WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind sw turbulence

  1. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  2. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  3. Turbulence in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...

  4. Wind effect in turbulence parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.

    2005-09-01

    The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.

  5. SCALING OF THE ELECTRON DISSIPATION RANGE OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraoui, F.; Belmont, G.; Rétino, A.; Robert, P.; De Patoul, J.; Huang, S. Y.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Electron scale solar wind (SW) turbulence has attracted great interest in recent years. Considerable evidence exists that the turbulence is not fully dissipated near the proton scale, but continues cascading down to electron scales. However, the scaling of the magnetic energy spectra as well as the nature of the plasma modes involved at those small scales are still not fully determined. Here we survey 10 yr of the Cluster STAFF search-coil magnetometer waveforms measured in the SW and perform a statistical study of the magnetic energy spectra in the frequency range [1, 180] Hz. We found that 75% of the analyzed spectra exhibit breakpoints near the electron gyroscale ρ e , followed by steeper power-law-like spectra. We show that the scaling below the electron breakpoint cannot be determined unambiguously due to instrumental limitations that we discuss in detail. We compare our results to those reported in other studies and discuss their implications for the physical mechanisms involved and for theoretical modeling of energy dissipation in the SW

  6. Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.

  7. Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.

  8. Lidar for Wind and Optical Turbulence Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fastig Shlomo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign for the comparison investigation of systems to measure wind and optical turbulence profiles was conducted in northern Germany. The experimental effort was to compare the performance of the LIDAR, SODAR-RASS and ultrasonic anemometers for the measurement of the above mentioned atmospheric parameters. Soreq's LIDAR is a fiber laser based system demonstrator for the vertical profiling of the wind and turbulence, based on the correlation of aerosol density variations. It provides measurements up to 350m with 20m resolution.

  9. The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Carbone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both astrophysics and plasma physics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Helios inner heliosphere and Ulysses' high latitude observations, recent multi-spacecrafts measurements in the solar wind (Cluster four satellites and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.

  10. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  11. Fatigue reliability and effective turbulence models in wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore wind farms with 100 or more wind turbines are expected to be installed many places during the next years. Behind a wind turbine a wake is formed where the mean wind speed decreases slightly and the turbulence intensity increases significantly. This increase in turbulence intensity in wak...

  12. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  13. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    and conical scanning. The predictions are compared with the measurements from the ZephIR, WindCube, and sonic anemometers at a flat terrain test site under different atmospheric stability conditions. The sonic measurements are used at several heights on a meteorological mast in combination with lidars...... errors also vary with atmospheric stability and are low for unstable conditions. In general, for both lidars, the model agrees well with the measurements at all heights and under different atmospheric stability conditions. For the ZephIR, the model results are improved when an additional low-pass filter...

  14. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 158. ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aa67e0

  15. Laminar-Turbulent transition on Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Hernandez, Gabriel Gerardo

    The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations...... parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been...... to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils...

  16. Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bruno, R., E-mail: shiota@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    Turbulence in the solar wind can play essential roles in the heating of coronal and solar wind plasma and the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles. Turbulence sources are not well understood and thought to be partly enhanced by interaction with the large-scale inhomogeneity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and/or transported from the solar corona. To investigate the interaction with background inhomogeneity and the turbulence sources, we have developed a new 3D MHD model that includes the transport and dissipation of turbulence using the theoretical model of Zank et al. We solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of three moments or variables, the energy in the forward and backward fluctuating modes and the residual energy and their three corresponding correlation lengths. The transport model is coupled to our 3D model of the inhomogeneous solar wind. We present results of the coupled solar wind-turbulence model assuming a simple tilted dipole magnetic configuration that mimics solar minimum conditions, together with several comparative intermediate cases. By considering eight possible solar wind and turbulence source configurations, we show that the large-scale solar wind and IMF inhomogeneity and the strength of the turbulence sources significantly affect the distribution of turbulence in the heliosphere within 6 au. We compare the predicted turbulence distribution results from a complete solar minimum model with in situ measurements made by the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft, finding that the synthetic profiles of the turbulence intensities show reasonable agreement with observations.

  17. Characterising Turbulence Intensity for Fatigue Load Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    Turbulence in wind velocity presents a major factor for modern wind turbine design as cost reduction as are sort for the dynamic structures. Therefore this paper contains a parametrisation of the turbulence intensity at given sites, relevant for the calculation of fatigue loading of wind turbines....... The parameterisation is based on wind speed measurements extracted from the “Database on Wind Characteristics” (www.winddata.com). The parameterisation is based on the LogNormal distribution, which has proven to be suitable distribution to describe the turbulence intensity distribution....

  18. On the Turbulent Mixing in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The wake flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine is characterised by lower wind speed and higher turbulence than the free-stream conditions. When clustered in large wind farms, wind turbines regularly operate inside the wake of one or more upstream machines. This is a major cause of energy production

  19. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  20. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  1. 3-D Wind and Turbulence Measurement System for UAV Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ wind and turbulence measurements play a key role in the support and validation of Earth science missions using spaced-based technology. NASA has been using...

  2. Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    In order to design and operate a wind farm optimally it is necessary to know in detail how the wind behaves and interacts with the turbines in a farm. This not only requires knowledge about meteorology, turbulence and aerodynamics, but it also requires access to powerful computers and efficient...... software. Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence was established in 2010 in order to create a world-leading cross-disciplinary flow center that covers all relevant disciplines within wind farm meteorology and aerodynamics....

  3. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over......We analyse high-frequency wind velocity measurements from two test stations over a period of several years and at heights ranging from 60 to 200 m, with the objective to validate wind shear predictions as used in load simulations for wind turbine design. A validated wind shear model is thereby...... different turbine components are evaluated under the full wind measurements, using the developed wind shear model and with standard wind conditions prescribed in the IEC 61400-1 ed. 3. The results display the effect of the Wöhler exponent and reveal that under moderate turbulence, the effect of wind shear...

  4. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be

  5. Improving Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Klein, Petra

    2016-10-06

    Remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are quickly becoming a cost-effective and reliable alternative to meteorological towers for wind energy applications. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds accurately, these devices measure different values of turbulence intensity (TI) than an instrument on a tower. In response to these issues, a lidar TI error reduction model was recently developed for commercially available lidars. The TI error model first applies physics-based corrections to the lidar measurements, then uses machine-learning techniques to further reduce errors in lidar TI estimates. The model was tested at two sites in the Southern Plains where vertically profiling lidars were collocated with meteorological towers. This presentation primarily focuses on the physics-based corrections, which include corrections for instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. As different factors affect TI under different stability conditions, the combination of physical corrections applied in L-TERRA changes depending on the atmospheric stability during each 10-minute time period. This stability-dependent version of L-TERRA performed well at both sites, reducing TI error and bringing lidar TI estimates closer to estimates from instruments on towers. However, there is still scatter evident in the lidar TI estimates, indicating that there are physics that are not being captured in the current version of L-TERRA. Two options are discussed for modeling the remainder of the TI error physics in L-TERRA: machine learning and lidar simulations. Lidar simulations appear to be a better approach, as they can help improve understanding of atmospheric effects on TI error and do not require a large training data set.

  6. Producing Turbulent Wind Tunnel Inflows Relevant to Wind Turbines using an Active Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, Christopher; Welch, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    The rise of industries like wind energy have provided motivation for generating realistic turbulent inflows in wind tunnels. Facilities with the ability to produce such inflows can study the interaction between the inflow turbulence and the flow of interest such as a wind turbine wake. An active grid - a system of actively driven elements - has gained increasing acceptance in turbulence research over the last 20 years. The ability to tailor the inflow turbulence quantities (e.g. turbulence intensities, integral length scale, and turbulence spectrum) is a driving reason for the growing use of active grids. An active grid with 40 independent axes located within the forward contraction of a low speed wind tunnel is used to explore the range of turbulent inflows possible using hot-wire anemometry to characterize the turbulence. Motor control algorithms (i.e. user waveform inputs) used to produce various turbulent inflows will be presented. Wind data available from meteorological towers are used to develop relevant inflows for wind turbines to demonstrate the usefulness of the active grid. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0012671.

  7. Cascade and Dissipation of Solar Wind Turbulence at Electron Scales: Whistlers or Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, large-scales solar wind (SW) turbulence has been studied extensively, both theoretically and observationally. Observed power spectra of the low frequency turbulence, which can be described in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit, are shown to obey the Kolmogorov scaling, $k"{ -5/3 }$, down the local proton gyrofrequency ($C{ci} \\sim O.l$-Hz). Turbulence at frequencies above $C{ci}$ has not been thoroughly investigated and remains far less well understood. Above $C{ ci}$ the spectrum steepens to $\\sim f"{ -2.5}$ and a debate exists as to whether the turbulence has become dominated by dispersive kinetic Alfven waves (KA W) or by whistler waves, before it is dissipated at small scales, In a case study Sahraoui et al., PRL (2009) have reported the first direct determination of the dissipation range of solar wind turbulence near the electron gyroscale using the high resolution Cluster magnetic and electric field data (up to $10"2$-Hz in the spacecraft reference frame). Above the Doppler-shifted proton scale $C{\\rho i}$ a new inertial range with a scaling $\\sim f"{ -2.3}$ has been evidenced and shown to remarkably agree with theoretical predictions of a quasi-two-dimensional cascade into KA W turbulence. Here, we use a wider sample of data sets of small scale SW turbulence under different plasma conditions, and investigate under which physical criteria the KA W (or the whistler) turbulence may be observed to carry out the cascade at small scales, These new observations/criteria are compared to the predictions on the cascade and the (kinetic) dissipation from the Vlasov theory. Implications of the results on the heating problem of the solar wind will be discussed.

  8. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated measurements of the entire wind and turbulence fields, of all three wind components scanned in 3D space. Although primarily developed for research related to on- and offshore wind turbines and wind farms, the facility is also well suited for scanning turbulent wind fields around buildings, bridges, aviation structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation of flow pattern and dynamical loads from turbines, building structures and bridges and in relation to optimization of the location of, for example, wind farms and suspension bridges. This paper presents our achievements to date and reviews briefly the state-of-the-art of the WindScanner measurement technology with examples of uses for wind engineering applications.

  9. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned

  10. Atmospheric turbulence affects wind turbine nacelle transfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. St. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their potential as a valuable source of individual turbine power performance and turbine array energy production optimization information, nacelle-mounted anemometers have often been neglected because complex flows around the blades and nacelle interfere with their measurements. This work quantitatively explores the accuracy of and potential corrections to nacelle anemometer measurements to determine the degree to which they may be useful when corrected for these complex flows, particularly for calculating annual energy production (AEP in the absence of other meteorological data. Using upwind meteorological tower measurements along with nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric (GE 1.5sle model, we calculate empirical nacelle transfer functions (NTFs and explore how they are impacted by different atmospheric and turbulence parameters. This work provides guidelines for the use of NTFs for deriving useful wind measurements from nacelle-mounted anemometers. Corrections to the nacelle anemometer wind speed measurements can be made with NTFs and used to calculate an AEP that comes within 1 % of an AEP calculated with upwind measurements. We also calculate unique NTFs for different atmospheric conditions defined by temperature stratification as well as turbulence intensity, turbulence kinetic energy, and wind shear. During periods of low stability as defined by the Bulk Richardson number (RB, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of high stability at some wind speed bins below rated speed, leading to a steeper NTF during periods of low stability. Similarly, during periods of high turbulence, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of low turbulence at most wind bins between cut-in and rated wind speed. Based on these results, we suggest different NTFs be calculated for different regimes of atmospheric stability and turbulence

  11. Adaptive control algorithm for improving power capture of wind turbines in turbulent winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz-Guerra, Lluis; Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    , the complex and time-varying aerodynamics a WT face due to turbulent winds make their determination a hard task. The selected constant parameters may maximize energy for a particular, but not all, wind regime conditions. Adaptivity can modify the controller to increase power capture under variable wind...

  12. Turbulence Driven by Common Non-stationary Weak Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2015-12-01

    Complications with analysis of turbulence in common non-stationary weak-wind conditions are briefly surveyed. The behavior of turbulent transport in the weak-wind stably stratified boundary layer is then examined in terms of the non-stationarity of the wind field using measurements from three field programs with towers ranging from 12 to 20 m and an extensive horizontal network of sonic anemometers. The relationship of the friction velocity to the stratification and small non-stationary submeso motions are studied from several points of view and nominally quantified. The relationship of the turbulence to the stratification is less systematic than expected due to the important submeso motions. Cause and effect relationships are difficult to isolate because the non-stationary momentum flux significantly modifies the profile of the non-stationary mean flow. The link between the turbulence and accelerations at the surface is examined in terms of the changing vertical structure of the wind profile and sudden increases of downward transport of momentum. The relationship between the heat flux, wind speed and stratification is investigated. Weak wind conditions include frequent vertical convergence of the heat flux and implied temperature advection.

  13. Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Sten

    2007-01-15

    Turbulence, in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to 'wind farm flow'. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence and horizontal flow-shear also influence the dynamic response and thus fatigue loading. However, these parameters are typically negatively or positively correlated with the standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, which therefore can, if need be, represent these other variables. Thus, models for spatially averaged turbulence intensity inside the wind farm and direct-wake turbulence intensity are being devised and a method to combine the different load situations is proposed. The combination of the load cases implies a weighting method involving the slope of the considered material's Woehler curve. In the context, this is novel and necessary to avoid excessive safety for fatigue estimation of the structure's steel components, and non-conservatism for fibreglass components. The proposed model offers significant reductions in computational efforts in the design process. The status for the implementation of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms are discussed. (au)

  14. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  15. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated ...

  16. Lidar Turbulence Measurements for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Sathe, Ameya; Gottschall, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the velocity azimuth display technique to measure the velocity vector. The model is developed for the line-of-sight averaging...

  17. Lidar Turbulence Measurements for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Sathe, Ameya; Gottschall, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the velocity azimuth display technique to measure the velocity vector. The model is developed for the line-of-sight averagi...

  18. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  19. Wind direction variability in Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Mahrt, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Understanding wind direction (WD) variability better is important for several reasons. Air pollution models need information about how variable wind direction is in different conditions (Davies and Thomson 1999). Accurate predictions of dispersion are important for human health and safety and allow for adaptation planning (Nagle et al. 2011). Other applications include horizontal diffusion, efficiency and fatigue of wind machines and air-sea interaction (Mahrt 2011). Most studies of wind direction variability have focused on nocturnal conditions because of greater variability in light winds. Modelling WD variability in transition periods when both mean wind speed and variance of the wind components are in a state of change can, however, also be very challenging and has not been the focus of earlier studies. The evening transitioning to the nocturnal boundary layer can play an important role in the diffusion process of pollutants and scalars emitted at surface and transported within the atmosphere. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign that took place in southern France in June and July 2011 focused on the decaying turbulence of the late afternoon boundary layer and related issues (Lothon et al. 2012). We analyse field measurements from BLLAST to investigate WD variability in the evening transition period. Standard deviations of horizontal wind direction fluctuations in the lowest 60 m of the boundary layer have been examined for dependence on mean wind speed, higher order moments and averaging time. Measurement results are interpreted using measured and idealized probability density functions of horizontal wind vectors. These are also used to develop analytical functions describing how WD variability depends on wind speed, variance and other controlling factors in the atmospheric boundary layer. References: Davies B.M., Thomson D.J., 1999. Comparison of some parameterizations of wind direction variability with observations

  20. Effects of Freestream Turbulence in a Model Wind Turbine Wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow structure in the wake of a model wind turbine is explored under negligible and high turbulence in the freestream region of a wind tunnel at R e ∼ 7 × 10 4 . Attention is placed on the evolution of the integral scale and the contribution of the large-scale motions from the background flow. Hotwire anemometry was used to obtain the streamwise velocity at various streamwise and spanwise locations. The pre-multiplied spectral difference of the velocity fluctuations between the two cases shows a significant energy contribution from the background turbulence on scales larger than the rotor diameter. The integral scale along the rotor axis is found to grow linearly with distance, independent of the incoming turbulence levels. This scale appears to reach that of the incoming flow in the high turbulence case at x / d ∼ 35–40. The energy contribution from the turbine to the large-scale flow structures in the low turbulence case increases monotonically with distance. Its growth rate is reduced past x / d ∼ 6–7. There, motions larger than the rotor contribute ∼ 50 % of the total energy, suggesting that the population of large-scale motions is more intense in the intermediate field. In contrast, the wake in the high incoming turbulence is quickly populated with large-scale motions and plateau at x / d ∼ 3 .

  1. A New Look at Some Solar Wind Turbulence Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of solar wind turbulence have defied explanation. While it seems likely that the evolution of Alfvenicity and power spectra are largely explained by the shearing of an initial population of solar-generated Alfvenic fluctuations, the evolution of the anisotropies of the turbulence does not fit into the model so far. A two-component model, consisting of slab waves and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations, offers some ideas, but does not account for the turning of both wave-vector-space power anisotropies and minimum variance directions in the fluctuating vectors as the Parker spiral turns. We will show observations that indicate that the minimum variance evolution is likely not due to traditional turbulence mechanisms, and offer arguments that the idea of two-component turbulence is at best a local approximation that is of little help in explaining the evolution of the fluctuations. Finally, time-permitting, we will discuss some observations that suggest that the low Alfvenicity of many regions of the solar wind in the inner heliosphere is not due to turbulent evolution, but rather to the existence of convected structures, including mini-clouds and other twisted flux tubes, that were formed with low Alfvenicity. There is still a role for turbulence in the above picture, but it is highly modified from the traditional views.

  2. Dynamic responses of a wind turbine drivetrain under turbulent wind and voltage disturbance conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is known as one of the most efficient clean renewable energy sources and has attracted extensive research interests in both academic and industry fields. In this study, the effects of turbulent wind and voltage disturbance on a wind turbine drivetrain are analyzed, and a wind turbine drivetrain dynamic model combined with the electric model of a doubly fed induction generator is established. The proposed model is able to account for the dynamic interaction between turbulent wind, voltage disturbance, and mechanical system. Also, the effects of time-varying meshing stiffness, transmission error, and bearing stiffness are included in the mechanical part of the coupled dynamic model. From the resultant model, system modes are computed. In addition, by considering the actual control strategies in the simulation process, the effects of turbulent wind and voltage disturbance on the geared rotor system are analyzed. The computational results show that the turbulent wind and voltage disturbance can cause adverse effects on the wind turbine drivetrain, especially the gearbox. A series of parametric studies are also performed to understand the influences of generator and gearbox parameters on the drivetrain system dynamics. Finally, the appropriate generator parameters having a positive effect on the gearbox in alleviating the extreme loads and the modeling approach for investigating the transient performance of generator are discussed.

  3. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    Flow measurements were carried out in the wind tunnel of LM Wind Power A/S with a Dantec Streamline CTA system to characterize the flow turbulence. Besides the free tunnel flow with empty test section we also investigated the tunnel flow when two grids with different mesh size were introduced dow...

  4. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Bocni II/1401,CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, Simone; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and the mirror instability in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and a vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops, magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at sub-ion scales. The imposed expansion (taking a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field) leads to the generation of an important perpendicular proton temperature anisotropy that eventually drives the mirror instability. This instability generates large-amplitude, nonpropagating, compressible, pressure-balanced magnetic structures in a form of magnetic enhancements/humps that reduce the perpendicular temperature anisotropy.

  5. On Usage of Pareto curves to Select Wind Turbine Controller Tunings to the Wind Turbulence Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Model predictive control has in recently publications shown its potential for lowering of cost of energy of modern wind turbines. Pareto curves can be used to evaluate performance of these controllers with multiple conflicting objectives of power and fatigue loads. In this paper an approach...... to update an model predictive wind turbine controller tuning as the wind turbulence increases, as increased turbulence levels results in higher loads for the same controller tuning. In this paper the Pareto curves are computed using an industrial high fidelity aero-elastic model. Simulations show...

  6. Analysis of turbulent wake behind a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass and mome......The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass...... ambient wind velocities (higher thrust coefficients), this trend may be improved due to the faster recovery of the wake and therefore closer values to the theoretical approach may be obtained. In addition, the assumption of self-similarity behavior of the mean velocity profile, when scaled with center...

  7. A model of rotationally-sampled wind turbulence for predicting fatigue loads in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Empirical equations are presented with which to model rotationally-sampled (R-S) turbulence for input to structural-dynamic computer codes and the calculation of wind turbine fatigue loads. These equations are derived from R-S turbulence data which were measured at the vertical-plane array in Clayton, New Mexico. For validation, the equations are applied to the calculation of cyclic flapwise blade loads for the NASA/DOE Mod-2 2.5-MW experimental HAWT's (horizontal-axis wind turbines), and the results compared to measured cyclic loads. Good correlation is achieved, indicating that the R-S turbulence model developed in this study contains the characteristics of the wind which produce many of the fatigue loads sustained by wind turbines. Empirical factors are included which permit the prediction of load levels at specified percentiles of occurrence, which is required for the generation of fatigue load spectra and the prediction of the fatigue lifetime of structures.

  8. Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo P. Chamorro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span. Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout.

  9. Interaction of turbulent length scales with wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Nieves, Sheilla N.

    Understanding the effects of free-stream turbulence (FST) and surface roughness on the flow around wind turbine blades is imperative in the quest for higher wind turbine efficiency, specially under stall conditions. While many investigations have focused on the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine airfoils, there are no studies that examine the effects of free-stream turbulence and surface roughness on the velocity field around a wind turbine airfoil. Hence, the aim of this investigation is to study the influence of high levels of FST on the flow around smooth and rough surfaces with pressure gradients. Moreover, of great importance in this study is the examination of how the length scales of turbulence and surface roughness interact in the flow over wind turbine airfoils to affect flow separation. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to analyze the overall flow around a S809 wind turbine blade. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, free-stream turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency by 82%, yielding to higher loads and fatigue on the blades. On the contrary, when the flow is separated, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (i.e., by 5%) by the presence of the free-stream turbulence. Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, under stall conditions, free-stream turbulence delays separation, and surface roughness advances separation. Interestingly, the highly non-linear interaction between free-stream turbulence and surface roughness results in the further advancement of separation. Of particular interest is the study of the region closer to the wall (i.e., the boundary layer), where the flow interacts with both the surface of the blade and the free-stream. Turbulent boundary layer experiments subject to an external favorable pressure gradient (FPG) were performed to study the influence of FST, surface roughness and external pressure gradient (present around the

  10. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), 158/1-158/7 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  11. Cup anemometer response to the wind turbulence-measurement of the horizontal wind variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some dynamic characteristics of an opto-electronic cup anemometer model in relation to its response to the wind turbulence. It is based on experimental data of the natural wind turbulence measured both by an ultrasonic anemometer and two samples of the mentioned cup anemometer. The distance constants of the latter devices measured in a wind tunnel are in good agreement with those determined by the spectral analysis method proposed in this study. In addition, the study shows that the linear compensation of the cup anemometer response, beyond the cutoff frequency, is limited to a given frequency, characteristic of the device. Beyond this frequency, the compensation effectiveness relies mainly on the wind characteristics, particularly the direction variability and the horizontal turbulence intensity. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of fast cup anemometers to measure some turbulence parameters (like wind variance with errors of the magnitude as those deriving from the mean speed measurements. This result proves that fast cup anemometers can be used to assess some turbulence parameters, especially for long-term measurements in severe climate conditions (icing, snowing or sandy storm weathers.

  12. Non-steady wind turbine response to daytime atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak N.; Herrig, Andreas; Brasseur, James G.

    2017-03-01

    Relevant to drivetrain bearing fatigue failures, we analyse non-steady wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and the rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique dataset from a GE field experiment and computer simulation. Time-resolved local velocity data were collected at the leading and trailing edges of an instrumented blade together with generator power, revolutions per minute, pitch and yaw. Wind velocity and temperature were measured upwind on a meteorological tower. The stability state and other atmospheric conditions during the field experiment were replicated with a large-eddy simulation in which was embedded a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine rotor modelled with an advanced actuator line method. Both datasets identify three important response time scales: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25-50 s), blade rotation (once per revolution (1P), ≈3 s) and sub-1P scale (inclination in the aerofoil plane, modulated by eddy passage at longer time scales. Generator power responds strongly to large-eddy wind modulations. We show that internal dynamics of the blade boundary layer near the trailing edge is temporally modulated by the non-steady external flow that was measured at the leading edge, as well as blade-generated turbulence motions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  13. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    surface gravity waves. While it assumes a flat bottom, it is valid both inside and outside the surf zone (Guza and Thornton 1980). Early research, such...J., T. Crawford, J. Crescenti, T. Farrar, J. French , et al. 2007: The coupled boundary layers and air-sea transfer experiment in low winds (CBLAST...before reaching the deployment site ( ). Map created in Google Earth , October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/ earth /. 30 Elevations around the

  14. Synthetic atmospheric turbulence and wind shear in large eddy simulations of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of the synthetic methods is found to be adequate to model atmospheric turbulence, and the wake flow results of the model are in good agreement with field data. An investigation is also carried out to estimate the wake transport velocity, used to model wake meandering in lower-order models. The conclusion......A method of generating a synthetic ambient wind field in neutral atmosphere is described and verified for modelling the effect of wind shear and turbulence on a wind turbine wake using the flow solver EllipSys3D. The method uses distributed volume forces to represent turbulent fluctuations...... is that the appropriate transport velocity of the wake lies somewhere between the centre velocity of the wake deficit and the free stream velocity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine

  16. Scaling laws and intermittent structures in solar wind MHD turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Pierluigi; Mangeney, André

    1999-06-01

    Thirteen months of velocity and magnetic field data from ISEE space experiment have been used to calculate spectra and structure functions using Haar wavelets technique in the range from 1 minute to about 1 day. Using conditioned structure function definition we have been able to eliminate the intermittency effects in the spectra and thus to evidentiate which kind of phenomenology of nonlinear cascade between Kolmogorov and Kraichnan is taking place in Solar Wind turbulence. By the same technique the most intermittent structures in solar wind turbulence can also be identified and they turn out to be either shock waves or one dimensional current sheets, at variance with ordinary fluid intermittency, where the most intermittent structures are two dimensional vortices.

  17. Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk; Franci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.

  18. Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Franci, Luca, E-mail: offelius@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.

  19. Adaptive control algorithm for improving power capture of wind turbines in turbulent winds

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Guerra, Lluis; Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob; Monros, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The standard wind turbine (WT) control law modifies the torque applied to the generator as a quadratic function of the generator speed (K!2) while blades are positioned at some optimal pitch angle (). The value of K and should be properly selected such that energy capture is increased. In practice, the complex and time-varying aerodynamics a WT face due to turbulent winds make their determination a hard task. The selected constant parameters may maximize energy for a particular, but not all, ...

  20. Solar Wind MHD Turbulence: Anomalous Scaling and Intermittency Effects in the Slow and Fast Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, C.; Mangeney, A.; Bale, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the understanding of MHD turbulence over the past few decades through the analysis of in-situ solar wind data, two of the primary problems of solar wind MHD turbulence that still remain a puzzle are the nature of the nonlinear energy cascade, and the strong intermittent character of solar wind fluctuations in the inertial range. This intermittency modifies significantly the scaling exponents of actual power-law spectra, which are directly related to the physical nature of the energy cascade taking place in the solar wind. The identification of the most intermittent structures and their relation to dissipation represents then a crucial problem in the framework of turbulence. Anomalous scaling of both solar wind magnetic field and velocity fluctuations in the inertial range, as well as intermittency effects have recently been investigated in detail using Wavelet transforms on simultaneous WIND 3s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the 3DP and the MFi experiments respectively. Specifically, the Haar Wavelet transform is used to compute spectra, structure functions and probability distribution functions (PDFs). This powerful technique allows: (1) for a systematic study of intermittency effects on these spectra, structure functions and PDFs, thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range, and (2) for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind. The analysis of structure functions and PDFs, as well as new results on the nature of the intermittent coherent structures will be presented. The turbulent properties and intermittency effects in different solar wind regimes will be also discussed.

  1. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

    Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number......This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite...... volume method. The study is followed by a detailed investigation of the Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) modeling. New SGS models are implemented into the computing code, and the effect of SGS models are examined for different applications. Fully developed boundary layer flows are investigated at low and high...

  2. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are

  3. Non-steady wind turbine response to daytime atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak N; Herrig, Andreas; Brasseur, James G

    2017-04-13

    Relevant to drivetrain bearing fatigue failures, we analyse non-steady wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and the rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique dataset from a GE field experiment and computer simulation. Time-resolved local velocity data were collected at the leading and trailing edges of an instrumented blade together with generator power, revolutions per minute, pitch and yaw. Wind velocity and temperature were measured upwind on a meteorological tower. The stability state and other atmospheric conditions during the field experiment were replicated with a large-eddy simulation in which was embedded a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine rotor modelled with an advanced actuator line method. Both datasets identify three important response time scales: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25-50 s), blade rotation (once per revolution (1P), ≈3 s) and sub-1P scale (load fluctuations result in response to temporal changes in velocity vector inclination in the aerofoil plane, modulated by eddy passage at longer time scales. Generator power responds strongly to large-eddy wind modulations. We show that internal dynamics of the blade boundary layer near the trailing edge is temporally modulated by the non-steady external flow that was measured at the leading edge, as well as blade-generated turbulence motions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/ r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  5. The influence of turbulence on the aero-elastic instability of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    calibrated to the NREL 5 MW baseline wind turbine. Aeroelastic stability of the wind turbine system has been evaluated for various values of the rated generator torque, the rated rotational speed of the rotor, the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity. Critical turbulence intensity, at which the wind...... turbine shifts from a stable state into an instable state, is determined in different cases. Results show that turbulence intensity has significant influence on the aeroelastic stability of high-performance wind turbines operating close to stall, and the stability of the wind turbine might be changed due...

  6. Intermittent structures at ion scales in the turbulent solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Denise; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny; Roberts, Owen W.; Maksimovic, Milan; Escoubet, Philippe C.; Zouganelis, Yannis

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms of dissipation, and the related heating, in turbulent collisionless plasmas (such as the solar wind) represents nowadays one of the key issues of plasma physics. Although the complex behavior of the solar wind has been matter of investigation of many years, some of the primary problems still remain a puzzle for the scientific community. Here, we study coherent structures responsible for solar wind intermittency around ion characteristic scales. We find that, in fast solar wind, intermittency is due to current sheets and Alfvén vortex-like structures. In slow solar wind, we observe as well compressive structures like magnetic solitons, holes and shocks. By using high-time resolution magnetic field data of multi-point measurements of Cluster spacecraft, we characterize the observed coherent structures in terms of topology and propagation speed. We show that all structures, both in fast and slow solar wind, are characterized by a strong wave-vector anisotropy in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field and typical scales around ion characteristic scales. Moreover, some of them propagate in the plasma rest frame. Moreover, a further analysis on the ion velocity distribution shows a high variability; in particular, close to coherent structures the proton distribution function appears strongly deformed and far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. We discuss possible interpretation of the observed structures and their role in the heating process of the plasma.

  7. Improved observations of turbulence dissipation rates from wind profiling radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCaffrey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of turbulence dissipation rates in the planetary boundary layer are crucial for validation of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction models. However, because dissipation rates are difficult to obtain, they are infrequently measured through the depth of the boundary layer. For this reason, demonstrating the ability of commonly used wind profiling radars (WPRs to estimate this quantity would be greatly beneficial. During the XPIA field campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, two WPRs operated in an optimized configuration, using high spectral resolution for increased accuracy of Doppler spectral width, specifically chosen to estimate turbulence from a vertically pointing beam. Multiple post-processing techniques, including different numbers of spectral averages and peak processing algorithms for calculating spectral moments, were evaluated to determine the most accurate procedures for estimating turbulence dissipation rates using the information contained in the Doppler spectral width, using sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower for validation. The optimal settings were determined, producing a low bias, which was later corrected. Resulting estimations of turbulence dissipation rates correlated well (R2 = 0. 54 and 0. 41 with the sonic anemometers, and profiles up to 2 km from the 449 MHz WPR and 1 km from the 915 MHz WPR were observed.

  8. Effects of normal and extreme turbulence spectral parameters on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Loads simulations as performed to obtain design loads on wind turbines, requires wind turbulence as an input, characterized by parameters associated with the turbulence length scale, dissipation and anisotropy. The effect of variation in these turbulence spectral parameters on the magnitude...... the recommended values in the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 that is used for wind turbine design. The present paper investigates the impact of Mann turbulence model parameter variations on the design loads envelope for 5 MW and 10 MW reference wind turbines. Specific focus is made on the blade root loads, tower top moments...

  9. The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wind regime (Mahrt et al. ... Influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes. 1401. Table 1. Specifications of the eddy ..... different soil and vegetation properties and other regional climatic factors. Earlier, it was found that.

  10. The Skipheia Wind Measurement Station. Instrumentation, Wind Speed Profiles and Turbulence Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, S.E.

    1995-10-01

    This thesis describes the design of a measurement station for turbulent wind and presents results from an analysis of the collected data. The station is located at Skipheia near the south-west end of Froeya, an island off the coast of Mid-Norway. The station is unique for studies of turbulent winds because of the large numbers of sensors, which are located at various heights above ground up to 100 m, a sampling rate of 0.85 Hz and storage of the complete time series. The frequency of lightning and atmospheric discharges to the masts are quite high and much effort has gone into minimizing the damage caused by lightning activity. A major part of the thesis deals with data analysis and modelling. There are detailed discussions on the various types of wind sensors and their calibration, the data acquisition system and operating experiences with it, the database, data quality control, the wind speed profile and turbulence. 40 refs., 78 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Anisotropic Behaviour of Magnetic Power Spectra in Solar Wind Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Saur, J.; Gerick, F.; von Papen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction:High altitude fast solar wind turbulence (SWT) shows different spectral properties as a function of the angle between the flow direction and the scale dependent mean magnetic field (Horbury et al., PRL, 2008). The average magnetic power contained in the near perpendicular direction (80º-90º) was found to be approximately 5 times larger than the average power in the parallel direction (0º- 10º). In addition, the parallel power spectra was found to give a steeper (-2) power law than the perpendicular power spectral density (PSD) which followed a near Kolmogorov slope (-5/3). Similar anisotropic behaviour has also been observed (Chen et al., MNRAS, 2011) for slow solar wind (SSW), but using a different method exploiting multi-spacecraft data of Cluster. Purpose:In the current study, using Ulysses data, we investigate (i) the anisotropic behaviour of near ecliptic slow solar wind using the same methodology (described below) as that of Horbury et al. (2008) and (ii) the dependence of the anisotropic behaviour of SWT as a function of the heliospheric latitude.Method:We apply the wavelet method to calculate the turbulent power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the local mean magnetic field (LMF). According to Horbury et al., LMF for a given scale (or size) is obtained using an envelope of the envelope of that size. Results:(i) SSW intervals always show near -5/3 perpendicular spectra. Unlike the fast solar wind (FSW) intervals, for SSW, we often find intervals where power parallel to the mean field is not observed. For a few intervals with sufficient power in parallel direction, slow wind turbulence also exhibit -2 parallel spectra similar to FSW.(ii) The behaviours of parallel and perpendicular power spectra are found to be independent of the heliospheric latitude. Conclusion:In the current study we do not find significant influence of the heliospheric latitude on the spectral slopes of parallel and perpendicular

  12. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ERDC), has developed a robust multidimensional mass conservative finite element hydrodynamic and constituent transport numerical code Adaptive...density stratification. This is not possible at present because ADH-SW3 considers eddy viscosity and diffusivity as elemental properties. ERDC/CHL CR-15...Ouellet. 1987. A three-dimensional finite element model for the study of steady and non-steady natural flows. Elsevier Oceanography Series, No. 45

  13. Effect of atmospheric turbulence on wind turbine wakes: An LES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. T.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of atmospheric turbulence effect on wind-turbine wakes is presented. Large-eddy simulations of neutrally-stratified boundary layers developed over different flat surfaces (forest, farmland, grass, and snow) are performed to investigate the structure of turbine wakes in cases where the incident flows to the wind turbine have the same mean velocity at the hub height but different mean wind shears and turbulence intensity levels. The simulation results show that the different wind shears and turbulence intensity levels of the incoming flow lead to considerable influence on the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit, turbulence intensity, and turbulent shear stress in the wake region downstream of the turbine. In general, the recovery of the turbine-induced wake (velocity deficit) is faster and the turbulence intensity level is higher and has its maximum closer to the turbine for wakes of turbines over rougher terrain. In order to isolate the effect of turbulence intensity from that of wind shear, simulations have also been performed with synthetic inflow velocity fields that have the same mean wind shear but different turbulence intensity levels. We find that the effect of the inflow turbulence intensity on the wake recovery and turbulence levels is stronger than that of the mean shear.

  14. Doppler lidar investigation of wind turbine wake characteristics and atmospheric turbulence under different surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi

    2017-06-12

    Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.

  15. Role and Nature of Intermittency in Solar Wind Alfvénic Turbulence: Wind Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, C. S.; Mangeney, A.; Bale, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    In the Alfvénic regime, i.e. for frequencies below the local proton cyclotron frequency, solar wind MHD turbulence exhibits what appears like an inertial domain, with power-law spectra and scale-invariance, suggesting as in fluid turbulence, a nonlinear energy cascade from the large "energy containing" scales towards much smaller scales, where dissipation via kinetic effects is presumed to act. However, the intermittent character of the solar wind fluctuations in the inertial range is much more important than in ordinary fluids. Indeed, the fluctuations consist of a mixture of random fluctuations and small-scale "singular" or coherent structures. This intermittency modifies significantly the scaling exponents of actual power-law spectra, which are directly related to the physical nature of the energy cascade taking place in the solar wind. The identification of the most intermittent structures and their relation to dissipation represents then a crucial problem in the framework of turbulence. We will discuss here recent results on scaling laws and intermittency based on the use of Wavelet transforms on simultaneous WIND 3s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the 3DP and the MFi experiments respectively. More specifically, the Haar Wavelet transform is used to compute spectra, structure functions and probability distribution functions (PDFs). We show that this powerful technique allows: (1) for a systematic elimination of intermittency effects on spectra and structure functions and thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range, and (2) for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind. The analysis of structure functions and PDFs will be reviewed and new results on the nature of the intermittent coherent structures will be presented.

  16. Scale-Invariance and Intermittency in the Solar Wind Alfvénic Turbulence: Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, C. S.; Mangeney, A.; Bale, S. D.; Veltri, P.

    2004-12-01

    In the "Alfvénic" regime, i.e. for frequencies below the local proton cyclotron frequency, solar wind MHD turbulence exhibits what appears like an inertial domain, with power-law spectra and scale-invariance, suggesting as in fluid turbulence, a nonlinear energy cascade from the large "energy containing" scales towards the small scales where dissipation by kinetic effects is presumed to act. However, the intermittent character of solar wind fluctuations is much more important than in ordinary fluids. Indeed, the fluctuations consist of a mixture of random fluctuations and small-scale "singular" or coherent structures. This intermittency modifies significantly the scaling exponents of actual power-law spectra, which are directly related to the physical nature of the energy cascade taking place in the solar wind. The identification of the most intermittent structures and their relation to dissipation represents then a crucial problem in the framework of turbulence. We present here a new approach to study the scaling laws and intermittency based on the use of Wavelet transforms on simultaneous WIND 3s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the 3DP and the MFi experiments respectively. Using the Haar wavelet transform, spectra and structure functions are calculated. We show that this powerful technique allows: (1) for a systematic elimination of intermittency effects on spectra and structure functions and thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range, and (2) for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind. We finally discuss the various effects which may be important for the formation of these structures in the absence of collisions.

  17. Coastal wind in the transition from turbulence to mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne-Philippe, MichèLe

    1989-06-01

    During the second survey of the Travaux d'Océanographie Spatiale: Capteurs actifs dans l'Atlantique Nord-Est (TOSCANE T) experiment (February 14 to April 17, 1985), seven wind masts were operated on the shore of the "Baie d'Audierne." Distances between them ranged from 1.5 to 13.7 km, and the data were sampled at 3 s. An important portion of the data was recorded under severe weather conditions. Results from 27 cases of wind blowing from the sea, which corresponded to synoptically stationary wind regimes, show that for both horizontal components the spectral energy in the transition region between mesoscale and Kolmogorov turbulence takes the shape of a well-marked dip when weather types are stable or slightly unstable. But, in more convective cases the dip disappears and the transition region becomes almost horizontal; spectral energy density follows an n-1 law (where n is equal to frequency) until the Kolmogorov region is reached. Coherences and cross correlations between masts show that in the 6-s to 1-hour period range, only mesoscale fluctuations are coherent. Turbulent fluctuations are not correlated for the separation distances of the masts. Under synoptically steady or slightly unstable conditions, such single-point measurements could reliably be time-averaged for use in satellite wind sensor calibration. In more convective conditions, especially for the ubiquitous open mesoscale cells found over mid-latitude oceans in cold air advections, interpretation problems might occur because mesoscale events, as time-averaged from coastal masts, buoys, or ships, could be different from those spatially integrated in the footprint of a satellite sensor. In these cases, some relationship must be used to relate single-point averaging times to the area illuminated by the satellite. To do so, Taylor's hypothesis is commonly extended to the mesoscale; but, the present data show that such an extension cannot be made under usual actual conditions because of the structure of

  18. Solar Wind Turbulence at Sub-Ion and Electron Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, O.; Lacombe, C.; Matteini, L.; Zaslavsky, A.; Orel, I.

    2017-12-01

    We study magnetic fluctuations at sub-ion scales and down to sub-electron scales (from 1 to 200Hz) using two complementary approaches: (i) a statistical study of the turbulent spectra of the different field components in the reference frame based on the quasi-local mean field B and velocity V; (ii) a detailed analysis of magnetic waveforms in the same reference frame. For this statistical study, we consider 93 10-minute intervals of Cluster/STAFF measurements. We find that the fluctuations are non-gyrotropic at a given frequency f, a property already observed at larger scales. This non-gyrotropy provides indications on the angular distribution of the wave vectors k: at f> k||, mainly in the fast wind; at f>10Hz, the k are more isotropic. We then consider the magnetic compressibility of the fluctuations: it increases with f and at electron scales the fluctuations become isotropic. From 1 to 20Hz, there is a strong correlation between the observed compressibility and the one expected for the kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs), which only depends on the total plasma beta. For f>20Hz, the observed compressibility is larger than the one expected for classical KAWs, and it is stronger in the slow wind: this could be an indication of the presence of a slow-ion acoustic mode of fluctuations, which is more compressive and is favoured by the larger values of the electron to proton temperature ratio generally observed in the slow wind. For the analysis of the magnetic waveforms, we use burst mode intervals in the solar wind and in the Earth's magnetosheath during the Cluster Guest Investigator campaign in 2015, when C3 and C4 were at 7km apart only. Time-frequency analysis using Morlet wavelets shows that the turbulence is non-homogeneous and filled in with intermittent events. A detailed study of magnetic fluctuations on C3 and C4 shows signatures of electron-scale magnetic vortices, but with strong compressible components, in agreement with our statistical study discussed above

  19. Improving Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer; Clifton, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew; Klein, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are quickly becoming a cost-effective and reliable alternative to meteorological towers for wind energy applications. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds accurately, these devices measure different values of turbulence intensity (TI) than an instrument on a tower. In response to these issues, a lidar TI error reduction model was recently developed for commercially available lidars. The TI error model first applies physics-based corrections to the lidar measurements, then uses machine-learning techniques to further reduce errors in lidar TI estimates. The model was tested at two sites in the Southern Plains where vertically profiling lidars were collocated with meteorological towers. Results indicate that the model works well under stable conditions but cannot fully mitigate the effects of variance contamination under unstable conditions. To understand how variance contamination affects lidar TI estimates, a new set of equations was derived in previous work to characterize the actual variance measured by a lidar. Terms in these equations were quantified using a lidar simulator and modeled wind field, and the new equations were then implemented into the TI error model.

  20. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  1. TESTING THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION ON SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vech, Daniel; Chen, Christopher H K

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-spacecraft approach to test the predictions of recent studies on the effect of solar wind expansion on the radial spectral, variance, and local 3D anisotropies of the turbulence. We found that on small scales (5000–10,000 km) the power levels of the B-trace structure functions do not depend on the sampling direction with respect to the radial suggesting that on this scale the effect of expansion is small possibly due to fast turbulent timescales. On larger scales (110–135 R E ), the fluctuations of the radial magnetic field component are reduced by ∼20% compared to the transverse (perpendicular to radial) ones, which could be due to expansion confining the fluctuations into the plane perpendicular to radial. For the local 3D spectral anisotropy, the B-trace structure functions showed dependence on the sampling direction with respect to radial. The anisotropy in the perpendicular plane is reduced when the increments are taken perpendicular with respect to radial, which could be an effect of expansion.

  2. Solar Wind Electron Scattering by Kinetic Instabilities and Whistler Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of the solar wind away from the Sun drives electron velocity distributions away from the thermal Maxwellian form, yielding distributions near 1 AU which typically can be characterized as consisting of three anisotropic components: a more dense, relatively cool core, a relatively tenuous , relatively warm halo and a similarly tenuous, warm strahl. Each of these nonthermal components are potential sources of kinetic plasma instabilities; the enhanced waves from each instability can scatter the electrons, acting to reduce the various anisotropies and making their overall velocity distribution more nearly (but not completely) thermal. In contrast, simulations are demonstrating that the forward decay of whistler turbulence can lead to the development of a T||> T_perp electron anisotropy. This presentation will review linear theories of electron-driven kinetic instabilities (following the presentation by Daniel Verscharen at the 2015 SHINE Workshop), and will further consider the modification of electron velocity distributions as obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of such instabilities as well as from the decay of whistler turbulence.

  3. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80-foot wind tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise, refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy, was employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line for outdoor test stand, NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels, they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  4. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...

  5. Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.

  6. Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines require methods to predict the power produced as inflow conditions change. We compare the standard method of binning with a turbulence renormalization method and a machine learning approach using a data set derived from simulations. The method of binning is unable to cope with changes...... in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could...

  7. Consequences of variations in spatial turbulence characteristics for fatigue life time of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.

    1998-09-01

    The fatigue loading of turbines situated in complex terrain is investigated in order to determine the crucial parameters in the spatial structure of the turbulence in such situations. The parameter study is performed by means of numerical calculations, and it embraces three different wind turbine types, representing a pitch controlled concept, a stall controlled concept, and a stall controlled concept with an extremely flexible tower. For each of the turbine concepts, the fatigue load sensibility to the selected turbulence characteristics are investigated for three different mean wind speeds at hub height. The selected mean wind speeds represent the linear-, the stall-, and the post stall aerodynamic region for the stall controlled turbines and analogously the unregulated-, the partly regulated-, and the fully regulated regime for the pitch controlled turbine. Denoting the turbulence component in the mean wind direction by u, the lateral turbulence component by v, and the vertical turbulence component by w, the selected turbulence characteristics comprise the u-turbulence length scale, the ratio between the v- and w-turbulence intensities and the u-turbulence intensity, the uu-coherence decay factor, and finally the u-v and u-w cross-correlations. The turbulence length scale in the mean wind direction gives rise to significant modification of the fatigue loading on all the investigated wind turbine concepts, but for the other selected parameter variations, large individual differences exists between the turbines. With respect to sensitivity to the performed parameter variations, the Vestas V39 wind turbine is the most robust of the investigated turbines. The Nordtank 500/37 turbine, equipped with the (artificial) soft tower, is by far the most sensitive of the investigated turbine concepts - also much more sensitive than the conventional Nordtank 500/37 turbine equipped with a traditional tower. (au) 2 tabs., 43 ills., 7 refs.

  8. TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND MEASURED WITH COMET TAIL TEST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Laboratory, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Rice, D. R. [Northwestern University, 633 Clark St., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    By analyzing the motions of test particles observed remotely in the tail of Comet Encke, we demonstrate that the solar wind undergoes turbulent processing enroute from the Sun to the Earth and that the kinetic energy entrained in the large-scale turbulence is sufficient to explain the well-known anomalous heating of the solar wind. Using the heliospheric imaging (HI-1) camera on board NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, we have observed an ensemble of compact features in the comet tail as they became entrained in the solar wind near 0.4 AU. We find that the features are useful as test particles, via mean-motion analysis and a forward model of pickup dynamics. Using population analysis of the ensemble's relative motion, we find a regime of random-walk diffusion in the solar wind, followed, on larger scales, by a surprising regime of semiconfinement that we attribute to turbulent eddies in the solar wind. The entrained kinetic energy of the turbulent motions represents a sufficient energy reservoir to heat the solar wind to observed temperatures at 1 AU. We determine the Lagrangian-frame diffusion coefficient in the diffusive regime, derive upper limits for the small scale coherence length of solar wind turbulence, compare our results to existing Eulerian-frame measurements, and compare the turbulent velocity with the size of the observed eddies extrapolated to 1 AU. We conclude that the slow solar wind is fully mixed by turbulence on scales corresponding to a 1–2 hr crossing time at Earth; and that solar wind variability on timescales shorter than 1–2 hr is therefore dominated by turbulent processing rather than by direct solar effects.

  9. Filament formation in wind-cloud interactions- II. Clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Barragán, W. E.; Federrath, C.; Crocker, R. M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a set of numerical experiments designed to systematically investigate how turbulence and magnetic fields influence the morphology, energetics, and dynamics of filaments produced in wind-cloud interactions. We cover 3D, magnetohydrodynamic systems of supersonic winds impacting clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields. We find that lognormal density distributions aid shock propagation through clouds, increasing their velocity dispersion and producing filaments with expanded cross-sections and highly magnetized knots and subfilaments. In self-consistently turbulent scenarios, the ratio of filament to initial cloud magnetic energy densities is ∼1. The effect of Gaussian velocity fields is bound to the turbulence Mach number: Supersonic velocities trigger a rapid cloud expansion; subsonic velocities only have a minor impact. The role of turbulent magnetic fields depends on their tension and is similar to the effect of radiative losses: the stronger the magnetic field or the softer the gas equation of state, the greater the magnetic shielding at wind-filament interfaces and the suppression of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Overall, we show that including turbulence and magnetic fields is crucial to understanding cold gas entrainment in multiphase winds. While cloud porosity and supersonic turbulence enhance the acceleration of clouds, magnetic shielding protects them from ablation and causes Rayleigh-Taylor-driven subfilamentation. Wind-swept clouds in turbulent models reach distances ∼15-20 times their core radius and acquire bulk speeds ∼0.3-0.4 of the wind speed in one cloud-crushing time, which are three times larger than in non-turbulent models. In all simulations, the ratio of turbulent magnetic to kinetic energy densities asymptotes at ∼0.1-0.4, and convergence of all relevant dynamical properties requires at least 64 cells per cloud radius.

  10. An Error-Reduction Algorithm to Improve Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Currently, cup anemometers on meteorological (met) towers are used to measure wind speeds and turbulence intensity to make decisions about wind turbine class and site suitability. However, as modern turbine hub heights increase and wind energy expands to complex and remote sites, it becomes more difficult and costly to install met towers at potential sites. As a result, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are now commonly used by wind farm managers and researchers to estimate the flow field at heights spanned by a turbine. While lidars can accurately estimate mean wind speeds and wind directions, there is still a large amount of uncertainty surrounding the measurement of turbulence with lidars. This uncertainty in lidar turbulence measurements is one of the key roadblocks that must be overcome in order to replace met towers with lidars for wind energy applications. In this talk, a model for reducing errors in lidar turbulence estimates is presented. Techniques for reducing errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination are combined in the model to produce a corrected value of the turbulence intensity (TI), a commonly used parameter in wind energy. In the next step of the model, machine learning techniques are used to further decrease the error in lidar TI estimates.

  11. Simulation of inhomogeneous, non-stationary and non-Gaussian turbulent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M; Larsen, G C; Hansen, K S

    2007-01-01

    Turbulence time series are needed for wind turbine load simulation. The multivariate Fourier simulation method often used for this purpose is extended for inhomogeneous and non-stationary processes of general probability distribution. This includes optional conditional simulation matching simulated series to field measurements at selected points. A probability model for the application of turbine wind loads is discussed, and finally the technique for non-stationary processes is illustrated by turbulence simulation during a front passage

  12. A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for animal and small vehicle flight experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Watts, Anthony; Nagle, Tony; Lentink, David

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of animal flight benefits greatly from specialized wind tunnels designed for flying animals. Existing facilities can simulate laminar flow during straight, ascending and descending flight, as well as at different altitudes. However, the atmosphere in which animals fly is even more complex. Flow can be laminar and quiet at high altitudes but highly turbulent near the ground, and gusts can rapidly change wind speed. To study flight in both laminar and turbulent environments, a...

  13. Impact of a wind turbine on turbulence: Un-freezing turbulence by means of a simple vortex particle approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Mercier, P.; Machefaux, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    the insertion point. The presence of the wind turbine and its wake is found to have insignificant effect on upstream turbulence. Finally, the mean velocity profiles in the wake are found to be in good agreement with both lidar measurements and CFD simulations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Heating of the Solar Wind Beyond 1 AU by Turbulent Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles

    The deposition of energy into the solar wind is argued to result from the dissipation of low frequency magnetohydrodynamic turbulence via kinetic processes at spatial scales comparable to the ion gyroradius. We present a theory for heating the solar wind that relies on uid processes such as wind shear inside about 10 AU and the pickup of interstellar ions and the associated generation of waves and turbulence beyond the ionization cavity to serve as energy sources for the heating. We compare the predictions of this theory to the observed magnetic turbulence levels and solar wind temperature measured by Voyager 2 beyond 1 AU. The contribution to the heating of the solar wind provided by interstellar pickup ions is a key feature of this theory and is chie y responsible for the excellent agreement between theory and observation that is seen beyond 10 AU.

  15. Turbulence and other processes for the scale-free texture of the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.

    2012-04-01

    The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 hours. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind which co-exists with the signature of MHD turbulence but extends to lower frequencies. Importantly, scaling and non- Gaussian statistics of fluctuations are not unique to turbulence and can imply other physical mechanisms- our results thus place a strong constraint on theories of the dynamics of the solar corona and solar wind. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components also show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range of MHD turbulence.

  16. Generalized similarity in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence as seen in the solar corona and solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Leonardis, E.; Nicol, R. M.; Foullon, C.

    2010-12-01

    A key property of turbulence is that it can be characterized and quantified in a robust and reproducible way in terms of the ensemble averaged statistical properties of fluctuations. Importantly, fluctuations associated with a turbulent field show similarity or scaling in their statistics and we test for this in observations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar corona and solar wind with both power spectra and Generalized Structure Functions. Realizations of turbulence that are finite sized are known to exhibit a generalized or extended self-similarity (ESS). ESS was recently demonstrated in magnetic field timeseries of Ulysses single point in-situ observations of fluctuations of quiet solar wind for which a single robust scaling function was found [1-2]. Flows in solar coronal prominences can be highly variable, with dynamics suggestive of turbulence. The Hinode SOT instrument provides observations (images) at simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution which span several decades in both spatial and temporal scales. We focus on specific Calcium II H-line observations of solar quiescent prominences with dynamic, highly variable small-scale flows. We analyze these images from the perspective of a finite sized turbulent flow. We discuss this evidence of ESS in the SOT images and in Ulysses solar wind observations- is there a single universal scaling of the largest eddies in the finite range magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flow? [1] S. C. Chapman, R. M. Nicol, Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 103, 241101 (2009) [2] S. C. Chapman, R. M. Nicol, E. Leonardis, K. Kiyani, V. Carbone, Observation of universality in the generalized similarity of evolving solar wind turbulence as seen by ULYSSES, Ap. J. Letters, 695, L185, (2009)

  17. Three-dimensional density and compressible magnetic structure in solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owen W.; Narita, Yasuhito; Escoubet, C.-Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The three-dimensional structure of both compressible and incompressible components of turbulence is investigated at proton characteristic scales in the solar wind. Measurements of the three-dimensional structure are typically difficult, since the majority of measurements are performed by a single spacecraft. However, the Cluster mission consisting of four spacecraft in a tetrahedral formation allows for a fully three-dimensional investigation of turbulence. Incompressible turbulence is investigated by using the three vector components of the magnetic field. Meanwhile compressible turbulence is investigated by considering the magnitude of the magnetic field as a proxy for the compressible fluctuations and electron density data deduced from spacecraft potential. Application of the multi-point signal resonator technique to intervals of fast and slow wind shows that both compressible and incompressible turbulence are anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field direction P⟂ ≫ P∥ and are sensitive to the value of the plasma beta (β; ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) and the wind type. Moreover, the incompressible fluctuations of the fast and slow solar wind are revealed to be different with enhancements along the background magnetic field direction present in the fast wind intervals. The differences in the fast and slow wind and the implications for the presence of different wave modes in the plasma are discussed.

  18. A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for animal and small vehicle flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Watts, Anthony; Nagle, Tony; Lentink, David

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of animal flight benefits greatly from specialized wind tunnels designed for flying animals. Existing facilities can simulate laminar flow during straight, ascending and descending flight, as well as at different altitudes. However, the atmosphere in which animals fly is even more complex. Flow can be laminar and quiet at high altitudes but highly turbulent near the ground, and gusts can rapidly change wind speed. To study flight in both laminar and turbulent environments, a multi-purpose wind tunnel for studying animal and small vehicle flight was built at Stanford University. The tunnel is closed-circuit and can produce airspeeds up to 50 m s-1 in a rectangular test section that is 1.0 m wide, 0.82 m tall and 1.73 m long. Seamless honeycomb and screens in the airline together with a carefully designed contraction reduce centreline turbulence intensities to less than or equal to 0.030% at all operating speeds. A large diameter fan and specialized acoustic treatment allow the tunnel to operate at low noise levels of 76.4 dB at 20 m s-1. To simulate high turbulence, an active turbulence grid can increase turbulence intensities up to 45%. Finally, an open jet configuration enables stereo high-speed fluoroscopy for studying musculoskeletal control in turbulent flow.

  19. A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for animal and small vehicle flight experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel B; Watts, Anthony; Nagle, Tony; Lentink, David

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of animal flight benefits greatly from specialized wind tunnels designed for flying animals. Existing facilities can simulate laminar flow during straight, ascending and descending flight, as well as at different altitudes. However, the atmosphere in which animals fly is even more complex. Flow can be laminar and quiet at high altitudes but highly turbulent near the ground, and gusts can rapidly change wind speed. To study flight in both laminar and turbulent environments, a multi-purpose wind tunnel for studying animal and small vehicle flight was built at Stanford University. The tunnel is closed-circuit and can produce airspeeds up to 50 m s -1 in a rectangular test section that is 1.0 m wide, 0.82 m tall and 1.73 m long. Seamless honeycomb and screens in the airline together with a carefully designed contraction reduce centreline turbulence intensities to less than or equal to 0.030% at all operating speeds. A large diameter fan and specialized acoustic treatment allow the tunnel to operate at low noise levels of 76.4 dB at 20 m s -1 . To simulate high turbulence, an active turbulence grid can increase turbulence intensities up to 45%. Finally, an open jet configuration enables stereo high-speed fluoroscopy for studying musculoskeletal control in turbulent flow.

  20. On the spread and decay of wind turbine wakes in ambient turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. B.; Jonsson, C.; Achilleos, S.; Eames, I.

    2014-12-01

    The decay of the downstream wake of a wind turbine plays an important role in the performance of wind farms. The spread and decay of a wake depend both on wake meandering (advection of the wake as a whole) and wake diffusion (widening of the wake within its meandering frame of reference). Both of these effects depend strongly on the intensity of the ambient turbulence relative to the velocity deficit in the wake, and on the integral length scale of the turbulence relative to the wake width. Recent theory, which we review here, shows how intense large-scale turbulence can lead to a rapid x-2 decay in the time-averaged centreline velocity deficit, as compared to a x-1 decay for smaller scale turbulence, where x is distance downstream. We emphasise in this paper that common wind farm models do not predict this rapid decay. We present new experimental measurements of the velocity deficit downstream of a porous disc in relatively large-scale ambient turbulence which corroborate predictions of a x-2 decay, and we show theoretically that the commonly used k-epsilon model does not capture this effect. We further show that a commercial CFD package, configured to match our experiments and employing the k-epsilon model, fails to predict such rapid decay. We conclude that steady simulations of wind turbine wake dynamics are insufficient for informing wind farm layout optimisation.

  1. On the spread and decay of wind turbine wakes in ambient turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P B; Jonsson, C; Achilleos, S; Eames, I

    2014-01-01

    The decay of the downstream wake of a wind turbine plays an important role in the performance of wind farms. The spread and decay of a wake depend both on wake meandering (advection of the wake as a whole) and wake diffusion (widening of the wake within its meandering frame of reference). Both of these effects depend strongly on the intensity of the ambient turbulence relative to the velocity deficit in the wake, and on the integral length scale of the turbulence relative to the wake width. Recent theory, which we review here, shows how intense large-scale turbulence can lead to a rapid x −2 decay in the time-averaged centreline velocity deficit, as compared to a x −1 decay for smaller scale turbulence, where x is distance downstream. We emphasise in this paper that common wind farm models do not predict this rapid decay. We present new experimental measurements of the velocity deficit downstream of a porous disc in relatively large-scale ambient turbulence which corroborate predictions of a x −2 decay, and we show theoretically that the commonly used k-ε model does not capture this effect. We further show that a commercial CFD package, configured to match our experiments and employing the k-ε model, fails to predict such rapid decay. We conclude that steady simulations of wind turbine wake dynamics are insufficient for informing wind farm layout optimisation

  2. Coastal Boundary Layer Characteristics of Wind, Turbulence, and Surface Roughness Parameter over the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Namboodiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.

  3. Wind observations from a forested hill: Relating turbulence statistics to surface characteristics in hilly and patchy terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Pauscher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates turbulence characteristics as observed at a 200 m tall mast at a hilly and complex site. It thereby concentrates on turbulence statistics, which are important for the site suitability analysis of a wind turbine. The directional variations in terrain are clearly reflected in the observed turbulence intensities and drag. Integral turbulence statistics showed some variations from their typical flat terrain values. Footprint modelling was used to model the area of effect and to relate the observed turbulence characteristics to the ruggedness and roughness within the estimated fetch area. Among the investigated turbulence quantities, the normalised standard deviation of the wind velocity along the streamlines showed the highest correlation with the effective roughness and ruggedness within the footprint followed by the normalised friction velocity and normalised standard deviation of the vertical wind speed. A differentiation between the effects of roughness and ruggedness was not possible, as forest cover and complex orography are highly correlated at the investigated site. An analysis of turbulence intensity by wind speed indicated a strong influence of atmospheric stability. Stable conditions lead to an overall reduction in turbulence intensity for a wind speed range between approx. 6–12 m s−1 when compared to neutral stratification. The variance of the horizontal wind speed strongly varied over the height range which is typical for a modern wind turbine and was in the order of the differences between different standard turbulence classes for wind turbines.

  4. Dynamics of transitional region of the solar wind turbulence with heliocentric distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, V.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2010-12-01

    Scale-separation model of wave-particle interaction in divergent solar wind was applied to study the transitional region of solar wind turbulence [1]. We concentrated on area from around the end of the inertial range to the region where proton cyclotron dumping is important. Our goal is to investigate how the transitional region changes due to change of the solar wind plasma parameters (and most important due to the change of local cyclotron frequency) with heliocentric distance. Previously we discovered that shell distribution developed in solar wind due to wave-particle interaction is becoming unstable as solar wind expands [2]. Waves that are generated by this instability modify the transitional region of turbulence. [1] Galinsky, V.L and V. I. Shevchenko, Phys. Rev. Letters, 85, 90, 2000. [2] Shevchenko V.I. et al., Phys. of Plasmas, 11, 4290, 2004.

  5. Spectral analysis of turbulence propagation mechanisms in solar wind and tokamaks plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    This thesis takes part in the study of spectral transfers in the turbulence of magnetized plasmas. We will be interested in turbulence in solar wind and tokamaks. Spacecraft measures, first principle simulations and simple dynamical systems will be used to understand the mechanisms behind spectral anisotropy and spectral transfers in these plasmas. The first part of this manuscript will introduce the common context of solar wind and tokamaks, what is specific to each of them and present some notions needed to understand the work presented here. The second part deals with turbulence in the solar wind. We will present first an observational study on the spectral variability of solar wind turbulence. Starting from the study of Grappin et al. (1990, 1991) on Helios mission data, we bring a new analysis taking into account a correct evaluation of large scale spectral break, provided by the higher frequency data of the Wind mission. This considerably modifies the result on the spectral index distribution of the magnetic and kinetic energy. A second observational study is presented on solar wind turbulence anisotropy using autocorrelation functions. Following the work of Matthaeus et al. (1990); Dasso et al. (2005), we bring a new insight on this statistical, in particular the question of normalisation choices used to build the autocorrelation function, and its consequence on the measured anisotropy. This allows us to bring a new element in the debate on the measured anisotropy depending on the choice of the referential either based on local or global mean magnetic field. Finally, we study for the first time in 3D the effects of the transverse expansion of solar wind on its turbulence. This work is based on a theoretical and numerical scheme developed by Grappin et al. (1993); Grappin and Velli (1996), but never used in 3D. Our main results deal with the evolution of spectral and polarization anisotropy due to the competition between non-linear and linear (Alfven coupling

  6. Scaling laws of turbulence and heating of fast solar wind: the role of density fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; Marino, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R

    2009-08-07

    Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvénic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind.

  7. The impact of turbulence intensity and atmospheric stability on power deficits due to wind turbine wakes at Horns Rev wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Jensen, Leo E.

    2012-01-01

    unstable conditions, whereas northerly winds have fewer observations in the stable classes. Stable conditions also tend to be associated with lower levels of turbulence intensity, and this relationship persists as wind speeds increase. Power deficit is a function of ambient turbulence intensity. The level...

  8. Wintertime slope winds and its turbulent characteristics in the Yeongdong region of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, H. R.; Eun, S. H.; Kim, B. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yeongdong region has various meteorological phenomenons by virtue of complicated geographical characteristics with high Taebaek Mountains running from the north to the south and an adjacent East Sea to the east. There are few studies on the slope winds and its turbulent characteristics over the complex terrain, which are critical information in mountain climbing, hiking, paragliding, even winter sports such as alpine skiing and ski jump etc. For the understanding of diverse mountain winds in the complex terrain in Yeongdong, hot-wire anemometers (Campbell Scientific) have been installed at a couple of sites since October 2014 and several automatic weather stations at several sites around the mountainous region in Yeongdong since November 2012.WRF model simulations have been also done with an ultra-fine horizontal resolution of 300 m for 10 years. Generally, model and observation show that the dominant wind is westerly, approximately more than 75%. It is quite consistent that wind fields from both model and observation agree with each other in the valley region and at the top of the mountain, but there is a significant disagreement in wind direction specifically in the slide slope. Probably this implies model's performance with even an ultra-fine resolution is still not enough for the slide slope domain of complex terrains. Despite that, the observation clearly showed up- and down slope winds for the weak synoptic conditions carefully selected such as strong insolation and a synoptic wind less than 5m/s in the 850 hPa. The up- and down slope flows are also demonstrated in the snow-covered condition as well as grass ground. Further, planar fit transformation algorithm against the coordinate tilt has been applied to raw wind data (10Hz) of the slope site for the analysis of turbulence properties. Turbulence also increases with synoptic wind strength. Detailed analysis of mechanical turbulence and buoyance will be discussed for different surface properties (grass

  9. Modeling of 830 nm FSO Link Attenuation in Fog or Wind Turbulence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, J.; Fišer, Ondřej; Svoboda, Jaroslav; Schejbal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-241 ISSN 1210-2512 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0851; GA MŠk OC09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Free space optics propagation * fog attenuation, * wind turbulence attenuation * turbulent energy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2010 http://www.radioeng.cz/fulltexts/2010/10_02_237_241.pdf

  10. Anisotropic third-moment estimates of the energy cascade in solar wind turbulence using multispacecraft data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K T; Wan, M; Matthaeus, W H; Weygand, J M; Dasso, S

    2011-10-14

    The first direct determination of the inertial range energy cascade rate, using an anisotropic form of Yaglom's law for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, is obtained in the solar wind with multispacecraft measurements. The two-point mixed third-order structure functions of Elsässer fluctuations are integrated over a sphere in magnetic field-aligned coordinates, and the result is consistent with a linear scaling. Therefore, volume integrated heating and cascade rates are obtained that, unlike previous studies, make only limited assumptions about the underlying spectral geometry of solar wind turbulence. These results confirm the turbulent nature of magnetic and velocity field fluctuations in the low frequency limit, and could supply the energy necessary to account for the nonadiabatic heating of the solar wind.

  11. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun

    2011-01-01

    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio , and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  12. Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.

  13. On the difference between the magnetic intermittent micro-structures in fast wind and slow wind and it's implication for the solar wind turbulence cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C.; Wang, X.; He, J.; Marsch, E.; Wang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic intermittent micro-structures (on time scales of 20-40s) in both fast and slow solar wind are studied by using plasma and field measurements from the WIND spacecraft. In the fast wind these structures are found to be composed of mostly rotational discontinuities (RDs) and rarely tangential current sheets (TCSs). The RDs do not show prominent plasma-parameter changes. Conversely, the TCSs have a distinct tendency to be associated with local enhancements of the proton temperature, density, and plasma beta, and a local decrease of the magnetic field magnitude. These results show that dissipation of solar wind turbulence can take place in intermittent or locally isolated small-scale regions which correspond to the TCSs found in fast wind. However in slow wind, magnetic intermittent micro-structures are found to consist of mainly magnetic field directional turnings (MFDTs, Tu & Marsch, Ann. Geophysicae, 9, 319,1991) and rarely tangential current sheets (TCSs). The MFDTs are characterized by: (1) clear variation of the field component in the L dimension of the LMN coordinate system using the MVA method; (2) at least one of B_M or B_N is near to zero, or the velocity component V_L is near to zero; (3) the magnetic magnitude does not have a clear change; (4) no significant temperature and density peaks. The TCSs found in slow wind are not associated with prominent temperature enhancements. The TCSs found in both fast and slow wind may be created by turbulence interactions. The heating effect of TCSs in slow wind is weaker because the turbulence level is lower. The origin of the RDs in fast wind and the MFDTs in slow wind will be a topic for future studies. MFDTs may be observed when crossing a magnetic helical micro-tube, which may be formed due to tearing mode instability and magnetic multi-x-point reconnection in the slow wind.

  14. Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laituri, Tony R.

    1988-01-01

    Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.

  15. Description of signature scales in a floating wind turbine model wake subjected to varying turbulence intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Hawwa; Rockel, Stanislav; Holling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim; Cal, Raul Bayon

    2017-11-01

    The wake behind a floating model horizontal axis wind turbine during pitch motion is investigated and compared to a fixed wind turbine wake. An experiment is conducted in an acoustic wind tunnel where hot-wire data are acquired at five downstream locations. At each downstream location, a rake of 16 hot-wires was used with placement of the probes increasing radially in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonally at 45 deg. In addition, the effect of turbulence intensity on the floating wake is examined by subjecting the wind turbine to different inflow conditions controlled through three settings in the wind tunnel grid, a passive and two active protocols, thus varying in intensity. The wakes are inspected by statistics of the point measurements, where the various length/time scales are considered. The wake characteristics for a floating wind turbine are compared to a fixed turbine, and uncovering its features; relevant as the demand for exploiting deep waters in wind energy is increasing.

  16. Free-stream turbulence effects on the flow around an S809 wind turbine airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Maldonado, Victor; Lebron, Jose [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Kang, Hyung-Suk [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Meneveau, Charles [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Castillo, Luciano [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D PIV) measurements were performed to study the effect of free-stream turbulence on the flow around a smooth and rough surface airfoil, specifically under stall conditions. A 0.25-m chord model with an S809 profile, common for horizontal-axis wind turbine applications, was tested at a wind tunnel speed of 10 m/s, resulting in Reynolds numbers based on the chord of Re{sub c} {approx} 182,000 and turbulence intensity levels of up to 6.14%. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency (from L/D {approx} 4.894 to L/D {approx} 0.908). On the contrary, when the flow is mostly stalled, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (from L/D {approx} 1.696 to L/D {approx} 1.787). Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, contrary to what is expected, free-stream turbulence is actually advancing separation, particularly when the turbulent scales in the free-stream are of the same order as the chord. This is a result of the complex dynamics between the boundary layer scales and the free-stream turbulence length scales when relatively high levels of active-grid generated turbulence are present. (orig.)

  17. Relevant Criteria for Testing the Quality of Models for Turbulent Wind Speed Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    10% smaller than the IEC model for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3  s and 10  s preaveraging of wind speed data are relevant for megawatt......Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approximately...

  18. Estimation of turbulence intensity using rotor effective wind speed in Lillgrund and Horns Rev-I offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    varies over the extent of the wind farm. This paper describes a method to estimate the TI at individual turbine locations by using the rotor effective wind speed calculated via high frequency turbine data. The method is applied to Lillgrund and Horns Rev-I offshore wind farms and the results are compared...... with TI derived from the meteorological mast, nacelle mounted anemometer on the turbines and estimation based on the standard deviation of power. The results show that the proposed TI estimation method is in the best agreement with the meteorological mast. Therefore, the rotor effective wind speed...... is shown to be applicable for the TI assessment in real-time wind farm calculations under different operational conditions. Furthermore, the TI in the wake is seen to follow the same trend with the estimated wake deficit which enables to quantify the turbulence in terms of the wake loss locally inside...

  19. Turbulence in the solar wind: spectra from Voyager 2 data at 5 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraternale, F; Gallana, L; Iovieno, M; Tordella, D; Opher, M; Richardson, J D

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in the flow velocity and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Solar System. These fluctuations are turbulent, in the sense that they are disordered and span a broad range of scales in both space and time. The study of solar wind turbulence is motivated by a number of factors all keys to the understanding of the Solar Wind origin and thermodynamics. The solar wind spectral properties are far from uniformity and evolve with the increasing distance from the sun. Most of the available spectra of solar wind turbulence were computed at 1 astronomical unit, while accurate spectra on wide frequency ranges at larger distances are still few. In this paper we consider solar wind spectra derived from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 AU from the sun. Voyager 2 data are an incomplete time series with a voids/signal ratio that typically increases as the spacecraft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979), making the analysis challenging. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the spectral slopes, different methods are tested on synthetic turbulence signals with the same gap distribution as V2 data. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents between −2.1 and −1.1, depending on frequency subranges. Probability density functions (PDFs) and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency. (invited comment)

  20. Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H

    2014-06-16

    Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve model parameterizations in the CABL. Vertical profiles of wind speed up to 200 m were measured onshore and offshore by lidar wind profilers, and horizontal gradients of wind speed by a 3-D scanning lidar. Turbulence data were collected from sonic anemometers deployed onshore and offshore. Numerical simulations were conducted with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with 2 nested domains down to a resolution of 1-km over the lake. Initial data analyses presented in this paper investigate complex flow patterns across the coast. Acceleration was observed up to 200 m above the surface for flow coming from the land to the water. However, by 7 km off the coast the wind field had not yet reached equilibrium with the new surface (water) conditions. The surface turbulence parameters over the water derived from the sonic data could not predict wind profiles observed by the ZephlR lidar located offshore. Horizontal wind speed gradients near the coast show the influence of atmospheric stability on flow dynamics. Wind profiles retrieved from the 3-D scanning lidar show evidence of nocturnal low level jets (LLJs). The WRF model was able to capture the occurrence of LLJ events, but its performance varied in predicting their intensity, duration, and the location of the jet core.

  1. On Intermittent Turbulence Heating of the Solar Wind: Differences between Tangential and Rotational Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua

    2013-08-01

    The intermittent structures in solar wind turbulence, studied by using measurements from the WIND spacecraft, are identified as being mostly rotational discontinuities (RDs) and rarely tangential discontinuities (TDs) based on the technique described by Smith. Only TD-associated current sheets (TCSs) are found to be accompanied with strong local heating of the solar wind plasma. Statistical results show that the TCSs have a distinct tendency to be associated with local enhancements of the proton temperature, density, and plasma beta, and a local decrease of magnetic field magnitude. Conversely, for RDs, our statistical results do not reveal convincing heating effects. These results confirm the notion that dissipation of solar wind turbulence can take place in intermittent or locally isolated small-scale regions which correspond to TCSs. The possibility of heating associated with RDs is discussed.

  2. Reducing Wind Turbine Load Simulation Uncertainties by Means of a Constrained Gaussian Turbulence Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    . A numerical study shows the application of the constrained turbulence method to load simulations on a 10MW wind turbine model, using two example lidar patterns – a 5-point pattern forming a square with a central point, and a circular one. Based on the results of this study, we assess the influence of applying...... the proposed method on the statistical uncertainty in wind turbine extreme and fatigue loads....

  3. Wind observations from a forested hill: Relating turbulence statistics to surface characteristics in hilly and patchy terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Pauscher, L.; Callies, D.; Klaas, T.; Foken, T.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates turbulence characteristics as observed at a 200 m tall mast at a hilly and complex site. It thereby concentrates on turbulence statistics, which are important for the site suitability analysis of a wind turbine. The directional variations in terrain are clearly reflected in the observed turbulence intensities and drag. Integral turbulence statistics showed some variations from their typical flat terrain values. Footprint modelling was used to model the area of effect a...

  4. Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Larsen, Torben J.

    of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly...

  5. Wind turbine power production and annual energy production depend on atmospheric stability and turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. St. Martin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using detailed upwind and nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric (GE 1.5sle model with a 77 m rotor diameter, we calculate power curves and annual energy production (AEP and explore their sensitivity to different atmospheric parameters to provide guidelines for the use of stability and turbulence filters in segregating power curves. The wind measurements upwind of the turbine include anemometers mounted on a 135 m meteorological tower as well as profiles from a lidar. We calculate power curves for different regimes based on turbulence parameters such as turbulence intensity (TI as well as atmospheric stability parameters such as the bulk Richardson number (RB. We also calculate AEP with and without these atmospheric filters and highlight differences between the results of these calculations. The power curves for different TI regimes reveal that increased TI undermines power production at wind speeds near rated, but TI increases power production at lower wind speeds at this site, the US Department of Energy (DOE National Wind Technology Center (NWTC. Similarly, power curves for different RB regimes reveal that periods of stable conditions produce more power at wind speeds near rated and periods of unstable conditions produce more power at lower wind speeds. AEP results suggest that calculations without filtering for these atmospheric regimes may overestimate the AEP. Because of statistically significant differences between power curves and AEP calculated with these turbulence and stability filters for this turbine at this site, we suggest implementing an additional step in analyzing power performance data to incorporate effects of atmospheric stability and turbulence across the rotor disk.

  6. Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of irregular cessation and subsequent reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-Be´nard convection is theoretically analyzed. The force and thermal balance on a single plume detached from the thermal boundary layer yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations, whose

  7. Multi-Spacecraft Study of Kinetic scale Turbulence Using MMS Observations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; Maruca, B.; Burch, J.; Moore, T. E.; Phan, T.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study investigating kinetic scale turbulence in the solar wind. Most previous studies relied on single spacecraft measurements, employing the Taylor hypothesis in order to probe different scales. The small separation of MMS spacecraft, well below the ion inertial scale, allow us for the first time to directly probe turbulent fluctuations at the kinetic range. Using multi-spacecraft measurements, we are able to measure the spatial characteristics of turbulent fluctuations and compare with the traditional Taylor-based single spacecraft approach. Meanwhile, combining observations from Cluster and MMS data we were able to cover a wide range of scales from the inertial range where the turbulent cascade takes place, down to the kinetic range where the energy is eventually dissipated. These observations present an important step in understanding the nature of solar wind turbulence and the processes through which turbulent energy is dissipated into particle heating and acceleration. We compute statistical quantities such as the second order structure function and the scale-dependent kurtosis, along with their dependence on the parameters such as the mean magnetic field direction. Overall, we observe an overall agreement between the single spacecraft and the multi-spacecraft approach. However, a small but significant deviation is observed at the smaller scales near the electron inertial scale. The high values of the scale dependent kurtosis at very small scales, observed via two-point measurements, open up a compelling avenue of investigation for theory and numerical modelling.

  8. Plasma Turbulence and Kinetic Instabilities at Ion Scales in the Expanding Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Franci, L.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 812, č. 2 (2015), L32/1-L32/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Grant - others:European Commission(XE) 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.487, year: 2015

  9. Plasma turbulence and kinetic instabilities at ion scales in the expanding solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 811, č. 2 (2015), L32/1-L32/6 ISSN 2041-8205 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.487, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L32/pdf

  10. Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.

  11. Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S., E-mail: lina.hadid@lpp.polytechnique.fr [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Sud, Observatoire de Paris, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, PSL Research University, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2017-03-20

    Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.

  12. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  13. The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes over southern Indian peninsula station. M N Patil∗. , R T Waghmare, T Dharmaraj, G R Chinthalu,. Devendraa Siingh and G S Meena. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding ...

  14. Influence of turbulence, orientation, and site configuration on the response of buildings to extreme wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Aly Mousaad

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings.

  15. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Cariou, J.-P.; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence...

  16. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

    2014-12-06

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  18. Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind, Waves, Surface Flow and Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinke, Jochen

    2001-01-01

    This work is an extension of the early works on measuring short wind waves that have been funded by ONR for seven years, During this seven-year period, we have collected the only available systematic...

  19. Current and turbulence measurements at the FINO1 offshore wind energy site: analysis using 5-beam ADCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Mostafa; Fer, Ilker; Reuder, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    We report concurrent measurements of ocean currents and turbulence at two sites in the North Sea, one site at upwind of the FINO1 platform and the other 200-m downwind of the Alpha Ventus wind farm. At each site, mean currents, Reynolds stresses, turbulence intensity and production of turbulent kinetic energy are obtained from two bottom-mounted 5-beam Nortek Signature1000s, high-frequency Doppler current profiler, at a water depth of approximately 30 m. Measurements from the two sites are compared to statistically identify the effects of wind farm and waves on ocean current variability and the turbulent structure in the water column. Profiles of Reynolds stresses are found to be sensible to both environmental forcing and the wind farm wake-induced distortions in both boundary layers near the surface and the seabed. Production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence intensity exhibit approximately similar, but less pronounced, patterns in the presence of farm wake effects.

  20. Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.

  1. Remote Sensing Data in Wind Velocity Field Modelling: a Case Study from the Sudetes (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancewicz, Kacper

    2014-06-01

    The phenomena of wind-field deformation above complex (mountainous) terrain is a popular subject of research related to numerical modelling using GIS techniques. This type of modelling requires, as input data, information on terrain roughness and a digital terrain/elevation model. This information may be provided by remote sensing data. Consequently, its accuracy and spatial resolution may affect the results of modelling. This paper represents an attempt to conduct wind-field modelling in the area of the Śnieżnik Massif (Eastern Sudetes). The modelling process was conducted in WindStation 2.0.10 software (using the computable fluid dynamics solver Canyon). Two different elevation models were used: the Global Land Survey Digital Elevation Model (GLS DEM) and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 2. The terrain roughness raster was generated on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC 2006) data. The output data were post-processed in ArcInfo 9.3.1 software to achieve a high-quality cartographic presentation. Experimental modelling was conducted for situations from 26 November 2011, 25 May 2012, and 26 May 2012, based on a limited number of field measurements and using parameters of the atmosphere boundary layer derived from the aerological surveys provided by the closest meteorological stations. The model was run in a 100-m and 250-m spatial resolution. In order to verify the model's performance, leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The calculated indices allowed for a comparison with results of former studies pertaining to WindStation's performance. The experiment demonstrated very subtle differences between results in using DTED or GLS DEM elevation data. Additionally, CLC 2006 roughness data provided more noticeable improvements in the model's performance, but only in the resolution corresponding to the original roughness data. The best input data configuration resulted in the following mean values of error measure: root mean squared error of velocity

  2. Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Leo, Laura S.; Sabatino, Silvana Di; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fairall, Christopher W.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of small-scale turbulence made in the atmospheric boundary layer over complex terrain during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the structure of turbulence in katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured on four towers deployed along the east lower slope (2-4°) of Granite Mountain near Salt Lake City in Utah, USA. The multi-level (up to seven) observations made during a 30-day long MATERHORN field campaign in September-October 2012 allowed the study of temporal and spatial structure of katabatic flows in detail, and herein we report turbulence statistics (e.g., fluxes, variances, spectra, and cospectra) and their variations in katabatic flow. Observed vertical profiles show steep gradients near the surface, but in the layer above the slope jet the vertical variability is smaller. It is found that the vertical (normal to the slope) momentum flux and horizontal (along-slope) heat flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the along-slope heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. This suggests that the position of the jet-speed maximum can be obtained by linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the along-slope heat flux) to derive the height where the flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind-speed components (and therefore of the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind-speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat flux is completely cancelled by the generation of turbulence due to the along-slope heat flux. Turbulence above the wind

  3. An error reduction algorithm to improve lidar turbulence estimates for wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Newman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing devices such as lidars are currently being investigated as alternatives to cup anemometers on meteorological towers for the measurement of wind speed and direction. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds at heights spanning an entire turbine rotor disk and can be easily moved from one location to another, they measure different values of turbulence than an instrument on a tower. Current methods for improving lidar turbulence estimates include the use of analytical turbulence models and expensive scanning lidars. While these methods provide accurate results in a research setting, they cannot be easily applied to smaller, vertically profiling lidars in locations where high-resolution sonic anemometer data are not available. Thus, there is clearly a need for a turbulence error reduction model that is simpler and more easily applicable to lidars that are used in the wind energy industry. In this work, a new turbulence error reduction algorithm for lidars is described. The Lidar Turbulence Error Reduction Algorithm, L-TERRA, can be applied using only data from a stand-alone vertically profiling lidar and requires minimal training with meteorological tower data. The basis of L-TERRA is a series of physics-based corrections that are applied to the lidar data to mitigate errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. These corrections are applied in conjunction with a trained machine-learning model to improve turbulence estimates from a vertically profiling WINDCUBE v2 lidar. The lessons learned from creating the L-TERRA model for a WINDCUBE v2 lidar can also be applied to other lidar devices. L-TERRA was tested on data from two sites in the Southern Plains region of the United States. The physics-based corrections in L-TERRA brought regression line slopes much closer to 1 at both sites and significantly reduced the sensitivity of lidar turbulence errors to atmospheric stability. The accuracy of machine

  4. The influence of turbulence on the aero-elastic instability of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Modern multi-megawatt wind turbines are designed with longer and slender blades using new composite materials and advanced fabrication methods. The trend towards lighter and more flexible blades may lead to aeroelastic instability of wind turbines under certain circumstances, thus resulting...... aerodynamic damping. A 13-degree-of-freedom (13-DOF) wind turbine model is developed using Euler-Lagrange equations, which includes the couplings of the tower-blade-drivetrain vibration, the quasi-static aeroelasticity and a collective pitch controller. Numerical simulations are carried out using data...... turbine shifts from a stable state into an instable state, is determined in different cases. Results show that turbulence intensity has significant influence on the aeroelastic stability of high-performance wind turbines operating close to stall, and the stability of the wind turbine might be changed due...

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.

  6. Structural characterization of wind-sheared turbulent flow using self-organized mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas V.; Handler, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    A nonlinear cluster analysis algorithm is used to characterize the spatial structure of a wind-sheared turbulent flow obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the three-dimensional temperature and momentum fields. The application of self-organizing mapping to DNS data for data reduction is utilized because of the dimensional similitude in structure between DNS data and remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral data where the technique has been used extensively. For the three Reynolds numbers of 150, 180, and 220 used in the DNS, self-organized mapping is successful in the extraction of boundary layer streaky structures from the turbulent temperature and momentum fields. In addition, it preserves the cross-wind scale structure of the streaks exhibited in both fields which loosely scale with the inverse of the Reynolds number. Self-organizing mapping of the along wind component of the helicity density shows a layer of the turbulence field which is spotty suggesting significant direct coupling between the large and small-scale turbulent structures. The spatial correlation of the temperature and momentum fields allows for the possibility of the remote extrapolation of the momentum structure from thermal structure.

  7. MHD turbulence in the solar wind: self-similarity, intermittency and coherent structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.

    1999-03-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations on the one hand and solar wind data analysis on the other hand have allowed for much progress in our understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. In this paper the author gives a schematic view of the main properties of solar wind MHD turbulence and discusses some results obtained from the analysis of velocity and magnetic field data measured during the space experiments of Helios and ISEE. In particular, he shows that applying the Haar wavelets technique to about one year of data taken every minute during the ISEE space experiment, it is possible to calculate spectra and structure functions of the turbulence; moreover the definition of a conditioned structure function allows: (a) the elimination of intermittency effects in spectra and thus for a clear identification of which kind of phenomenology of nonlinear cascade between Kolmogorov (1941) and Kraichnan (1974) is taking place in solar wind turbulence; (b) the identification of the most intermittent structures which turn out to be either shock waves or one-dimensional current sheets, at variance with ordinary fluid intermittency, where the most intermittent structures are found to be two-dimensional vortices.

  8. Turbulent kinetic energy of the ocean winds over the Kuroshio Extension from QuikSCAT winds (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Dong, Changming; King, Gregory P.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate mesoscale turbulence (10-1000 km) in the ocean winds over the Kuroshio Extension (28°N-40°N, 140°E-180°E) using the QuikSCAT data set (November 1999 to October 2009). We calculate the second (Djj) and third-order structure functions (Djjj) and the spatial variance (Vj) as a function of scale r (j=L,T denotes, respectively, the longitudinal (divergent) and transverse (vortical) component). The most interesting results of the analysis follow. Although both Vj>(r>) and Djj>(r>) measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), we find that Vj>(r>) is the more robust measure. The spatial variance density (dVj/dr) has a broad peak near 450 km (close to the midlatitude Rossby radius of deformation). On interannual time scales, TKE correlates well with the El Niño 3.4 index. According to turbulence theory, the kinetic energy cascades downscale (upscale) if DLLL>(r>) (also skewness SL=DLLL/DLL3/2) is negative (positive). Our results for the Kuroshio Extension are consistent with a downscale cascade (indicating convergence dominates). Furthermore, classical turbulence theory predicts that SL=-0.3 and independent of r; however, we find SL varies strongly with r, from -4 at small scales to -0.3 at large scales. This nonclassical behavior implies strong-scale interaction, which we attribute to the rapid, and sometimes explosive, growth of storms in the region through baroclinic instability. Finally, we find that ST (a measure of cyclonic/anticyclonic asymmetry) is positive (cyclonic) and also varies strongly with r, from 4 at small scales to 0.5 at large scales. New turbulence models are needed to explain these results, and that will benefit Weather Prediction and climate modeling.Plain Language SummaryThe turbulent winds near the ocean surface give rise to air-sea heat and momentum exchange. The turbulence is caused by convective processes - processes generated at weather fronts, in squalls, tropical disturbances and extra-tropical cyclones. In order to improve

  9. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise. [NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise was refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy. This theory was then verified by carrying out extensive data/theory comparisons. The resulting model computer program was then employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line on rotor/turbulence noise for outdoor test stand. NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  10. The Dissipation of Solar Wind Turbulent Fluctuations at Electron Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico); D. Burgess

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe present two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of decaying electromagnetic fluctuations. The computational box is such that wavelengths ranging from electron to ion gyroradii are resolved. The parameters used are realistic for the solar wind, and the

  11. Heating and Acceleration of Solar Wind Ions by Turbulent Wave Spectrum in Inhomogeneous Expanding Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, Leon; Ozak, Nataly; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2016-01-01

    Near the Sun (acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super- Alfvenic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.

  12. Imaging the Breakup of Coronal Structure and the Onset of Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The slow solar wind is dominated by gusty, variable structure that has been associated by many authors with turbulence. The slow wind is thought to arise from the vicinity of the coronal streamer belt, which is dominated by quasi-stationary, highly anisotropic, radially aligned density structure shaped by the solar magnetic field. Photometric analysis of the top of the streamers, in the range of apparent distances between roughly 4° and 24° from the Sun, reveals the ultimate fate of the streamers. In the range above 10° from the Sun, where the transition from low-plasma-beta to high-plasma-beta is thought to occur, we have imaged the fading and breakup of quiescent coronal streamers, pseudostreamers, and/or rays (together, "Striae"), and the textural transition at large scales from smooth background flow with sporadic ejecta, to turbulent and variable flow. The result constrains and illuminates turbulent theories of solar wind evolution, and highlights the need for better imaging measurements in this critical transition zone between corona and solar wind - the final unexplored frontier of the heliosphere.

  13. The Parametric Decay Instability of Alfvén Waves in Turbulent Plasmas and the Applications in the Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Mijie; Xiao, Chijie; Wang, Xiaogang [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the parametric decay instability (PDI) of Alfvén waves in turbulent plasmas and explore its possible applications in the solar wind. We find that, over a broad range of parameters in background turbulence amplitudes, the PDI of an Alfvén wave with various amplitudes can still occur, though its growth rate in turbulent plasmas tends to be lower than both the theoretical linear theory prediction and that in the non-turbulent situations. Spatial–temporal FFT analyses of density fluctuations produced by the PDI match well with the dispersion relation of the slow MHD waves. This result may provide an explanation of the generation mechanism of slow waves in the solar wind observed at 1 au. It further highlights the need to explore the effects of density variations in modifying the turbulence properties as well as in heating the solar wind plasmas.

  14. Preliminary proposal for the study of the turbulence of the wind the roofs of the buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariñas Wong, Ernesto Yoel; Cabeza Fereira, Javier Enrique; Baracaldo, Hector; Fleck, Brian; Fernandez Bonilla, Alexeis

    2017-01-01

    The research is aimed at identifying the best safety conditions, efficiency for the use of renewable technologies in urban environments, anemometers of vanes and sonic are applied near the edge and at low height of the floor in the highest building of the INETC in order to know Wind behavior close to the edge as well as vertical wind potentialities and turbulent wind behavior. The data obtained from 3D sonic anemometers and weather vane shall be extrapolated to relate it to the data base of the Davis reference meteorological station, located in the undisturbed stream. The wind data will be linked to the effort and load regime that will be recorded at the same time on solar panels and their support structure, which will be done by means of extensive gauges metric. The meteorological data and the load stresses will be related to three-dimensional numerical simulations obtained by computational fluid mechanics numerical tests. (author)

  15. The Role of Free Stream Turbulence on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Victor; Thormann, Adrien; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano; Turbulence Group Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    In the present research, a 2-D wind turbine blade section based on the S809 airfoil was manufactured and tested at Johns Hopkins University in the Stanley Corrsin wind tunnel facility. A free stream velocity of 10 m/s produced a Reynolds number based on blade chord of 2.08.x105. Free stream turbulence was generated using an active grid placed 5.5 m upstream of the blade which generated a turbulence intensity, Tu of up to 6.1% and an integral length scale, L∞ of about 0.15 m. The blade was pitched to a range of angles of attack, α from 0 to 18 degrees in order to study the effects of the integral length scales on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wind turbine under fully attached and separated flow conditions. Pressure measurements around the blade and wake velocity deficit measurements utilizing a hot-wire probe were acquired to compute the lift and drag coefficient. Results suggest that turbulence generally increases aerodynamic performance as measured by the lift to drag ratio, L / D except at 0 degrees angle of attack. A significant enhancement in L / D results with free stream turbulence at post-stall angles of attack of 16 and 18 degrees, where L / D increase from 2.49 to 5.43 and from 0.64 to 4.00 respectively. This is a consequence of delaying flow separation with turbulence (which is observed in the suction pressure distribution) which in turn reduces the momentum loss in the wake particularly at 18 degrees angle of attack.

  16. The sensitivity and stability of bacterioplankton community structure to wind-wave turbulence in a large, shallow, eutrophic lake

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian; Qin, Boqiang; Han, Xiaoxia; Jin, Decai; Wang, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are strongly influenced by wind-driven wave turbulence. The direct physical effects of turbulence on bacterioplankton community structure however, have not yet been addressed and remains poorly understood. To examine the stability of bacterioplankton communities under turbulent conditions, we simulated conditions in the field to evaluate the responses of the bacterioplankton community to physical forcing in Lake Taihu, using high-throughput sequencing and flow cytometry. A total of 4,52...

  17. The role of turbulence in coronal heating and solar wind expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R; Asgari-Targhi, Mahboubeh; Miralles, Mari Paz; Raymond, John C; Strachan, Leonard; Tian, Hui; Woolsey, Lauren N

    2015-05-13

    Plasma in the Sun's hot corona expands into the heliosphere as a supersonic and highly magnetized solar wind. This paper provides an overview of our current understanding of how the corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Recent models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence have progressed to the point of successfully predicting many observed properties of this complex, multi-scale system. However, it is not clear whether the heating in open-field regions comes mainly from the dissipation of turbulent fluctuations that are launched from the solar surface, or whether the chaotic 'magnetic carpet' in the low corona energizes the system via magnetic reconnection. To help pin down the physics, we also review some key observational results from ultraviolet spectroscopy of the collisionless outer corona. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE FROM MHD TO SUB-ION SCALES: HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-10

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.

  19. Intermittency in the solar wind turbulence through probability distribution functions of fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Carbone, Vincenzo; Veltri, Pierluigi; Consolini, Giuseppe; Bruno, Roberto

    Intermittency in fluid turbulence can be emphasized through the analysis of Probability Distribution Functions (PDF) for velocity fluctuations, which display a strong non-gaussian behavior at small scales. Castaing et al. (1990) have introduced the idea that this behavior can be represented, in the framework of a multiplicative cascade model, by a convolution of gaussians whose variances is distributed according to a log-normal distribution. In this letter we have tried to test this conjecture on the MHD solar wind turbulence by performing a fit of the PDF of the bulk speed and magnetic field intensity fluctuations calculated in the solar wind, with the model. This fit allows us to calculate a parameter λ² depending on the scale, which represents the width of the log-normal distribution of the variances of the gaussians. The physical implications of the obtained values of the parameter as well as of its scaling law are finally discussed.

  20. An improved k-ε model applied to a wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2015-01-01

    An improved k-ε turbulence model is developed and applied to a single wind turbine wake in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer using a Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes solver. The proposed model includes a flow-dependent Cμ that is sensitive to high velocity gradients, e.g., at the edge of a wind...... turbine wake. The modified k-ε model is compared with the original k-ε eddy viscosity model, Large-Eddy Simulations and field measurements using eight test cases. The comparison shows that the velocity wake deficits, predicted by the proposed model are much closer to the ones calculated by the Large...

  1. Turbulence Intensity at Inlet of 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel Caused by Upwind Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise; Yuricich, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate the magnitude of turbulence in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel (80 x 120) caused by buildings located upwind from the 80 x 120 inlet, a 150th-scale study was performed that utilized a nominal two-dimensional blockage placed ahead of the inlet. The distance of the blockage ahead of the inlet was varied. This report describes velocity measurements made in the plane of the 80 x 120 model inlet for the case of zero ambient (atmospheric) wind.

  2. DETAILED FIT OF 'CRITICAL BALANCE' THEORY TO SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Miriam A.; Wicks, Robert T.; Horbury, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the reduced spectrum of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at different frequencies f which would be observed by a single spacecraft in the solar wind when the magnetic field was at an angle θ B to the solar wind flow, if the wavevector spectrum in the solar wind frame were in anisotropic 'critical balance' (CB) as proposed by Goldreich and Sridhar in 1995 (GS95). The anisotropic power spectrum in the inertial range, P(f, θ B ), is scaled onto one curve with f- 5/3 behavior at θ B near 90 0 and f -2 behavior at small θ B . The transition between the two limiting spectra depends on the form of the GS95 wavevector spectrum and the CB scaling parameter L. Using wavelet analysis of Ulysses magnetic field data in three 30-day periods in the high-latitude solar wind in 1995, we verify that the scaling of power with angle and frequency is qualitatively consistent with GS95 theory. However, the scale length L required to fit the observed P(f, θ B ) to the original CB theory is rather less than the scale predicted by that theory for the solar wind. Part, possibly all, of this discrepancy is removed when the GS95 theory modified for imbalanced turbulence is used.

  3. Dissipation and heating in solar wind turbulence: from the macro to the micro and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Khurom H; Osman, Kareem T; Chapman, Sandra C

    2015-05-13

    The past decade has seen a flurry of research activity focused on discerning the physics of kinetic scale turbulence in high-speed astrophysical plasma flows. By 'kinetic' we mean spatial scales on the order of or, in particular, smaller than the ion inertial length or the ion gyro-radius--the spatial scales at which the ion and electron bulk velocities decouple and considerable change can be seen in the ion distribution functions. The motivation behind most of these studies is to find the ultimate fate of the energy cascade of plasma turbulence, and thereby the channels by which the energy in the system is dissipated. This brief Introduction motivates the case for a themed issue on this topic and introduces the topic of turbulent dissipation and heating in the solar wind. The theme issue covers the full breadth of studies: from theory and models, massive simulations of these models and observational studies from the highly rich and vast amount of data collected from scores of heliospheric space missions since the dawn of the space age. A synopsis of the theme issue is provided, where a brief description of all the contributions is discussed and how they fit together to provide an over-arching picture on the highly topical subject of dissipation and heating in turbulent collisionless plasmas in general and in the solar wind in particular. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. OBSERVATION OF UNIVERSALITY IN THE GENERALIZED SIMILARITY OF EVOLVING SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE AS SEEN BY ULYSSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.; Leonardis, E.; Kiyani, K.; Carbone, V.

    2009-01-01

    We perform statistical analysis of the fluctuating magnetic field observed in-situ by the Ulysses spacecraft, from the perspective of quantitative characterization of the evolving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We focus on two successive polar passes around solar minimum which provide extended intervals of quiet, fast solar wind at a range of radial distances and latitudes: the south polar pass of 1994 and the north polar pass of 1995. Fully developed inertial range turbulence has a characteristic statistical similarity property of quantities that characterize the flow, such as the magnetic field components B k (t), so that the pth moment of fluctuations has power-law dependence on scale τ such that k (t + τ) - B k (t)| p > ∼ τ ζ(p) . We instead find a generalized similarity k (t + τ) - B k (t)| p > ∼ g(τ/τ 0 ) ζ(p) consistent with extended self-similarity; and in particular all of these Ulysses observations, from both polar passes, share the same single function g(τ/τ 0 ). If these observations are indeed characteristic of MHD turbulence evolving in-situ, then this quantifies for the first time a key aspect of the universal nature of evolving MHD turbulence in a system of finite size, with implications both for theoretical development, and for our understanding of the evolving solar wind.

  5. Turbulence descriptors for scaling fatigue loading spectra of wind turbine structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N D

    1994-07-01

    The challenge for the designer in developing a new wind turbine is to incorporate sufficient strength in its components to safely achieve a 20- or 30-year service life. To accomplish this, the designer must understand the load and stress distributions (in a statistical sense at least) that the turbine is likely to encounter during its operating life. Sources of loads found in the normal operating environment include start/stop cycles, emergency shutdowns, the turbulence environment associated with the specific site and turbine location, and extreme or ``rare`` events that can challenge the turbine short-term survivability. Extreme events can result from an operational problem (e.g., controller failure) or violent atmospheric phenomena (tornadic circulations, strong gust fronts). For the majority of the operating time, however, the character of the turbulent inflow is the dominant source of the alternating stress distributions experienced by the structural components. Methods of characterizing or scaling the severity of the loading spectra (or the rate of fatigue damage accumulation) must be applicable to a wide range of turbulent inflow environments -- from solitary isolation to the complex flows associated with multi-row wind farms. The metrics chosen must be related to the properties of the turbulent inflow and independent of the nature of local terrain features.

  6. Generalized similarity observed in finite range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the corona and solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, R.; Leonardis, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Foullon, C.

    2011-12-01

    Fluctuations associated with fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows in an infinite medium are characterized by non-Gaussian statistics which are scale invariant; this implies power law power spectra and multiscaling for the Generalized Structure Functions (GSFs). Given an observable f(r,t) and assuming statistical stationary, the p'th order moment of the GSF of the fluctuating differences scales as Lzeta(p), where L is the observation scale and ζ (p) are the scaling exponents. For turbulence in a system that is of finite size, or that is not fully developed, the statistical property of scale invariance is replaced by a generalized scale invariance, or extended self- similarity (ESS), for which the various moments of the GSF have a power-law dependence on an initially unknown functions, G, such that Nicol, Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 241101 (2009); S. C. Chapman, R. M. Nicol, E. Leonardis, K. Kiyani, V. Carbone, Observation of universality in the generalized similarity of evolving solar wind turbulence as seen by ULYSSES, Ap. J. Letters, 695, L185, (2009)

  7. Model for vortex turbulence with discontinuities in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of vortex with embedded discontinuities in plasma flow is developed in the framework of ideal MHD in a low b plasma. Vortex structures are considered as a result of 2-D evolution of nonlinear shear Alfvén waves in the heliosphere. Physical properties of the solutions and vector fields are analyzed and the observational aspects of the model are discussed. The ratio of normal components to the discontinuity Br /Vr can be close to -2. The alignment between velocity and magnetic field vectors takes place. Spacecraft crossing such vortices will typically observe a pair of discontinuities, but with dissimilar properties. Occurrence rate for different discontinuity types is estimated and agrees with observations in high-speed solar wind stream. Discontinuity crossing provides a backward rotation of magnetic field vector and can be observed as part of a backward arc. The Ulysses magnetometer data obtained in the fast solar wind are compared with the results of theoretical modelling.

  8. Anomalous scaling and the role of intermittency in solar wind MHD turbulence: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, C.; Mangeney, A.; Bale, S. D.; Veltri, P.; Bruno, R.

    2007-08-01

    In the Alfvénic regime, i.e. for frequencies below the local proton cyclotron frequency, solar wind MHD turbulence exhibits what appears like an inertial domain, with power-law spectra and scale-invariance, suggesting as in fluid turbulence, a nonlinear energy cascade from the large ``energy containing'' scales towards much smaller scales, where dissipation via kinetic effects is presumed to act. However, the intermittent character of the solar wind fluctuations in the inertial range is much more important than in ordinary fluids. Indeed, the fluctuations consist of a mixture of random fluctuations and small-scale ``singular'' or coherent structures. This intermittency modifies significantly the scaling exponents of actual power-law spectra, which are directly related to the physical nature of the energy cascade taking place in the solar wind. The identification of the most intermittent structures and their relation to dissipation represents then a crucial problem in the framework of turbulence. We will discuss here recent results on scaling laws and intermittency based on the use of Wavelet transforms on simultaneous WIND 3s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the 3DP and the MFi experiments respectively. More specifically, the Haar Wavelet transform is used to compute spectra, structure functions and probability distribution functions (PDFs). We show that this powerful technique allows: (1) for a systematic study of intermittency effects on these spectra, structure functions and PDFs, thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range, and (2) for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind. The analysis of structure functions and PDFs and new results on the nature of the intermittent coherent structures will be presented.

  9. Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i...... of the integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects.......e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization...

  10. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Caccia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with thermal circulation, the

  11. Automated prediction of boundary layer winds and turbulence for the Savannah River Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilhousen, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective forecasts of many weather elements produced twice daily for about 230 US cities are made by applying the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique (Glahn and Lowry, 1972). This technique relates by a statistical method the output of numerical models interpolated to a location (predictors) to a corresponding sample of observed local weather at that location (predictand). This study describes the development and testing of MOS wind forecasts for an instrumented TV tower located near the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). If shown to be useful, these forecasts could serve as valuable guidance in case of a nuclear incident at the installation. This study introduces several new applications of the MOS technique. In addition to forecasts of wind speed and direction, forecasts of two turbulence parameters were developed and evaluated. These turbulence parameters were the standard deviations of both the azimuth and elevation of the wind. These quantities help to estimate the amount of plume and puff spread. Forecasts of all these elements were produced for several levels on the 335 m WJBF-TV tower. Tests were conducted to see if MOS forecasts of each element were capable of resolving differences between tower levels. MOS forecasts were compared to two other types of forecasts to determine their utility. Short range persistence forecasts served as one type of comparison since SRL uses the current observed winds in their diffusion models. Climatology forecasts served as the other comparison set

  12. Ion-Scale Spectral Break in the Normal Plasma Beta Range in the Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tu, C.-Y.; He, J.-S.; Wang, L.-H.

    2018-01-01

    The spectral break (fb) of magnetic fluctuations at the ion scale in the solar wind is considered to give important clue on the turbulence dissipation mechanism. Among several possible mechanisms, the most notable two are related respectively to proton thermal gyroradius ρi and proton inertial length di. The corresponding frequencies of them are fρi=VSW/(2πρi) and fdi=VSW/(2πdi), respectively, where VSW is the solar wind speed. However, no definite conclusion has been given for which one is more reasonable because the two parameters have similar value when plasma beta β ˜ 1. Here we do a statistical study to see if the two ratios fb/fρi and fb/fdi have different dependence on β in the solar wind turbulence with 0.1 fdi is statistically not dependent on β, and the average value of it is 0.48 ± 0.06. However, fb/fρi increases with increasing β clearly and is significantly smaller than fb/fdi when β fdi, and the influence of β could be negligible in the studied β range. It indicates a preference of the dissipation mechanism associated with di in the solar wind with 0.1 < β < 0.8. Further theoretical studies are needed to give detailed explanation.

  13. Supernova blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.

    2016-08-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm- 3] ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1to100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with lognormal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{turb}/{p_{{0}}} =23.07 (n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2{M}2))^{1.49}(n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.

  14. Scaling forecast models for wind turbulence and wind turbine power intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Medina, Olmo; Schmitt, Francois G.; Calif, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    The intermittency of the wind turbine power remains an important issue for the massive development of this renewable energy. The energy peaks injected in the electric grid produce difficulties in the energy distribution management. Hence, a correct forecast of the wind power in the short and middle term is needed due to the high unpredictability of the intermittency phenomenon. We consider a statistical approach through the analysis and characterization of stochastic fluctuations. The theoretical framework is the multifractal modelisation of wind velocity fluctuations. Here, we consider three wind turbine data where two possess a direct drive technology. Those turbines are producing energy in real exploitation conditions and allow to test our forecast models of power production at a different time horizons. Two forecast models were developed based on two physical principles observed in the wind and the power time series: the scaling properties on the one hand and the intermittency in the wind power increments on the other. The first tool is related to the intermittency through a multifractal lognormal fit of the power fluctuations. The second tool is based on an analogy of the power scaling properties with a fractional brownian motion. Indeed, an inner long-term memory is found in both time series. Both models show encouraging results since a correct tendency of the signal is respected over different time scales. Those tools are first steps to a search of efficient forecasting approaches for grid adaptation facing the wind energy fluctuations.

  15. Fading Coronal Structure and the Onset of Turbulence in the Young Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-09-01

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low-β, magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high-β, less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10° from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO/HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4° to 24° from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term “flocculae.” We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  16. FADING CORONAL STRUCTURE AND THE ONSET OF TURBULENCE IN THE YOUNG SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low- β , magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high- β , less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10° from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO /HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4° to 24° from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term “flocculae.” We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  17. Fading Coronal Structure and the Onset of Turbulence in the Young Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low-beta, magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high-beta, less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10deg from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO/HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4deg to 24deg from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term "flocculae." We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  18. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  19. Turbulence Simulation of Laboratory Wind-Wave Interaction in High Winds and Upscaling to Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    mean wind profile, and a minor reduction in the form drag fraction. This supports recent theoretical perspectives that propose very differing... turnover times. For the results, wind and pressure fields are made dimensionless by (u*, u* 2 ) and all lengths are made dimensionless by  where... turnover times (~ 50) owing to the reduction in the timestep on the fine grid. We found the fine mesh runs were similar in character to the coarse mesh

  20. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Solar Wind as Measured by Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is a scale-dependent process that generates fluctuations towards ever-smaller scales until dissipation occurs. Recent Cluster observations in the solar wind demonstrate the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius, where kinetic properties of ions invalidate fluid approximations, down to the electron Larmor radius, where electrons become demagnetized. The cascade is quasi-two-dimensional and has been interpreted as consisting of highly oblique kinetic Alfvenic fluctuations that dissipate near at the electron gyroradius scale via proton and electron Landau damping. Here we investigate for the first time the spatial properties of the turbulence at these scales. We report the presence of thin current sheets and discontinuities with spatial sizes greater than or approximately equal to the proton Larmor radius. These isolated structures may be manifestations of intermittency, and such would localize sites of turbulent dissipation. Studying the relationship between turbulent dissipation, reconnection and intermittency is crucial for understanding the dynamics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  1. Turbulent cascade in the solar wind at kinetic scales and quasi-parallel whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, O.; Lacombe, C.; Mangeney, A.; Grappin, R.; Maksimovic, M.; Matteini, L.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; de Conchy, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies 1-400 Hz, during five years (2001-2005) when Cluster was in the free solar wind, i.e. not magnetically connected to the Earth's bow-shock.In most of the analyzed time intervals, the fluctuations are non-polarized and they have a general spectral shape between the ion scales and a fraction of electron scales. The intensity of these spectra is well correlated to the ion thermal pressure. These non-polarized fluctuations seem to have a negligible frequency in the solar wind frame, and a wavevector anisotropy kperp>>k||. In the rest ~10% of the selected data, we observe narrow-band, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The life time of such waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. We analyze in details the long-lived whistler waves, i.e. with a life time longer than five minutes. We find several conditions for the appearance of such waves: (1) a low level of the background turbulence; (2) a low ion thermal pressure; (3) a slow solar wind speed; (4) an electron heat flux Qe>4μW/m2; (5) an electron mean free path larger than 0.5 AU, i.e., a low collisional frequency; (6) a change in the magnetic field direction. When the level of the background turbulence is high, we cannot affirm that whistler waves do not exist: they can be just masked by the turbulence. The six above conditions for the presence of parallel whistlers in the free solar wind are necessary but are not sufficient. When the electron parallel beta factor βe is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux

  2. Flow and turbulence control in a boundary layer wind tunnel using passive hardware devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Ribičić, Mihael; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Plut, Mihael; Trush, Arsenii; Kozmar, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2017), s. 643-661 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : turbulent flow * atmospheric boundary layer * wind-tunnel simulation * castellated barrier wall * Counihan vortex generators * surface roughness elements * hot-wire measurements Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40799-017-0196-z

  3. Detection of magnetic discontinuities in the dissipation regime of solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dorelli, J.; Sahraoui, F.

    2012-12-01

    Recent spacecraft observations of solar wind magnetic field fluctuations have shown the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius ρ_cp, where kinetic properties of ions invalidate fluid approximations, down to the electron Larmor radius ρ_ce, where electrons become demagnetized. This energy cascade has been conjectured to consist of highly oblique kinetic Alfvénic fluctuations (KAW) that are dissipated by proton and electron Landau damping. Analyzing the 450 vec/s resolution data from the STAFF search-coil magnetometer on Cluster, we report, for the first time, evidence for the existence in the solar wind of thin current sheets and discontinuities that exhibit spatial scales that range from the proton Larmor scale down to the electron Larmor scale. In the cases studied, the current sheets are very localized and have an extent between 20-200 km, size that is often close to both the proton Larmor radius and the proton inertial length. These isolated structures appear to be a manifestation of intermittency and may localize sites turbulent dissipation. Furthermore, we compare in-situ observations of thin current sheets and discontinuities in the solar wind at proton scales with results that come from two-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence simulations in the presence of a strong guide field. The initial condition in the simulations is a large scale flux rope structure which breaks down into smaller and smaller current sheets due to the turbulent energy transfer. The comparison shows good qualitative agreement between the properties of the structures observed in Cluster data and the properties of current sheets that arise in the simulations. Our results highlight two competing processes that contribute to the dissipation of solar wind turbulence when the plasma beta is of order unity; viz., kinetic (Landau) damping by protons and electrons and the general tendency of the cascade to form thin current sheets where reconnection and

  4. Alfvénic turbulence in solar wind originating near coronal hole boundaries: heavy-ion effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The mid-latitude phases of the Ulysses mission offer an excellent opportunity to investigate the solar wind originating near the coronal hole boundaries. Here we report on Alfvénic turbulence features, revealing a relevant presence of in-situ generated fluctuations, observed during the wind rarefaction phase that charaterizes the transition from fast to slow wind. Heavy-ion composition and magnetic field measurements indicate a strict time correspondence of the locally generated fluctuations with 1 the crossing of the interface between fast and slow wind and 2 the presence of strongly underwound magnetic field lines (with respect to the Parker spiral. Recent studies suggest that such underwound magnetic configurations correspond to fast wind magnetic lines that, due to footpoint motions at the Sun, have their inner leg transferred to slow wind and are stretched out by the velocity gradient. If this is a valid scenario, the existence of a magnetic connection across the fast-slow wind interface is a condition that, given the different state of the two kinds of wind, may favour the development of processes acting as local sources of turbulence. We suggest that heavy-ion effects could be responsible of the observed turbulence features.

  5. Full vector (3-D) inflow simulation in natural and wind farm environments using an expanded version of the SNLWIND (Veers) turbulence code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1992-11-01

    We have recently expanded the numerical turbulence simulation (SNLWIND) developed by Veers [1] to include all three components of the turbulent wind vector. We have also configured the code to simulate the characteristics of turbulent wind fields upwind and downwind of a large wind farm, as well as over uniform, flat terrain. Veers's original method only simulates the longitudinal component of the wind in neutral flow. This paper overviews the development of spectral distribution, spatial coherence, and cross correlation models used to expired the SNLWIND code to include the three components of the turbulent wind over a range of atmospheric stabilities. These models are based on extensive measurements of the turbulence characteristics immediately upwind and downwind of a large wind farm in San Gorgonio Pass, California.

  6. Full vector (3-D) inflow simulation in natural and wind farm environments using an expanded version of the SNLWIND (Veers) turbulence code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1992-11-01

    We have recently expanded the numerical turbulence simulation (SNLWIND) developed by Veers [1] to include all three components of the turbulent wind vector. We have also configured the code to simulate the characteristics of turbulent wind fields upwind and downwind of a large wind farm, as well as over uniform, flat terrain. Veers`s original method only simulates the longitudinal component of the wind in neutral flow. This paper overviews the development of spectral distribution, spatial coherence, and cross correlation models used to expired the SNLWIND code to include the three components of the turbulent wind over a range of atmospheric stabilities. These models are based on extensive measurements of the turbulence characteristics immediately upwind and downwind of a large wind farm in San Gorgonio Pass, California.

  7. Evaluation of tetroon flights and turbulent diffusion under weak wind conditions during the field experiment SIESTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Vogt, S.

    1986-08-01

    During several days in November 1985 an international field experiment took place in the Swiss plateau region near the cities of Aarau, Olten. As indicated by the name of the project SIESTA (SF 6 International Experiments in Stagnant Air) its aim is to obtain knowledge of the general nature of turbulence advection and atmospheric dispersion processes in a cold pool with very low wind speed and undefined wind direction. An outline of the general concept of the project is followed by a more detailed description of a special research activity with Radar tracked tetroons. In the second part of the report it is shown how to determine the horizontal dispersion parameter from the trajectories of the tetroon flights. Two different methods are described and the results of the flights performed during SIESTA are presented. (orig.) [de

  8. RADIAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE DURING EARTH AND ULYSSES ALIGNMENT OF 2007 AUGUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.; Pallocchia, G.; Bavassano, B.; Telloni, D.; Carbone, V.; Balogh, A.

    2010-01-01

    At the end of 2007 August, during the minimum of solar cycle 23, a lineup of Earth and Ulysses occurred, giving the opportunity to analyze, for the first time, the same plasma sample at different observation points, namely at 1 and 1.4 AU. In particular, it allowed us to study the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence typical of fast wind streams as proposed in a Coordinated Investigation Programme for the International Heliophysical Year. This paper describes both the macrostructure and the fluctuations at small scales of this event. We find that soon after detecting the same fast stream, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observed a change of magnetic polarity being the interplanetary current sheet located between the orbits of the two spacecraft. Moreover, we observe that the compression region formed in front of the fast stream detected at ACE's location evolves in a fast forward shock at Ulysses' orbit. On the other hand, small-scale analysis shows that turbulence is evolving. The presence of a shift of the frequency break separating the injection range from the inertial range toward lower frequencies while distance increases is a clear indication that nonlinear interactions are at work. Moreover, we observe that intermittency, as measured by the flatness factor, increases with distance. This study confirms previous analyses performed using Helios observations of the same fast wind streams at different heliocentric distances, allowing us to relax about the hypothesis of the stationarity of the source regions adopted in previous studies. Consequently, any difference noticed in the solar wind parameters would be ascribed to radial (time) evolution.

  9. The most intense electric currents in turbulent high speed solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that dissipation of turbulent energy in collisionless astrophysical plasmas occurs most rapidly in spatial regions where the current density is most intense. To advance understanding of plasma heating by turbulent dissipation in the solar corona and solar wind, it is of interest to characterize the properties of plasma regions where the current density takes exceptionally large values and to identify the operative dissipation processes. In the solar wind, the curl of the magnetic field cannot be measured using data from a single spacecraft, however, a suitable proxy for this quantity can be constructed from the spatial derivative of the magnetic field along the flow direction of the plasma. This new approach is used to study the properties of the most intense current carrying structures in a high speed solar wind stream near 1 AU. In this study, based on 11 Hz magnetometer data from the WIND spacecraft, the spatial resolution of the proxy technique is approximately equal to the proton inertial length. Intense current sheets or current carrying structures were identified as events where the magnitude of the current density exceeds μ+5σ, where μ and σ are the mean and standard deviation of the magnitude of the current density (or its proxy), respectively. Statistical studies show (1) the average size of these 5σ events is close to the smallest resolvable scale in the data set, the proton inertial length; (2) the linear distance between neighboring events follows a power law distribution; and (3) the average peak current density of 5σ events is around 1 pA/cm2. The analysis techniques used in these studies have been validated using simulated spacecraft data from three dimensional hybrid simulations which show that results based on the analysis of the proxy are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to results based on the analysis of the true current density.

  10. LES-based generation of high-frequency fluctuation in wind turbulence obtained by meteorological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tetsuro; Kawaguchi, Masaharu; Kawai, Hidenori; Tao, Tao

    2017-11-01

    The connection between a meso-scale model and a micro-scale large eddy simulation (LES) is significant to simulate the micro-scale meteorological problem such as strong convective events due to the typhoon or the tornado using LES. In these problems the mean velocity profiles and the mean wind directions change with time according to the movement of the typhoons or tornadoes. Although, a fine grid micro-scale LES could not be connected to a coarse grid meso-scale WRF directly. In LES when the grid is suddenly refined at the interface of nested grids which is normal to the mean advection the resolved shear stresses decrease due to the interpolation errors and the delay of the generation of smaller scale turbulence that can be resolved on the finer mesh. For the estimation of wind gust disaster the peak wind acting on buildings and structures has to be correctly predicted. In the case of meteorological model the velocity fluctuations have a tendency of diffusive variation without the high frequency component due to the numerically filtering effects. In order to predict the peak value of wind velocity with good accuracy, this paper proposes a LES-based method for generating the higher frequency components of velocity and temperature fields obtained by meteorological model.

  11. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where f e ∼ v –α is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., α ∼ O(6.5) whereas α average ∼ 6.69, according to observation

  12. Study of wind turbine wake modeling based on a modified actuator disk model and extended k-ε turbulence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Han, Xingxing; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented an improved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for simulating a horizontal-axis wind turbine wake. The model used the actuator disk model to simplify the wind turbine effect on the aerodynamic field by adding an extra momentum source and an improved term to correct...... the underestimation issue of the wind speed deficit when applying the STD k-ε model. In addition, the model also introduced a radial distribution function to assess the non-uniform load on the actuator disk and a coefficient C4ε of the turbulent source. To validate the model, the wind turbines of Nibe `B' and Dawin...

  13. Correlations at large scales and the onset of turbulence in the fast solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, R. T.; Roberts, D. A.; Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Horbury, T. S.; Chen, C. H. K.

    2013-01-01

    We show that the scaling of structure functions of magnetic and velocity fields in a mostly highly Alfvénic fast solar wind stream depends strongly on the joint distribution of the dimensionless measures of cross helicity and residual energy. Already at very low frequencies, fluctuations that are both more balanced (cross helicity ∼0) and equipartitioned (residual energy ∼0) have steep structure functions reminiscent of 'turbulent' scalings usually associated with the inertial range. Fluctuations that are magnetically dominated (residual energy ∼–1), and so have closely anti-aligned Elsasser-field vectors, or are imbalanced (cross helicity ∼1), and so have closely aligned magnetic and velocity vectors, have wide '1/f' ranges typical of fast solar wind. We conclude that the strength of nonlinear interactions of individual fluctuations within a stream, diagnosed by the degree of correlation in direction and magnitude of magnetic and velocity fluctuations, determines the extent of the 1/f region observed, and thus the onset scale for the turbulent cascade.

  14. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Caccia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001.

    Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events.

    In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations.

    Characterization of the Turbulent Magnetic Integral Length in the Solar Wind: From 0.3 to 5 Astronomical Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. E.; Dasso, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [ λ], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic-autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We used observations from the Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguished between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs), and also studied solar-wind samples with low and high proton beta [βp]. We find that in the last three regimes the PDF of λ is a log-normal function, consistent with the multiplicative and nonlinear processes that take place in the solar wind, the initial λ (before the Alfvénic point) being larger in ICMEs.

  15. Radiation pressure in galactic disks: stability, turbulence, and winds in the single-scattering limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibking, Benjamin D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation force on dust grains may be dynamically important in driving turbulence and outflows in rapidly star-forming galaxies. Recent studies focus on the highly optically-thick limit relevant to the densest ultra-luminous galaxies and super star clusters, where reprocessed infrared photons provide the dominant source of electromagnetic momentum. However, even among starburst galaxies, the great majority instead lie in the so-called "single-scattering" limit, where the system is optically-thick to the incident starlight, but optically-thin to the re-radiated infrared. In this paper we present a stability analysis and multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations exploring the stability and dynamics of isothermal dusty gas columns in this regime. We describe our algorithm for full angle-dependent radiation transport based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. For a range of near-Eddington fluxes, we show that the medium is unstable, producing convective-like motions in a turbulent atmosphere with a scale height significantly inflated compared to the gas pressure scale height and mass-weighted turbulent energy densities of ˜0.01 - 0.1 of the midplane radiation energy density, corresponding to mass-weighted velocity dispersions of Mach number ˜0.5 - 2. Extrapolation of our results to optical depths of 103 implies maximum turbulent Mach numbers of ˜20. Comparing our results to galaxy-averaged observations, and subject to the approximations of our calculations, we find that radiation pressure does not contribute significantly to the effective supersonic pressure support in star-forming disks, which in general are substantially sub-Eddington. We further examine the time-averaged vertical density profiles in dynamical equilibrium and comment on implications for radiation-pressure-driven galactic winds.

  16. Characterizing the turbulent porosity of stellar wind structure generated by the line-deshadowing instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Stanley P.; Sundqvist, Jon O.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse recent 2D simulations of the non-linear evolution of the line-deshadowing instability (LDI) in hot-star winds, to quantify how the associated highly clumped density structure can lead to a `turbulent porosity' reduction in continuum absorption and/or scattering. The basic method is to examine the statistical variations of mass column as a function of path length, and fit these to analytic forms that lead to simple statistical scalings for the associated mean extinction. A key result is that one can characterize porosity effects on continuum transport in terms of a single `turbulent porosity length', found here to scale as H ≈ (fcl - 1)a, where fcl ≡ 〈ρ2〉/〈ρ〉2 is the clumping factor in density ρ, and a is the density autocorrelation length. For continuum absorption or scattering in an optically thick layer, we find the associated effective reduction in opacity scales as ˜ 1/√{1+τ_H}, where τH ≡ κρH is the local optical thickness of this porosity length. For these LDI simulations, the inferred porosity lengths are small, only about a couple per cent of the stellar radius, H ≈ 0.02R*. For continuum processes like bound-free absorption of X-rays that are only marginally optically thick throughout the full stellar wind, this implies τH ≪ 1, and thus that LDI-generated porosity should have little effect on X-ray transport in such winds. The formalism developed here could however be important for understanding the porous regulation of continuum-driven, super-Eddington outflows from luminous blue variables.

  17. An atmospheric turbulence model for spatiotemporal variability of geographically-diverse, aggregated wind-generated electricity to accelerate wide-scale wind energy deployment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Handschy, M.

    2013-12-01

    During the year 2012, the cumulative wind power capacity installed in the United States could provide roughly 4.4% of electricity demand. Although the wind resource can provide many times over the entire US electrical needs, and costs for onshore wind deployment are continually dropping, the variability of the wind represents one of the greatest remaining barriers to wide-scale wind deployment. This study focuses on the nature of this variability. We quantify the axiom 'geographic diversity reduces variability' (of wind generation) by relating resource variability characteristics to the well-understood physical phenomena of turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. Many existing studies focus on datasets of a few years' duration in a particular geographic area; such results are difficult to generalize. Our approach builds on the fundamental nonlinear characteristics of turbulence in the atmosphere to characterize wind speed and power generation correlations between wind plants from local to continental scales. The resulting general principles enable estimation of the benefits of geographic aggregation absent detailed site-specific historical data, thereby enabling more efficient transmission grid models, expediting transmission plans, and providing a framework for evaluating the requirements and benefits of electric storage at higher wind penetrations. To validate these general principles, we compare them to observed inter-station correlations in a number of wind-speed data sets, including a 40-year Canadian dataset that spans the continent of North America, as well as shorter-duration datasets in smaller regions within the United States. This presentation will present general rules for the dependence of correlation between wind turbines on separation and time scale. We suggest these general rules could help shift renewable integration planning from simulation towards optimization.

  18. Using the coupled wake boundary layer model to evaluate the effect of turbulence intensity on wind farm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We use the recently introduced coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model to predict the e ect of turbulence intensity on the performance of a wind farm. The CWBL model combines a standard wake model with a \\top-down" approach to get improved predictions for the power output compared to a stand-alone

  19. The vertical structure of airflow turbulence characteristics within a boundary layer during wind blown sand transport over a beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z. S.; Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested the significant role of boundary layer turbulence and coherent flow structures on sand transport by wind over beaches and desert dunes. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated a move beyond the basic monitoring of shear velocities and bulk sediment transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a small-scale point-location field study of boundary layer turbulence and shear stresses conducted under obliquely onshore winds over a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. High-frequency (25 Hz) 3D wind vector measurements were collected at five different heights between 0.13 and 1.67 metres above the bed using sonic anemometry for durations of several hours, and the associated sand transport response was measured using an array of Safires. The wind data are used to investigate the vertical structure of Reynolds shear stresses and burst-sweep event characteristics, as well as a comparison with the standard logarithmic (law-of-the-wall) wind profile. The study explores the identification and selection of a characteristic event duration based on integral time-scales as well as spectral analysis, and includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results show how the contributions to shear stress and the average pitch of bursts and sweeps changes as a function of height above the bed, indicating the transformation of top-down turbulent eddies as they travel toward the surface. A comparison between the turbulence data and the synchronous sand transport events, meanwhile, reveals the potential effects of enhanced saltation layer roughness feedback on eddies close to the bed.

  1. Turbulence scaling study in an MHD wind tunnel on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Wan, A.

    2013-12-01

    The turbulence of colliding plasmas is explored in an MHD wind tunnel on the SSX in an effort to understand solar wind physics in a laboratory setting. Fully ionized hydrogen plasma is produced by two plasma guns on opposite sides of a 1m by 15cm copper cylinder creating plasma with L/ρi ~ 75-150, β ~ 0.1-0.2 and Lundquist number ~ 1000. Modification of B-field, Ti and β are made through stuffing flux variation of the plasma guns. Presented here are turbulent f-/k-spectra and correlation times and lengths of B-field fluctuations as measured by a 16 channel B-dot radial probe array at the chamber midplane using both FFT and wavelet analysis techniques. Power-law behavior is observed spanning about two decades of frequencies [100kHz-10MHz] and about one decade of wavelength [10cm-1cm]. Power-law fits to spectra show scaling in these regions to be robust to changes in stuffing flux; fits are on the order of f-4 and k-2 for all flux variations. Low frequency fluctuations [law behavior is seen in f-spectra for frequencies around f=fci while changes in k-spectra slopes appear around 1/k ~ 5ρi. Dissipation range fits are made with an exponentially modified power-law model [Terry et al, PoP 2012]. Fluctuation measurements in axial velocity are made using a Mach probe with edge flows reaching M ~ 0.4. Both B-field and velocity fluctuations persist on the same timescale in these experiments, though Mach velocity f-spectra show power-laws slightly shallower than those for B-field. Comparison of spectra from MHD and Hall MHD simulations of SSX performed within the HiFi modeling framework are made to the experimental results.

  2. Magnetic Reconnection May Control the Ion-scale Spectral Break of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vech, Daniel; Mallet, Alfred; Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2018-03-01

    The power spectral density of magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibits several power-law-like frequency ranges with a well-defined break between approximately 0.1 and 1 Hz in the spacecraft frame. The exact dependence of this break scale on solar wind parameters has been extensively studied but is not yet fully understood. Recent studies have suggested that reconnection may induce a break in the spectrum at a “disruption scale” {λ }{{D}}, which may be larger than the fundamental ion kinetic scales, producing an unusually steep spectrum just below the break. We present a statistical investigation of the dependence of the break scale on the proton gyroradius ρ i , ion inertial length d i , ion sound radius ρ s , proton–cyclotron resonance scale ρ c , and disruption scale {λ }{{D}} as a function of {β }\\perp i. We find that the steepest spectral indices of the dissipation range occur when β e is in the range of 0.1–1 and the break scale is only slightly larger than the ion sound scale (a situation occurring 41% of the time at 1 au), in qualitative agreement with the reconnection model. In this range, the break scale shows a remarkably good correlation with {λ }{{D}}. Our findings suggest that, at least at low β e , reconnection may play an important role in the development of the dissipation range turbulent cascade and cause unusually steep (steeper than ‑3) spectral indices.

  3. The sensitivity and stability of bacterioplankton community structure to wind-wave turbulence in a large, shallow, eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Qin, Boqiang; Han, Xiaoxia; Jin, Decai; Wang, Zhiping

    2017-12-04

    Lakes are strongly influenced by wind-driven wave turbulence. The direct physical effects of turbulence on bacterioplankton community structure however, have not yet been addressed and remains poorly understood. To examine the stability of bacterioplankton communities under turbulent conditions, we simulated conditions in the field to evaluate the responses of the bacterioplankton community to physical forcing in Lake Taihu, using high-throughput sequencing and flow cytometry. A total of 4,520,231 high quality sequence reads and 74,842 OTUs were obtained in all samples with α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being the most dominant taxa. The diversity and structure of bacterioplankton communities varied during the experiment, but were highly similar based on the same time of sampling, suggesting that bacterioplankton communities are insensitive to wind wave turbulence in the lake. This stability could be associated with the traits associated with bacteria. In particular, turbulence favored the growth of bacterioplankton, which enhanced biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the lake. This study provides a better understanding of bacterioplankton communities in lake ecosystems exposed to natural mixing/disturbances.

  4. Parametric Instability, Inverse Cascade, and the 1/f Range of Solar-Wind Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Benjamin D G

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, weak turbulence theory is used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instability in 3D low- β plasmas at wavelengths much greater than the ion inertial length under the assumption that slow magnetosonic waves are strongly damped. It is shown analytically that the parametric instability leads to an inverse cascade of Alfvén wave quanta, and several exact solutions to the wave kinetic equations are presented. The main results of the paper concern the parametric decay of Alfvén waves that initially satisfy e + ≫ e - , where e + and e - are the frequency ( f ) spectra of Alfvén waves propagating in opposite directions along the magnetic field lines. If e + initially has a peak frequency f 0 (at which fe + is maximized) and an "infrared" scaling f p at smaller f with -1 scaling throughout a range of frequencies that spreads out in both directions from f 0 . At the same time, e - acquires an f -2 scaling within this same frequency range. If the plasma parameters and infrared e + spectrum are chosen to match conditions in the fast solar wind at a heliocentric distance of 0.3 astronomical units (AU), then the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instability leads to an e + spectrum that matches fast-wind measurements from the Helios spacecraft at 0.3 AU, including the observed f -1 scaling at f ≳ 3 × 10 -4 Hz. The results of this paper suggest that the f -1 spectrum seen by Helios in the fast solar wind at f ≳ 3 × 10 -4 Hz is produced in situ by parametric decay and that the f -1 range of e + extends over an increasingly narrow range of frequencies as r decreases below 0.3 AU. This prediction will be tested by measurements from the Parker Solar Probe .

  5. A Data-driven Model of the Solar Wind, Interstellar Pickup Ions, and Turbulence Throughout the Interplanetary Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Elliott, H. A.; Zank, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    The outer heliosphere is an interesting region characterized by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar neutral atoms. Having accomplished the mission to Pluto in 2015 and currently on the way to the Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft is following the footsteps of the two Voyager spacecraft that previously explored this region lying roughly beyond 30 AU from the Sun. We model the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind plasma flow to the outer heliosphere using our own software Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS), which, in addition to the thermal solar wind plasma, takes into account charge exchange of the solar wind protons with interstellar neutral atoms and treats nonthermal ions (i.e., pickup ions) born during this process as a separate fluid. Additionally, MS-FLUKSS allows us to model turbulence generated by pickup ions. We use MS-FLUKSS to investigate the evolution of plasma and turbulent fluctuations along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft using plasma and turbulence parameters from OMNI data as time-dependent boundary conditions at 1 AU for the Reynolds-averaged MHD equations. We compare the model with in situ plasma observations by New Horizons, Voyager 2, and Ulysses. We also compare the model pickup proton parameters with those derived from the Ulysses-SWICS data.

  6. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  7. A comparison of predicted and observed turbulent wind fields present in natural and internal wind park environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, N D; Wright, A D

    1991-10-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of simulated wind fields for both the natural flow and that within a wind park environment. The simulated fields are compared with the observed ones in both the time and frequency domains. Actual measurements of the wind fields and the derived kinematic scaling parameters upwind and downwind of a large San Gorgonio Pass wind park are used. The deviations in the modeled wind field from the observed are discussed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Coordinated Study on Solar Wind Turbulence During the Venus-Express, ACE and Ulysses Alignment of August 2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Vörös, Z.; D'Amicis, R.; Bavassano, B.; Cattaneo, M. B.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Veltri, P.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Zhang, T. L.; Biernat, H.; Rucker, H.; Baumjohann, W.; Jankovičová, Dana; Kovács, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, 1-4 (2009), s. 101-104 ISSN 0167-9295. [European General Assembly on International Heliophysics Year. Torino, 18.06.2007-22.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Solar wind * MHD turbulence * Space plasma physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2009 http://www.springerlink.com/content/4368229757764645/fulltext.pdf

  9. Three-dimensional spatial structures of solar wind turbulence from 10 000-km to 100-km scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the four Cluster spacecraft, we have determined the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic fields in the solar wind. Three different solar wind intervals of Cluster data are investigated for this purpose, representing three different spatial scales: 10 000 km, 1000 km, and 100 km. The spectra are determined using the wave telescope technique (k-filtering technique without assuming the validity of Taylor's frozen-in-flow hypothesis nor are any assumptions made as to the symmetry properties of the fluctuations. We find that the spectra are anisotropic on all the three scales and the power is extended primarily in the directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, as might be expected of two-dimensional turbulence, however, the analyzed fluctuations are not axisymmetric. The lack of axisymmetry invalidates some earlier techniques using single spacecraft observations that were used to estimate the percentage of magnetic energy residing in quasi-two-dimensional power. However, the dominance of two-dimensional turbulence is consistent with the relatively long mean free paths of cosmic rays in observed in the heliosphere. On the other hand, the spectra also exhibit secondary extended structures oblique from the mean magnetic field direction. We discuss possible origins of anisotropy and asymmetry of solar wind turbulence spectra.

  10. Plasma turbulence resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction between the supersonic and super-Alfvenic solar wind plasma and the Earth's magnetic field leads to the formation of critical layers, such as the bow shock, the magnetopause, the polar cusp, and the inner and outer edge of the plasmasheet. The mean free path between binary colisions being much larger than the transverse scale of these layers, plasma turbulence must ensure the thermalization, the magnetic diffusion, the dissipation within these critical layers. We suggest the existence of small scale, presumably 2D structures, developing within these thin layers. The unambiguous characterization of these small-scale structures is, however, beyond the capabilities of existing spacecraft, which cannot spatially resolve them, nor disentangle spatial/temporal variations. We present a new mission concept: a cluster of four relatively simple spacecraft, which will make it possible (i) to disentangle spatial from temporal variations, (ii) to evaluate, by finite differences between spacecraft measurements, the gradients, divergences, curls of MHD parameters, and )iii) to characterize small-scale structures, via inter-spacecraft correlations. (author). 10 refs.; 10 figs

  11. Wind gusts and plant aeroelasticity effects on the aerodynamics of pollen shedding: a hypothetical turbulence-initiated wind-pollination mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzay, Javier; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G; Thompson, Elinor; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-08-21

    Plant reproduction depends on pollen dispersal. For anemophilous (wind-pollinated) species, such as grasses and many trees, shedding pollen from the anther must be accomplished by physical mechanisms. The unknown nature of this process has led to its description as the 'paradox of pollen liberation'. A simple scaling analysis, supported by experimental measurements on typical wind-pollinated plant species, is used to estimate the suitability of previous resolutions of this paradox based on wind-gust aerodynamic models of fungal-spore liberation. According to this scaling analysis, the steady Stokes drag force is found to be large enough to liberate anemophilous pollen grains, and unsteady boundary-layer forces produced by wind gusts are found to be mostly ineffective since the ratio of the characteristic viscous time scale to the inertial time scale of acceleration of the wind stream is a small parameter for typical anemophilous species. A hypothetical model of a stochastic aeroelastic mechanism, initiated by the atmospheric turbulence typical of the micrometeorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant, is proposed to contribute to wind pollination.

  12. Measurement of rotor centre flow direction and turbulence in wind farm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Demurtas, Giorgio; Sommer, A.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of inflow to a wind turbine rotor was made with a spinner anemometer on a 2 MW wind turbine in a wind farm of eight wind turbines. The wind speed, yaw misalignment and flow inclination angle was measured during a five months measurement campaign. Angular measurements were calibrat...

  13. Turbulent Density Fluctuations and Proton Heating Rate in the Solar Wind from 9-20 R ⊙

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Subramanian, Prasad; Ramesh, R.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Ingale, Madhusudan

    2017-12-01

    We obtain scatter-broadened images of the Crab Nebula at 80 MHz as it transits through the inner solar wind in 2017 and 2016 June. These images are anisotropic, with the major axis oriented perpendicular to the radially outward coronal magnetic field. Using these data, we deduce that the density modulation index (δ {N}e/{N}e) caused by turbulent density fluctuations in the solar wind ranges from 1.9× {10}-3 to 7.7× {10}-3 between 9 and 20 R ⊙. We also find that the heating rate of solar wind protons at these distances ranges from 2.2× {10}-13 to 1.0× {10}-11 {erg} {{cm}}-3 {{{s}}}-1. On two occasions, the line of sight intercepted a coronal streamer. We find that the presence of the streamer approximately doubles the thickness of the scattering screen.

  14. Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Wenzhong; Scholbrock, Andrew; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wang, Jianhui; Yan, Weihang; Zhang, Huaguang

    2017-10-18

    To mitigate the degraded power system inertia and undesirable primary frequency response caused by large-scale wind power integration, the frequency support capabilities of variable-speed wind turbines is studied in this work. This is made possible by controlled inertial response, which is demonstrated on a research turbine - controls advanced research turbine, 3-bladed (CART3). Two distinct inertial control (IC) methods are analysed in terms of their impacts on the grids and the response of the turbine itself. The released kinetic energy in the IC methods are determined by the frequency measurement or shaped active power reference in the turbine speed-power plane. The wind turbine model is based on the high-fidelity turbine simulator fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence, which constitutes the aggregated wind power plant model with the simplified power converter model. The IC methods are implemented over the baseline CART3 controller, evaluated in the modified 9-bus and 14-bus testing power grids considering different wind speeds and different wind power penetration levels. The simulation results provide various insights on designing such kinds of ICs. The authors calculate the short-term dynamic equivalent loads and give a discussion about the turbine structural loadings related to the inertial response.

  15. ION KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH CONSTANCY IN MULTI-FLUID SOLAR WIND ALFVÉNIC TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, L.; Horbury, T. S.; Schwartz, S. J. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pantellini, F. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universit Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Velli, M. [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, UCLA, California (United States)

    2015-03-20

    We investigate the properties of plasma fluid motion in the large-amplitude, low-frequency fluctuations of highly Alfvénic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles which, due to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low-frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform the proton velocity into the frame of Alfvénic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfvénic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfvénic turbulence, is the origin of the observed constancy of the magnetic field; while the constant velocity corresponding to constant energy can only be observed in the frame of the fluctuations, the corresponding constant total magnetic field, invariant for Galilean transformations, remains the observational signature in the spacecraft frame of the constant total energy in the Alfvén turbulence frame.

  16. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    taking into account the safety factor for extreme moments. Other extreme load moments as well as the fatigue loads are not affected because of the use of non-Gaussian turbulent inflow. It is suggested that the turbine thus acts like a low-pass filter that averages out the non-Gaussian behaviour, which......From large-eddy simulations of atmospheric turbulence, a representation of Gaussian turbulence is constructed by randomizing the phases of the individual modes of variability. Time series of Gaussian turbulence are constructed and compared with its non-Gaussian counterpart. Time series from the two...

  17. PIV and Hotwire Measurement and Analysis of Tip Vortices and Turbulent Wake Generated by a Model Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.; Tan, Y. M.; Chamorro, L. P.; Arndt, R.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sheng, J.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding vortical flow structures and turbulence in the wake flow behind a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) has widespread applications in efficient blade design. Moreover, the knowledge of wake-turbine interactions allows us to devise optimal operational parameters, such as the spatial allocation and control algorithms of wind turbines, for a densely populated wind farm. To understand the influence of tip vortices on energy containing mean flow and turbulence, characteristics of vortical structures and turbulence must be quantified thoroughly. In this study, we conduct phase-locked Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow before and after a model HAWT, which is located in a zero-pressure gradient wind tunnel with a cross section of 1.7 × 1.7 m and a test section of 16 m in length. A three-blade model HAWT with a diameter of 605 mm and tip-speed ratio of 5 is used. PIV images are recorded by a 2048 × 2048 CCD camera and streamed at 6 Hz continuously; and phased locked with the passage of the blade at its vertical position. Each PIV measurement covers a 0.13 × 0.13 m2 sample area with the spatial resolution of 63 μm and a vector spacing of 0.5 mm. All experiments are conducted at the free-stream wind speed of 10 m/s. Flow fields at thirty consecutive downstream locations up to six rotor diameters and 144 mid chord lengths are measured. At each location, we obtain at least 10,000 instantaneous PIV realizations or 20,000 images. Three different configurations: single, dual, and trio turbines located at 5 rotor diameter upstream to each other, are examined experimentally. The flow statistics include mean wake velocity distributions, characteristics of tip vortices evolving downstream, fluctuation velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, stresses, and energy spectra. We find that tip vortices decay much faster in the wake of the upstream turbines (multiple-turbine configurations), whereas they maintain the coherence and strength behind a single

  18. Turbulent wind field characterization and re-generation based on pitot tube measurements mounted on a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to estimate the undisturbed inflow field of a wind turbine based on measurements obtained from one or more five-hole pitot tubes mounted directly on the blades. Based on the measurements, the disturbance caused by the wind turbine is estimated using aerodymanic m...

  19. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  20. Coherent structures in the solar wind and their role in basic turbulence processes and particle energization at low and high heliolatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, O.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the existence of main sources of accelerated particles in the solar wind such as flares and shocks, turbulence and associated coherent structures may be responsible for heating and particle energization throughout the heliosphere. Recent studies convincingly link turbulence, intermittency and magnetic reconnection and show the necessity of a complex approach to investigation of these phenomena. Observations of energetic particle enhancements in turbulent wakes of interplanetary shocks, near reconnecting current sheets and within magnetic cavities filled with magnetic islands support theoretical expectations of particle energization in the presence of coherent structures in the solar wind. It has been shown that such energetic particle enhancements may be as intense as ordinary solar energetic particle events. Therefore, the investigation of all possible manifestations of turbulence is essential for better understanding of local processes of particle acceleration in the solar wind. General characteristics of turbulence in the solar wind plasma are usually studied via the analysis of the power spectrum of magnetic and plasma fluctuations, and more detailed studies suggest using the partial variance of increments method. Such studies are predominantly undertaken at 1 AU, and there has been only a limited number of attempts of understanding the spatial evolution of intermittency from in situ observations of magnetic and plasma fluctuations. We report first results of the "Current Sheets, Turbulence, Structures and Particle Acceleration in the Heliosphere" project (ISSI team 405) on the evolution of intermittent turbulence with heliocentric distance and latitude, up to 5.4 AU (http://www.issibern.ch/teams/structpartaccel/). The role of current sheets, magnetic reconnection and processes in the turbulent neighborhood of reconnecting current sheets in initial and secondary particle acceleration throughout the heliosphere is discussed.

  1. Wind power development field test project under Japan Sea Museum program. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Nihonkai Museum koso ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Kaio-machi, Niiminato-shi, Toyama Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 3.7m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 26m/s. Winds came prevalently from SW (17.5%), and then from WSW (11.4%) and NNE (10.2%). The wind axis was in the NE-SW direction with a total wind direction occurrence rate of 62.0%. Turbulence intensity was 0.15 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.14 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 32-79% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  2. PLASMA TURBULENCE AND KINETIC INSTABILITIES AT ION SCALES IN THE EXPANDING SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávnícek, Pavel M. [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Landi, Simone; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and kinetic instabilities in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional (2D) hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops; magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at ion scales. The turbulent cascade leads to an overall anisotropic proton heating, protons are heated in the perpendicular direction, and, initially, also in the parallel direction. The imposed expansion leads to generation of a large parallel proton temperature anisotropy which is at later stages partly reduced by turbulence. The turbulent heating is not sufficient to overcome the expansion-driven perpendicular cooling and the system eventually drives the oblique firehose instability in a form of localized nonlinear wave packets which efficiently reduce the parallel temperature anisotropy. This work demonstrates that kinetic instabilities may coexist with strong plasma turbulence even in a constrained 2D regime.

  3. Windscanner: 3-D wind and turbulence measurements from three steerable doppler lidars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Courtney, M; Sjoeholm, M

    2008-01-01

    At RISOe DTU we has started to build a new-designed laser-based lidar scanning facility for detailed remote measurements of the wind fields engulfing the huge wind turbines of today. Our aim is to measure in real-time 3D wind vector data at several hundred points every second: 1) upstream of the turbine, 2) near the turbine, and 3) in the wakes of the turbine rotors. Our first proto-type Windscanner is now being built from three commercially available Continuous Wave (CW) wind lidars modified with fast adjustable focus length and equipped with 2-D prism-based scan heads, in conjunction with a commercially available pulsed wind lidar for extended vertical profiling range. Design, construction and initial testing of the new 3-D wind lidar scanning facility are described and the functionality of the Windscanner and its potential as a new research facility within the wind energy community is discussed

  4. Effects of trees on mean wind, turbulence and momentum exchange within and above a real urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giometto, M. G.; Christen, A.; Egli, P. E.; Schmid, M. F.; Tooke, R. T.; Coops, N. C.; Parlange, M. B.

    2017-08-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) are used to gain insight into the effects of trees on turbulence, aerodynamic parameters, and momentum transfer rates characterizing the atmosphere within and above a real urban canopy. Several areas are considered that are part of a neighborhood in the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada where a small fraction of trees are taller than buildings. In this area, eight years of continuous wind and turbulence measurements are available from a 30 m meteorological tower. Data from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) are used to represent both buildings and vegetation at the LES resolution. In the LES algorithm, buildings are accounted through an immersed boundary method, whereas vegetation is parameterized via a location-specific leaf area density. LES are performed including and excluding vegetation from the considered urban areas, varying wind direction and leaf area density. Surface roughness lengths (z0) from both LES and tower measurements are sensitive to the 0 ≤ LAI /λfb lower than the 27% increase featured by LES for the most representative canopy (leaves-off LAI / λfSUP>b = 0.74 , leaves-on LAI /λfb = 2.24). Removing vegetation from such a canopy would cause a dramatic drop of approximately 50% in z0 when compared to the reference summer value. The momentum displacement height (d) from LES also consistently increases as LAI / λfb increases, due in large part to the disproportionate amount of drag that the (few) relatively taller trees exert on the flow. LES and measurements both predict an increase in the ratio of turbulent to mean kinetic energy (TKE/MKE) at the tower sampling height going from winter to summer, and LES also show how including vegetation results in a more (positive) negatively skewed (horizontal) vertical velocity distribution - reflecting a more intermittent velocity field which favors sweep motions when compared to ejections. Within the urban canopy, the effects of trees are twofold: on one hand, they act

  5. RANS simulations of wind turbine wakes: optimal tuning of turbulence closure and aerodynamic loads from LiDAR and SCADA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letizia, Stefano; Puccioni, Matteo; Zhan, Lu; Viola, Francesco; Camarri, Simone; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of wakes produced by utility-scale wind turbines still present challenges related to the variability of the atmospheric conditions and, in the most of the cases, the lack of information about the geometry and aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine blades. In order to overcome the mentioned difficulties, we propose a RANS solver for which turbine aerodynamic forcing and turbulence closure are calibrated through LiDAR and SCADA data acquired for an onshore wind farm. The wind farm under examination is located in North Texas over a relatively flat terrain. The experimental data are leveraged to maximize accuracy of the RANS predictions in terms of wake velocity field and power capture for different atmospheric stability conditions and settings of the wind turbines. The optimization of the RANS parameters is performed through an adjoint-RANS formulation and a gradient-based procedure. The optimally-tuned aerodynamic forcing and turbulence closure are then analyzed in order to investigate effects of the atmospheric stability on the evolution of wind turbine wakes and power performance. The proposed RANS solver has low computational costs comparable to those of wake engineering models, which make it a compelling tool for wind farm control and optimization. Acknowledgments: NSF I/UCRC WindSTAR IIP 1362033 and TACC.

  6. Influence of the control system on wind turbine reliability in extreme turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    alleviation control features. It is shown that large uncertainties in inflow conditions and turbulence can be significantly reduced while maintaining an acceptable structural reliability through the use of advanced structural load alleviation control features. However, that comes at a cost of increased...... controller complexity and loss in annual energy production....

  7. Plasma Beta Dependence of the Ion-scale Spectral Break of Solar Wind Turbulence: High-resolution 2D Hybrid Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franci, L.; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 833, č. 1 (2016), 91/1-91/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : plasmas * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  8. DISCLOSURE OF WIND SHIFT ON SMALL HEIGHT AND ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE ON TAKE-OFF - LANDING STRIPE WITH USE REGISTER ARRANGEMENTS ON MICROWAVE AND OPTICS BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dubyanskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of detecting of wind shear at low height and atmospheric turbulence on take-off and landing runways with the use of parametric register arrangements on microwave and optics beams are considered. The results of the research of register arrangements response when these beams are being used.

  9. A Bayesian model to correct underestimated 3-D wind speeds from sonic anemometers increases turbulent components of the surface energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Frank; William J. Massman; Brent E. Ewers

    2016-01-01

    Sonic anemometers are the principal instruments in micrometeorological studies of turbulence and ecosystem fluxes. Common designs underestimate vertical wind measurements because they lack a correction for transducer shadowing, with no consensus on a suitable correction. We reanalyze a subset of data collected during field experiments in 2011 and 2013 featuring two or...

  10. Turbulence-driven coronal heating and improvements to empirical forecasting of the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfvén waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another one-dimensional code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultimately we will use these models to predict observations and explain space weather created by the bulk solar wind. We are able to reproduce with both models the general anticorrelation seen in comparisons of observed wind speed at 1 AU and the flux tube expansion factor. There is significantly less spread than comparing the results of the two models than between ZEPHYR and a traditional flux tube expansion relation. We suggest that the new code, TEMPEST, will become a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather.

  11. Development of a High Energy Amplifier for an Airborne Coherent Wind Turbulence Lidar Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capacity of coherent LIDAR systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in...

  12. Remote Sensing of Turbulence and Transverse Atmospheric Wind Profiles using Optical Reference Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    traveling from space to Earth are distorted when they pass through the Earth’s atmosphere. This distortion gives rise to the well known twinkling...same point in space at all times. Such an approach requires knowledge of the quantity being measured, therefore the variance of the intersection will...IEEE, 66:651-697 (June 1978). 9. Kolmogoroff , A. N. "The Local Structure of Turbulence in Incompressible Viscous Fluids for Very Large Reynolds

  13. Large-eddy simulation analysis of turbulent flow over a two-blade horizontal wind turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (United States); You, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Unsteady turbulent flow characteristics over a two-blade horizontal wind turbine rotor is analyzed using a large-eddy simulation technique. The wind turbine rotor corresponds to the configuration of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase VI campaign. The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a non-inertial reference frame fixed at the centroid of the rotor, are solved with centrifugal and Coriolis forces using an unstructured-grid finite-volume method. A systematic analysis of effects of grid resolution, computational domain size, and time-step size on simulation results, is carried out. Simulation results such as the surface pressure coefficient, thrust coefficient, torque coefficient, and normal and tangential force coefficients are found to agree favorably with experimental data. The simulation showed that pressure fluctuations, which produce broadband flow-induced noise and vibration of the blades, are especially significant in the mid-chord area of the suction side at around 70 to 95 percent spanwise locations. Large-scale vortices are found to be generated at the blade tip and the location connecting the blade with an airfoil cross section and the circular hub rod. These vortices propagate downstream with helical motions and are found to persist far downstream from the rotor.

  14. DUST DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK WINDS DRIVEN BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE: A MECHANISM FOR FLOATING DUST GRAINS WITH CHARACTERISTIC SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: miyake.tomoya@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: stakeru@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25–45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  15. Tracking of macroscopic particle motions generated by a turbulent wind via digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, A. D.; Kawall, J. G.; Keffer, J. F.

    A novel technique utilizing the basic principles of two-dimensional signal analysis and artificial intelligence/computer vision to reconstruct the Lagrangian particle trajectories from flow visualization images of macroparticle motions in a turbulent boundary layer is presented. Since, in most cases, the entire trajectory of a particle could not be viewed in one photographic frame (the particles were moving at a high velocity over a small field of view), a stochastic model was developed to complete the trajectories and obtain statistical data on particle velocities. The associated programs were implemented on a Cray supercomputer to optimize computational costs and time.

  16. Wind Tunnel Measurement of Turbulent and Advective Scalar Fluxes: A Case Study on Intersection Ventilation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štěpán; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 381357 (2012), s. 1-13 ISSN 1537-744X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : air pollution * atmospheric boundary layer * wind tunnel modelling * contaminant spreading * street canyon Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012 http://www.tswj.com/2012/381357/

  17. Qualitative comparison of calculated turbulence responses with wind-tunnel measurements for a DC-10 derivative wing with an active control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B., III

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented analytically predicted and experimental turbulence responses of a wind tunnel model of a DC-10 derivative wing equipped with an active control system. The active control system was designed for the purpose of flutter suppression, but it had additional benefit of alleviating gust loads (wing bending moment) by about 25%. Comparisions of various wing responses are presented for variations in active control system parameters and tunnel speed. The analytical turbulence responses were obtained using DYLOFLEX, a computer program for dynamic loads analyses of flexible airplanes with active controls. In general, the analytical predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental data.

  18. Solar Wind Turbulence from MHD to Sub-ion Scales: High-resolution Hybrid Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franci, L.; Verdini, A.; Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 804, č. 2 (2015), L39/1-L39/5 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10057S Grant - others:EU(XE) SHOCK Project No. 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamics * plasmas * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.487, year: 2015

  19. Blind test comparison of the performance and wake flow between two in-line wind turbines exposed to different turbulent inflow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of the results of the fourth blind test workshop that was held in Trondheim in October 2015. Herein, computational predictions on the performance of two in-line model wind turbines as well as the mean and turbulent wake flow are compared to experimental data measured at the wind tunnel of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU. A detailed description of the model geometry, the wind tunnel boundary conditions and the test case specifications was published before the workshop. Expert groups within computational fluid dynamics (CFD were invited to submit predictions on wind turbine performance and wake flow without knowing the experimental results at the outset. The focus of this blind test comparison is to examine the model turbines' performance and wake development with nine rotor diameters downstream at three different turbulent inflow conditions. Aside from a spatially uniform inflow field of very low-turbulence intensity (TI = 0.23 % and high-turbulence intensity (TI = 10.0 %, the turbines are exposed to a grid-generated highly turbulent shear flow (TI = 10.1 %.Five different research groups contributed their predictions using a variety of simulation models, ranging from fully resolved Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS models to large eddy simulations (LESs. For the three inlet conditions, the power and the thrust force of the upstream turbine is predicted fairly well by most models, while the predictions of the downstream turbine's performance show a significantly higher scatter. Comparing the mean velocity profiles in the wake, most models approximate the mean velocity deficit level sufficiently well. However, larger variations between the models for higher downstream positions are observed. Prediction of the turbulence kinetic energy in the wake is observed to be very challenging. Both the LES model and the IDDES (improved delayed detached eddy simulation model, however

  20. Effects of Blade Boundary Layer Transition and Daytime Atmospheric Turbulence on Wind Turbine Performance Analyzed with Blade-Resolved Simulation and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak Nath

    Relevant to utility scale wind turbine functioning and reliability, the present work focuses on enhancing our understanding of wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique data set from a GE field experiment and computer simulations at two levels of fidelity. Previous studies have shown that the stability state of the lower troposphere has a major impact on the coherent structure of the turbulence eddies, with corresponding differences in wind turbine loading response. In this study, time-resolved aerodynamic data measured locally at the leading edge and trailing edge of three outer blade sections on a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine blade and high-frequency SCADA generator power data from a daytime field campaign are combined with computer simulations that mimic the GE wind turbine within a numerically generated atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow field which is a close approximation of the atmospheric turbulence experienced by the wind turbine in the field campaign. By combining the experimental and numerical data sets, this study describes the time-response characteristics of the local loadings on the blade sections in response to nonsteady nonuniform energetic atmospheric turbulence eddies within a daytime ABL which have spatial scale commensurate with that of the turbine blade length. This study is the first of its kind where actuator line and blade boundary layer resolved CFD studies of a wind turbine field campaign are performed with the motivation to validate the numerical predictions with the experimental data set, and emphasis is given on understanding the influence of the laminar to turbulent transition process on the blade loadings. The experimental and actuator line method data sets identify three important response time scales quantified at the blade location: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25 - 50 s), blade rotation (1P

  1. COHERENT EVENTS AND SPECTRAL SHAPE AT ION KINETIC SCALES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, Sonny; Alexandrova, Olga; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate spectral and phase coherence properties of magnetic fluctuations in the vicinity of the spectral transition from large, magnetohydrodynamic to sub-ion scales using in situ measurements of the Wind spacecraft in a fast stream. For the time interval investigated by Leamon et al. (1998) the phase coherence analysis shows the presence of sporadic quasi-parallel Alfvén ion cyclotron (AIC) waves as well as coherent structures in the form of large-amplitude, quasi-perpendicular Alfvén vortex-like structures and current sheets. These waves and structures importantly contribute to the observed power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations around ion scales; AIC waves contribute to the spectrum in a narrow frequency range whereas the coherent structures contribute to the spectrum over a wide frequency band from the inertial range to the sub-ion frequency range. We conclude that a particular combination of waves and coherent structures determines the spectral shape of the magnetic field spectrum around ion scales. This phenomenon provides a possible explanation for a high variability of the magnetic power spectra around ion scales observed in the solar wind.

  2. Capturing the journey of wind from the wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine design, control strategies often assume Taylor’s frozen turbulence where the fluctuating part of the wind is assumed to be constant. In practise, the wind turbine faces higher turbulence in case of gusts and lower turbulence in some cases. With Lidar technology, the frozen turbulence

  3. Turbulence Dissipation Rates in the Planetary Boundary Layer from Wind Profiling Radars and Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Models during WFIP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; McCaffrey, K.; Wilczak, J. M.; Olson, J. B.; Kenyon, J.

    2016-12-01

    When forecasting winds at a wind plant for energy production, the turbulence parameterizations in the forecast models are crucial for understanding wind plant performance. Recent research shows that the turbulence (eddy) dissipation rate in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes introduces significant uncertainty in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Thus, developing the capability to measure dissipation rates in the PBL will allow for identification of weaknesses in, and improvements to the parameterizations. During a preliminary field study at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in spring 2015, a 915-MHz wind profiling radar (WPR) measured dissipation rates concurrently with sonic anemometers mounted on a 300-meter tower. WPR set-up parameters (e.g., spectral resolution), post-processing techniques (e.g., filtering for non-atmospheric signals), and spectral averaging were optimized to capture the most accurate Doppler spectra for measuring spectral widths for use in the computation of the eddy dissipation rates. These encouraging results lead to the implementation of the observing strategy on a 915-MHz WPR in Wasco, OR, operating as part of the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2). These observations are compared to dissipation rates calculated from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, a WRF-based mesoscale numerical weather prediction model run for WFIP2 at 3000 m horizontal grid spacing and with a nest, which has 750-meter horizontal grid spacing, in the complex terrain region of the Columbia River Gorge. The observed profiles of dissipation rates are used to evaluate the PBL parameterization schemes used in the HRRR model, which are based on the modeled turbulent kinetic energy and a tunable length scale.

  4. High-resolution Statistics of Solar Wind Turbulence at Kinetic Scales Using the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Maruca, B. A. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; Burch, J. L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J., E-mail: chasapis@udel.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Cluster missions obtained in the solar wind, we examine second-order and fourth-order structure functions at varying spatial lags normalized to ion inertial scales. The analysis includes direct two-spacecraft results and single-spacecraft results employing the familiar Taylor frozen-in flow approximation. Several familiar statistical results, including the spectral distribution of energy, and the sale-dependent kurtosis, are extended down to unprecedented spatial scales of ∼6 km, approaching electron scales. The Taylor approximation is also confirmed at those small scales, although small deviations are present in the kinetic range. The kurtosis is seen to attain very high values at sub-proton scales, supporting the previously reported suggestion that monofractal behavior may be due to high-frequency plasma waves at kinetic scales.

  5. Multi-Spacecraft Turbulence Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbury, Tim S.; Osman, Kareem T.

    analyse; and, most important of all, the solar wind speed, V SW , is much higher than the local MHD wave speeds. This means that a spacecraft time series is essentially a "snapshot" spatial sample of the plasma along the flow direction, so we can consider measurements at a set of times ti to be at a set of locations in the plasma given by xi = VSW. This approximation,known as Taylor's hypothesis, greatly simplifies the analysis of the data. In contrast, in the magnetosheath the flow speed is lower than the wave speed and therefore temporal changes at the spacecraft are due to a complex combination of the plasma moving over the spacecraft and the turbulent fluctuations propagating in the plasma frame. This is also the case for ion and electron kinetic scale turbulence in the solar wind and dramatically complicates the analysis of the data. As a result, the application of multi-spacecraft techniques such as k filtering to Cluster data (see Chapter 5, which make it possible to disentangle the effects of flow and wave propagation, have probably resulted in the greatest increase in our understanding of magnetosheath turbulence rather than in the solar wind. We can therefore summarise the key advantages for plasma turbulence analysis of multi-spacecraft data sets such as those from Cluster, compared to single spacecraft data. Multiple sampling points allow us to measure how the turbulence varies in many directions, and on a range of scales, simultaneously, enabling the study of anisotropy in ways that have not previously been possible. They also allow us to distinguish between the motion of fluctuations in the plasma and motion of the plasma itself, enabling the study of turbulence in highly disturbed environments such as the magnetosheath. A number of authors have studied turbulence with Cluster data, using different techniques, the choice of which is motivated by the characteristics of the plasma environment in which they are interested. The complexity of both the Cluster

  6. Profile of the horizontal wind variance near the ground in near neutral flow – K-theory and the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the vicinity of the ground, and particularly with the profile of the horizontal wind variance. The study is based on experimental measurements performed with fast cup anemometers located near the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. The experiment was carried over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The results of this study reveal that near the ground surface and under moderate wind, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, in direct relationship with the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. A theoretical development has allowed us to link this behaviour to the modeling of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE transport through the eddy diffusivity. Thus, the study proposes a formulation of the similarity universal function of the horizontal wind variance. Besides, the formulation offers a new method for the determination of the friction velocity and the roughness length scale and can be used for the evaluation of the TKE transport rate.

  7. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent winds during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by coupling with a meso-scale meteorological simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H.; Takemi, T.; Nagai, H.

    2015-06-01

    A significant amount of radioactive material was accidentally discharged into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant from 12 March 2011, which produced high contaminated areas over a wide region in Japan. In conducting regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations, the computer-based nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI-II developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency was used. Because this system is driven by a meso-scale meteorological (MM) model, it is difficult to reproduce small-scale wind fluctuations due to the effects of local terrain variability and buildings within a nuclear facility that are not explicitly represented in MM models. In this study, we propose a computational approach to couple an LES-based CFD model with a MM model for detailed simulations of turbulent winds with buoyancy effects under real meteorological conditions using turbulent inflow technique. Compared to the simple measurement data, especially, the 10 min averaged wind directions of the LES differ by more than 30 degrees during some period of time. However, distribution patterns of wind speeds, directions, and potential temperature are similar to the MM data. This implies that our coupling technique has potential performance to provide detailed data on contaminated area in the nuclear accidents.

  8. Turbulence, selective decay, and merging in the SSX plasma wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tim; Brown, Michael; Flanagan, Ken; Werth, Alexandra; Lukin, V.

    2012-10-01

    A helical, relaxed plasma state has been observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder has dimensions L = 1 m and R = 0.08 m. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v >=50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. Typical plasma parameters are Ti= 25 eV, ne>=10^15 cm-3, and B = 0.25 T. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1--2 axial Alfv'en times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data is favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibits broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement to the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇xB = λB. While the global structure roughly corresponds to the minimum energy eigenstate for the wind tunnel geometry, the plasma is high beta (β= 0.5) and does not have a flat λ profile. Merging of two plasmoids in this configuration results in noticeably more dynamic activity compared to a single plasmoid. These episodes of activity exhibit s

  9. Physical interpretation of the angle-dependent magnetic helicity spectrum in the solar wind: The nature of turbulent fluctuations near the proton gyroradius scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); TenBarge, Jason M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Podesta, John J., E-mail: kristopher-klein@uiowa.edu [Center for Space Plasma Physics, Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.

  10. The Role of Proton Cyclotron Resonance as a Dissipation Mechanism in Solar Wind Turbulence: A Statistical Study at Ion-kinetic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodham, Lloyd D.; Wicks, Robert T.; Verscharen, Daniel; Owen, Christopher J.

    2018-03-01

    We use magnetic field and ion moment data from the MFI and SWE instruments on board the Wind spacecraft to study the nature of solar wind turbulence at ion-kinetic scales. We analyze the spectral properties of magnetic field fluctuations between 0.1 and 5.4 Hz during 2012 using an automated routine, computing high-resolution 92 s power and magnetic helicity spectra. To ensure the spectral features are physical, we make the first in-flight measurement of the MFI “noise-floor” using tail-lobe crossings of the Earth’s magnetosphere during early 2004. We utilize Taylor’s hypothesis to Doppler-shift into the spacecraft frequency frame, finding that the spectral break observed at these frequencies is best associated with the proton cyclotron resonance scale, 1/k c , rather than the proton inertial length, d i , or proton gyroscale, ρ i . This agreement is strongest when we consider periods where β i,\\perp ∼ 1, and is consistent with a spectral break at d i for β i,\\perp ≪1 and at ρ i for β i,\\perp ≫1. We also find that the coherent magnetic helicity signature observed at these frequencies is bounded at low frequencies by 1/k c , and its absolute value reaches a maximum at ρ i . These results hold in both slow and fast wind streams, but with a better correlation in the more Alfvénic fast wind where the helicity signature is strongest. We conclude that these findings are consistent with proton cyclotron resonance as an important mechanism for dissipation of turbulent energy in the solar wind, occurring at least half the time in our selected interval. However, we do not rule out additional mechanisms.

  11. Stochastic modelling of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    previously been shown to be closely connected to the energy dissipation. The incorporation of the small scale dynamics into the spatial model opens the door to a fully fledged stochastic model of turbulence. Concerning the interaction of wind and wind turbine, a new method is proposed to extract wind turbine...

  12. Astronomical site survey report on dust measurement, wind profile, optical turbulence, and their correlation with seeing over IAO-Hanle. Astronomical site survey report over IAO-Hanle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Kathiravan, S.; Parihar, P. S.; L. Larson, E. J.; Mohanan, Sharika; Angchuk, Dorje; Jorphel, Sonam; Rangarajan, K. E.; Prabhu, K.

    2017-04-01

    The present work discusses astronomical site survey reports on dust content, vertical distribution of atmospheric turbulence, precipitable water vapor (PWV), surface and upper-air data, and their effects on seeing over the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) Hanle. Using Laser Particulate Counter, ambient dust measurements at various sizes (0.3 μm to 25 μm) were performed at various locations at the site during November 2015. Estimated volume concentration for the particle size at 0.5 μm was around 10,000 per cubic foot, which is equivalent to ten thousand class of clean room standard protocol. During the measurement, surface wind speed varied from 0-20 m s -1, while estimated aerosol optical depth (AOD) using Sky radiometer (Prede) varied from 0.02-0.04 at 500 nm, which indicates the site is fairly clean. The two independent measurements of dust content and aerosol concentrations at the site agreed well. The turbulence or wind gust at the site was studied with wind profiles at three different heights above the ground. The strength of the wind gust varies with time and altitude. Nocturnal temperature across seasons varied with a moderate at summer (6-8 ∘C) and lower in winter (4-5 ∘C). However, the contrast between the two is significantly small due to cold and extremely dry typical climatic conditions of the site. The present study also examined the effects of surface and upper-air data along with Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) dynamics with seeing measurement over the site. Further, a comparative study of such observed parameters was conducted with other high altitude astronomical observatories across the globe.

  13. Non-universality of the turbulent spectra at sub-ion scales in the solar wind: dispersive effects vs the Doppler shif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, F.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Large surveys of power spectral density (PSD) of the magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind have reported different slopes distributions at MHD, sub-ion and sub-electron scales; the smaller the scale the broader the distribution. Several explanations of the variability the slopes at sub-ion scales have been proposed. Here, we present a new one that has been overlooked in the literature, which is based on the relative importance of the dispersive effects w.r.t. the Doppler shift due to the flow speed. We build a toy model based on a dispersion relation of a linear mode that matches at high frequency (ω ≳ ω ci) the Alfvén (resp. whistler) mode at high oblique (resp. quasi-parallel) propagation angles θ kB. Starting with double power-law spectrum of turbulence {k⊥}-1.66 in the inertial range and {k⊥}-2.8 at the sub-ion scales, the transformed spectrum (in frequency f) as it would be measured in the spacecraft frame shows a broad range of slopes at the sub-ion scales that depend both on the angle θ kB and the flow speed V. Varying θ kB in the range 10o-100o and V in the range 400-800 km/s, the resulting distribution of slopes at the sub-ion scales reproduces quite well the observed one in the solar wind. Fluctuations in the solar wind speed and the anisotropy of the turbulence may explain (or at least contribute to) the variability of the spectral slopes reported in the solar wind.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction simulation of floating structures interacting with complex, large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence with application to floating offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderer, Antoni; Guo, Xin; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2018-02-01

    We develop a numerical method for simulating coupled interactions of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence. We employ an efficient large-scale model to develop offshore wind and wave environmental conditions, which are then incorporated into a high resolution two-phase flow solver with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The large-scale wind-wave interaction model is based on a two-fluid dynamically-coupled approach that employs a high-order spectral method for simulating the water motion and a viscous solver with undulatory boundaries for the air motion. The two-phase flow FSI solver is based on the level set method and is capable of simulating the coupled dynamic interaction of arbitrarily complex bodies with airflow and waves. The large-scale wave field solver is coupled with the near-field FSI solver with a one-way coupling approach by feeding into the latter waves via a pressure-forcing method combined with the level set method. We validate the model for both simple wave trains and three-dimensional directional waves and compare the results with experimental and theoretical solutions. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of the new computational framework by carrying out large-eddy simulation of a floating offshore wind turbine interacting with realistic ocean wind and waves.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theories have since found applications in many areas of astrophysics. Spacecraft measurements of solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. Theories of imbalanced MHD turbulence have now been proposed to address interplanetary turbulence.

  16. Study on the Influence of Velocity, Turbulence Intensity and Temperature on Ammonia Emission Rate in a Wind Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, P V; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Odor emissions from manure in livestock buildings are an important issue which concerns the human health and air quality as well as animals. Ammonia is one of the most important odors in pig houses. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of local velocity, turbulence intensit...

  17. Measurements of surface-layer turbulence in awide norwegian fjord using synchronized long-range doppler wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna B.; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas

    2017-01-01

    lidar data with point-measurement to reduce the uncertainties linked to the atmospheric stability and the spatial averaging of the lidar probe volume. The measured lateral coherence was associated with a decay coefficient larger than expected for the along-wind component, with a value around 21...... for a mean wind velocity bounded between 10m·s-1 and 14m·s-1, which may be related to a stable atmospheric stratification....

  18. Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence: Vertical wind speed power spectra from the troposphere and stratosphere obtained under light wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Balsley, B. B.; Crochet, M.; Carter, D. A.; Riddle, A. C.; Garello, R.

    1983-01-01

    A joint France/U.S. experiment was conducted near the mouth of the Rhone river in southern France as part of the ALPEX program. This experiment used 3 vertically directed 50 MHz radars separated by 4 to 6 km. The main purpose of this experiment was to study the spatial characteristics of gravity waves. The good height resolution (750 meters) and time resolution (1 minute) and the continuous operation over many weeks have yielded high resolution vertical wind speed power spectra under a variety of synoptic conditions. Vertical spectra obtained during very quiet (low wind) conditions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from a single site are presented.

  19. Improving a two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence model to predict the aerodynamic performance of thick wind turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangga, Galih; Kusumadewi, Tri; Hutomo, Go; Sabila, Ahmad; Syawitri, Taurista; Setiadi, Herlambang; Faisal, Muhamad; Wiranegara, Raditya; Hendranata, Yongki; Lastomo, Dwi; Putra, Louis; Kristiadi, Stefanus

    2018-03-01

    Numerical simulations for relatively thick airfoils are carried out in the present studies. An attempt to improve the accuracy of the numerical predictions is done by adjusting the turbulent viscosity of the eddy-viscosity Menter Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The modification involves the addition of a damping factor on the wall-bounded flows incorporating the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy to its specific dissipation rate for separation detection. The results are compared with available experimental data and CFD simulations using the original Menter SST model. The present model improves the lift polar prediction even though the stall angle is still overestimated. The improvement is caused by the better prediction of separated flow under a strong adverse pressure gradient. The results show that the Reynolds stresses are damped near the wall causing variation of the logarithmic velocity profiles.

  20. Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Turbulent Processes in the Mesopause Region Based on PMSE MAARSY Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudadze, N.; Chau, J. L.; Stober, G.; Latteck, R.

    2016-12-01

    Mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) polar dynamics are interesting and important subject for study in atmospheric physic. It is considered that mesopause region is where the main part of the Atmospheric gravity waves breaks and/or dissipates. However this region is difficult to observe. Continuous Observations of the polar summer mesosphere with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) and its predecessor the ALOMAR-Wind-Radar (ALWIN) (before 2010), have been used to investigate dynamical structures of well-known phenomenon - Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) which is an important tracer in the summer polar mesopause region. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Doppler radial velocity from the PMSE are used to investigate the wave-like motions with periods larger than 5 minutes. Such oscillations are studied in terms of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Processes also connected with AGWs as PMSE layering, are studied in connection with the background conditions of the neutral atmosphere as well. Background winds are obtained from collocated meteor radar (MR). We used local enhancement method for the processing of altitude-time SNR images to detect layers in the PMSEs and characterised them. Our preliminary results indicate that PMSE strength and behaviour is correlated with the meridional wind. Furthermore we found that the spectral width (SW), which is a proxy of turbulence, is most of the time weakly dependent on SNR strength. However, there are some events where SW is highly dependent on SNR intensity indicating that they could be associated to turbulent-dominated events.

  1. Investigation of a Novel Turbulence Model and Using Leading-Edge Slots for Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Airfoils and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhaghi, Saman

    Because of the problems associated with increase of greenhouse gases, as well as the limited supplies of fossil fuels, the transition to alternate, clean, renewable sources of energy is inevitable. Renewable sources of energy can be used to decrease our need for fossil fuels, thus reducing impact to humans, other species and their habitats. The wind is one of the cleanest forms of energy, and it can be an excellent candidate for producing electrical energy in a more sustainable manner. Vertical- and Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT and HAWT) are two common devices used for harvesting electrical energy from the wind. Due to the development of a thin boundary layer over the ground surface, the modern commercial wind turbines have to be relatively large to be cost-effective. Because of the high manufacturing and transportation costs of the wind turbine components, it is necessary to evaluate the design and predict the performance of the turbine prior to shipping it to the site, where it is to be installed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has proven to be a simple, cheap and yet relatively accurate tool for prediction of wind turbine performance, where the suitability of different designs can be evaluated at a low cost. High accuracy simulation methods such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) are developed and utilized in the past decades. Despite their superior importance in large fluid domains, they fail to make very accurate predictions near the solid surfaces. Therefore, in the present effort, the possibility of improving near-wall predictions of CFD simulations in the near-wall region by using a modified turbulence model is also thoroughly investigated. Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) is employed in conjunction with Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) to improve Reynolds stresses components, and consequently predictions of the near-wall velocities and surface pressure distributions. The proposed model shows a slightly better performance

  2. Numerical investigations on the influence of wind shear and turbulence on aircraft trailing vortices; Numerische Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Windscherung und Turbulenz auf Flugzeugwirbelschleppen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, T.

    2003-07-01

    In several aspects, the behaviour of aircraft wake vortices under situations of vertical wind shear is significantly different from non-shear scenarios and its operational real-time forcast is challenging. By means of numerical investigations of idealized scenarios, the influence of wind shear on the lateral and vertical transport of vortices is analysed both, phenomenologically as well as in the scope of a sensitivity study. The results allow for the verification of controversial views and the benchmark of modelling approaches. Case studies of turbulent shear flows focus on the persistence of vortices. A detailed analysis of the flow fields evidence that unequal vortex decay rates can be attributed to the asymmetric distribution of secondary vorticity structures. The results moreover suggest that extended vortex lifespans can be expected under situations of wind shear. The unusual vortex behaviour observed by means of a LIDAR measurement is reproduced by realistic simulations and permits to reveal potential causes. (orig.) [German] Das Wirbelschleppenverhalten unterscheidet sich in Situationen vertikaler Windscherung in mehrfacher Hinsicht signifikant von scherungsfreien Szenarien und stellt eine besondere Herausforderung fuer eine operationelle Echtzeitvorhersage dar. Mittels numerischer Untersuchungen idealisierter Szenarien wird zunaechst der Einfluss von Windscherung auf den lateralen und vertikalen Wirbeltransport sowohl phaenomenologisch als auch quantitativ im Rahmen einer Sensitivitaetsstudie analysiert. Anhand der gewonnenen Ergebnisse werden auseinandergehende Erklaerungsansaetze geprueft und Modellierungsansaetze bewertet. Fallstudien turbulenter Scherstroemungen zur Wirbelpersistenz stellen einen weiteren Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit dar. Durch die ausfuehrliche Analyse der Stroemungsfelder wird der Nachweis erbracht, dass sich unterschiedliche Zerfallsraten der Wirbel auf die asymmetrische Verteilung von sekundaeren Vorticity-Strukturen zurueckfuehren

  3. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  4. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Courtney, M.S.; Lange, B.; Nielsen, M.; Sempreviva, A.M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J.; Olsen, F. [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T. [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  5. A user`s manual for the program TRES4: Random vibration analysis of vertical-axis wind turbines in turbulent winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    TRES4 is a software package that works with the MSC/NASTRAN finite element analysis code to conduct random vibration analysis of vertical-axis wind turbines. The loads on the turbine are calculated in the time domain to retain the nonlinearities of stalled aerodynamic loadings. The loads are transformed into modal coordinates to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. Power spectra and cross spectra of the loads are calculated in the modal coordinate system. These loads are written in NASTRAN Bulk Data format to be read and applied in a random vibration analysis by NASTRAN. The resulting response is then transformed back to physical coordinates to facilitate user interpretation.

  6. Spectral analysis of long term measurements of wind and turbulence from tall masts –land and sea based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    chain and its use for computing the high resolution time series at every grid point which will be an important part of the final wind atlas database. The dataset then allows us to investigate one of the most crucial issues in the concept of the model chain namely that of linking the two...... correctly. We are further analyzing the impact of the frequent occurrence of cellular structures over Northern Europe in the atmospheric boundary layer on the spectral properties, following often cold polar outbreaks. Open cells have a tendency to fill up the spectral gap and as a consequence...

  7. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  8. Effects of surface friction and turbulent mixing on long-term changes in the near-surface wind speed over the Eastern China Plain from 1981 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zha, Jinlin; Zhao, Deming; Yang, Qidong

    2017-11-01

    A significant slowdown in the near-surface wind speed (SWS) due to combined effects of the driving and drag forces of the atmosphere has been demonstrated in different regions in the globe. The drag force includes two sources: the friction force between the underlying surface and the bottom of the atmosphere, which is the external friction force (EFF), and the vertical exchange of the horizontal momentum induced by turbulent mixing, which is the turbulent friction force (TFF). In this paper, we propose a diagnostic method to separate the effects of the EFF and the TFF on long-term changes in the SWS over the Eastern China Plain (ECP) region from 1981 to 2010. The results show that the TFF could have caused an increase of 0.5 ± 0.2 m s- 1 in the SWS over the ECP region in the past 30 years and the TFF showed an increasing influence of 0.17 m s- 1 decade- 1. In contrast, the EFF distinctly decreased the SWS by an average of - 1.1 ± 0.4 m s- 1 and presented a significant decreasing trend of - 0.36 m s- 1 decade- 1. The effect of EFF is the main inducer of the observed regional long-term decrease of the SWS, which is in accordance with the distinct land use and cover change (LUCC) occurring in the ECP region in recent decades. Furthermore, the effects of the EFF and TFF on the changes in the SWS are more significant in large cities than those in small cities. The TFF effect can accelerate the SWS, with means of 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 m s- 1 in large and small cities, respectively. The EFF effect can decelerate the SWS, with means of - 1.2 ± 0.4 and - 0.7 ± 0.4 m s- 1 in large and small cities, respectively.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  10. Influence of the Solar Cycle on Turbulence Properties and Cosmic-Ray Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.-L.; Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Feng, X. S.

    2018-04-01

    The solar cycle dependence of various turbulence quantities and cosmic-ray (CR) diffusion coefficients is investigated by using OMNI 1 minute resolution data over 22 years. We employ Elsässer variables z ± to calculate the magnetic field turbulence energy and correlation lengths for both the inwardly and outwardly directed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We present the temporal evolution of both large-scale solar wind (SW) plasma variables and small-scale magnetic fluctuations. Based on these observed quantities, we study the influence of solar activity on CR parallel and perpendicular diffusion using quasi-linear theory and nonlinear guiding center theory, respectively. We also evaluate the radial evolution of the CR diffusion coefficients by using the boundary conditions for different solar activity levels. We find that in the ecliptic plane at 1 au (1), the large-scale SW temperature T, velocity V sw, Alfvén speed V A , and IMF magnitude B 0 are positively related to solar activity; (2) the fluctuating magnetic energy density , residual energy E D , and corresponding correlation functions all have an obvious solar cycle dependence. The residual energy E D is always negative, which indicates that the energy in magnetic fluctuations is larger than the energy in kinetic fluctuations, especially at solar maximum; (3) the correlation length λ for magnetic fluctuations does not show significant solar cycle variation; (4) the temporally varying shear source of turbulence, which is most important in the inner heliosphere, depends on the solar cycle; (5) small-scale fluctuations may not depend on the direction of the background magnetic field; and (6) high levels of SW fluctuations will increase CR perpendicular diffusion and decrease CR parallel diffusion, but this trend can be masked if the background IMF changes in concert with turbulence in response to solar activity. These results provide quantitative inputs for both turbulence transport models and CR

  11. The collapse of turbulence in the evening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Baas, P.; Basu, S.; Sun, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A common experience in everyday weather is the fact that near-surface wind speeds tend to weaken in the evening, particularly in fair weather conditions. This cessation of wind usually coincides with the collapse of turbulence which leads to a quiet flow near the ground. As the absence of turbulent

  12. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  13. Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galtier

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.

  14. Turbulent dispersion of many particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J.; Busse, A.; Muller, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the utility of the convex hull to analyze dispersion of groups of many Lagrangian tracer particles in turbulence. We examine dispersion in turbulent flows driven by convection, relevant to geophysical flows and the spread of contaminants in the atmosphere, and in turbulent flows affected by magnetic fields, relevant to stellar winds and stellar interiors. Convex hull analysis can provide new information about local dispersion, in the form of the surface area and volume for a cluster of particles. We use dispersive information to examine the local anisotropy that occurs in these turbulent settings, and to understand fundamental characteristics of heat transfer and the small-scale dynamo.

  15. Influence of tall vegetation canopy on turbulence kinetic energy budget in the stable boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Karmen; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2017-04-01

    While a considerable amount of research has been done on turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget studies in the surface layer over horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF) surfaces, little research focused on budgets above heterogeneous and rough surfaces. Only few studies have investigated TKE budgets above fetch-limited forest focusing on statically neutral conditions, while studies in the stable boundary layer (SBL) are still scarce in the literature. Therefore, we present turbulence characteristics above tall, deciduous forest in the wintertime SBL and make a comparison with a well-known results of HHF terrain. Turbulence measurements performed at five levels above the canopy height (approximately h = 18 m) allowed the investigation of combined influence of the roughness sublayer (RSL) found above tall vegetation and the internal boundary layer (IBL) on the TKE budget terms. Each term of the TKE budget is investigated within the framework of local similarity theory. Kolomogorov's similarity hypothesis assumes local isotropy within the inertial subrange. Testing the local isotropy hypothesis more thoroughly resulted in a ratio of the horizontal spectral densities (Sv/Su) approaching the 4/3, while the ratio of the vertical to the longitudinal spectral density (Sw/Su) was less than 1 for all levels indicating an anisotropic turbulence above the canopy. As a consequence, estimated values of TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) for the vertical component (ɛw) were smaller (underestimated) compared to the ɛ estimates obtained from the horizontal velocity components. This finding has a direct influence on the applicability of classical Kansas spectral models valid for HHF terrain as well as on the budget of wind variances. Additionally, the dimensionless wind shear function associated with "Kolmogorov turbulence" (existence of a well-defined inertial subrange with -5/3 slopes) was found to depart from linear prediction suggesting that the stability is a stronger determinant of

  16. Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2004-11-01

    Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.

  17. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  18. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  19. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two ap....... The greatest sector-wise extreme winds are from west to northwest. Different data, different periods and different methods have provided a range of values of the 50-year wind and accordingly the gust values, as summarized in Table 15.......The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...

  20. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  1. Turbulence measurement with a two-beam nacelle lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Sathe, Ameya; Mioullet, A.

    The analysis of the turbulence intensity measurement is performed for a lidar measuring horizontally with two beams. First the turbulence intensity measured by such a system was evaluated theoretically. The Mann model of turbulence was used to evaluate the true value of the turbulence intensity...... of the wind speed and the main effects of the lidar measurement principles on turbulence intensity measurement were modeled: - A lidar senses the wind speed over the probe volume acting as a low pass-filter and thus cannot resolve high frequency turbulence; - The horizontal wind speed is retrieved from...... the combination of the radial speeds measured along two line-of-sights with different orientations; this results in the contamination of the lidar turbulence intensity measurement from the transverse component of the wind field. Secondly, the theoretical results were compared to experimental measurements. A two...

  2. Nearly constant ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break length scale in the plasma beta range from 0.2 to 1.4 in the solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tu, C. Y.; He, J.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The spectrum break at the ion scale of the solar wind magnetic fluctuations are considered to give important clue on the turbulence dissipation mechanism. Among several possible mechanisms, the most notable ones are the two mechanisms that related respectively with proton thermal gyro-radius and proton inertial length. However, no definite conclusion has been given for which one is more reasonable because the two parameters have similar values in the normal plasma beta range. Here we do a statistical study for the first time to see if the two mechanism predictions have different dependence on the solar wind velocity and on the plasma beta in the normal plasma beta range in the solar wind at 1 AU. From magnetic measurements by Wind, Ulysses and Messenger, we select 60 data sets with duration longer than 8 hours. We found that the ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break scale do not change considerably with both varying the solar wind speed from 300km/s to 800km/s and varying the plasma beta from 0.2 to 1.4. The average value of the ratio times 2pi is 0.46 ± 0.08. However, the ratio between the proton gyro-radius and the break scale changes clearly. This new result shows that the proton inertial scale could be a single factor that determines the break length scale and hence gives a strong evidence to support the dissipation mechanism related to it in the normal plasma beta range. The value of the constant ratio may relate with the dissipation mechanism, but it needs further theoretical study to give detailed explanation.

  3. TWO REGIMES OF INTERACTION OF A HOT JUPITER’S ESCAPING ATMOSPHERE WITH THE STELLAR WIND AND GENERATION OF ENERGIZED ATOMIC HYDROGEN CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Prokopov, P. A.; Berezutsky, A. G.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Posukh, V. G.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of escaping the upper atmosphere of a hydrogen-rich non-magnetized analog of HD 209458b with a stellar wind (SW) of its host G-type star at different orbital distances is simulated with a 2D axisymmetric multi-fluid hydrodynamic (HD) model. A realistic Sun-like spectrum of X-ray and ultraviolet radiation, which ionizes and heats the planetary atmosphere, together with hydrogen photochemistry, as well as stellar-planetary tidal interaction are taken into account to generate self-consistently an atmospheric HD outflow. Two different regimes of the planetary and SW interaction have been modeled. These are: (1) the “ captured by the star ” regime, when the tidal force and pressure gradient drive the planetary material beyond the Roche lobe toward the star, and (2) the “ blown by the wind ” regime, when sufficiently strong SW confines the escaping planetary atmosphere and channels it into the tail. The model simulates in detail the HD interaction between the planetary atoms, protons and the SW, as well as the production of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) around the planet due to charge exchange between planetary atoms and stellar protons. The revealed location and shape of the ENA cloud, either as a paraboloid shell between the ionopause and bowshock (for the “ blown by the wind ” regime), or a turbulent layer at the contact boundary between the planetary stream and SW (for the “ captured by the star ” regime) are of importance for the interpretation of Ly α absorption features in exoplanetary transit spectra and characterization of the plasma environments.

  4. TWO REGIMES OF INTERACTION OF A HOT JUPITER’S ESCAPING ATMOSPHERE WITH THE STELLAR WIND AND GENERATION OF ENERGIZED ATOMIC HYDROGEN CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Prokopov, P. A.; Berezutsky, A. G.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Posukh, V. G. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Acad. Sci., Graz (Austria); Johnstone, C. P., E-mail: maxim.khodachenko@oeaw.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-12-01

    The interaction of escaping the upper atmosphere of a hydrogen-rich non-magnetized analog of HD 209458b with a stellar wind (SW) of its host G-type star at different orbital distances is simulated with a 2D axisymmetric multi-fluid hydrodynamic (HD) model. A realistic Sun-like spectrum of X-ray and ultraviolet radiation, which ionizes and heats the planetary atmosphere, together with hydrogen photochemistry, as well as stellar-planetary tidal interaction are taken into account to generate self-consistently an atmospheric HD outflow. Two different regimes of the planetary and SW interaction have been modeled. These are: (1) the “ captured by the star ” regime, when the tidal force and pressure gradient drive the planetary material beyond the Roche lobe toward the star, and (2) the “ blown by the wind ” regime, when sufficiently strong SW confines the escaping planetary atmosphere and channels it into the tail. The model simulates in detail the HD interaction between the planetary atoms, protons and the SW, as well as the production of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) around the planet due to charge exchange between planetary atoms and stellar protons. The revealed location and shape of the ENA cloud, either as a paraboloid shell between the ionopause and bowshock (for the “ blown by the wind ” regime), or a turbulent layer at the contact boundary between the planetary stream and SW (for the “ captured by the star ” regime) are of importance for the interpretation of Ly α absorption features in exoplanetary transit spectra and characterization of the plasma environments.

  5. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due......Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...

  6. The difficult wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed

  7. Far offshore wind conditions in scope of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Far offshore atmospheric conditions are favourable for wind energy purposes since mean wind speeds are relatively high (i.e., high power production) while turbulence levels are relatively low (i.e., less fatigue loads) compared to onshore conditions. Offshore wind energy, however, is still expensive

  8. Wind turbine rotor aerodynamics : The IEA MEXICO rotor explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbines are operating under very complex and uncontrolled environmental conditions, including atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric boundary layer effects, directional and spatial variations in wind shear, etc. Over the past decades, the size of a commercial wind turbine has increased

  9. Turbulence in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    used in related dispersion studies and coupled land atmosphere interaction models. For other more complex biosphere atmosphere interactions such as greenhouse gas emissions from wetlands, the interplay between air and water, often in presence of flexible aquatic vegetation, controls turbulence in water, which in turn affect the gas transfer processes. This process of wind shear induced wave-turbulent-vegetation interaction is studied for the first time in the laboratory and the state of turbulence as well as the bulk flow is found to be highly sensitive to environmental controls such as water height, wind speed, vegetation density and flexibility. This dissertation describes and gradually develops these concepts in an increasing order of complexity of boundary conditions. The first three chapters address the neutral and thermally stratified boundary layers and the last two chapters address the canopy edge problem and the air-water-vegetation experiments respectively.

  10. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is an engineering wake model designed to physically model the wake deficit evolution and the unsteady meandering that occurs in wind turbine wakes. The present study aims at improving two features of the model: The effect of the atmospheric boundary layer s...

  11. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  12. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. .... to ˆz is called the Alfvén wave, and the other orthogonal component is called the Slow. (magnetosonic) ...... advanced in the text suffices for our phenomenological account in this review. [46] A Beresnyak ...

  14. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    established from the on-site distribution functions of the horizontal mean wind speeds, the 90% quantile of turbulence along with average values of vertical wind shear and air density and the maximum flow inclination. This paper investigates the accuracy of fatigue loads estimated using this equivalent wind...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...... and Høvsøre in Denmark have been used to estimate the natural variation in the wind conditions between 10 min time periods. The structural wind turbine loads have been simulated using the aero-elastic model FAST. The results show that using a 90% quantile for the turbulence leads to an accurate assessment...

  15. Turbulence compressibility corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1994-01-01

    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  16. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  17. Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    positive definite cross-spectral density matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise. Finally, an accurate state space modelling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order......, and estimation of a state space model for the vector turbulence process incorporating its phase spectrum in one stage, and its results are compared with a conventional ARMA modelling method.......Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper...

  18. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2006-01-01

    depends primarily on site characteristics and local mean wind speed variations. Reduced turbulence intensity will result in lower design fatigue loads. This aspect of de-trending is discussed by use of a simple heuristic load model. Finally an empirical model for de-trending wind resource data......The paper presents the results of a comparison between long term raw and de-trended turbulence intensity values recorded at offshore and coastal sites under different weather systems. Within the traditional framework of turbulence interpretation, where turbulence is considered as a stationary...... measurements usually include statistics of ten-minute mean and standard deviation, and it is not possible to calculate the trend contribution afterwards, because this requires access to the time-series. A huge amount of time-series, stored in the database WindData.com, are used to calculate the trend...

  19. Influence of atmospheric stability on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Barlas, Thanasis K.

    2013-01-01

    at the turbine hub height. The loads are quantified as the cumulative sum of the damage equivalent load for different wind speeds that are weighted according to the wind speed and stability distribution. Four sites with a different wind speed and stability distribution are used for comparison. The turbulence...... turbulent energy. The tower base loads are mainly influenced by diabatic turbulence, whereas the rotor loads are influenced by diabatic wind profiles. The blade loads are influenced by both, diabatic wind profile and turbulence, that leads to nullifying the contrasting influences on the loads...

  20. Wind Data from Kennedy Airport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramson, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... Although the original purpose for the anemometers was to track the lateral position of wake vortices, the measurements also provide a database of wind and turbulence that can be used for other purposes...

  1. Wind Data from Memphis Airport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnham, David

    1997-01-01

    .... Although the original purpose for the anemometers was to track the lateral position of wake vortices, the measurements also provide a database of wind and turbulence that can be used for other purposes...

  2. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  3. Wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  4. Cryogenic turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2005-01-01

    Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.

  5. An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. Three different wind fields, namely the ECMWF analyzed winds, the ECMWF blended winds, and the NCEP blended winds have been used to drive the model. The wave model ...

  6. Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1979-01-01

    By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath

  7. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  8. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  9. Toward Better Understanding of Turbulence Effects on Bridge Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the trend of variable cross-sections for long-span bridges from truss-stiffened to quasi-streamlined, and then to multiple-box cross-section geometries, the importance of aeroelastic performance is becoming increasingly significant in wind-resistant design. This article shows that there is clearly insufficient qualitative as well as quantitative understanding of turbulence effects on bridge aerodynamics, particularly the mechanisms behind them. Although turbulence might help the stabilization of long-span bridges, and is thus not a conclusive parameter in wind-resistant design, turbulence effects on the aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of a bridge need to be better understood because interaction between a bridge and turbulence always exists. This article also briefly introduces a newly developed multiple-fan wind tunnel that is designed to control turbulence to assist the study of turbulence effects.

  10. Turbulence for different background conditions using fuzzy logic and clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Satheesan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind and turbulence estimated from MST radar observations in Kiruna, in Arctic Sweden are used to characterize turbulence in the free troposphere using data clustering and fuzzy logic. The root mean square velocity, νfca, a diagnostic of turbulence is clustered in terms of hourly wind speed, direction, vertical wind speed, and altitude of the radar observations, which are the predictors. The predictors are graded over an interval of zero to one through an input membership function. Subtractive data clustering has been applied to classify νfca depending on its homogeneity. Fuzzy rules are applied to the clustered dataset to establish a relationship between predictors and the predictant. The accuracy of the predicted turbulence shows that this method gives very good prediction of turbulence in the troposphere. Using this method, the behaviour of νfca for different wind conditions at different altitudes is studied.

  11. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...... from more southerly habitats are better adapted to climatic conditions in a warmer Greenland compared with local provenances. To answer the first question historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898–1974) were compiled. The photos were repeated in 2010 and 2011 and 64 photo pairs were...

  12. Soliton turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

  13. New Insight into Short-Wavelength Solar Wind Fluctuations from Vlasov Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Belmont, G.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of solar wind (SW) turbulence below the proton gyroscale is a topic that is being investigated extensively nowadays, both theoretically and observationally. Although recent observations gave evidence of the dominance of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) at sub-ion scales with omega omega (sub ci)) is more relevant. Here, we study key properties of the short-wavelength plasma modes under limited, but realistic, SW conditions, Typically Beta(sub i) approx. > Beta (sub e) 1 and for high oblique angles of propagation 80 deg theory, we discuss the relevance of each plasma mode (fast, Bernstein, KAW, whistler) in carrying the energy cascade down to electron scales. We show, in particular, that the shear Alfven mode (known in the magnetohydrodynamic limit) extends at scales kappa rho (sub i) approx. > 1 to frequencies either larger or smaller than omega (sub ci), depending on the anisotropy kappa (parallel )/ kappa(perpendicular). This extension into small scales is more readily called whistler (omega > omega (sub ci)) or KAW (omega < omega (sub ci)) although the mode is essentially the same. This contrasts with the well-accepted idea that the whistler branch always develops as a continuation at high frequencies of the fast magnetosonic mode. We show, furthermore, that the whistler branch is more damped than the KAW one, which makes the latter the more relevant candidate to carry the energy cascade down to electron scales. We discuss how these new findings may facilitate resolution of the controversy concerning the nature of the small-scale turbulence, and we discuss the implications for present and future spacecraft wave measurements in the SW.

  14. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...

  15. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  16. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  17. Stochastic method for turbulence estimation from Doppler lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottner, Lucie; Baehr, Christophe; Dabas, Alain; Hammoud, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Doppler lidar technology is known for its ability to measure accurate winds with fine time and space resolutions. The derivation of turbulence parameters from lidar wind measurement has been attempted by several authors. All of them relate the turbulence parameters to long-time series (several tens of minutes) of wind measurements. The method presented here retrieves estimations of the atmospheric turbulence at much finer time scales. The technique is based on a wind reconstruction method applied to a five-beam wind Doppler lidar (namely the WindCube model by Leosphere). The method relies on a particle filter. The suggested reconstruction algorithm links the lidar observations to numerical particles to obtain turbulence estimations every time new observations are available. The high frequency of the estimations is an innovation and is detailed and discussed here. Moreover, the presented algorithm enables reconstruction of the wind in three dimensions in the observed volume. Thus, we locally have access to the spatial variability of the turbulent atmosphere. The suggested algorithm is applied to a set of real observations. The results show that the estimation of the turbulent parameters is significantly improved. They open the way to the use of lidars for scientific and industrial purposes such as site studies for wind farms.

  18. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use...

  19. Design off-shore wind climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Joergensen, H.E. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Specific recommendations of off-shore turbulence intensities, applicable for design purposes, are lacking in the present IEC-code. The present off-shore wind climate analysis presents the distribution of the turbulence standard deviation around the mean turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the mean wind speed. Measured distributions, based on a huge amount of measuring data from two shallow water off-shore sites, are parameterized by fitting to a three parameter Weibull distribution. Combining a simple heuristic load model with the parameterized probability density functions of the turbulence standard deviations, an empirical off-shore design turbulence intensity is evaluated that in average yields the same fatigue damage as the distributed turbulence intensity. The proposed off-shore design turbulence intensity is, within the IEC code framework, applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue load determination. (au)

  20. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  1. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  2. Overview of the TurbSim Stochastic Inflow Turbulence Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.

    2005-09-01

    The TurbSim stochastic inflow turbulence code was developed to provide a numerical simulation of a full-field flow that contains coherent turbulence structures that reflect the proper spatiotemporal turbulent velocity field relationships seen in instabilities associated with nocturnal boundary layer flows that are not represented well by the IEC Normal Turbulence Models (NTM). Its purpose is to provide the wind turbine designer with the ability to drive design code (FAST or MSC.ADAMS) simulations of advanced turbine designs with simulated inflow turbulence environments that incorporate many of the important fluid dynamic features known to adversely affect turbine aeroelastic response and loading.

  3. Generation of Synthetic Turbulence in Arbitrary Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A new method for generating synthetic turbulence is presented. The method is intended for generating a turbulent velocity field with a fine spatial resolution but only covering a small moving part of the rotor area of a wind turbine. For this application the Mann and Sandia methods cannot be used......-spectra a realization of a velocity field is determined by factorization and Fourier transform as in the Sandia method....

  4. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  5. Comparison of wind pressure measurements on Silsoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of wind pressure measurements on Silsoe experimental building from full-scale observation, wind-tunnel experiments and various CFD techniques. ... for anisotropic turbulence and curvature related strain effects and the same have been compared with the full-scale and wind-tunnel data for the present study.

  6. NREL Studies Wind Farm Aerodynamics to Improve Siting (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL researchers have used high-tech instruments and high-performance computing to understand atmospheric turbulence and turbine wake behavior in order to improve wind turbine design and siting within wind farms.

  7. Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Bruno, R. [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed largely in the early 1990s, together with an important extension to inhomogeneous flows in 2010. Much of the focus in the earlier work was to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, and the relationship of density fluctuations to apparently incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Further important predictions about the “dimensionality” of solar wind turbulence and its relationship to the plasma beta were made and subsequently confirmed observationally. However, despite the initial success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in the solar wind, a detailed application to solar wind turbulence has not been undertaken. Here, we use the equations of NI MHD to describe solar wind turbulence, rewriting the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. Distinct descriptions of 2D and slab turbulence emerge naturally from the Elsässer formulation, as do the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components. For plasma beta order 1 or less regions, predictions for 2D and slab spectra result from the NI MHD description, and predictions for the spectral characteristics of density fluctuations can be made. We conclude by presenting a NI MHD formulation describing the transport of majority 2D and minority slab turbulence throughout the solar wind. A preliminary comparison of theory and observations is presented.

  8. Turbulent energy losses during orchard heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a heated orchard floor, sampled wind component in the vertical direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent heat flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the heat lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of heat loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.

  9. Wavenumber spectrum of whistler turbulence: Particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Gary, S. Peter; Narita, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The forward cascade of decaying whistler turbulence is studied in low beta plasma to understand essential properties of the energy spectrum at electron scales, by using a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. This simulation demonstrates turbulence in which the energy cascade rate is greater than the dissipation rate at the electron inertial length. The PIC simulation shows that the magnetic energy spectrum of forward-cascaded whistler turbulence at electron inertial scales is anisotropic and develops a very steep power-law spectrum which is consistent with recent solar wind observations. A comparison of the simulated spectrum with that predicted by a phenomenological turbulence scaling model suggests that the energy cascade at the electron inertial scale depends on both magnetic fluctuations and electron velocity fluctuations, as well as on the whistler dispersion relation. Thus, not only kinetic Alfven turbulence but also whistler turbulence may explain recent solar wind observations of very steep magnetic spectra at short scales.

  10. Whither turbulence and big data in the 21st century?

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Luciano; Danaila, Luminita; Glauser, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a snapshot of the current and future trends in turbulence research across a range of disciplines. It provides an overview of the key challenges that face scientific and engineering communities in the context of huge databases of turbulence information currently being generated, yet poorly mined. These challenges include coherent structures and their control, wall turbulence and control, multi-scale turbulence, the impact of turbulence on energy generation and turbulence data manipulation strategies. The motivation for this volume is to assist the reader to make physical sense of these data deluges so as to inform both the research community as well as to advance practical outcomes from what is learned. Outcomes presented in this collection provide industry with information that impacts their activities, such as minimizing impact of wind farms, opportunities for understanding large scale wind events and large eddy simulation of the hydrodynamics of bays and lakes thereby increasing energy ...

  11. Wind resource in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Joseph Kearney

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies, such as wind turbines, have to be considered for new building over 1000m2 under the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2002. Accurate assessment of the wind resource is a key component in the success of a wind installation. Designers, planners and architects also need wind data from urban areas to support low-energy building design, natural ventilation, air quality, pollution control, insurance and wind engineering. Over the last six years instrumentation has been installed at the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT in two separate locations to monitor the wind. The data has shown that the wind resource will vary quite considerably on a given site and this is due to local variations in topography, and other factors associated with wind and turbulence in the built environment. Difficulties were encountered in measuring the wind and turbulence on site. IEC 61400-12-1: 2005 states that “... analytical tools (anemometers presently available offer little help in identifying the impact of these variables, and experimental methods encounter equally-serious difficulties.” The practical experience of measuring wind in the urban environment informed the development of a prototype anemometer that may be capable of digitally mapping accurate real-time three-dimensional data on wind speed, wind direction and, uniquely in the field of wind instrumentation, wind turbulence.

  12. The footprint of atmospheric turbulence in power grid frequency measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Haehne, Hauke; Schottler, Jannik; Waechter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim; Kamps, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Fluctuating wind energy makes a stable grid operation challenging. Due to the direct contact with atmospheric turbulence, intermittent short-term variations in the wind speed are converted to power fluctuations that cause transient imbalances in the grid. We investigate the impact of wind energy feed-in on short-term fluctuations in the frequency of the public power grid, which we have measured in our local distribution grid. By conditioning on wind power production data, provided by the ENTS...

  13. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  14. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...

  15. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  16. Multivariable Wind Modeling in State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    -spectral density matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise. Finally, an accurate state space modeling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order, and estimation of a state space model......Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of wind turbines. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper an empirical...... cross-spectral density function for the along-wind turbulence component over the rotor plane is taken as the starting point. The spectrum is spatially discretized in terms of a Hermitian cross-spectral density matrix for the turbulence state vector which turns out not to be positive definite. Since...

  17. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  18. An investigation on wind turbine resonant vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Kim, Taeseong; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine resonant vibrations are investigated based on aeroelastic simulations both in frequency and time domain. The investigation focuses on three different aspects: the need of a precise modeling when a wind turbine is operating close to resonant conditions; the importance of estimating wind...... turbine loads also at low turbulence intensity wind conditions to identify the presence of resonances; and the wind turbine response because of external excitations. In the first analysis, three different wind turbine models are analysed with respect to the frequency and damping of the aeroelastic modes....... Fatigue loads on the same models are then investigated with two different turbulence intensities to analyse the wind turbine response. In the second analysis, a wind turbine model is excited with an external force. This analysis helps in identifying the modes that might be excited, and therefore...

  19. Cross-Wind Modal Properties of Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    Cross-wind vibrations due to wave loading misaligned with wind turbulence are often a design driver for offshore wind turbine foundations. The phenomenon is characterised by increasing fatigue loads compared to the fore-aft fatigue and a small amount of system damping since almost no aerodynamic ...

  20. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  1. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Extreme and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  2. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terziev Angel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.

  3. Extreme gust wind estimation using mesoscale modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kruger, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the existing estimation of the extreme gust wind, e.g. the 50-year winds of 3 s values, in the IEC standard, is based on a statistical model to convert the 1:50-year wind values from the 10 min resolution. This statistical model assumes a Gaussian process that satisfies the classical...... through turbulent eddies. This process is modeled using the mesoscale Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model. The gust at the surface is calculated as the largest winds over a layer where the averaged turbulence kinetic energy is greater than the averaged buoyancy force. The experiments have been...

  4. Turbulence modification and multiphase turbulence transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, D.C.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown here that in the derivation of turbulence transport models for multiphase flows, terms naturally appear that can be interpreted as related to turbulence modification of one field by the other. We obtain two such terms, one suggesting turbulence enhancement due to instabilities in two-phase flow, the second one showing turbulence damping due to the presence of the other field, both in gas-particle and gas-liquid cases

  5. Validity of the assumption of Gaussian turbulence; Gyldighed af antagelsen om Gaussisk turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Hansen, K.S.; Juul Pedersen, B.

    2000-07-01

    Wind turbines are designed to withstand the impact of turbulent winds, which fluctuations usually are assumed of Gaussian probability distribution. Based on a large number of measurements from many sites, this seems a reasonable assumption in flat homogeneous terrain whereas it may fail in complex terrain. At these sites the wind speed often has a skew distribution with more frequent lulls than gusts. In order to simulate aerodynamic loads, a numerical turbulence simulation method was developed and implemented. This method may simulate multiple time series of variable not necessarily Gaussian distribution without distortion of the spectral distribution or spatial coherence. The simulated time series were used as input to the dynamic-response simulation program Vestas Turbine Simulator (VTS). In this way we simulated the dynamic response of systems exposed to turbulence of either Gaussian or extreme, yet realistic, non-Gaussian probability distribution. Certain loads on turbines with active pitch regulation were enhanced by up to 15% compared to pure Gaussian turbulence. It should, however, be said that the undesired effect depends on the dynamic system, and it might be mitigated by optimisation of the wind turbine regulation system after local turbulence characteristics. (au)

  6. On the nature of interstellar turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altunin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Possible reasons of interstellar medium turbulence manifested in pulsar scintillation and radio-frequency emission scattering of extragalactic sources near by the Galaxy plane, are discussed. Sources and conditions of turbulence emergence in HII region shells, supernova, residue and in stellar wind giving observed scattering effects are considered. It is shown that in the formation of the interstellar scintillation pattern of discrete radio-frequency emission sources a certain role can be played by magnetosound turbulence, which arises due to shock-waves propagating in the interstellar medium at a velocity Vsub(sh) approximately 20-100 km/s as well as by stellar-wind inhomogeneity of OB classes stars [ru

  7. Magnetic turbulence in a table-top laser-plasma relevant to astrophysical scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Gourab; Schoeffler, Kevin M.; Kumar Singh, Prashant; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Silva, Luis O.; Das, Amita; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2017-06-01

    Turbulent magnetic fields abound in nature, pervading astrophysical, solar, terrestrial and laboratory plasmas. Understanding the ubiquity of magnetic turbulence and its role in the universe is an outstanding scientific challenge. Here, we report on the transition of magnetic turbulence from an initially electron-driven regime to one dominated by ion-magnetization in a laboratory plasma produced by an intense, table-top laser. Our observations at the magnetized ion scale of the saturated turbulent spectrum bear a striking resemblance with spacecraft measurements of the solar wind magnetic-field spectrum, including the emergence of a spectral kink. Despite originating from diverse energy injection sources (namely, electrons in the laboratory experiment and ion free-energy sources in the solar wind), the turbulent spectra exhibit remarkable parallels. This demonstrates the independence of turbulent spectral properties from the driving source of the turbulence and highlights the potential of small-scale, table-top laboratory experiments for investigating turbulence in astrophysical environments.

  8. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  9. Influence of free stream turbulence on a trailing line vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Robert L.; Stead, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    Low-speed wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of free stream turbulence on the mean behavior of a trailing line vortex. Perforated plates and screens were used to produce turbulence levels ranging between 0.03 percent and 5 percent of the free stream velocity in the vicinity of the vortex generator. Smoke was used to provide a visual image of the vortex and photographic and videotape records were taken. Experiments have shown that high turbulence levels cause vortices to meander but with little evidence of structural change. At lower turbulence intensities, some types of vortex oscillations were observed which suggest possible instabilities.

  10. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  11. Aerodynamic Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine in a Diffuser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, B.M.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    Wind energy in the urban environment faces complex and often unfavorable wind conditions. High turbulence, lower average wind velocities and rapid changes in the wind direction are common phenomena in the complex built environments. A possible way to improve the cost-efficiency of urban wind

  12. Wake-Effect Minimising Optimal Control of Wind Farms, with Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Sivabalan, Senthuran

    2014-01-01

    A power generating wind turbine causes a speed reduction and an added turbulence to the wind. Wind turbines in wind farms are often caught in these wakes and are found to have a higher structural load than non affected wind turbines. This article investigates the possibility of designing a contro...

  13. Simulations and Transport Models for Imbalanced Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chung-Sang; Dennis, T.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from a series of three-dimensional simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence based on reduced MHD equations. Alfven waves are launched from both ends of a long tube along the background uniform magnetic field so that turbulence develops due to collision between counter propagating Alfven waves in the interior region. Waves are launched randomly with specified correlation time Tc such that the length of the tube, L, is greater than (but of the same order of) VA *Tc such that turbulence can fill most of the tube. While waves at both ends are launched with equal power, turbulence generated is imbalanced in general, with normalized cross-helicity gets close to -1 at one end and 1 at the other end. This simulation setup allows easier comparison of turbulence properties with one-dimensional turbulence transport models, which have been applied rather successfully in modeling solar wind turbulence. However, direct comparison of such models with full simulations of solar wind turbulence is difficult due to much higher level of complexity involved. We will present our latest simulations at different resolutions with decreasing dissipation (resistivity and viscosity) levels and compare with model outputs from turbulence transport models. This work is supported by a NASA Grant NNX15AU61G.

  14. Northerly wind trends along the Portuguese marine coast since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Francisco; Relvas, Paulo; Cánovas, Fernando; Baptista, Vânia; Teodósio, Alexandra

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a marine coastal factor that is little understood but has a strong interaction with biological productivity. In this study, northerly wind trends in three regions of the Portuguese coast (Northwestern: NW, Southwestern: SW, and Southern: S) were analyzed. Two datasets with long-term (ICOADS: 1960-2010) and short-term data (Satellite: 1989-2010) were used to complement one another. The study revealed the northerly wind yearly data to be non-stationary and highly variable between years. Overall, the northerly wind intensity increased throughout the 1960s regardless of the area and dataset. Between 1960 and 2010, the northerly wind increased at a linear rate of 0.24, 0.09, and 0.15 m s-1 per decade in the NW, SW, and S coastal regions, respectively. The rate was higher in recent decades (1988-2009), with the wind intensity increasing by 0.4, 0.3, and 0.3 ms-1 per decade in the NW, SW, and S regions, respectively. Analyses of the sudden shifts showed significant increases in northerly wind intensities after 2003, 2004, and 1998 in the NW, SW, and S coast, respectively. Exceptions were found for autumn (September for short-term data), when a decrease in northerly winds was observed in recent decades, regardless of the area, and for summer, when no changes in wind trends were recorded in the NW and SW. The long-term data also showed a major increase in northerly winds in winter (January and February), which is the recruitment season for many small and medium-sized pelagic fish. The increase in the intensity of the northerly winds over the past two decades and the past half-century occurred at a higher rate than was estimated by the IPCC for the next century.

  15. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  16. Study on wind turbine arrangement for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the separation distance between two neighboring offshore wind turbines has been carried out by using the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Under offshore atmospheric conditions, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for...... to the turbulence mixing. This study hints that the optimal separation distance between neighboring turbines for offshore wind farms should be 7 rotor diameters....

  17. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... to the event of failure in ultimate loading in flapwise bending in the normal operating condition of a site-specific turbine....

  18. Minimum Thrust Load Control for Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    — Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind at sea. Shallow water sites are profitable for deployment of monopile wind turbines at water depths of up to 30 meters. Beyond 30 meters, the wind is even stronger and less turbulent. At these depths, floating wind turbines...... become profitable, capable of accessing unexploited wind resources while reaching regions of new consumers. However, floating wind turbines are subject to reduced structural stiffness which results in instabilities when standard wind turbine control systems are applied. Based on optimal control, this paper...... presents a new minimum thrust control strategy capable of stabilizing a floating wind turbine. The new control strategy explores the freedom of variable generator speed above rated wind speed. A comparison to the traditional constant speed strategy, shows improvements in structural fore-aft oscillations...

  19. A weakened cascade model for turbulence in astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.

    2011-01-01

    A refined cascade model for kinetic turbulence in weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas is presented that includes both the transition between weak and strong turbulence and the effect of nonlocal interactions on the nonlinear transfer of energy. The model describes the transition between weak and strong MHD turbulence and the complementary transition from strong kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence to weak dissipating KAW turbulence, a new regime of weak turbulence in which the effects of shearing by large scale motions and kinetic dissipation play an important role. The inclusion of the effect of nonlocal motions on the nonlinear energy cascade rate in the dissipation range, specifically the shearing by large-scale motions, is proposed to explain the nearly power-law energy spectra observed in the dissipation range of both kinetic numerical simulations and solar wind observations.

  20. A weakened cascade model for turbulence in astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, G. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); TenBarge, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Dorland, W. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    A refined cascade model for kinetic turbulence in weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas is presented that includes both the transition between weak and strong turbulence and the effect of nonlocal interactions on the nonlinear transfer of energy. The model describes the transition between weak and strong MHD turbulence and the complementary transition from strong kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence to weak dissipating KAW turbulence, a new regime of weak turbulence in which the effects of shearing by large scale motions and kinetic dissipation play an important role. The inclusion of the effect of nonlocal motions on the nonlinear energy cascade rate in the dissipation range, specifically the shearing by large-scale motions, is proposed to explain the nearly power-law energy spectra observed in the dissipation range of both kinetic numerical simulations and solar wind observations.

  1. The footprint of atmospheric turbulence in power grid frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehne, H.; Schottler, J.; Waechter, M.; Peinke, J.; Kamps, O.

    2018-02-01

    Fluctuating wind energy makes a stable grid operation challenging. Due to the direct contact with atmospheric turbulence, intermittent short-term variations in the wind speed are converted to power fluctuations that cause transient imbalances in the grid. We investigate the impact of wind energy feed-in on short-term fluctuations in the frequency of the public power grid, which we have measured in our local distribution grid. By conditioning on wind power production data, provided by the ENTSO-E transparency platform, we demonstrate that wind energy feed-in has a measurable effect on frequency increment statistics for short time scales (renewable generation.

  2. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat......) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra...... in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen's early work in 1953 'on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow' led Tchen to predict a shear production...

  3. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due...... to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads and, potentially, instability of the controlled system. In this paper, the wave excitation is investigated......, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system...

  4. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...

  5. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 06-2-301 Wind Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Facilities. Item Requirement Wind Generation System The wind generation system, typically consisting of a fan , fan speed control, ducting, and...difficult it is to provide a uniform wind speed over the test cross sectional area. The tester should employ the wind generation equipment ( fans , wind...turbulence can be affected by protuberances both active and passive, fan speed variations, and atmospheric conditions. 3.5 Test Item Faces

  6. Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levich, Eugene

    2009-07-01

    . In particular, theoretical and numerical evidence is given indicating that BCC in turbulent channel/pipe flows have the depth at the walls proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number in wall units, Ly ∝ √Re, which is equivalent to the fractal dimension in normal to the walls y direction DyF = 0, 5, and the total dimension DF = Dx, zF + DyF = 2 + 0.5 = 2.5. Similar BCC structure and the same fractal dimension are suggested for geophysical turbulence, in near agreement with the recent comprehensive analysis of experimental and observational data. It is asserted that the atmospheric and oceanic events, e.g., tropical hurricanes, tornadoes and other mesoscale phenomena, and probably ocean currents are manifestations of BCC and their environs. Generally BCC should be rather seen as the turbulence core, while the whole surrounding 3D flow as being created and sustained by the intense vorticity of BCC by means of induction, in a manner similar to that for an electric current generating magnetic field. It is further argued that BCC is not only a theoretical concept important for fundamental grasp on turbulence, but may be a practical asset furnishing tools for turbulence management in regular fluids and plasmas. The concept of helical fluctuations in turbulence goes 25 years back in time, and while never totally abandoned nevertheless has been residing on the fringes of research activity. Experiment and numerical simulations had not been able to either validate or repudiate decisively the concept. However, recent large scale direct numerical simulations and proliferation of experimental and observational data showed convincingly how ubiquitous is the phenomenon of helicity fluctuations in various turbulent flows, from hurricanes and tornadoes to turbulent jets to solar wind plasma turbulence to turbulent flows in compressible fluids. This allowed a fresh look at the concept and led to a quantitative theory exposed in this paper. The paper concludes with a

  7. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Soerensen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors

  8. Spectral properties of electromagnetic turbulence in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shaikh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD fluctuations in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear whistler mode turbulence study in a magnetized plasma involves incompressible electrons and immobile ions. Two-dimensional turbulent interactions and subsequent energy cascades are critically influenced by the electron whisters that behave distinctly for scales smaller and larger than the electron skin depth. It is found that in whistler mode turbulence there results a dual cascade primarily due to the forward spectral migration of energy that coexists with a backward spectral transfer of mean squared magnetic potential. Finally, inclusion of the ion dynamics, resulting from a two fluid description of the H-MHD plasma, leads to several interesting results that are typically observed in the solar wind plasma. Particularly in the solar wind, the high-time-resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of the MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high-frequency regime. In the latter, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD model and a finite frequency effect (in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency arising from the ion inertia is essentially included to discern the dynamics of the smaller length scales (in comparison with the ion skin depth. This leads to a nonlinear H-MHD model, which is presented in this paper. With the help of our 3-D H-MHD code, we find that the characteristic turbulent interactions in the high-frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic-Alfvén time-scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic-Alfvén interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of the kinetic and magnetic energies.

  9. Aviation Turbulence: Dynamics, Forecasting, and Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Luke N.; Williams, Paul D.; Gill, Philip G.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is a major hazard in the aviation industry and can cause injuries to passengers and crew. Understanding the physical and dynamical generation mechanisms of turbulence aids with the development of new forecasting algorithms and, therefore, reduces the impact that it has on the aviation industry. The scope of this paper is to review the dynamics of aviation turbulence, its response to climate change, and current forecasting methods at the cruising altitude of aircraft. Aviation-affecting turbulence comes from three main sources: vertical wind shear instabilities, convection, and mountain waves. Understanding these features helps researchers to develop better turbulence diagnostics. Recent research suggests that turbulence will increase in frequency and strength with climate change, and therefore, turbulence forecasting may become more important in the future. The current methods of forecasting are unable to predict every turbulence event, and research is ongoing to find the best solution to this problem by combining turbulence predictors and using ensemble forecasts to increase skill. The skill of operational turbulence forecasts has increased steadily over recent decades, mirroring improvements in our understanding. However, more work is needed—ideally in collaboration with the aviation industry—to improve observations and increase forecast skill, to help maintain and enhance aviation safety standards in the future.

  10. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyrud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  11. Resilience in moving water: Effects of turbulence on the predatory impact of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Costello, John H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.

    2018-01-01

    -driven turbulence affects the feeding ecology of M. leidyi, we used a combination of approaches to quantify how naturally and laboratory generated turbulence affects the behavior, feeding processes and feeding impact of M. leidyi. Experiments using laboratory generated turbulence demonstrated that turbulence can...... turbulence conditions generated by wind driven mixing. As a result, M. leidyi exerted a consistently high predatory impact on prey populations during highly variable and often energetic wind-driven mixing conditions. This resilience adds to our understanding of how M. leidyi can thrive in a wide spectrum...

  12. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  13. Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2001-01-01

    Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directio...

  14. Application of simulated lidar scanning patterns to constrained Gaussian turbulence fields for load validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for incorporating wind velocity measurements from multiple-point scanning lidars into threedimensional wind turbulence time series serving as input to wind turbine load simulations. Simulated lidar scanning patterns are implemented by imposing constraints on randomly gener...

  15. High Reynolds Number Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smits, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...

  16. Turbulent flow computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    ... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...

  17. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  18. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  19. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  20. Relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Sørensen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approx. 10......% smaller than the IEC model, for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3sec and 10sec pre-averaging of wind speed data are relevant for MW-size wind...... turbines when seeking wind characteristics that correspond to one blade and the entire rotor, respectively. For heights exceeding 50-60m the gust factor increases with wind speed. For heights larger the 60-80m, present assumptions on the value of the gust factor are significantly conservative, both for 3...

  1. Black hole Spin in Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Recently a hard X-ray transient event, Sw J1644+57, was discovered by the Swift satellite. It likely marks the onset of a relativistic jet from a supermassive black hole, possibly triggered by a tidal disruption event. Another candidate in the same category, Sw J2058+05, was also reported. The low event rate suggests that only a small fraction of TDEs launch relativistic jets. A common speculation is that these rare events are related to rapidly spinning black holes. We attribute jet launchin...

  2. Coherent structures, dissipation and intermittency in plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Parashar, T.; Shay, M. A.; Karimabadi, H.; Wu, P.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of collisionless dissipation in turbulent plasmas such as the solar wind and the solar corona has been hotly debated recently. Here we report results from high resolution, fully kinetic simulations of plasmas turbulence in both two and three dimensions. The simulations show development of turbulent coherent structures, characterized by sheet-like current density structures spanning a range of scales. Results from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are also compared with MHD simulations in terms of coherent structures, dissipation and intermittency. An important conclusion, for all simulations examined, is that the dissipation is concentrated in very small volumes, reminiscent of the scenario that motivates the Kolmogorov refined similarity hypothesis in hydrodynamic turbulence. Extrapolated to large heliospheric system sizes, this leads to the expectation of significant departures from heating processes that operate uniformly in space. Results from latest 3D driven PIC simulations, as well as the connection to solar wind observations, will also be discussed.

  3. An integrated modeling method for wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

    To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a

  4. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2007-01-01

    this requires access to the basic time-series. However, including a suitable modelling of the mean wind speed time variation, it is possible to estimate an approximate (linear) trend correction based on statistical data only. This paper presents such an algorithm for de-trending of turbulence standard deviation...... in mean wind speed appears as a trend in the wind speed time series, and often a linear trend is assumed. Wind resource measurements typically include statistics of ten-minute mean and standard deviation, and for such data it is not possible to calculate the trend contribution directly, because...... based on time series statistics only. The performance of the proposed de-trending algorithm is assessed using huge number of time series recorded at different types of terrain and orography. The strategy is the following: Based on the available time series information a conventional (linear) time series...

  5. Hydrographic features of the western Bay of Bengal in the upper 500 m under the influence of NE and SW monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    monsoon while during SW monsoon, it is characterisEd. by cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres. North of 15 degrees N, the influence of freshwater on the flow is dominant within 100 km from the coast. Beyond 100 km, the flow is influencEd. by the wind forcing...

  6. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four......This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a high-dimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data...... turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project...

  7. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul

    , that can accurately and efficiently simulate wind turbine wakes. The linear k-ε eddy viscosity model (EVM) is a popular turbulence model in RANS; however, it underpredicts the velocity wake deficit and cannot predict the anisotropic Reynolds-stresses in the wake. In the current work, nonlinear eddy...... viscosity models (NLEVM) are applied to wind turbine wakes. NLEVMs can model anisotropic turbulence through a nonlinear stress-strain relation, and they can improve the velocity deficit by the use of a variable eddy viscosity coefficient, that delays the wake recovery. Unfortunately, all tested NLEVMs show...... numerically unstable behavior for fine grids, which inhibits a grid dependency study for numerical verification. Therefore, a simpler EVM is proposed, labeled as the k-ε - fp EVM, that has a linear stress-strain relation, but still has a variable eddy viscosity coefficient. The k-ε - fp EVM is numerically...

  8. Progress in turbulence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs

  9. Demonstration of a Basis for Tall Wind Turbine Design, EUDP Project Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Madsen, Peter Hauge

    Wind turbine design using calibrated wind models have been proposed to be used in conjunction with load cases which lead to reduced uncertainties in the design of wind turbines with hub heights above 60m. These recommended wind profiles have been made for shear, wind directional change and turbul......Wind turbine design using calibrated wind models have been proposed to be used in conjunction with load cases which lead to reduced uncertainties in the design of wind turbines with hub heights above 60m. These recommended wind profiles have been made for shear, wind directional change...

  10. Wind Characteristics of Three Meteorological Stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid economic development of China, demand for energy is growing rapidly. Many experts have begun to pay attention on exploiting wind energy. Wind characteristics of three meteorological stations in China were analyzed to find out if or not it is possible to build a wind farm in this paper. First of all, studies about the wind characteristics and potential wind energy were summarized. Then ways of collecting and manipulating wind data were introduced. Wind-generation potential was assessed by the method of Weibull distribution. Wind shear exponent, extreme wind speed in 50 years, and turbulence intensity were calculated. The wind characteristics were summarized and assessment of wind-generation potential was given. At last, the wind was simulated with autoregressive method by Matlab software.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, James

    2005-10-01

    K-epsilon models find wide application as approximate models of fluid turbulence. The models couple equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to the usual fluid equations, where the turbulence is driven by Reynolds stress or buoyancy source terms. We generalize to the case with magnetic forces in a Z-pinch geometry (azimuthal fields), using simple energy arguments to derive the turbulent source terms. The field is presumed strong enough that 3 dimensional twisting or bending of the field can be ignored, i.e. the flow is of the interchange type. The generalized source terms show the familiar correspondence between magnetic curvature and acceleration as drive terms for Rayleigh-Taylor and sausage instability. The source terms lead naturally to a modification of Ohm's law including a turbulent electric field that allows magnetic field to diffuse through material. The turbulent magnetic diffusion parallels a corresponding ohmic heating term in the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy.

  12. Homogeneous turbulence dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sagaut, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence  and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...

  13. Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves and their associated breaking into turbulence are very important in producing the overall picture of middle atmosphere global dynamics and associated transport. It is shown in this research that MST radars represent a most powerful technique for obtaining the needed parameters for gravity-wave-induced drag and diffusion effects as well as measuring wave accelerations and diffusion directly. A mathematical solution to this problem is that of radiative equilibrium with a balanced thermal wind.

  14. On the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbek, L.; Stalp, Steven R.

    2000-08-01

    Decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated using a phenomenological model based on the three-dimensional turbulent energy spectra. We generalize the approach first used by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657 (1966)] and revised by Saffman [J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581 (1967); Phys. Fluids 10, 1349 (1967)]. At small wave numbers we assume the spectral energy is proportional to the wave number to an arbitrary power. The specific case of power 2, which follows from the Saffman invariant, is discussed in detail and is later shown to best describe experimental data. For the spectral energy density in the inertial range we apply both the Kolmogorov -5/3 law, E(k)=Cɛ2/3k-5/3, and the refined Kolmogorov law by taking into account intermittency. We show that intermittency affects the energy decay mainly by shifting the position of the virtual origin rather than altering the power law of the energy decay. Additionally, the spectrum is naturally truncated due to the size of the wind tunnel test section, as eddies larger than the physical size of the system cannot exist. We discuss effects associated with the energy-containing length scale saturating at the size of the test section and predict a change in the power law decay of both energy and vorticity. To incorporate viscous corrections to the model, we truncate the spectrum at an effective Kolmogorov wave number kη=γ(ɛ/v3)1/4, where γ is a dimensionless parameter of order unity. We show that as the turbulence decays, viscous corrections gradually become more important and a simple power law can no longer describe the decay. We discuss the final period of decay within the framework of our model, and show that care must be taken to distinguish between the final period of decay and the change of the character of decay due to the saturation of the energy containing length scale. The model is applied to a number of experiments on decaying turbulence. These include the downstream decay of turbulence in

  15. Epigenetically maintained SW13+ and SW13- subtypes have different oncogenic potential and convert with HDAC1 inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, McKale R.; Daggett, Juliane J.; Pascual, Agnes S.; Lam, Jessica M.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Cooper, Kimbal E.; Hull, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    The BRM and BRG1 tumor suppressor genes are mutually exclusive ATPase subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The human adrenal carcinoma SW13 cell line can switch between a subtype which expresses these subunits, SW13+, and one that expresses neither subunit, SW13-. Loss of BRM expression occurs post-transcriptionally and can be restored via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. However, most previously used HDAC inhibitors are toxic and broad-spectrum, providing little insight into the mechanism of the switch between subtypes. In this work, we explore the mechanisms of HDAC inhibition in promoting subtype switching and further characterize the oncogenic potential of the two epigenetically distinct SW13 subtypes. SW13 subtype morphology, chemotaxis, growth rates, and gene expression were assessed by standard immunofluorescence, transwell, growth, and qPCR assays. Metastatic potential was measured by anchorage-independent growth and MMP activity. The efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in inducing subtype switching was determined by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Histone modifications were assessed by western blot. Treatment of SW13- cells with HDAC1 inhibitors most effectively promotes re-expression of BRM and VIM, characteristic of the SW13+ phenotype. During treatment, hyperacetylation of histone residues and hypertrimethylation of H3K4 is pronounced. Furthermore, histone modification enzymes, including HDACs and KDM5C, are differentially expressed during treatment but several features of this differential expression pattern differs from that seen in the SW13- and SW13+ subtypes. As the SW13- subtype is more proliferative while the SW13+ subtype is more metastatic, treatment with HDACi increases the metastatic potential of SW13 cells while restoring expression of the BRM tumor suppressor. When compared to the SW13- subtype, SW13+ cells have restored BRM expression, increased metastatic capacity, and significantly different expression of a variety of

  16. Influence of small-scale turbulence on cup anemometer calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, M.; Bak-Kristensen, K.; Horn, A.; Fifield, E.; Hansen, S. O.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents and discusses the calibration results of cup anemometers under different levels of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence is known to govern the curvature of shear layers around structures and is not related to the traditional under and over speeding of cup anemometers originating from large-scale turbulence components. The paper has shown that the small-scale turbulence has a significant effect on the calibration results obtained for cup anemometers. At 10m/s the rotational speed seems to change by approx. 0.5% due to different simulations of the small-scale turbulence. The work which this paper is based on, is part of the TrueWind research project, aiming to increase accuracy of mast top-mounted cup anemometer measurements.

  17. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  18. Damping Estimation of a Prototype Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    Wave loading misaligned with wind turbulence often introduces large fatigue loads on offshore wind turbine structures. In this particular case, the structure is sensitive to resonant excitation acting out of the wind direction due to a small aerodynamic damping contribution in the cross-wind dire...

  19. Investigation of Turbulence Effects on the Aeroelastic Properties of a Truss Bridge Deck Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Trong Lam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flutter derivatives (FDs extracted from a stochastic system identification (SSI method under different turbulent flows. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of oncoming turbulence on the flutter of suspended long-span bridges using a section model wind-tunnel test. Several wind-tunnel tests were performed on a truss bridge deck section with different oncoming turbulent properties involving reduced turbulence intensities and turbulent scales. This study includes an investigation of the effect of oncoming flows on modal dynamic responses. The transient and buffeting response data from the wind-tunnel test are analyzed using the system identification technique in extracting FDs, and the difficulties involved in this method are discussed. The time-domain SSI is applied to extract all FDs simultaneously from one and two degree-of-freedom (1DOF and 2DOF systems. Finally, the results under different conditions are discussed and conclusions are formed.

  20. Volumetric characterization of the flow over miniature wind farms: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lai; Troolin, Dan; Hyun, Jin Kim; Tobin, Nicolas; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2014-11-01

    An internal boundary layer is known to develop from the interaction between wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer. It possesses characteristic features able to modulate the turbulence dynamics over large regions and eventually modify the micro climate in the vicinity of the wind farm. In this study, we examine the structure of the turbulence above various miniature wind farm configurations using 3D Particle Image velocimetry (PIV). Each miniature wind farm is placed in the boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Mechanical Science Engineering, UIUC. The turbines are fabricated using 3D printing and have a loading system that controls their tip-speed ratio and allows for characterizing the loads. Volumetric PIV is performed at various locations over and downstream a series of wind farm layouts. High-order turbulence statistics, turbulence structure and characteristic coherent motions are obtained and discussed in terms of the wind farm layout.

  1. Spectral tensor parameters for wind turbine load modeling from forested and agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Segalini, A.

    2015-01-01

    A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken...

  2. Prediction models for wind speed at turbine locations in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Soltani, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    turbulence models. The esti- mator includes a nonlinear time varying wind speed model, which compared with literature results in an adaptive filter. Given the estimated effective wind speed, it is possible to establish wind speed prediction models by system identification. As the prediction models are based...... manifested through the wind field is hence required. This paper develops models for this relationship. The result is based on two new contributions: the first is related to the estimation of effective wind speeds, which serves as a basis for the second contribution to wind speed prediction models. Based...... on standard turbine measurements such as rotor speed and power produced, an effective wind speed, which represents the wind field averaged over the rotor disc, is derived. The effective wind speed estimator is based on a continuous–discrete extended Kalman filter that takes advantage of nonlinear time varying...

  3. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... be applied without power loss for wind speeds above rated wind speed. In deterministic inflow, it is shown that the range of the steady-state blade load variations can be reduced by up to 70%. For turbulent inflows, it is shown that the potential blade fatigue load reductions depend on the turbulence level...

  4. Investigation of the dependency of wind turbine loads on the simulation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this work the dependency of several wind turbine parameters with respect to the length of simulations used for their evaluation is investigated. The analysis is performed by computing the parameters with a different number of turbulent wind simulations, therefore simulation time, and repeating...... the computation with different turbulence realizations. The repetition of the computation is performed to identify the scatter of the parameters for a given number of turbulent seeds due to the different turbulence realization. The dependency on the simulation time of load variations due to changes...... in the collective pitch controller tuning is also investigated. Results show a significantly high dependency of the parameters and their variations on the turbulent wind realization. This dependency makes the use of turbulent wind simulation results not reliable for numerical optimization purposes....

  5. Simulations and Data Analysis for Air Force Optical Turbulence Forecasting Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werne, Joseph; Fritts, David; Lund, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We completed a series of Direct-Numerical and Large-Eddy Simulations (DNS and LES) of wind-shear instability and gravity wave breaking and associated analysis to characterize atmospheric turbulence and its optical impacts...

  6. Measurement and Assessment of Flow Quality in Wind Tunnels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New wind tunnel flow quality test and analysis procedures have been developed and will be used to establish standardized turbulent flow quality measurement...

  7. Engineering models for merging wakes in wind farm optimization applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with validation of 4 different engineering wake superposition approaches against detailed CFD simulations and covering different turbine interspacing, ambient turbulence intensities and mean wind speeds. The first engineering model is a simple linear superposition of wake ...

  8. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  9. The influence of the Wind Speed Profile on Wind Turbine Performance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Antoniou, Ioannis; Pedersen, Søren M.

    2009-01-01

    . Assuming a certain turbine hub height, the profiles with hub-height wind speeds between 6 m s-1 and 8 m s-1 are normalized at 7 m s-1 and grouped to a number of mean shear profiles. The energy in the profiles varies considerably for the same hub-height wind speed. These profiles are then used as input...... the swept rotor area would allow the determination of the electrical power as a function of an equivalent wind speed where wind shear and turbulence intensity are taken into account. Electrical power is found to correlate significantly better to the equivalent wind speed than to the single point hub...

  10. Numerical investigation of kinetic turbulence in relativistic pair plasmas - I. Turbulence statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Werner, Gregory R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2018-02-01

    We describe results from particle-in-cell simulations of driven turbulence in collisionless, magnetized, relativistic pair plasma. This physical regime provides a simple setting for investigating the basic properties of kinetic turbulence and is relevant for high-energy astrophysical systems such as pulsar wind nebulae and astrophysical jets. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of turbulent fluctuations in simulations on lattices of up to 10243 cells and containing up to 2 × 1011 particles. Due to the absence of a cooling mechanism in our simulations, turbulent energy dissipation reduces the magnetization parameter to order unity within a few dynamical times, causing turbulent motions to become sub-relativistic. In the developed stage, our results agree with predictions from magnetohydrodynamic turbulence phenomenology at inertial-range scales, including a power-law magnetic energy spectrum with index near -5/3, scale-dependent anisotropy of fluctuations described by critical balance, lognormal distributions for particle density and internal energy density (related by a 4/3 adiabatic index, as predicted for an ultra-relativistic ideal gas), and the presence of intermittency. We also present possible signatures of a kinetic cascade by measuring power-law spectra for the magnetic, electric and density fluctuations at sub-Larmor scales.

  11. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  12. Vertical evolution of wind meandering in a nocturnal boundary layer during low-wind speed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Michel; Acevedo, Otávio; Mortarini, Luca; Cava, Daniela; Giostra, Umberto; Degrazia, Gervásio; Anfossi, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    In the nocturnal boundary layer episodes of horizontal wind meandering are frequent. These episodes are characterised by low-wind regimes (wind speed less than 1.5 m s-1) in which submeso motions drive the wind dynamics and turbulence is weak and often intermittent. The inception of the meandering phenomenon as well as the interaction between turbulence and the submeso oscillations are still poorly understood. In this work we study the vertical evolution of the wind meandering by analysingnight-time anemometric data. The observations were carried on at a coastal site in Espirito Santo state, south-eastern Brazil from august to November 2016. The turbulent data, divided in hourly series, were collected in a 140-m tower designed to provide micrometeorological observations with high vertical resolution and deep coverage of the lower portion of the atmospheric boundary layer. Particularly, turbulence observations of the wind components and temperature are carried at 11 vertical levels. The tower has been deployed next to a natural gas power plant, at 3 km from the ocean. The terrain is generally flat for an area of 30 km from the tower, where moderate hills exist. The meandering timescale at each level is evaluated through the Eulerian Autocorrelation Functions of the horizontal wind velocity components and temperature, while the interactions between the different scales of motions is studied using the multi-correlation analysis. Thus the vertical evolution of meandering and time scales structure can be studied.

  13. Comparative palynological analysis of Lygodium venustum Sw. and L. volubile Sw. (Lygodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN P. RAMOS GIACOSA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lygodium Sw. is one of the few climbing ferns in the world. The spores of L. venustum Sw. and L. volubile Sw. were studied using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. This work is based on herbarium material. The spores are trilete, triangular, with straight to convex sides in polar view. The equatorial diameter is 72-104 µm, and the polar diameter is 64-84 µm. The ornamentation in L. venustum is verrucate-tuberculate while in L. volubile, it is verrucate-tuberculate in the proximal face but with a few ridges on the distal face, where a micro-ornamentation constituted by verrrucae and tubercles is observed. An equatorial ridge is also present. The exospore is two-layered; in L. venustum, it is smooth in contrast with the ornamented exospore of L. volubile. The perispore of the two species analyzed is similar. This wall is four-layered with particular elements arranged radially in the middle layer. On the spores surface of both species, few spheroids are observed. The results introduced in the current study may be useful for the systematics of the genus as well as for phylogenetic purposes.O gênero Lygodium Sw. é um das poucas samambaias trepadoras no mundo. Os esporos de L. venustum Sw. e L. volubile Sw. foi estudados com microscopias de luz e eletrônicas de transmissão e varredura. Este trabalho é baseado em material de herbário. Os esporos são trilete, triangular com lados retos para convexo em vista polar. O equatorial diâmetro é 72-104 µm e o diâmetro polar é 64-84 µm. O ornamentação em L. venustum é verrucose-tuberculoso enquanto em L. volubile é verrucose-tuberculoso no proximal cara e com poucos cume no distal cara, em que um micro-ornamentação constituída por verrugas e tubérculos é observado. Um cume equatorial também está presente. O exosporo é de dois camadas, em L. venustum é liso em contraste com o exosporo ornamentado de L. volubile. O perisporo é similar nas duas esp

  14. ewec 2007 - Europe's premier wind energy event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This online collection of papers - the ewec 2007 proceedings - reflects the various sessions and lectures presented at the ewec wind-energy convention held in Milan in 2007. The first day's sessions looked at the following topics: Renewable Energy Roadmap, the changing structure of the wind industry, politics and programmes, aerodynamics and innovation in turbine design, wind resources and site characterisation (2 sessions), energy scenarios, harmonisation of incentive schemes, structural design and materials, forecasting, integration studies, integrating wind into electricity markets, wind-turbine electrical systems and components, as well as loads, noise and wakes. The second day included sessions on offshore: developments and prospects, extreme wind conditions and forecasting techniques, small wind turbines, distributed generation and autonomous systems cost effectiveness, cost effectiveness of wind energy, financing wind energy concepts, wind and turbulence, wind power plants and grid integration, offshore technology, global challenges and opportunities, aero-elasticity, loads and control, operations and maintenance, carbon trading and the emission trading schemes, investment strategies of power producers, wind power plants and grid integration, wind turbine electrical systems and components, and wakes. The third day offered sessions on environmental issues, condition monitoring, operation and maintenance, structural design and materials, the Up-Wind workshop, winning hearts and minds, offshore technology, advances in measuring methods and advancing drive-train reliability. In a closing session the conference was summarised, awards for poster contributions were made and the Poul la Cour Prize was presented

  15. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kupka, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...

  16. Turbulence estimation from a continuous-wave scanning lidar (SpinnerLidar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhoorn, J.G.; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2017-01-01

    One of the current challenges using lidars for wind energy measurements is the inability of lidars to accurately measure turbulence. Two important factors affecting lidar measurements of turbulence are: 1) the spatial averaging by the lidars sounding volume leading to smaller eddies being filtered...

  17. Turbulent kinetic energy during wildfires in the north central and north-eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman; Xindi. Bian

    2010-01-01

    The suite of operational fire-weather indices available for assessing the atmospheric potential for extreme fire behaviour typically does not include indices that account for atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence or wind gustiness that can increase the erratic behaviour of fires. As a first step in testing the feasibility of using a quantitative measure of turbulence...

  18. Investigation of the dependency of wind turbine loads on the simulation time

    OpenAIRE

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this work the dependency of several wind turbine parameters with respect to the length of simulations used for their evaluation is investigated. The analysis is performed by computing the parameters with a different number of turbulent wind simulations, therefore simulation time, and repeating the computation with different turbulence realizations. The repetition of the computation is performed to identify the scatter of the parameters for a given number of turbulent seeds due to the diffe...

  19. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative damage in SW872 cells | Boyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using real time quantitative PCR, enhanced HMGB1 mRNA expressions were evidenced in hyperglycemic-‐treated SW872 cell line. Our data clearly indicate that hyperglycemia treatments result in an increase in oxidative damage in SW872 cell lines that may affect its functionality. Oxidative stress drives the activation of ...

  20. A canopy-type similarity model for wind farm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow through and over wind farms has been found to be similar to canopy-type flows, with characteristic flow development and shear penetration length scales (Markfort et al., 2012). Wind farms capture momentum from the ABL both at the leading edge and from above. We examine this further with an analytical canopy-type model. Within the flow development region, momentum is advected into the wind farm and wake turbulence draws excess momentum in from between turbines. This spatial heterogeneity of momentum within the wind farm is characterized by large dispersive momentum fluxes. Once the flow within the farm is developed, the area-averaged velocity profile exhibits a characteristic inflection point near the top of the wind farm, similar to that of canopy-type flows. The inflected velocity profile is associated with the presence of a dominant characteristic turbulence scale, which may be responsible for a significant portion of the vertical momentum flux. Prediction of this scale is useful for determining the amount of available power for harvesting. The new model is tested with results from wind tunnel experiments, which were conducted to characterize the turbulent flow in and above model wind farms in aligned and staggered configurations. The model is useful for representing wind farms in regional scale models, for the optimization of wind farms considering wind turbine spacing and layout configuration, and for assessing the impacts of upwind wind farms on nearby wind resources. Markfort CD, W Zhang and F Porté-Agel. 2012. Turbulent flow and scalar transport through and over aligned and staggered wind farms. Journal of Turbulence. 13(1) N33: 1-36. doi:10.1080/14685248.2012.709635.

  1. The k-ε-fP model applied to wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed k-ε-fP eddy-viscosity model is applied to one on-shore and two off-shore wind farms. The results are compared with power measurements and results of the standard k-ε eddy-viscosity model. In addition, the wind direction uncertainty of the measurements is used to correct...... by the turbulence models becomes smaller for wind turbines that are located further downstream. Moreover, the difference between the capability of the turbulence models to estimate the wind farm efficiency reduces with increasing wind farm size and wind turbine spacing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  2. Reducing Turbine Mechanical Loads Using Flow Model-Based Wind Farm Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    WindFarm [2]. SimWindFarm allows for the simultaneous simulation of the turbulent hub height flow field in the wind farm, the turbine dynamics and the wind farm control. The tests show a reduction of loads when compared to other optimal wind farm control approaches. Future work shall enhance the controller......Cumulated O&M costs of offshore wind farms are comparable with wind turbine CAPEX of such wind farm. In wind farms, wake effects can result in up to 80% higher fatigue loads at downstream wind turbines [1] and consequently larger O&M costs. The present work therefore investigates to reduce...... these loads during the provision of grid balancing services using optimal model-based wind farm control. Wind farm controllers coordinate the operating point of wind turbines in a wind farm in order to achieve a given objective. The investigated objective of the control in this work is to follow a total wind...

  3. Taylor Law in Wind Energy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Calif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor power law (or temporal fluctuation scaling, is a scaling relationship of the form σ ~  (Pλ where !! is the standard deviation and hPi the mean value of a sample of a time series has been observed for power output data sampled at 5 min and 1 s and from five wind farms and a single wind turbine, located at different places. Furthermore, an analogy with the turbulence field is performed, consequently allowing the establishment of a scaling relationship between the turbulent production IP and the mean value (P.

  4. Turbulent dispersal promotes species coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, Heather A; Kendall, Bruce E; Mitarai, Satoshi; Siegel, David A

    2010-01-01

    Several recent advances in coexistence theory emphasize the importance of space and dispersal, but focus on average dispersal rates and require spatial heterogeneity, spatio-temporal variability or dispersal-competition tradeoffs to allow coexistence. We analyse a model with stochastic juvenile dispersal (driven by turbulent flow in the coastal ocean) and show that a low-productivity species can coexist with a high-productivity species by having dispersal patterns sufficiently uncorrelated from those of its competitor, even though, on average, dispersal statistics are identical and subsequent demography and competition is spatially homogeneous. This produces a spatial storage effect, with an ephemeral partitioning of a ‘spatial niche’, and is the first demonstration of a physical mechanism for a pure spatiotemporal environmental response. ‘Turbulent coexistence’ is widely applicable to marine species with pelagic larval dispersal and relatively sessile adult life stages (and perhaps some wind-dispersed species) and complements other spatial and temporal storage effects previously documented for such species. PMID:20455921

  5. Emulating bulk turbulence with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jason D.; Goda, Matthew E.; Duncan, Bradley D.

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a novel system that emulates the optical effects of bulk atmospheric turbulence in a dynamic, repeatable, and accurate way without moving parts. Such turbulence-emulating systems (TES) are necessary for testing laser systems including laser weapons, free-space optical communications, and atmospheric imaging systems. Most current TESs utilize the layered turbulence model with static phase plates or diffractive optics acting as the turbulent layers. Until now, the only way to emulate bulk turbulence in a laboratory has been by creating real turbulence with a heating element and a fan contained in a miniature wind tunnel. In contrast, the TES that we developed uses phase retrieval-based wavefront control to shape a laser beam into a turbulence-distorted beam. Several important properties of the measured irradiance patterns have shown good agreement with the theoretical expectations.

  6. Wind measurements for wind energy applications. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the error sources and uncertainties in cup and sonic anemometry. In both cases the effects of the tower, boom and other mounting arrangements, as well as the siting of the anemometer, should be considered carefully. Cup anemometer measurements are inherently biased due...... to the turbulent nature of the wind, but these errors can be neglected in many applications if a well-designed, fast-responding anemometer is used. The response characteristics of sonic anemometers are fairly complicated. Based on wind tunnel investigations and field comparisons some of the associated errors...

  7. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  8. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  9. Light particles in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagendra Prakash, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in

  10. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  11. Intermittent structures in atmospheric wind fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueksek, Oersan; Muecke, Tanja; Peinke, Joachim [Wind Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For design processes and load calculations of wind energy convertors (WEC) realistic synthetic wind fields are needed. The widely used norm is the standard IEC 61400. The IEC standard considers different simulation methods based on Gaussian statistics. However, the analysis of the measured wind fields by means of velocity increment statistics yields that these do not obey Gaussian statistics but are quite intermittent. The intermittent nature of atmospheric wind affects the whole chain of the wind energy conversion process and is assumed to be a major effect for additional loads and fatigue. A recently proposed method based on continuous time random walks (CTRWs) adequately reproduces the intermittency of turbulent atmospheric velocity increments on small time scales and provides wind fields with the desired high order two point statistics. In this work, we analyze highly time-resolved data sets measured in an extensive grid over the whole rotor plane of a WEC. The atmospheric wind fields are characterized statistically and the dependency of the higher order two point statistics on turbulence intensity, mean wind speed and height is shown. With this knowledge we are able to generate synthetic CTRW wind fields with the correct small scale structure.

  12. Wind Power Prediction using Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Badger, Jake; Landberg, Lars

    2005-01-01

    offshore wind farm and the whole Jutland/Funen area. The utilities used these forecasts for maintenance planning, fuel consumption estimates and over-the-weekend trading on the Leipzig power exchange. Othernotable scientific results include the better accuracy of forecasts made up from a simple...... superposition of two NWP provider (in our case, DMI and DWD), an investigation of the merits of a parameterisation of the turbulent kinetic energy within thedelivered wind speed forecasts, and the finding that a “naïve” downscaling of each of the coarse ECMWF ensemble members with higher resolution HIRLAM did...

  13. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model.

  14. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model. (paper)

  15. Anisotropy of Third-order Structure Functions in MHD Turbulence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verdini, A.; Grappin, R.; Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Mueller, W.Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 804, č. 2 (2015), 119/1-119/13 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2023 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamics * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  16. Boundary Layer Response to an Unsteady Turbulent Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Anermometer and \\ Vde I Rittire 6. Wjint/W~ing Mount and Periodic Turbulence Generator histalled in NPS Wind Tunmid S~on (:x~d~ic:cr. i mourc shows, the 11...0011 .930 .0064 .930 -.0009 .920 .0080 .920 -.0007 .910 . 0100 .910 -.0003 .900 .0121 .900 .0000 .890 .0142 .890 .0006 .850 .0220 .880 .0010 .800

  17. SW radiative effect of aerosol in GRAPES_GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiying

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, and so change the shortwave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere, reached the surface and that reflected back to outer space at TOA. Since this process doesn't interact with other processes, it is called direct radiation effect. The clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in GRAPES_GFS of China Meteorological Administration are overestimated in Northern multitudes and Tropics. The main source of these errors is the absence of aerosol SW effect in GRAPES_GFS. The climatic aerosol mass concentration data, which include 13 kinds of aerosol and their 14 SW bands optical properties are considered in GRAPES_GFS. The calculated total optical depth, single scatter albedo and asymmetry factor are used as the input to radiation scheme. Compared with the satellite observation from MISER, the calculated total optical depth is in good consistent. The seasonal experiments show that, the summer averaged clear sky radiation fluxes at the surface are improved after including the SW effect of aerosol. The biases in the clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in Northern multitudes and Tropic reduced obviously. Furthermore, the weather forecast experiments also show that the skill scores in Northern hemisphere and East Asia also become better.

  18. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  19. Wind turbines. Unsteady aerodynamics and inflow noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riget Broe, B.

    2009-12-15

    Aerodynamical noise from wind turbines due to atmospheric turbulence has the highest emphasis in semi-empirical models. However it is an open question whether inflow noise has a high emphasis. This illustrates the need to investigate and improve the semi-empirical model for noise due to atmospheric turbulence. Three different aerodynamical models are investigated in order to estimate the lift fluctuations due to unsteady aerodynamics. Two of these models are investigated to find the unsteady lift distribution or pressure difference as function of chordwise position on the aerofoil. An acoustic model is investigated using a model for the lift distribution as input. The two models for lift distribution are used in the acoustic model. One of the models for lift distribution is for completely anisotropic turbulence and the other for perfectly isotropic turbulence, and so is also the corresponding models for the lift fluctuations derived from the models for lift distribution. The models for lift distribution and lift are compared with pressure data which are obtained by microphones placed flush with the surface of an aerofoil. The pressure data are from two experiments in a wind tunnel, one experiment with a NACA0015 profile and a second with a NACA63415 profile. The turbulence is measured by a triple wired hotwire instrument in the experiment with a NACA0015 profile. Comparison of the aerodynamical models with data shows that the models capture the general characteristics of the measurements, but the data are hampered by background noise from the fan propellers in the wind tunnel. The measurements are in between the completely anisotropic turbulent model and the perfectly isotropic turbulent model. This indicates that the models capture the aerodynamics well. Thus the measurements suggest that the noise due to atmospheric turbulence can be described and modeled by the two models for lift distribution. It was not possible to test the acoustical model by the measurements

  20. Sneaking of the Solar Wind Ions Into the Lunar Anti-subsolar Region Revealed by SELENE (Kaguya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, M. N.; Fujimoto, M.; Saito, Y.; Shoichiro, Y.; Asamura, K.; Tanaka, T.; Tsunakawa, H.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.; Maezawa, K.; Terasawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    The moon spends more than 80 percent of its life staying in the solar wind (SW), where a quasi-vacuum region called the lunar wake is formed on the night side. The SW electrons with higher energy can come to the lunar night-side surface, while it has been thought that the SW ions are unlikely to approach the low altitude region on the night side because their thermal speed is much lower than the SW bulk speed. Here we show detection of SW ions sneaking into the anti-subsolar region at ~100 km altitude, using recent comprehensive measurement by a Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya). The sneaking of SW ions into the deepest lunar wake was accompanied by an enhancement of counter-streaming electrons along the SW magnetic field. A part of the ions detected in the anti-subsolar region came from the lunar surface, which means that the ions of solar wind origin reflected at the night-side surface. One possibility is that electron- rich wake environment strengthened the bipolar electric field at the wake boundary to let solar-wind ions approach the lunar night side, and the other scenario is that enhancement of ions in the wake let ambient electrons to come in. The sneaking mechanism of the solar wind ions in terms of plasma and electromagnetic environment around/inside the lunar wake will be discussed.

  1. Wind effects on long-span bridges: Probabilistic wind data format for buffeting and VIV load assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K.; Srouji, R. G.; Hansen, S. O.

    2017-12-01

    The technology development within the structural design of long-span bridges in Norwegian fjords has created a need for reformulating the calculation format and the physical quantities used to describe the properties of wind and the associated wind-induced effects on bridge decks. Parts of a new probabilistic format describing the incoming, undisturbed wind is presented. It is expected that a fixed probabilistic format will facilitate a more physically consistent and precise description of the wind conditions, which in turn increase the accuracy and considerably reduce uncertainties in wind load assessments. Because the format is probabilistic, a quantification of the level of safety and uncertainty in predicted wind loads is readily accessible. A simple buffeting response calculation demonstrates the use of probabilistic wind data in the assessment of wind loads and responses. Furthermore, vortex-induced fatigue damage is discussed in relation to probabilistic wind turbulence data and response measurements from wind tunnel tests.

  2. Coherent stuctures in geophysical turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Andrew Robert

    This thesis examines the dynamic role of coherent structures in high Re turbulence. Three settings are chosen: the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), two- dimensional turbulence, and oceanic gyres. In the ABL, the intermittency of vertical heat and momentum fluxes complicates the use of local drag laws, which in turn has serious implications for large eddy simulations (LES). We develop a method to test the accuracy of local drag laws as a surface boundary condition for LES. When our diagnostic is applied to measurements of ABL turbulence, results indicate that drag-law formulations are only adequate for LES grid spacings dx > 25 km. The most salient aspect of 2-D solutions of the Navier Stokes equations is the appearance of populations of circular vortices and their subsequent dominance of the flow dynamics. To understand these dynamics, one must develop a method of decomposing such flows into their `coherent' and `non-coherent' components. We devise and test such an algorithm on weakly decaying 2-D simulations. We argue that the WPT algorithm is more general and suitable to a wider range of problems than a traditional selection-criteria approach. The decomposed 2-D solutions are then analyzed in light of turbulence theories which fail to take into account the two distinct regimes of the flow. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM's) traditionally fail to accurately mimic observed levels of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and mesoscale vortex activity. A possible explanation is insufficient horizontal resolution due to the huge computational demands of complex ocean models. To test this hypothesis, a highly efficient, parallel numerical algorithm is designed to simulate the wind- driven, closed basin quasigeostrophic (QG) equations. The combination of idealized geometry, simplified equations, and the most recent technology in parallel computing permits us to achieve decade-length integrations at resolutions five times greater than has been possible with OGCM's. These

  3. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  4. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  5. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  6. Tomography of the Solar Wind using Interplanetary Scintillation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Tomography—solar wind—interplanetary scintillation. Extended abstract. Interplanetary ... properties of solar wind (SW) along the line of sight (los) to a distant compact radio source. Mapping a los back to ... power spectra of intensity fluctuations, the primary IPS observable, constructed using the distribution of properties of ...

  7. Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence. IV. Solar Coronal Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.

    2018-02-01

    A new model describing the transport and evolution of turbulence in the quiet solar corona is presented. In the low plasma beta environment, transverse photospheric convective fluid motions drive predominantly quasi-2D (nonpropagating) turbulence in the mixed-polarity “magnetic carpet,” together with a minority slab (Alfvénic) component. We use a simplified sub-Alfvénic flow velocity profile to solve transport equations describing the evolution and dissipation of turbulence from 1\\hspace{0.5em}{{t}}{{o}} 15 {R}ȯ (including the Alfvén surface). Typical coronal base parameters are used, although one model uses correlation lengths derived observationally by Abramenko et al., and the other assumes values 10 times larger. The model predicts that (1) the majority quasi-2D turbulence evolves from a balanced state at the coronal base to an imbalanced state, with outward fluctuations dominating, at and beyond the Alfvén surface, i.e., inward turbulent fluctuations are dissipated preferentially; (2) the initially imbalanced slab component remains imbalanced throughout the solar corona, being dominated by outwardly propagating Alfvén waves, and wave reflection is weak; (3) quasi-2D turbulence becomes increasingly magnetized, and beyond ∼ 6 {R}ȯ , the kinetic energy is mainly in slab fluctuations; (4) there is no accumulation of inward energy at the Alfvén surface; (5) inertial range quasi-2D rather than slab fluctuations are preferentially dissipated within ∼ 3 {R}ȯ ; and (6) turbulent dissipation of quasi-2D fluctuations is sufficient to heat the corona to temperatures ∼ 2× {10}6 K within 2 {R}ȯ , consistent with observations that suggest that the fast solar wind is accelerated most efficiently between ∼ 2\\hspace{0.5em}{{a}}{{n}}{{d}} 4 {R}ȯ .

  8. Towards uncovering the structure of power fluctuations of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations Φ_{P} exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f^{-5/3-2} in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, Φ_{P}∼f^{-2}. Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.

  9. Dynamic influences of wind power on the power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    The thesis first presents the basics influences of wind power on the power system stability and quality by pointing out the main power quality issues of wind power in a small-scale case and following, the expected large-scale problems are introduced. Secondly, a dynamic wind turbine model that supports power quality assessment of wind turbines is presented. Thirdly, an aggregate wind farm model that support power quality and stability analysis from large wind farms is presented. The aggregate wind farm model includes the smoothing of the relative power fluctuation from a wind farm compared to a single wind turbine. Finally, applications of the aggregate wind farm model to the power systems are presented. The power quality and stability characteristics influenced by large-scale wind power are illustrated with three cases. In this thesis, special emphasis has been given to appropriate models to represent the wind acting on wind farms. The wind speed model to a single wind turbine includes turbulence and tower shadow effects from the wind and the rotational sampling turbulence due to the rotation of the blades. In a park scale, the wind speed model to the wind farm includes the spatial coherence between different wind turbines. Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suitable to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power system quality and stability. The flicker and frequency deviations are the main power quality parameters presented. The power system stability concentrates on the voltage stability and on the power system oscillations. From the cases studied, voltage and the frequency variations were smaller than expected from the large-scale wind power integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting large

  10. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  11. Perceived Uncertainty Sources in Wind Power Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop covers some of the uncertainties that still impact turbulent wind operation and how these affect design and structural reliability; identifies key sources and prioritization for R and D; and summarizes an analysis of current procedures, industry best practice, standards, and expert opinions.

  12. Numerical prediction of wind loads on low buildings | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 2-D numerical simulation of wind loads on low-rise buildings has been carried out. The simulation was carried out under FLUENT package environment in which full-scale Reynolds number, boundary layer and turbulence properties have been simulated. Wind loading effect numerically obtained on flat ...

  13. Simulation of Wind Farms in Flat & Complex terrain using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prospathopoulos, John; Cabezon, D.; Politis, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods to predict the power production from wind entire wind farms in flat and complex terrain is presented in this paper. Two full 3D Navier–Stokes solvers for incompressible flow are employed that incorporate the k–ε and k–ω turbulence models respectively...

  14. A method for optimisation of wind discomfort criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M

    Wind discomfort criteria are compared and optimised using a U/U-pot framework; U-pot is the 10 m wind speed at an ideal meteorological site. A new estimate of turbulence intensity is proposed for the conversion of criteria to a U/U-pot ratio. Using this estimate, differences between existing

  15. Wind Profile, Drag Coefficient and Cross-Section over the Coastal Zone for Quasi-Homogeneous Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geernaert, G. L.; Astrup, P.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the Symposium on the Wind-Driven Air-Sea Interface. Electromagnetic and Acoustic Sensing, Wave Dynamics and Turbulent Fluxes, Sydney, Australia, 11-15 January 1999.......Proceedings of the Symposium on the Wind-Driven Air-Sea Interface. Electromagnetic and Acoustic Sensing, Wave Dynamics and Turbulent Fluxes, Sydney, Australia, 11-15 January 1999....

  16. Turbulent baker's maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors formulate and study an elementary one-dimensional model mimicking some of the features of fluid turbulence. The underlying vorticity field corresponds to a parallel flow. Structure on all scales down to the numerical resolution is generated by the action of baker's maps acting on the vorticity of the flow. These transformations conserve kinetic energy locally in the Euler model, while viscous diffusion of vorticity occurs in the Navier-Stokes case. The authors apply the model to the study of homogeneous fully, developed turbulence, and to turbulent channel flow

  17. Non-gaussian turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)

  18. Turbulence new approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM

    2005-01-01

    The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.

  19. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  20. Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.

  1. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  2. Wake characteristics of wind turbines in utility-scale wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Foti, Daniel; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of turbine wakes is affected by turbine operating conditions, ambient atmospheric turbulent flows, and wakes from upwind turbines. Investigations of the wake from a single turbine have been extensively carried out in the literature. Studies on the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms are relatively limited. In this work, we employ large-eddy simulation with an actuator surface or actuator line model for turbine blades to investigate the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms. Simulations of three wind farms, i.e., the Horns Rev wind farm in Denmark, Pleasant Valley wind farm in Minnesota, and the Vantage wind farm in Washington are carried out. The computed power shows a good agreement with measurements. Analysis of the wake dynamics in the three wind farms is underway and will be presented in the conference. This work was support by Xcel Energy (RD4-13). The computational resources were provided by National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. Numerical simulation of the vertical migration of Microcystis (cyanobacteria colonies based on turbulence drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vertical migration and accumulation of Microcystis is an important process in water blooms, and colony migration is influenced by colony size and wind-wave disturbance. The vertical migration of Microcystis colonies in turbulence can be simulated in a numerical model. In this study, we model such migration by coupling the colony size and hydrodynamics, including the gravity, colony buoyancy, and the viscous drag force of turbulence. The turbulence intensity was represented by the turbulent kinetic energy (KZ; the larger the KZ, the stronger the wind-wave disturbance. The simulated vertical distribution of Microcystis well agreed with the measured values in a laboratory experiment indicating that our model can simulate the vertical distribution of Microcystis under different hydrodynamic conditions. We also found a size-dependent critical turbulent kinetic energy (TKZ, such that if the turbulent kinetic energy of water exceeds the critical value (i.e., KZ > TKZ, the colonies sink under the drag forces of turbulence; conversely, if KZ < TKZ, the colonies can overcome the turbulent mixing and float. The TKZ of each colony was linearly related to colony diameter. The model is crucial for prediction and prevention of water blooms. The simulated threshold turbulent kinetic energy, at which water blooms disappear in Lake Taihu (a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta, Jiangsu Province, China, was 55.5 cm2 s−2. 

  4. Maintenance Planning of Offshore Wind Turbine using Condition Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    the deterioration in structures such as offshore wind turbines (OWT). Besides these methods, the integration of condition monitoring information (CMI) can optimize the mitigation activities as an updating tool. In this paper, a framework for risk-based inspection and maintenance planning (RBI) is applied for OWT...... incorporating CMI, addressing this analysis to fatigue prone details in welded steel joints at jacket or tripod steel support structures for offshore wind turbines. The increase of turbulence in wind farms is taken into account by using a code-based turbulence model. Further, additional modes t integrate CMI...

  5. Comparison of wind pressure measurements on Silsoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    lence and curvature related strain effects and the same have been compared with the full-scale and wind-tunnel data for the present study. Better turbulence models that will be more accurately predict bluff body flow fields and that are numerically stable for complex geometries are of paramount importance if the uses of ...

  6. Aero-Acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun

    2008-01-01

    both for laminar and turbulent flows. Results have shown that sound generation is due to the unsteadiness of the flow field and the spectrum of sound has a strong relation with fluctuating forces on the solid body. Flow and acoustic simulation were also carried out for a wind turbine where general...

  7. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form....... The LiDAR system is a ground-based sensing technique which avoids the use of high and costly meteorological masts. Three different inflow conditions were selected to perform LiDAR wind profiling. Comparisons of LiDAR mean wind speeds against cup anemometers from different masts showed high correlations...... for the open sea sectors and good agreement with their longitudinal turbulence characteristics. Cup anemometer mean wind speed profiles were extended with LiDAR profiles up to 161 m on each inflow sector. The extension resulted in a good profile match for the three surrounding masts. These extended profiles...

  8. Wall modeled LES of wind turbine wakes with geometrical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricteux, Laurent; Benard, Pierre; Zeoli, Stephanie; Moureau, Vincent; Lartigue, Ghislain; Vire, Axelle

    2017-11-01

    This study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes when geometrical effects such as nacelle, tower, and built environment, are taken into account. The aim is to demonstrate the ability of a high order unstructured solver called YALES2 to perform wall modeled LES of wind turbine wake turbulence. The wind turbine rotor is modeled using an Actuator Line Model (ALM) while the geometrical details are explicitly meshed thanks to the use of an unstructured grid. As high Reynolds number flows are considered, sub-grid scale models as well as wall modeling are required. The first test case investigated concerns a wind turbine flow located in a wind tunnel that allows to validate the proposed methodology using experimental data. The second test case concerns the simulation of a wind turbine wake in a complex environment (e.g. a Building) using realistic turbulent inflow conditions.

  9. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  10. Atmospheric stability and its influence on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Barlas, Thanasis K.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of wind turbine loads for the NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine under diabatic wind conditions are performed for mean wind speeds between 3 { 16 m/s at the turbine hub height. The loads are quantified as the cumulative sum of the damage equivalent load for different wind speeds...... that are weighted according to the wind speed and stability distribution. It is observed that atmospheric stability influences the tower and rotor loads. The difference in the calculated tower loads using diabatic wind conditions and those obtained assuming neutral conditions only is approximately 16%, whereas...... the difference for the rotor loads is up to 11%. The blade loads are hardly influenced by atmospheric stability, where the difference between the calculated loads using diabatic and neutral input wind conditions is less than 1%. The wind profiles and turbulence under diabatic conditions have contrasting...

  11. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneou......The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra...

  12. Study of wind forces on low-rise hip-roof building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Wind pressures on buildings and structures depend upon the velocity profile and turbulence ... the interaction between wind and structures numerically offering an alternative technique to practical applications. Earlier the ..... Areas of research are masonry structures, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Wind engineering.

  13. MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.

  14. Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mats E. R.; Franzén, Lars G.

    The present paper introduces a model for the dry deposition of marine aerosols in a coastal area of SW Sweden. The model, incorporating wind speed and distance from shore, is based on repeated measurements of salt impingement on specially designed salt traps in dense profiles from the shore and inland. The measurements show that the deposited salts include two significantly different components, one dynamic containing large droplets, with short residence time in the air, deposited close to the shore, the other one being microscopic droplets, with long residence time in the air and with a low deposition velocity (principally, the system is similar to that of mineral particles, i.e. saltating dune sand vs loess). The deposition of marine aerosols has various effects on the terrestrial environments. Aside from those associated to human activities, i.e. technical effects on outdoor electrical installations, increased corrosion of cars, etc. there are others associated to natural ecosystems. Hence, salts are important contributors to major and trace elements for plant growth. On the other hand, the deposition of windborne salt spray is believed to form an important stress factor on forests and especially to exposed stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.). In this latter sense it is the authors' opinion that the rising number of westerly gales reported on the Swedish west coast during the last two decades might give an important contribution to the increasing amounts of damage observed from coniferous forests in SW Sweden.

  15. A new turbulence-based model for sand transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical

  16. Coastal biogeochemical processes in the north Indian Ocean (14, S-W)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Narvekar, P.V.; Desa, E.

    , and close to Sow- tra Island-both PP (c1 g C m2 dl) and chl n (<0.6 mg m 3, were below expecta- tions due to a combination of factors such as the short residence time of upwelled water over the shelf, deep mixed layers caused by wind-induced turbulence...) in the northeastern Bay of Bcngal (Wyrtki, 1971). S. WAJ~H A. NAQVI, PRADIP V. NAHVEKAR AND EE~RLICH DESA 725 ZON 15N Figure 19.1 Major features of surface circulation in the North Indian Ocean (after Schott and McCreary, 2001) during (a) Northeast Monsoon...

  17. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  18. Analysis of the Flicker Level Produced by a Fixed-Speed Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppioni, Vinicius; P. Grilo, Ahda

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the analysis of the flicker emission during continuous operation of a mid-scale fixed-speed wind turbine connected to a distribution system is presented. Flicker emission is investigated based on simulation results, and the dependence of flicker emission on short-circuit capacity, grid impedance angle, mean wind speed, and wind turbulence is analyzed. The simulations were conducted in different programs in order to provide a more realistic wind emulation and detailed model of mechanical and electrical components of the wind turbine. Such aim is accomplished by using FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) to simulate the mechanical parts of the wind turbine, Simulink/MatLab to simulate the electrical system, and TurbSim to obtain the wind model. The results show that, even for a small wind generator, the flicker level can limit the wind power capacity installed in a distribution system.

  19. Offshore and onshore wind turbine wake meandering studied in an ABL wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Buckingham, Sophia; Glabeke, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    Scaled wind turbine models have been installed in the VKI L1-B atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at offshore and onshore conditions. Time-resolved measurements were carried out with three component hot wire anemometry and stereo-PIV in the middle vertical plane of the wake up to eleven turbine...... spectrum, present in the entire wake mainly for offshore inflow condition. It was found that the Strouhal number, based on the rotor diameter and the wind velocity at hub height, was in the order of 0.25. Below the meandering frequency, turbulence power spectrum decreased, whereas above it increased. Wake...... diameter downstream. The results show an earlier wake recovery for the onshore case. The effect of inflow conditions and the wind turbine’s working conditions on wake meandering was investigated. Wake meandering was detected by hot wire anemometry through a low frequency peak in the turbulent power...

  20. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

  1. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills. Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm. Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  2. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    , vortex shedding, and local turbulence intensity and wind shear values. To achieve accurate results, attention must of course be paid to issues such as ensuring Reynolds number independence, avoiding blockage issues, and properly matching the velocity power spectrum, but once this is done, the laws of fluid mechanics take care of the rest. There will not be an overproduction of turbulent kinetic energy at the top of escarpments, or unacceptable dissipation of inlet turbulence levels. Modern atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnels are also often used to provide validation data for evaluating the performance of CFD model in complex flow environments. Present day computers have further increased the quality and quantity of data that can be economically obtained in a timely manner, for example through wind speed measurement using a computer controlled 3-D measurement positioning system Given this accuracy and widespread acceptance, it is perhaps surprising that ours was the only wind tunnel model in the Bolund blind experiment, an indication of how seldom physical modelling is used when estimating terrain effect for wind farms. In demonstrating how the Bolund test was modeled, this presentation will provide background on wind tunnel testing, including the governing scaling parameters. And we’ll see how our results compared to the full scale tests.

  3. Using machine learning to predict wind turbine power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, A; Kilcher, L; Lundquist, J K; Fleming, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to rank atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that from the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data are required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of the different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site. (letter)

  4. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  5. Large-scale Circulation Control of the Occurrence of Low-level Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marco Y. T.; Zhou, Wen; Shun, Chi-Ming; Chan, Pak-Wai

    2018-04-01

    This study identifies the atmospheric circulation features that are favorable for the occurrence of low-level turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport [below 1600 feet (around 500 m)]. By using LIDAR data at the airport, turbulence and nonturbulence cases are selected. It is found that the occurrence of turbulence is significantly related to the strength of the southerly wind at 850 hPa over the South China coast. On the other hand, the east-west wind at this height demonstrates a weak relation to the occurrence. This suggests that turbulence is generated by flow passing Lantau Island from the south. The southerly wind also transports moisture from the South China Sea to Hong Kong, reducing local stability. This is favorable for the development of strong turbulence. It is also noted that the strong southerly wind during the occurrence of low-level turbulence is contributed by an anomalous zonal gradient of geopotential in the lower troposphere over the South China Sea. This gradient is caused by the combination of variations at different timescales. These are the passage of synoptic extratropical cyclones and anticyclones and the intraseasonal variation in the western North Pacific subtropical high. The seasonal variation in geopotential east of the Tibetan Plateau leads to a seasonal change in meridional wind, by which the frequency of low-level turbulence is maximized in spring and minimized in autumn.

  6. Improving Maryland’s Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pé Alexandra St.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM, with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine’s rotor layer (40m-160m. Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine’s ability to produce power.

  7. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob; Hansen, Per; Angelou, Nikolas; Svardal, Benny

    2016-12-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis on the root-coherence and the co-coherence of turbulence. A four-parameter decaying exponential function has been fitted to the measured co-coherence, and a good agreement is observed between data obtained by the sonic anemometers and the lidars. The root-coherence of turbulence is compared to theoretical models. The analytical predictions agree rather well with the measured coherence for the along-wind component. For increasing wavenumbers, larger discrepancies are, however, noticeable between the measured coherence and the theoretical predictions. The WindScanners are observed to slightly overestimate the integral length scales, which could not be explained by the laser beam averaging effect alone. On the other hand, the spatial averaging effect does not seem to have any significant effect on the coherence.

  8. UAV multirotor platform for accurate turbulence measurements in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Wilhelm, Lionel; Sin, Kevin Edgar; Hofer, Matthias; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric field studies for wind energy is to obtain accurate turbulence measurements at any location inside the region of interest for a wind farm study. This volume would ideally include from several hundred meters to several kilometers around it and from ground height to the top of the boundary layer. An array of meteorological masts equipped with several sonic anemometers to cover all points of interest would be the best in terms of accuracy and data availability, but it is an obviously unfeasible solution. On the other hand, the evolution of wind LiDAR technology allows to measure at any point in space but unfortunately it involves two important limitations: the first one is the relatively low spatial and temporal resolution when compared to a sonic anemometer and the second one is the fact that the measurements are limited to the velocity component parallel to the laser beam (radial velocity). To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks, a UAV multirotor platform has been developed. It is based on a state-of-the-art octocopter with enough payload to carry laboratory-grade instruments for the measurement of time-resolved atmospheric pressure, three-component velocity vector and temperature; and enough autonomy to fly from 10 to 20 minutes, which is a standard averaging time in most atmospheric measurement applications. The UAV uses a gyroscope, an accelerometer, a GPS and an algorithm has been developed and integrated for the correction of any orientation and movement. This UAV platform opens many possibilities for the study of features that have been almost exclusively studied until now in wind tunnel such as wind turbine blade tip vortex characteristics, near-wake to far-wake transition, momentum entrainment from the higher part of the boundary layer in wind farms, etc. The validation of this new measurement technique has been performed against sonic anemometry in terms of wind speed and temperature time series as well as

  9. Case study of wave breaking with high-resolution turbulence measurements with LITOS and WRF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andreas; Wagner, Johannes; Söder, Jens; Gerding, Michael; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of turbulent energy dissipation rates obtained from wind fluctuations observed with the balloon-borne instrument LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere) are combined with simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the breakdown of waves into turbulence. One flight from Kiruna (68° N, 21° E) and two flights from Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) are analysed. Dissipation rates are of the order of 0. 1 mW kg-1 (˜ 0.01 K d-1) in the troposphere and in the stratosphere below 15 km, increasing in distinct layers by about 2 orders of magnitude. For one flight covering the stratosphere up to ˜ 28 km, the measurement shows nearly no turbulence at all above 15 km. Another flight features a patch with highly increased dissipation directly below the tropopause, collocated with strong wind shear and wave filtering conditions. In general, small or even negative Richardson numbers are affirmed to be a sufficient condition for increased dissipation. Conversely, significant turbulence has also been observed in the lower stratosphere under stable conditions. Observed energy dissipation rates are related to wave patterns visible in the modelled vertical winds. In particular, the drop in turbulent fraction at 15 km mentioned above coincides with a drop in amplitude in the wave patterns visible in the WRF. This indicates wave saturation being visible in the LITOS turbulence data.

  10. Doppler lidar measurement of profiles of turbulence and momentum flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Cupp, Richard E.; Healy, Kathleen R.

    1989-01-01

    A short-pulse CO2 Doppler lidar with 150-m range resolution measured vertical profiles of turbulence and momentum flux. Example measurements are reported of a daytime mixed layer with strong mechanical mixing caused by a wind speed of 15 m/sec, which exceeded the speed above the capping inversion. The lidar adapted an azimuth scanning technique previously demonstrated by radar. Scans alternating between two elevation angles allow determination of mean U-squared, V-squared, and W-squared. Expressions were derived to estimate the uncertainty in the turbulence parameters. A new processing method, partial Fourier decomposition, has less uncertainty than the filtering used earlier.

  11. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  12. Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer for Wind Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Nikola

    Energy production from wind is an increasingly important component of overall global power generation, and will likely continue to gain an even greater share of electricity production as world governments attempt to mitigate climate change and wind energy production costs decrease. Wind energy generation depends on wind speed, which is greatly influenced by local and synoptic environmental forcings. Synoptic forcing, such as a cold frontal passage, exists on a large spatial scale while local forcing manifests itself on a much smaller scale and could result from topographic effects or land-surface heat fluxes. Synoptic forcing, if strong enough, may suppress the effects of generally weaker local forcing. At the even smaller scale of a wind farm, upstream turbines generate wakes that decrease the wind speed and increase the atmospheric turbulence at the downwind turbines, thereby reducing power production and increasing fatigue loading that may damage turbine components, respectively. Simulation of atmospheric processes that span a considerable range of spatial and temporal scales is essential to improve wind energy forecasting, wind turbine siting, turbine maintenance scheduling, and wind turbine design. Mesoscale atmospheric models predict atmospheric conditions using observed data, for a wide range of meteorological applications across scales from thousands of kilometers to hundreds of meters. Mesoscale models include parameterizations for the major atmospheric physical processes that modulate wind speed and turbulence dynamics, such as cloud evolution and surface-atmosphere interactions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this dissertation to investigate the effects of model parameters on wind energy forecasting. WRF is used for case study simulations at two West Coast North American wind farms, one with simple and one with complex terrain, during both synoptically and locally-driven weather events. The model's performance with different

  13. Coherence of simulated atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiadong, Zeng; Zhiguo, Li; Mingshui, Li

    2017-12-01

    The coherences in a plane perpendicular to incoming flow are measured in wind tunnel simulations of atmospheric turbulent flow. The measured coherences are compared with analytical expressions tailored to field measurements and with theoretical coherence models which assume homogeneous turbulence and the von Kármán’s spectrum. The comparison indicates that the simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow is approximately horizontally homogeneous turbulence. Based on the above assumption and the systematic analysis of lateral coherence, it can be concluded that the lateral coherences of simulated atmospheric boundary turbulence can be determined accurately using the von Kármán spectrum and the turbulence parameters measured by a few measurement points. The measured results also show that the spatial characteristics of vertical coherences are closely related to the dimensionless parameter {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The vertical coherence at two heights can be roughly estimated by the ratio to {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The relationship between the phase angles of u-, v- and w-components and the vertical separation distance and the height from the ground is further analyzed. Finally, the roles of the type of land surface roughness, the height from the ground, the turbulence intensity and the integral length scale in lateral and vertical coherences are also discussed in this study.

  14. Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.

  15. Wind structure during mid-latitude storms and its application in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Du, Jianting; Bolanos, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    . The numerical modeling is done through an atmosphere-wave coupled system, where the atmospheric model is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the wave model is the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Measurements from offshore stations, Horns Rev and the FINO platform, as well as satellite......: the mean wind and turbulence structures, as well as gust. This study aims at improving the understanding and modeling for the challenging wind and wave conditions during storms in the coastal offshore zones where a large number of wind farms are being planned in the near future in Europe, especially...... in Denmark. The extreme wind and wave conditions in the coastal area for wind energy application are important but have rarely been studied in the literature. Our experiments are done to the Danish coasts where the mid-latitude depression systems are causes of the extreme wind and wave conditions...

  16. Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic field in complex terrain wind farm based on actuator disk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Chen Qi; Han, Xing Xing

    2015-01-01

    Study on the aerodynamic field in complex terrain is significant to wind farm micro-sitting and wind power prediction. This paper modeled the wind turbine through an actuator disk model, and solved the aerodynamic field by CFD to study the influence of meshing, boundary conditions and turbulence...... model on the calculation results. Comparison with the measured data of a wind farm was applied to find an appropriate method for simulating the aerodynamic field in the complex terrain wind farm. Related research can provide reference for wind farm micro-siting and wind power prediction....

  17. Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind...... promising wind farm sites and (ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase (i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations...

  18. On Orientation Control of Suspended Blade During Installation in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses problems involved in the procedure for offshore installation of blades in wind turbines, due to wind loads. In general the high winds at sea provides for nearly optimal conditions for harvesting energy via wind turbines due to the often high wind speeds and low turbulence...... intensity. However, the very same features also call for great difficulties during installation of the wind turbine blades, making this process extremely difficult, expensive and time consuming. Often the blades are hoisted to the wind turbine hub via cranes and sought held in appropriate positions by so...

  19. The suitability of the IEC 61400-2 wind model for small wind turbines operating in the built environment★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the applicability of the assumed wind fields in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC standard 61400 Part 2, the design standard for small wind turbines, for a turbine operating in the built environment, and the effects these wind fields have on the predicted performance of a 5 kW Aerogenesis turbine using detailed aeroelastic models developed in Fatigue Aerodynamics Structures and Turbulence (FAST. Detailed wind measurements were acquired at two built environment sites: from the rooftop of a Bunnings Ltd. warehouse at Port Kennedy (PK (Perth, Australia and from the small wind turbine site at the University of Newcastle at Callaghan (Newcastle, Australia. For both sites, IEC 61400-2 underestimates the turbulence intensity for the majority of the measured wind speeds. A detailed aeroelastic model was built in FAST using the assumed wind field from IEC 61400-2 and the measured wind fields from PK and Callaghan as an input to predict key turbine performance parameters. The results of this analysis show a modest increase in the predicted mean power for the higher turbulence regimes of PK and Callaghan as well as higher variation in output power. Predicted mean rotor thrust and blade flapwise loading showed a minor increase due to higher turbulence, with mean predicted torque almost identical but with increased variations due to higher turbulence. Damage equivalent loading for the blade flapwise moment was predicted to be 58% and 11% higher for a turbine operating at Callaghan and PK respectively, when compared with IEC 61400-2 wind field. Time series plots for blade flapwise moments and power spectral density plots in the frequency domain show consistently higher blade flapwise bending moments for the Callaghan site with both the sites showing a once-per-revolution response.

  20. Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, David

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)