. The most renowned technical disadvantages of the SRG are its nonlinearity and high torque ripples, which should be overcome to promote the application...... are presented to verify the feasibility and operational principles of the proposed converters. Finally, modelling and control of a dc-grid wind farm using one of the proposed dc-dc converters are presented. An average model provides insight into the overall performance of the system. Meanwhile, a switching...

  8. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  9. Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio

    of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power...

  10. A Vertical-Axis Off-Grid Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifeng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the limited utilization range of wind power and improve the charging and discharging control performance of the storage battery in traditional small wind power generation systems, a wind power system based on a vertical-axis off-grid induction generator is proposed in this paper. The induction generator not only can run in a wide wind speed range but can also assist the vertical-axis wind turbine to realize self-starting at low wind speed. Combined with the maximum power point tracking method, the slip frequency control strategy is employed to regulate the pulse width modulation (PWM converter to control the output power of the proposed system when the wind speed and load change. The charge and discharge of the storage battery is realized by the segmented current-limiting control strategy by means of an electric power unloader device connected to the DC bus. All these implement a balanced and stable operation of the proposed power generation system. The experimental research on the 5.5 kW prototype system is developed, and the corresponding results verify the correctness and feasibility of the system design and control strategy. Some comparison experiments with a magnetic suspension permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG demonstrate the application prospect of the proposed vertical-axis off-grid induction generator wind power system.

  11. Self-synchronisation of wind farm in MMC-based HVDC system

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammad; Molinas Cabrera, Maria Marta

    2016-01-01

    The stability of an offshore wind power network connected through a high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission line is a critical problem since there is no direct connection to a strong ac collection (ACC) bus. Field experience has shown that sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) and harmonic resonance can occur between the wind farms and the HVDC systems. The oscillations can appear in the presence of background harmonics and is arguably resulting from the controller interaction of the Wind Energy Conv...

  12. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  13. Temporal and spatial variability of wind resources in the United States as derived from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of wind speed at 80m above ground (the average hub height of most modern wind turbines) in the contiguous United States using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data from 1979 to 2011. The mean 80-m wind exhibits strong seasonality and large spatial variability, with higher (lower) wind speeds in the...

  14. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  15. Three essays on the effect of wind generation on power system planning and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clay Duane

    While the benefits of wind generation are well known, some drawbacks are still being understood as wind power is integrated into the power grid at increasing levels. The primary difference between wind generation and other forms of generation is the intermittent, and somewhat unpredictable, aspect of this resource. The somewhat uncontrollable aspect of wind generation makes it important to consider the relationship between this resource and load, and also how the operation of other non-wind generation resources may be affected. The three essays that comprise this dissertation focus on these and other important issues related to wind generation; leading to an improved understanding of how to better plan for and utilize this resource. The first essay addresses the cost of increased levels of installed wind capacity from both a capacity planning and economic dispatch perspective to arrive at the total system cost of installing a unit of wind capacity. This total includes not only the cost of the wind turbine and associated infrastructure, but also the cost impact an additional unit of wind capacity has on the optimal mix and operation of other generating units in the electricity supply portfolio. The results of the model showed that for all wind expansion scenarios, wind capacity is not cost-effective regardless of the level of the wind production tax credit and carbon prices that were considered. Larger levels of installed wind capacity result in reduced variable cost, but this reduction is not able to offset increases in capital cost, as a unit of installed wind capacity does not result in an equal reduction in other non-wind capacity needs. The second essay develops a methodology to better handle unexpected short term fluctuations in wind generation within the existing power system. The methodology developed in this essay leads to lower expected costs by anticipating and planning for fluctuations in wind generation by focusing on key constraints in the system. The

  16. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore...... the reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects...

  17. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyeen, S.M.; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Tamura, J.

    2011-01-01

    highlights: → Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. → Low voltage ride through of wind farm. → Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  18. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyeen, S.M., E-mail: muyeen0809@yahoo.co [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al-Durra, Ahmed [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, J. [Dept. of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    highlights: {yields} Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. {yields} Low voltage ride through of wind farm. {yields} Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  19. System and operational data for wood-chip fired district heating plants; Anlaegs- og driftsdata for flisfyrede varmevaerker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The report describes conditions related to the 30 wood-chip fired district heating plants operating in Denmark at the beginning of 1994. The aim was to produce a survey of the technical installations as an aid to the establishment of future plants and to give leading personnel a collection of data as a means of comparison to help them in fault-finding procedures at their own plants. Detailed information, such as addresses, telephone numbers, capacity, design, contact persons in the case of each plant is found in the appendices. Otherwise information is given, in some cases illustrated by tables, graphs or a map (and related to the whole group of plants) on capacities, years of installation, storage conditions, transportation, stoking systems, flue gas cleaning and condensation, boilers, handling of ash etc. Operational and economical data are also presented. Two plants fired with wood pellets are described in addition to a cogeneration plant, Maabjergvaerket ved Holstebro, Denmark, that uses wood chips as fuel in conjunction with wastes, straw and natural gas. The quality of wood chips of various shapes and sizes was also investigated, based on examples from 13 of the 30 plants, and the results are presented in graphs. (AB)

  20. Energy management system for stand-alone diesel-wind-biomass microgrid with energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengshan; Liu, Yixin; Li, Xialin; Guo, Li; Qiao, Lei; Lu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    An energy management system for stand-alone microgrid composed of diesel generators, wind turbine generator, biomass generator and an ESS (energy storage system) is proposed in this paper. Different operation objectives are achieved by a hierarchical control structure with different time scales. Firstly, the optimal schedules of the diesel generators, wind turbine generator, biomass generator and ESS are determined fifteen minutes ahead according to the super short-term forecast of load and wind speed in the optimal scheduling layer. Comprehensive analysis which takes the uncertainty of load and wind speed into account is conducted in this layer to minimize the operation cost of the system and ensure a desirable range of the state of charge of the ESS. Secondly, the operation points of each unit are regulated dynamically to guarantee real-time power balance and safety range of diesel generation in the real-time control layer, based on which the response capability when suffering significant forecast deviation and other emergency issues, e.g. sudden load-up can be improved. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy is verified on an RT_Lab based real-time simulation platform, and the economic performances with different types of ESS are analyzed as well. - Highlights: • A hierarchical control strategy is proposed for a stand-alone microgrid. • The uncertainties of load and wind speed have been considered. • Better economic performance and high reliability of the system can be achieved. • The influences of different energy storage systems have been analyzed.