WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind shear patterns

  1. CAT LIDAR wind shear studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The studies considered the major meteorological factors producing wind shear, methods to define and classify wind shear in terms significant from an aircraft perturbation standpoint, the significance of sensor location and scan geometry on the detection and measurement of wind shear, and the tradeoffs involved in sensor performance such as range/velocity resolution, update frequency and data averaging interval.

  2. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  3. VHF radar observation of atmospheric winds, associated shears and C2n at a tropical location: interdependence and seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jain

    Full Text Available The turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n is an important parameter of the atmosphere. VHF radars have been used extensively for the measurements of C2n. Presently, most of such observations are from mid and high latitudes and only very limited observations are available for equatorial and tropical latitudes. Indian MST radar is an excellent tool for making high-resolution measurements of atmospheric winds, associated shears and turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n. This radar is located at Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, a tropical station in India. The objective of this paper is to bring out the height structure of C2n for different seasons using the long series of data (September 1995 – August 1999 from Indian MST radar. An attempt is also made to understand such changes in the height structure of C2n in relation to background atmospheric parameters such as horizontal winds and associated shears. The height structure of C2n, during the summer monsoon and post-monsoon season, shows specific height features that are found to be related to Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ winds. It is important to examine the nature of the radar back-scatterers and also to understand the causative mechanism of such scatterers. Aspect sensitivity of the received radar echo is examined for this purpose. It is observed that radar back-scatterers at the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric heights are more anisotropic, with horizontal correlation length of 10–20 m, as compared to those observed at lower and middle tropospheric heights.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; tropical meteorology; turbulence

  4. Modeling and implementation of wind shear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Walter

    1987-01-01

    The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown.

  5. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corscadden, Kenneth W; Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement.

  6. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  7. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  8. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    proposed for flat terrain and that can significantly decrease the uncertainty associated with fatigue load predictions for wind turbines with large rotors. An essential contribution is the conditioning of wind shear on the 90% quantile of wind turbulence, such that the appropriate magnitude of the design...... fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...

  9. Characteristics for wind energy and wind turbines by considering vertical wind shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉巧; 赵荣珍

    2015-01-01

    The probability distributions of wind speeds and the availability of wind turbines were investigated by considering the vertical wind shear. Based on the wind speed data at the standard height observed at a wind farm, the power-law process was used to simulate the wind speeds at a hub height of 60 m. The Weibull and Rayleigh distributions were chosen to express the wind speeds at two different heights. The parameters in the model were estimated via the least square (LS) method and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, respectively. An adjusted MLE approach was also presented for parameter estimation. The main indices of wind energy characteristics were calculated based on observational wind speed data. A case study based on the data of Hexi area, Gansu Province of China was given. The results show that MLE method generally outperforms LS method for parameter estimation, and Weibull distribution is more appropriate to describe the wind speed at the hub height.

  10. Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Larsen, Torben J.

    Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case...... of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly...

  11. Small-scale wind shear definition for aerospace vehicle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Rawinsonde wind profile data provide adequate wind shear information for vertical height intervals greater than 1 km. To specify wind shears for intervals below 1 km for space vehicle design, detailed wind-profile information like that provided by the FPS-16 Radar/Jimsphere system or an extrapolation procedure is required. This paper is concerned with the latter alternative. It is assumed that any realization from an ensemble of wind profiles can be represented in terms of a Fourier integral. This permits the calculation of the ensemble standard deviation and mean of the corresponding shear ensemble for any altitude and shear interval in terms of the power spectrum of the ensemble of wind profiles. The results of these calculations show that the mean and standard deviation of the wind shear ensemble, as well as the wind shear for any percentile, asymptotically behave like the vertical interval to the 0.7 power. This result is in excellent agreement with shear data from Cape Kennedy, Fla.

  12. Wind Shear Identification with the Retrieval Wind of Doppler Wearth Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Cui, Y.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, T.

    2018-05-01

    A new method, which based on the wind field retrieval algorithm of Volume Velocity Process (VVP), has been used to identified the intensity of wind shear occurred in a severe convection process in Guangzhou. The intensity of wind shear's strength shown that new cells would be more likely to generate in areas where the magnitude generally larger than 3.0 m/(s*km). Moreover, in the areas of potential areas of rainfall, the wind shear's strength would larger than 4.5 m/(s*km). This wind shear identify method is very helpful to forecasting severe convections' moving and developments.

  13. Prescribed wind shear modelling with the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Troldborg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A method for prescribing arbitrary steady atmospheric wind shear profiles combined with CFD is presented. The method is furthermore combined with the actuator line technique governing the aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine. Computation are carried out on a wind turbine exposed to a representative...

  14. Wind shear coefficients and their effect on energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Abbadi, Naif M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides realistic values of wind shear coefficients calculated using measured values of wind speed at 20, 30 and 40 m above the ground for the first time in Saudi Arabia in particular and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, in the Gulf region in general. The paper also presents air density values calculated using the measured air temperature and surface pressure and the effects of wind shear factor on energy production from wind machines of different sizes. The measured data used in the study covered a period of almost three years between June 17, 1995 and December 1998. An overall mean value of wind shear coefficient of 0.194 can be used with confidence to calculate the wind speed at different heights if measured values are known at one height. The study showed that the wind shear coefficient is significantly influenced by seasonal and diurnal changes. Hence, for precise estimations of wind speed at a height, both monthly or seasonal and hourly or night time and day time average values of wind shear coefficient must be used. It is suggested that the wind shear coefficients must be calculated either (i) using long term average values of wind speed at different heights or (ii) using those half hourly mean values of wind speed for which the wind shear coefficient lies in the range 0 and 0.51. The air density, calculated using measured temperature and pressure was found to be 1.18 kg/m 3 . The air density values were also found to vary with the season of the year and hour of the day, and hence, care must be taken when precise calculations are to be made. The air density values, as shown in this paper, have no significant variation with height. The energy production analysis showed that the actual wind shear coefficient presented in this paper produced 6% more energy compared to that obtained using the 1/7 power law. Similarly, higher plant capacity factors were obtained with the wind shear factor of 0.194 compared to that with 0.143

  15. Wind Shear Systems Implementation Plan, Benefit/Cost Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    not. Accordingly, the three self contained Wind Shear Systems currently being marketed by avionics manufacturers are considered to have lower relative... RESEARC { AND I’iVEIOPMEN1 The FAA research ni d development ffort has taken a threefold appro,,ch to the vind sh#ear problem. Ore. approach was to

  16. Synthetic atmospheric turbulence and wind shear in large eddy simulations of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , superimposed on top of a mean deterministic shear layer consistent with that used in the IEC standard for wind turbine load calculations. First, the method is evaluated by running a series of large-eddy simulations in an empty domain, where the imposed turbulence and wind shear is allowed to reach a fully...

  17. Wind direction dependent vertical wind shear and surface roughness parameter in two different coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Sardar Maran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface layer parameterizations are important prerequisites for air pollution dispersion analysis. The turbulent flow characteristics vary at coastal and inland sites where the nuclear facilities are situated. Many pollution sources and their dispersion occur within the roughness sub layer in the lower atmosphere. In this study analysis of wind direction dependence vertical wind shear, surface roughness lengths and surface layer wind condition has been carried out at a coastal and the urban coastal site for the different wind flow regime. The differential response of the near coastal and inland urban site SBL parameters (wind shear, roughness length, etc) was examined as a function of wind direction

  18. Wind Shear and the Strength of Severe Convective Phenomena—Preliminary Results from Poland in 2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Pilorz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe convective phenomena cause significant loss in the economy and, primarily, casualties. Therefore, it is essential to forecast such extreme events to avoid or minimize the negative consequences. Wind shear provides an updraft-downdraft separation in the convective cell, which extends the cell lifetime. Wind shears between a few different air layers have been examined in all damaging convective cases in Poland, taken from the European Severe Weather Database between 2011 and 2015, in order to find their values and patterns according to the intensity of this phenomenon. Each severe weather report was assigned wind shear values from the nearest sounding station, and subsequently the presented summary was made. It was found that wind shear values differ between the given phenomena and their intensity. This regularity is particularly visible in shears containing 0 km wind. The highest shears occur within wind reports. Lower values are associated with hail reports. An important difference between weak and F1+ tornadoes was found in most of the wind shears. Severe phenomena probability within 0–6 km and 0–1 km shears show different patterns according to the phenomena and their intensity. This finding has its application in severe weather forecasting.

  19. Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binrong WEN; Sha WEI; Kexiang WEI; Wenxian YANG; Zhike PENG; Fulei CHU

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines.This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine.First,wind speed models,particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model,are described in detail.The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modem large-scale wind turbines.Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory.Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow,whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear.Under steady wind conditions,power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss.Wind farm loss is constant at 3α(3α-1)R2/(8H2).By contrast,rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed.That is,when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works,the rotor loss stabilizes around zero,but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works,the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies.The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

  20. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  1. Effects of extreme wind shear on aeroelastic modal damping of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldan, P.F.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    Wind shear is an important contributor to fatigue loads on wind turbines. Because it causes an azimuthal variation in angle of attack, it can also affect aerodynamic damping. In this paper, a linearized model of a wind turbine, based on the nonlinear aeroelastic code BHawC, is used to investigate...

  2. The formation of sporadic E layers by a vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal wind shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Didebulidze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the mid-latitude sporadic E layers (Es layers by an atmospheric vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal shear flow (horizontal wind with a horizontal linear shear is investigated. A three-dimensional atmospheric vortical perturbation (atmospheric shear waves, whose velocity vector is in the horizontal plane and has a vertical wavenumber kz≠0, can provide a vertical shear of the horizontal wind. The shear waves influence the vertical transport of heavy metallic ions and their convergence into thin and dense horizontal layers. The proposed mechanism takes into account the dynamical influence of the shear wave velocity in the horizontal wind on the vertical drift velocity of the ions. It also can explain the multi-layer structure of Es layers. The pattern of the multi-layer structure depends on the value of the shear-wave vertical wavelength, the ion-neutral collision frequency and the direction of the background horizontal wind. The modelling of formation of sporadic E layers with a single and a double peak is presented. Also, the importance of shear wave coupling with short-period atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs on the variations of sporadic E layer ion density is examined and discussed.

  3. Offshore vertical wind shear: Final report on NORSEWInD’s work task 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mikkelsen, Torben; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    of power outputs. Background related to the parametrization of the vertical wind speed profile and the behavior of the vertical wind shear in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer is presented together with the application of the long-term atmospheric stability parameters for the analysis of the long......This document reports on the analysis performed by the work task 3.1 of the EU NORSEWInD project and includes the following deliverables: 3.2 Calculated vertical wind shears 3.3 Multi-variational correlation analysis 3.4 NWP data for wind shear model 3.5 Vertical extrapolation methodology 3.......6 Results input into satellite maps The nature of the offshore vertical wind shear is investigated using acquired data from the NORSEWInD network of mast and wind lidar stations. The importance of the knowledge of the vertical wind speed profile and wind shear is first illustrated for the evaluation...

  4. Effects of wind shear on the consequence model of the reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Church, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of explicit incorporation of wind shear into the consequence model of the Reactor Safety study have been investigated. The integral of exposure (X/Q) over area is unchanged by directional shear and decreased by speed shear. Consequence model predictions of early fatalities are always decreased by wind shear. Where early fatalities are decreased, survivors are subject to latent effects and, therefore, latent effects increase. However, aggregate early fatalities and latent effects always are decreased. Because the magnitude of these changes is within the present uncertainties of the consequence model, explicit incorporation of wind shear in the consequence model is not now warranted

  5. Observations of neutral winds, wind shears, and wave structure during a sporadic-E/QP event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Larsen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The second Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu (SEEK-2 was carried out on 3 August 2002, during an active sporadic-E event that also showed quasi-periodic (QP echoes. Two rockets were launched into the event from Kagoshima Space Center in southern Japan 15 min apart. Both carried a suite of instruments, but the second rocket also released a trimethyl aluminum (TMA trail to measure the neutral winds and turbulence structure. In a number of earlier measurements in similar conditions, large winds and shears that were either unstable or close to instability were observed in the altitude range where the ionization layer occurred. The SEEK-2 wind measurements showed similar vertical structure, but unlike earlier experiments, there was a significant difference between the up-leg and down-leg wind profiles. In addition, wave or billow-like fluctuations were evident in the up-leg portion of the trail, while the lower portion of the down-leg trail was found to have extremely strong turbulence that led to a rapid break-up of the trail. The large east-west gradient in the winds and the strong turbulence have not been observed before. The wind profiles and shears, as well as the qualitative characteristics of the strong turbulence are presented, along with a discussion of the implications of the dynamical features. Keywords. Ionosphere (Mid-latitude ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities; Electric field and currents

  6. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine

  7. Implementation of large-scale average geostrophic wind shear in WAsP12.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Troen, Ib; Kelly, Mark C.

    The vertical extrapolation model described in the European Wind Atlas Troen and Petersen (1989) is modified to take into account large-scale average geostrophic wind shear to describe the effect of horizontal temperature gradients on the geostrophic wind. The method is implemented by extracting...... the average geostrophic wind shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and the values of nearest grid point are automatically used in the WAsP 12.1 user interface to provide better AEP predictions....

  8. Vector wind and vector wind shear models 0 to 27 km altitude for Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques are presented to derive several statistical wind models. The techniques are from the properties of the multivariate normal probability function. Assuming that the winds can be considered as bivariate normally distributed, then (1) the wind components and conditional wind components are univariate normally distributed, (2) the wind speed is Rayleigh distributed, (3) the conditional distribution of wind speed given a wind direction is Rayleigh distributed, and (4) the frequency of wind direction can be derived. All of these distributions are derived from the 5-sample parameter of wind for the bivariate normal distribution. By further assuming that the winds at two altitudes are quadravariate normally distributed, then the vector wind shear is bivariate normally distributed and the modulus of the vector wind shear is Rayleigh distributed. The conditional probability of wind component shears given a wind component is normally distributed. Examples of these and other properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution function as applied to Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California, wind data samples are given. A technique to develop a synthetic vector wind profile model of interest to aerospace vehicle applications is presented.

  9. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn

    the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear...... for turbulence intensity suggested by Albers. The second method was found to be more suitable for normalising the power curve for the turbulence intensity. Using the equivalent wind speed accounting for the wind shear in the power performance measurement was shown to result in a more repeatable power curve than......The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise...

  10. Simulations of large winds and wind shears induced by gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region

    OpenAIRE

    X. Liu; X. Liu; J. Xu; H.-L. Liu; J. Yue; W. Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Using a fully nonlinear two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model, we simulated gravity waves (GWs) breaking and their contributions to the formation of large winds and wind shears in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). An eddy diffusion coefficient is used in the 2-D numerical model to parameterize realistic turbulent mixing. Our study shows that the momentum deposited by breaking GWs accelerates the mean wind. The resultant large background wind increases the GW's app...

  11. Understanding and representing the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transfer in the convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronda, R.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Pino, D.

    2012-01-01

    Goal of this study is to quantify the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transport in the dry Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Questions addressed include the effect of wind shear on the depth of the mixed layer, the effect of wind shear on the depth and structure of the capping inversion, and

  12. Evaluating winds and vertical wind shear from Weather Research and Forecasting model forecasts using seven planetary boundary layer schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    with different PBL parameterizations at one coastal site over western Denmark. The evaluation focuses on determining which PBL parameterization performs best for wind energy forecasting, and presenting a validation methodology that takes into account wind speed at different heights. Winds speeds at heights...... regarding wind energy at these levels partly depends on the formulation and implementation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in these models. This study evaluates wind speeds and vertical wind shears simulated by theWeather Research and Forecasting model using seven sets of simulations...

  13. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power......Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources due to wind speed variations, the wind shear and the tower shadow effects. The fluctuating power may be able to excite the power system oscillation at a frequency close to the natural oscillation frequency of a power system. This paper...... systems with large scale wind power penetrations are investigated during continuous operation based on the wind turbine model and the power system model....

  14. Predicting wind shear effects: A study of Minnesota wind data collected at heights up to 70 meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artig, R. [Minnesota Dept. of Public Service, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Minnesota Department of Public Service (DPS) collects wind data at carefully selected sites around the state and analyzes the data to determine Minnesota`s wind power potential. DPS recently installed advanced new monitoring equipment at these sites and began to collect wind data at 30, 50, and 70 meters above ground level, with two anemometers at each level. Previously, the Department had not collected data at heights above ground level higher than 30 meters. DPS also, with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), installed four sophisticated monitoring sites as part of a Tall Tower Wind Shear Study that is assessing the effects of wind shear on wind power potential. At these sites, wind data are being collected at the 10, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 meter heights. This paper presents the preliminary results of the analysis of wind data from all sites. These preliminary results indicate that the traditional 1/7 power law does not effectively predict wind shear in Minnesota, and the result is an underestimation of Minnesota`s wind power potential at higher heights. Using a power factor of 1/5 or 1/4 may be more accurate and provide sound justification for installing wind turbines on taller towers in Minnesota.

  15. Establishment Criteria for Integrated Wind Shear Detection Systems: Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), and Modified Airport Surveillance Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Overviev . ......................................... 9 2. Programs , Syr!ems, and Services ........................ 11 a. National Weather Service...Equipment Appropriation. ADA, a computer system developed and maintained by the Office of Aviation Policy and rlans, facilitates APS-I processing... Program Plan. The primary benefit of LLWAS, TDWR, and modified airport surveillance radar is reduced risk and expected incidence of wind shear-related

  16. Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laituri, Tony R.

    1988-01-01

    Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.

  17. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The current IEC standard for wind turbine power performance measurement only requires measurement of the wind speed at hub height assuming this wind speed to be representative for the whole rotor swept area. However, the power output of a wind turbine depends on the kinetic energy flux, which...... itself depends on the wind speed profile, especially for large turbines. Therefore, it is important to characterize the wind profile in front of the turbine, and this should be preferably achieved by measuring the wind speed over the vertical range between lower and higher rotor tips. In this paper, we...... describe an experiment in which wind speed profiles were measured in front of a multimegawatt turbine using a ground–based pulsed lidar. Ignoring the vertical shear was shown to overestimate the kinetic energy flux of these profiles, in particular for those deviating significantly from a power law profile...

  18. Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Zipfel, J; Richtering, W [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    A technologically important extension of `classical` scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author). 5 refs.

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Daniel; Jodoin, Vincent

    2001-04-01

    Accurate modeling of nuclear cloud rise is critical in hazard prediction following a nuclear detonation. This thesis recommends improvements to the model currently used by DOD. It considers a single-term versus a three-term entrainment equation, the value of the entrainment and eddy viscous drag parameters, as well as the effect of wind shear in the cloud rise following a nuclear detonation. It examines departures from the 1979 version of the Department of Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) with the current code used in the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) code version 3.2. The recommendation for a single-term entrainment equation, with constant value parameters, without wind shear corrections, and without cloud oscillations is based on both a statistical analysis using 67 U.S. nuclear atmospheric test shots and the physical representation of the modeling. The statistical analysis optimized the parameter values of interest for four cases: the three-term entrainment equation with wind shear and without wind shear as well as the single-term entrainment equation with and without wind shear. The thesis then examines the effect of cloud oscillations as a significant departure in the code. Modifications to user input atmospheric tables are identified as a potential problem in the calculation of stabilized cloud dimensions in HPAC.

  20. Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine power performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Paulsen, U.S.

    2010-01-15

    Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly, the variations of the power output and the power curve were analysed for various turbulence intensities. Furthermore, the equivalent speed method was successfully tested on a power curve resulting from simulations cases combining shear and turbulence. Finally, we roughly simulated the wind speed measurements we may get from a LIDAR mounted on the nacelle of the turbine (measuring upwind) and we investigated different ways of deriving an equivalent wind speed from such measurements. (author)

  1. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  2. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.

    2010-04-15

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise the wind field in front of the turbine. However, with the growing size of the turbine rotors during the last years, the effect of the variations of the wind speed within the swept rotor area, and therefore of the power output, cannot be ignored any longer. Primary effects on the power performance are from the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear condition, therefore on the season and the site. It was then proposed to use an equivalent wind speed accounting for the whole speed profile in front of the turbine. The method was first tested with aerodynamic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine which demonstrated the decrease of the scatter in the power curve. A power curve defined in terms of this equivalent wind speed would be less dependant on the shear than the standard power curve. The equivalent wind speed method was then experimentally validated with lidar measurements. Two equivalent wind speed definitions were considered both resulting in the reduction of the scatter in the power curve. As a lidar wind profiler can measure the wind speed at several heights within the rotor span, the wind speed profile is described with more accuracy than with the power law model. The equivalent wind speed derived from measurements, including at least one measurement above hub height, resulted in a smaller scatter in the power curve than the equivalent wind speed derived from profiles extrapolated from measurements

  3. A nonlinear dynamics approach for incorporating wind-speed patterns into wind-power project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray; Bittelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wind-energy production may be expanded beyond regions with high-average wind speeds (such as the Midwest U.S.A.) to sites with lower-average speeds (such as the Southeast U.S.A.) by locating favorable regional matches between natural wind-speed and energy-demand patterns. A critical component of wind-power evaluation is to incorporate wind-speed dynamics reflecting documented diurnal and seasonal behavioral patterns. Conventional probabilistic approaches remove patterns from wind-speed data. These patterns must be restored synthetically before they can be matched with energy-demand patterns. How to accurately restore wind-speed patterns is a vexing problem spurring an expanding line of papers. We propose a paradigm shift in wind power evaluation that employs signal-detection and nonlinear-dynamics techniques to empirically diagnose whether synthetic pattern restoration can be avoided altogether. If the complex behavior of observed wind-speed records is due to nonlinear, low-dimensional, and deterministic system dynamics, then nonlinear dynamics techniques can reconstruct wind-speed dynamics from observed wind-speed data without recourse to conventional probabilistic approaches. In the first study of its kind, we test a nonlinear dynamics approach in an application to Sugarland Wind-the first utility-scale wind project proposed in Florida, USA. We find empirical evidence of a low-dimensional and nonlinear wind-speed attractor characterized by strong temporal patterns that match up well with regular daily and seasonal electricity demand patterns.

  4. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Brief communication: On the influence of vertical wind shear on the combined power output of two model wind turbines in yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical wind shear on the total power output of two aligned model wind turbines as a function of yaw misalignment of the upstream turbine is studied experimentally. It is shown that asymmetries of the power output of the downstream turbine and the combined power of both with respect to the upstream turbine's yaw misalignment angle can be linked to the vertical wind shear of the inflow.

  6. Role of upper-level wind shear on the structure and maintenance of derecho-producing convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, Michael Charles

    Common large-scale environments associated with the development of derecho-producing convective systems from a large number of events are identified using statistical clustering of the 500-mb geopotential heights as guidance. The majority of the events (72%) fall into three main patterns that include a well-defined upstream trough (40%), a ridge (20%), and a zonal, low-amplitude flow (12%), which is defined as an additional warm-season pattern that is not identified in past studies of derecho environments. Through an analysis of proximity soundings, discrepancies are found in both low-level and deep-tropospheric shear parameters between observations and the shear profiles considered favorable for strong, long-lived convective systems in idealized simulations. To explore the role of upper-level shear in derecho environments, a set of two-dimensional simulations of density currents within a dry, neutrally stable environment are used to examine the ability of a cold pool to lift environmental air within a vertically sheared flow. The results confirm that the addition of upper-level shear to a wind profile with weak to moderate low-level shear increases the vertical displacement of low-level parcels despite a decrease in the vertical velocity along the cold pool interface, as suggested by previous studies. Parcels that are elevated above the surface (1-2 km) overturn and are responsible for the deep lifting in the deep-shear environments. This deep overturning caused by the upper-level shear helps to maintain the tilt of the convective systems in more complex two-dimensional and three dimensional simulations. The overturning also is shown to greatly increase the size of the convective systems in the three-dimensional simulations by facilitating the initiation and maintenance of convective cells along the cold pool. When combined with estimates of the cold pool motion and the storm-relative hodograph, these results may best be used for the prediction of the demise of

  7. Shear Alignment of Diblock Copolymers for Patterning Nanowire Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Kyle T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Metallic nanowire meshes are useful as cheap, flexible alternatives to indium tin oxide – an expensive, brittle material used in transparent conductive electrodes. We have fabricated nanowire meshes over areas up to 2.5 cm2 by: 1) mechanically aligning parallel rows of diblock copolymer (diBCP) microdomains; 2) selectively infiltrating those domains with metallic ions; 3) etching away the diBCP template; 4) sintering to reduce ions to metal nanowires; and, 5) repeating steps 1 – 4 on the same sample at a 90° offset. We aligned parallel rows of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) [PS(48.5 kDa)-b-P2VP(14.5 kDa)] microdomains by heating above its glass transition temperature (Tg ≈ 100°C), applying mechanical shear pressure (33 kPa) and normal force (13.7 N), and cooling below Tg. DiBCP samples were submerged in aqueous solutions of metallic ions (15 – 40 mM ions; 0.1 – 0.5 M HCl) for 30 – 90 minutes, which coordinate to nitrogen in P2VP. Subsequent ozone-etching and sintering steps yielded parallel nanowires. We aimed to optimize alignment parameters (e.g. shear and normal pressures, alignment duration, and PDMS thickness) to improve the quality, reproducibility, and scalability of meshes. We also investigated metals other than Pt and Au that may be patterned using this technique (Cu, Ag).

  8. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  9. Equatorial F region neutral winds and shears near sunset measured with chemical release techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, A.; Larsen, M. F.; Kudeki, E.

    2015-10-01

    The period near sunset is a dynamic and critical time for the daily development of the equatorial nighttime ionosphere and the instabilities that occur there. It is during these hours that the preconditions necessary for the later development of Equatorial Spread F (ESF) plasma instabilities occur. The neutral dynamics of the sunset ionosphere are also of critical importance to the generation of currents and electric fields; however, the behavior of the neutrals is experimentally understood primarily through very limited single-altitude measurements or measurements that provide weighted altitude means of the winds as a function of time. To date, there have been very few vertically resolved neutral wind measurements in the F region at sunset. We present two sets of sounding rocket chemical release measurements, one from a launch in the Marshall Islands on Kwajalein atoll and one from Alcantara, Brazil. Analysis of the release motions has yielded vertically resolved neutral wind profiles that show both the mean horizontal winds and the vertical shears in the winds. In both experiments, we observe significant vertical gradients in the zonal wind that are unexpected by classical assumptions about the behavior of the neutral wind at these altitudes at sunset near the geomagnetic equator.

  10. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  11. Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders

    2017-05-01

    The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.

  12. On the energy pattern factor in wind measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; Doherty, M A; McMullan, J.T., Morgan, R.; Murray, R B

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of energy pattern factor K/sub e/ were made using a continuous-analogue wind-power metering technique, rather than by the more usual sampling procedure. The values obtained were significantly larger than the usually accepted figure. The discrepancy is attributed partly to the method of measurement, which includes the actual power present rather than the amount that can be extracted, and partly to the use of rather more typical wind speeds. It is concluded, however, that more energy can be derived from wind schemes than was thought, even during periods of light wind. These conclusions improve the viability of wind power plants.

  13. Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Annenkov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999. The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness, eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic

  14. The WRF model forecast-derived low-level wind shear climatology over the United States great plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B. [Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basu, S. [Atmospheric Science Group, Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    For wind resource assessment projects, it is common practice to use a power-law relationship (U(z) {proportional_to} z{sup {alpha}}) and a fixed shear exponent ({alpha} = 1/7) to extrapolate the observed wind speed from a low measurement level to high turbine hub-heights. However, recent studies using tall-tower observations have found that the annual average shear exponents at several locations over the United States Great Plains (USGP) are significantly higher than 1/7. These findings highlight the critical need for detailed spatio-temporal characterizations of wind shear climatology over the USGP, where numerous large wind farms will be constructed in the foreseeable future. In this paper, a new generation numerical weather prediction model - the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a fast and relatively inexpensive alternative to time-consuming and costly tall-tower projects, is utilized to determine whether it can reliably estimate the shear exponent and the magnitude of the directional shear at any arbitrary location over the USGP. Our results indicate that the WRF model qualitatively captures several low-level wind shear characteristics. However, there is definitely room for physics parameterization improvements for the WRF model to reliably represent the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  15. The Orlando TDWR testbed and airborne wind shear date comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steven; Berke, Anthony; Matthews, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this talk is on comparing terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne wind shear data in computing a microburst hazard index called the F factor. The TDWR is a ground-based system for detecting wind shear hazards to aviation in the terminal area. The Federal Aviation Administration will begin deploying TDWR units near 45 airports in late 1992. As part of this development effort, M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory operates under F.A.A. support a TDWR testbed radar in Orlando, FL. During the past two years, a series of flight tests has been conducted with instrumented aircraft penetrating microburst events while under testbed radar surveillance. These tests were carried out with a Cessna Citation 2 aircraft operated by the University of North Dakota (UND) Center for Aerospace Sciences in 1990, and a Boeing 737 operated by NASA Langley Research Center in 1991. A large data base of approximately 60 instrumented microburst penetrations has been obtained from these flights.

  16. Martian Dune Ripples as Indicators of Recent Surface Wind Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sand dunes have been shown to preserve the most recent wind patterns in their ripple formations. This investigation continues the manual documentation of ripples on Martian dunes in order to assess surface wind flow. Study sites investigated must have clear HiRISE frames and be able to represent diverse locations across the surface, decided primarily by their spread of latitude and longitude values. Additionally, frames with stereo pairs are preferred because of their ability to create digital terrain models. This will assist in efforts to relate dune slopes and obstacles to ripple patterns. The search and analysis period resulted in 40 study sites with mapped ripples. Lines were drawn perpendicular to ripple crests across three adjacent ripples in order to document both ripple wavelength from line length and inferred wind direction from azimuth. It is not possible to infer a unique wind direction from ripple orientation alone and therefore these inferred directions have a 180 degree ambiguity. Initial results from all study sites support previous observations that the Martian surface has many dune types in areas with adequate sand supply. The complexity of ripple patterns varies greatly across sites as well as within individual sites. Some areas of uniform directionality for hundreds of kilometers suggest a unimodal wind regime while overlapping patterns suggest multiple dominant winds or seasonally varying winds. In most areas, form flow related to dune shape seems to have a large effect on orientation and must be considered along with the dune type. As long as the few steep slip faces on these small dunes are avoided, form flow can be considered the dominant cause of deviation from the regional wind direction. Regional results, wind roses, and comparisons to previous work will be presented for individual sites.

  17. The impact of atmospheric stability and wind shear on vertical cloud overlap over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that changes in cloud cover are responsible for the rapid climate warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP in the past 3 decades. To simulate the total cloud cover, atmospheric models have to reasonably represent the characteristics of vertical overlap between cloud layers. Until now, however, this subject has received little attention due to the limited availability of observations, especially over the TP. Based on the above information, the main aim of this study is to examine the properties of cloud overlaps over the TP region and to build an empirical relationship between cloud overlap properties and large-scale atmospheric dynamics using 4 years (2007–2010 of data from the CloudSat cloud product and collocated ERA-Interim reanalysis data. To do this, the cloud overlap parameter α, which is an inverse exponential function of the cloud layer separation D and decorrelation length scale L, is calculated using CloudSat and is discussed. The parameters α and L are both widely used to characterize the transition from the maximum to random overlap assumption with increasing layer separations. For those non-adjacent layers without clear sky between them (that is, contiguous cloud layers, it is found that the overlap parameter α is sensitive to the unique thermodynamic and dynamic environment over the TP, i.e., the unstable atmospheric stratification and corresponding weak wind shear, which leads to maximum overlap (that is, greater α values. This finding agrees well with the previous studies. Finally, we parameterize the decorrelation length scale L as a function of the wind shear and atmospheric stability based on a multiple linear regression. Compared with previous parameterizations, this new scheme can improve the simulation of total cloud cover over the TP when the separations between cloud layers are greater than 1 km. This study thus suggests that the effects of both wind shear and atmospheric stability on cloud overlap

  18. The impact of atmospheric stability and wind shear on vertical cloud overlap over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiming; Lv, Qiaoyi; Jian, Bida; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Fu, Qiang; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Zhang, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Studies have shown that changes in cloud cover are responsible for the rapid climate warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in the past 3 decades. To simulate the total cloud cover, atmospheric models have to reasonably represent the characteristics of vertical overlap between cloud layers. Until now, however, this subject has received little attention due to the limited availability of observations, especially over the TP. Based on the above information, the main aim of this study is to examine the properties of cloud overlaps over the TP region and to build an empirical relationship between cloud overlap properties and large-scale atmospheric dynamics using 4 years (2007-2010) of data from the CloudSat cloud product and collocated ERA-Interim reanalysis data. To do this, the cloud overlap parameter α, which is an inverse exponential function of the cloud layer separation D and decorrelation length scale L, is calculated using CloudSat and is discussed. The parameters α and L are both widely used to characterize the transition from the maximum to random overlap assumption with increasing layer separations. For those non-adjacent layers without clear sky between them (that is, contiguous cloud layers), it is found that the overlap parameter α is sensitive to the unique thermodynamic and dynamic environment over the TP, i.e., the unstable atmospheric stratification and corresponding weak wind shear, which leads to maximum overlap (that is, greater α values). This finding agrees well with the previous studies. Finally, we parameterize the decorrelation length scale L as a function of the wind shear and atmospheric stability based on a multiple linear regression. Compared with previous parameterizations, this new scheme can improve the simulation of total cloud cover over the TP when the separations between cloud layers are greater than 1 km. This study thus suggests that the effects of both wind shear and atmospheric stability on cloud overlap should be taken into

  19. 1983 lightning, turbulence, wind shear, and Doppler radar studies at the National Severe Storms Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    As part of continuing research on aviation related weather hazards, numerous experiments were incorporated into the 1983 Spring Observation Program. This year's program was an abbreviated one because of commitments made to the development of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) project. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) P-3 Orion and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) RB-57B and U-2 were the main aircraft involved in the studies of lightning, wind shear, turbulence, and storm structure. A total of 14 flights were made by these aircraft during the period of May 16 through June 5, 1983. Aircraft instrumentation experiments are described, and resultant data sets available for research are detailed. Aircraft instrumentation and Doppler radar characteristics are detailed.

  20. NASA airborne radar wind shear detection algorithm and the detection of wet microbursts in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Charles L.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the NASA experimental wind shear radar system for detection, characterization, and determination of windshear hazard are discussed. The performance of the algorithms in the detection of wet microbursts near Orlando is presented. Various suggested algorithms that are currently being evaluated using the flight test results from Denver and Orlando are reviewed.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Study of Bubbles on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies shear flow over a 2D patterned superhydrophobic surface using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Single component Shan-Chen multiphase model and Carnahan-Starling EOS are adopted to handle the liquid-gas flow on superhydrophobic surface with entrapped micro-bubbles. The shape of bubble interface and its influence on slip length under different shear rates are investigated. With increasing shear rate, the bubble interface deforms. Then the contact lines are depinned from the slot edges and move downstream. When the shear rate is high enough, a continuous gas layer forms. If the protrusion angle is small, the gas layer forms and collapse periodically, and accordingly the slip length changes periodically. While if the protrusion angle is large, the gas layer is steady and separates the solid wall from liquid, resulting in a very large slip length.

  2. Wind Patterns of Coastal Tanzania: Their Variability and Trends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Patterns in Tanzanian coastal winds were investigated in terms of their variability at the weather stations of Tanga, Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam and Mtwara. Three-hourly data collected over a 30-year period (1977-2006) were used for the study. Statistical analyses included regressions, correlations, spectral analysis,.

  3. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie......-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power...... are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the interconnected...

  4. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kosaki, Keisei; Sawano, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tagawa, Kaname; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age. Additionally, brachial artery shear rate patterns were associated with brachial artery IMT in 102 middle-aged and older individuals. In an interventional study, 39 middle-aged and older subjects were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the antegrade shear rate and decreased the retrograde shear rate and brachial artery IMT. Moreover, changes in the brachial artery antegrade shear rate and the retrograde shear rate correlated with the change in brachial artery IMT. The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A new paradigm for intensity modification of tropical cyclones: thermodynamic impact of vertical wind shear on the inflow layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riemer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An important roadblock to improved intensity forecasts for tropical cyclones (TCs is our incomplete understanding of the interaction of a TC with the environmental flow. In this paper we re-visit the canonical problem of a TC in vertical wind shear on an f-plane. A suite of numerical experiments is performed with intense TCs in moderate to strong vertical shear. We employ a set of simplified model physics – a simple bulk aerodynamic boundary layer scheme and "warm rain" microphysics – to foster better understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics that govern the modification of TC intensity. In all experiments the TC is resilient to shear but significant differences in the intensity evolution occur.

    The ventilation of the TC core with dry environmental air at mid-levels and the dilution of the upper-level warm core are two prevailing hypotheses for the adverse effect of vertical shear on storm intensity. Here we propose an alternative and arguably more effective mechanism how cooler and drier (lower θe air – "anti-fuel" for the TC power machine – can enter the core region of the TC. Strong and persistent, shear-induced downdrafts flux low θe air into the boundary layer from above, significantly depressing the θe values in the storm's inflow layer. Air with lower θe values enters the eyewall updrafts, considerably reducing eyewall θe values in the azimuthal mean. When viewed from the perspective of an idealised Carnot-cycle heat engine a decrease of storm intensity can thus be expected. Although the Carnot cycle model is – if at all – only valid for stationary and axisymmetric TCs, a close association of the downward transport of low θe into the boundary layer and the intensity evolution offers further evidence in support of our hypothesis.

    The downdrafts that flush the boundary layer with low

  6. Instabilities of convection patterns in a shear-thinning fluid between plates of finite conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varé, Thomas; Nouar, Chérif; Métivier, Christel

    2017-10-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a horizontal layer of a non-Newtonian fluid between slabs of arbitrary thickness and finite thermal conductivity is considered. The first part of the paper deals with the primary bifurcation and the relative stability of convective patterns at threshold. Weakly nonlinear analysis combined with Stuart-Landau equation is used. The competition between squares and rolls, as a function of the shear-thinning degree of the fluid, the slabs' thickness, and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the slabs to that of the fluid is investigated. Computations of heat transfer coefficients are in agreement with the maximum heat transfer principle. The second part of the paper concerns the stability of the convective patterns toward spatial perturbations and the determination of the band width of the stable wave number in the neighborhood of the critical Rayleigh number. The approach used is based on the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The study of rolls stability shows that: (i) for low shear-thinning effects, the band of stable wave numbers is bounded by zigzag instability and cross-roll instability. Furthermore, the marginal cross-roll stability boundary enlarges with increasing shear-thinning properties; (ii) for high shear-thinning effects, Eckhaus instability becomes more dangerous than cross-roll instability. For square patterns, the wave number selection is always restricted by zigzag instability and by "rectangular Eckhaus" instability. In addition, the width of the stable wave number decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. Numerical simulations of the planform evolution are also presented to illustrate the different instabilities considered in the paper.

  7. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity in California and the Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H; Wiser, Ryan H; Fripp, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    Wind power production is variable, but also has diurnal and seasonal patterns. These patterns differ between sites, potentially making electric power from some wind sites more valuable for meeting customer loads or selling in wholesale power markets. This paper investigates whether the timing of wind significantly affects the value of electricity from sites in California and the Northwestern United States. We use both measured and modeled wind data and estimate the time-varying value of wind power with both financial and load-based metrics. We find that the potential difference in wholesale market value between better-correlated and poorly correlated wind sites is modest, on the order of 5-10 percent. A load-based metric, power production during the top 10 percent of peak load hours, varies more strongly between sites, suggesting that the capacity value of different wind projects could vary by as much as 50 percent based on the timing of wind alone.

  8. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-02-01

    To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all Pbreast mass diagnoses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  10. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Rochelle P.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Bryan, George H.; Damiani, Rick; Musial, Walt

    2017-06-01

    Offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s-1 mean wind and 70 m s-1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15-50°) suggest that veer should be considered.

  11. Confirmation of a change in the global shear velocity pattern at around 1000 km depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y.; Zaroli, C.; Lambotte, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we confirm the existence of a change in the shear velocity spectrum around 1000 km depth based on a new shear velocity tomographic model of the Earth's mantle, SEISGLOB2. This model is based on Rayleigh surface wave phase velocities, self- and cross-coupling structure coefficients of spheroidal normal modes and body wave traveltimes which are, for the first time, combined in a tomographic inversion. SEISGLOB2 is developed up to spherical harmonic degree 40 and in 21 radial spline functions. The spectrum of SEISGLOB2 is the flattest (i.e. richest in 'short' wavelengths corresponding to spherical harmonic degrees greater than 10) around 1000 km depth and this flattening occurs between 670 and 1500 km depth. We also confirm various changes in the continuity of slabs and mantle plumes all around 1000 km depth where we also observed the upper boundary of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces. The existence of a flatter spectrum, richer in short-wavelength heterogeneities, in a region of the mid-mantle can have great impacts on our understanding of the mantle dynamics and should thus be better understood in the future. Although a viscosity increase, a phase change or a compositional change can all concur to induce this change of pattern, its precise origin is still very uncertain.

  12. A polarized digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry system based on temporal wavelet transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ziang; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Shengjia; Yang, Dong; Yuan, Hao; Qin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) has been recognized as a practical tool in testing strain. The DSSPI system which is based on temporal analysis is attractive because of its ability to measure strain dynamically. In this paper, such a DSSPI system with Wollaston prism has been built. The principles and system arrangement are described and the preliminary experimental result of the displacement-derivative test of an aluminum plate is shown with the wavelet transformation method and the Fourier transformation method. The simulations have been conducted with the finite element method. The comparison of the results shows that quantitative measurement of displacement-derivative has been realized.

  13. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  14. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rui, E-mail: congrui2684@163.com; Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@sj-hospital.org; Guo, Song, E-mail: 21751735@qq.com

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Qualitative SWE classification proposed here was significantly better than quantitative SWE parameters. • Qualitative classification proposed here was better than the classification proposed before. • Qualitative classification proposed here could obtain higher specificity without a loss of sensitivity. - Abstract: Objectives: To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. Methods: From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. Results: With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all P < 0.05). When applying Qual1

  15. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Qualitative SWE classification proposed here was significantly better than quantitative SWE parameters. • Qualitative classification proposed here was better than the classification proposed before. • Qualitative classification proposed here could obtain higher specificity without a loss of sensitivity. - Abstract: Objectives: To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. Methods: From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. Results: With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all P < 0.05). When applying Qual1

  16. USAF TPS L-23 Shear Wind Observed Optimized Path Investigation for NASA (SENIOR ShWOOPIN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Randy; Fails, Robert; Baase, Solomon; Eckberg, Jason; Ryan, Charles; Smith, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The SENIOR ShWOOPIN TMP was conducted at the request of the USAF TPS as part of a NASA investigation into the viability of aircraft endurance enhancement through the extraction of energy from horizontal wind gradients...

  17. The use of energy pattern factor (EPF) in estimating wind power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Energy Pattern Factor (EPF) method is a less computational method of estimating the available wind power density of an area and wind speed variation account for the energy power density throughout a given period. Using the Average daily wind speed data for an 11 year period (2004-2014) obtained from the ...

  18. On wind speed pattern and energy potential in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, M.S.; Oyewola, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review wind speed distribution and wind energy availability in Nigeria and discuss the potential of using this resource for generation of wind power in the country. The power output from a wind turbine is strongly dependent on the wind speed and accurate information about the wind data in a targeted location is essential. The annual mean wind speeds in Nigeria range from about 2 to 9.5 m/s and the annual power density range between 3.40 and 520 kW/m 2 based on recent reported data. The trend shows that wind speeds are low in the south and gradually increases to relatively high speeds in the north. The areas that are suitable for exploitation of wind energy for electricity generation as well as for water pumping were identified. Also some of the challenges facing the development of wind energy and suggested solutions were presented. - Research Highlights: → Review of wind speed distribution and wind energy availability in Nigeria in presented. → The annual mean wind speeds in Nigeria range from about 2 to 9.5 m/s and the annual power density range between 3.40 and 520 kW/m 2 based on recent reported data. → The areas that are suitable for exploitation of wind energy for electricity generation as well as for water pumping were identified.

  19. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: how it correlates to quantitative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Lee, Jong Tae

    2013-12-01

    To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21-88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P0.05). Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Lee, Jong Tae

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A z ) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US

  1. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun, E-mail: lvjenny0417@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kyung Hee, E-mail: yourheeya@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung, E-mail: AA40501@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Tae, E-mail: jtlee@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of global onshore wind speed distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) data over land areas. The Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at most locations according to R 2 , root mean square error, and power density error. The wind speed frequency distribution, as represented by the Weibull k parameter, exhibits a large amount of spatial variation, a regionally varying amount of seasonal variation, and relatively low decadal variation. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in non-negligible errors. While large-scale wind speed data are often presented in the form of mean wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed frequency distribution. (letter)

  3. Escape patterns due to ergodic magnetic limiters in tokamaks with reversed magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.; Da Silva, E.C.; Caldas, I.L.; Viana, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we study the ergodic magnetic limiters (EML) action on field lines from the point of view of a chaotic scattering process, considering the so-called exit basins, or sets of points in the chaotic region which originate field lines hitting the wall in some specified region. We divide the tokamak wall into three areas of equal poloidal angular length, corresponding to different exits for a chaotic field line. In order to obtain the exit basins we used a grid chosen inside a small rectangle which comprises a representative part of the chaotic region near the wall. Thus, exit basins were obtained for a tokamak wall with reversed magnetic shear. The no-twist mapping describes the perturbed magnetic field lines with two chains of magnetic islands and chaotic field lines in their vicinity. For a perturbing resonant magnetic field with a fixed helicity, the observed escape pattern changes with the perturbation intensity. (authors)

  4. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  5. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  6. Classification of Rotor Induced Shearing Events in the Near Wake of a Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah; Viggiano, Bianca; Ali, Naseem; Cal, Raul Bayoan

    2017-11-01

    Flow perturbation induced by a turbine rotor imposes considerable turbulence and shearing effects in the near wake of a turbine, altering the efficiency of subsequent units within a wind farm array. Previous methods have characterized near wake vorticity of a turbine and recovery distance of various turbine array configurations. This study aims to build on previous analysis with respect to a turbine rotor within an array and develop a model to examine stress events and energy contribution in the near wake due to rotational effects. Hot wire anemometry was employed downstream of a turbine centrally located in the third row of a 3x3 array. Data considered points planar to the rotor and included simultaneous streamwise and wall-normal velocities as well as concurrent streamwise and transverse velocities. Conditional analysis of Reynolds stresses induced by the rotor agree with former near wake research, and examination of stresses in terms of streamwise and transverse velocity components depicts areas of significant rotational effects. Continued analysis includes spectral decomposition and conditional statistics to further characterize shearing events at various points considering the swept area of the rotor.

  7. Particle transport patterns of short-distance soil erosion by wind-driven rain, rain and wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; de Lima, João L. M. P.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Short distance erosion of soil surface material is one of the big question marks in soil erosion studies. The exact measurement of short-distance transported soil particles, prior to the occurrence of overland flow, is a challenge to soil erosion science due to the particular requirements of the experimental setup and test procedure. To approach a quantification of amount and distance of each type of transport, we applied an especially developed multiple-gutter system installed inside the Trier Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS). We measured the amount and travel distance of soil particles detached and transported by raindrops (splash), wind-driven rain (splash-saltation and splash-drift) and wind (saltation). The test setup included three different erosion agents (rain/ wind-driven rain/ wind), two substrates (sandy/ loamy), three surface structures (grain roughness/ rills lengthwise/ rills transversal) and three slope angles (0°/+7°/-7°). The results present detailed transport patterns of the three erosion agents under the varying soil and surface conditions up to a distance of 1.6 m. Under the applied rain intensity and wind velocity, wind-driven rain splash generates the highest erosion. The erodibility and travel distance of the two substrates depend on the erosion agent. The total erosion is slightly higher for the slope angle -7° (downslope), but for wind-driven rain splash, the inclination is not a relevant factor. The effect of surface structures (rills) changes with traveling distance. The wind driven rain splash generates a much higher amount of erosion and a further travel distance of the particles due to the combined action of wind and rain. The wind-driven rain factor appears to be much more significant than the other factors. The study highlights the effects of different erosion agents and surface parameters on short-distance particle transport and the powerful impact of wind-driven rain on soil erosion.

  8. Wind shear and wet and dry thermodynamic indices as predictors of thunderstorm motion and severity and application to the AVE 4 experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. R.; Ey, L.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of parameters are computed and mapped for use in assessing their individual merits as predictors of occurrence and severity of thunderstorms. The first group is comprised of equivalent potential temperature, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and wind speed. Equivalent potential temperature maxima and strong gradients of equivalent potential temperature at the surface correlate well with regions of thunderstorm activity. The second type, comprised of the energy index, shear index, and energy shear index, incorporates some model dynamics of thunderstorms, including nonthermodynamic forcing. The energy shear index is found to improve prediction of tornadic and high-wind situations slightly better than other indices. It is concluded that further development and refinement of nonthermodynamic aspects of predictive indices are definitely warranted.

  9. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3–4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3–4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the

  10. Wind Patterns of Coastal Tanzania: Their Variability and Trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, the wind speeds were significantly correlated with the El-Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, while at Mtwara the winds were also correlated with the Indian Ocean Dipole. These correlations were higher during the SE Monsoon than during the NE Monsoon. Trends in the monthly mean ...

  11. Thinning Approximation for Two-Dimensional Scattering Patterns from Coarse-Grained Polymer Melts under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Murashima, Takahiro; Takano, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

    2017-12-01

    We proposed a thinning approximation (TA) for estimation of the two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle scattering patterns from Kremer-Grest polymer melts under shear. In the TA, extra particles are inserted at the middle of bonds for fine-graining of the coarse-grained polymers. For the case without the TA, spots corresponding to the orientation of bonds at a high shear rate are difficult to observe because the bond length of successive particles is comparable to the distance between neighboring particles. With the insertion of the extra particles, a ring pattern originating from the neighboring particles can be moved to a wide-angle region. Thus, we can observe the spots at high shear rates. We also examined the relationship between 2D scattering patterns and the Weissenberg number, which is defined as the product of the shear rate and the longest relaxation time. It is confirmed that the relationship for coarse-grained polymers with the TA is consistent with that of the all-atomistic model of polyethylene.

  12. Controls on wind abrasion patterns through a fractured bedrock landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wind abrasion is an important geomorphic process for understanding arid landscape evolution on Earth and interpreting the post-fluvial history of Mars. Both the presence and orientation of wind-abraded landforms provide potentially important constraints on paleo-climatic conditions; however, such interpretations can be complicated by lithologic and structural heterogeneity. To explore the influence of pre-existing structure on wind abrasion, we exploit a natural experiment along the 10.2 Ma Lower Rio San Pedro ignimbrite in northern Chile. Here, a 3.2 Ma andesite flow erupted from Cerro de las Cuevas and deposited atop the ignimbrite, supplying wind-transportable sediment and initiating a phase of downwind abrasion. Additionally, the lava flow provides a continually varying degree of upwind topographic shielding along the ignimbrite that is reflected in a range of surface morphologies. Where fully shielded the ignimbrite surface is partially blanketed by sediment. However, as relief decreases the surface morphology shifts from large polygonal structures that emerge due to the concentration of wind abrasion along pre-existing fracture sets, to polygons that are bisected by wind-parallel grooves that cross-cut fracture sets, to linear sets of yardangs. We reconstruct the ignimbrite surface using a high-resolution digital elevation model, and calculate erosion rates ranging from 0.002 to 0.45 mm/kyr that vary strongly with degree of topographic shielding (R2 = 0.97). We use measured abrasion rates together with nearby weather station data to estimate the nondimensional Rouse number and Inertial Parameter for a range of particle sizes. From these calculations, we hypothesize that the change from fracture-controlled to flow-controlled morphology reflects increases in the grain size and inertia of particles in the suspension cloud. Where the ignimbrite experiences persistent high winds, large particles may travel in suspension and are largely insensitive to topographic

  13. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Numerical investigations on the influence of wind shear and turbulence on aircraft trailing vortices; Numerische Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Windscherung und Turbulenz auf Flugzeugwirbelschleppen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, T.

    2003-07-01

    In several aspects, the behaviour of aircraft wake vortices under situations of vertical wind shear is significantly different from non-shear scenarios and its operational real-time forcast is challenging. By means of numerical investigations of idealized scenarios, the influence of wind shear on the lateral and vertical transport of vortices is analysed both, phenomenologically as well as in the scope of a sensitivity study. The results allow for the verification of controversial views and the benchmark of modelling approaches. Case studies of turbulent shear flows focus on the persistence of vortices. A detailed analysis of the flow fields evidence that unequal vortex decay rates can be attributed to the asymmetric distribution of secondary vorticity structures. The results moreover suggest that extended vortex lifespans can be expected under situations of wind shear. The unusual vortex behaviour observed by means of a LIDAR measurement is reproduced by realistic simulations and permits to reveal potential causes. (orig.) [German] Das Wirbelschleppenverhalten unterscheidet sich in Situationen vertikaler Windscherung in mehrfacher Hinsicht signifikant von scherungsfreien Szenarien und stellt eine besondere Herausforderung fuer eine operationelle Echtzeitvorhersage dar. Mittels numerischer Untersuchungen idealisierter Szenarien wird zunaechst der Einfluss von Windscherung auf den lateralen und vertikalen Wirbeltransport sowohl phaenomenologisch als auch quantitativ im Rahmen einer Sensitivitaetsstudie analysiert. Anhand der gewonnenen Ergebnisse werden auseinandergehende Erklaerungsansaetze geprueft und Modellierungsansaetze bewertet. Fallstudien turbulenter Scherstroemungen zur Wirbelpersistenz stellen einen weiteren Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit dar. Durch die ausfuehrliche Analyse der Stroemungsfelder wird der Nachweis erbracht, dass sich unterschiedliche Zerfallsraten der Wirbel auf die asymmetrische Verteilung von sekundaeren Vorticity-Strukturen zurueckfuehren

  15. 77 FR 7601 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Pattern Energy Group Ocotillo Express Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... LVRWB10B3980] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Pattern Energy Group Ocotillo Express Wind Energy... Acts, for a period of 2 years for the purpose of processing a wind energy right-of-way (ROW... filed by Pattern Energy Group for the Ocotillo Express Wind Project on the above described lands while...

  16. Three-dimensional flow structure and patterns of bed shear stress in an evolving compound meander bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Frank; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound meander bends with multiple lobes of maximum curvature are common in actively evolving lowland rivers. Interaction among spatial patterns of mean flow, turbulence, bed morphology, bank failures and channel migration in compound bends is poorly understood. In this paper, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) flow velocities in a compound bend are examined to evaluate the influence of channel curvature and hydrologic variability on the structure of flow within the bend. Flow structure at various flow stages is related to changes in bed morphology over the study timeframe. Increases in local curvature within the upstream lobe of the bend reduce outer bank velocities at morphologically significant flows, creating a region that protects the bank from high momentum flow and high bed shear stresses. The dimensionless radius of curvature in the upstream lobe is one-third less than that of the downstream lobe, with average bank erosion rates less than half of the erosion rates for the downstream lobe. Higher bank erosion rates within the downstream lobe correspond to the shift in a core of high velocity and bed shear stresses toward the outer bank as flow moves through the two lobes. These erosion patterns provide a mechanism for continued migration of the downstream lobe in the near future. Bed material size distributions within the bend correspond to spatial patterns of bed shear stress magnitudes, indicating that bed material sorting within the bend is governed by bed shear stress. Results suggest that patterns of flow, sediment entrainment, and planform evolution in compound meander bends are more complex than in simple meander bends. Moreover, interactions among local influences on the flow, such as woody debris, local topographic steering, and locally high curvature, tend to cause compound bends to evolve toward increasing planform complexity over time rather than stable configurations.

  17. A More Realistic Lateral Load Pattern for Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Moment Frames and Shear Walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Khosahmadi, Arash

    2008-01-01

    In this research it has been tried to find a more realistic distribution pattern for the seismic load in reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings, having moment frames with shear walls as their lateral resisting system, by using Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA). Having shear wall as lateral load bearing system decreases the effect of infill walls in the seismic behavior of the building, and therefore the case of buildings with shear walls has been considered for this study as the first stage of the studies on lateral load patterns for R/C buildings. For this purpose, by assuming three different numbers of bays in each direction and also three different numbers of stories for the buildings, several R/C buildings, have been studied. At first, the buildings have been designed by the Iranian National Code for R/C Buildings. Then they have been analyzed by a NLTHA software using the accelerograms of some well-known earthquakes. The used accelerograms have been also scaled to various levels of peak ground acceleration (PGA) such as 0.35 g, 0.50 g, and 0.70 g, to find out the effect of PGA in the seismic response. Numerical results have shown that firstly the values of natural period of the building and their shear force values, calculated by the code, are not appropriate in all cases. Secondly, it has been found out that the real lateral load pattern is quite different with the one suggested by the seismic code. Based on the NLTHA results a new lateral load pattern has been suggested for this kind of buildings, in the form of some story-dependent modification factors applied to the existing code formula. The effects of building's natural period, as well as its number of stories, are taken into account explicitly in the proposed new load pattern. The proposed load pattern has been employed to redesign the buildings and again by NLTHA the real lateral load distribution in each case has been obtained which has shown very good agreement with the proposed pattern

  18. Wind-Induced Air-Flow Patterns in an Urban Setting: Observations and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Elhakeem, Mohamed; Gerges, Bishoy N.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Gultepe, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    City planning can have a significant effect on wind flow velocity patterns and thus natural ventilation. Buildings with different heights are roughness elements that can affect the near- and far-field wind flow velocity. This paper aims at investigating the impact of an increase in building height on the nearby velocity fields. A prototype urban setting of buildings with two different heights (25 and 62.5 cm) is built up and placed in a wind tunnel. Wind flow velocity around the buildings is mapped at different heights. Wind tunnel measurements are used to validate a 3D-numerical Reynolds averaged Naviers-Stokes model. The validated model is further used to calculate the wind flow velocity patterns for cases with different building heights. It was found that increasing the height of some buildings in an urban setting can lead to the formation of large horseshoe vortices and eddies around building corners. A separation area is formed at the leeward side of the building, and the recirculation of air behind the building leads to the formation of slow rotation vortices. The opposite effect is observed in the wake (cavity) region of the buildings, where both the cavity length and width are significantly reduced, and this resulted in a pronounced increase in the wind flow velocity. A significant increase in the wind flow velocity in the wake region of tall buildings with a value of up to 30% is observed. The spatially averaged velocities around short buildings also increased by 25% compared to those around buildings with different heights. The increase in the height of some buildings is found to have a positive effect on the wind ventilation at the pedestrian level.

  19. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  20. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  1. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  2. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Fenton, Lori; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ∼60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ∼15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ∼70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ∼845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ∼975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  3. Decadal Patterns of Westerly Winds, Temperatures, Ocean Gyre Circulations and Fish Abundance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Oviatt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe the global scope of the multidecadal climate oscillations that go back at least, through several hundred years. Literature, historic data, satellite data and global circulation model output have been used to provide evidence for the zonal and meridional jet stream patterns. These patterns were predominantly zonal from the 1970s to 1990s and switched since the 1990s to a meridional wind phase, with weakening jet streams forming Rossby waves in the northern and southern hemispheres. A weakened northern jet stream has allowed northerly winds to flow down over the continents in the northern hemisphere during the winter period, causing some harsh winters and slowing anthropogenic climate warming regionally. Wind oscillations impact ocean gyre circulation affecting upwelling strength and pelagic fish abundance with synchronous behavior in sub Arctic gyres during phases of the oscillation and asynchronous behavior in subtropical gyres between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

  4. Anomalous Arctic surface wind patterns and their impacts on September sea ice minima and trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyi Wu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used monthly mean surface wind data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Centers for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset during the period 1979–2010 to describe the first two patterns of Arctic surface wind variability by means of the complex vector empirical orthogonal function (CVEOF analysis. The first two patterns respectively account for 31 and 16% of its total anomalous kinetic energy. The leading pattern consists of the two subpatterns: the northern Laptev Sea (NLS pattern and the Arctic dipole (AD pattern. The second pattern contains the northern Kara Sea (NKS pattern and the central Arctic (CA pattern. Over the past two decades, the combined dynamical forcing of the first two patterns has contributed to Arctic September sea ice extent (SIE minima and its declining trend. September SIE minima are mainly associated with the negative phase of the AD pattern and the positive phase of the CA pattern during the summer (July to September season, and both phases coherently show an anomalous anticyclone over the Arctic Ocean. Wind patterns affect September SIE through their frequency and intensity. The negative trend in September SIE over the past two decades is associated with increased frequency and enhanced intensity of the CA pattern during the melting season from April to September. Thus, it cannot be simply attributed to the AD anomaly characterised by the second empirical orthogonal function mode of sea level pressure north of 70°N. The CA pattern exhibited interdecadal variability in the late 1990s, and an anomalous cyclone prevailed before 1997 and was then replaced by an anomalous anticyclone over the Arctic Ocean that is consistent with the rapid decline trend in September SIE. This paper provides an alternative way to identify the dominant patterns of climate variability and investigate their associated Arctic sea ice variability from a dynamical perspective. Indeed, this study

  5. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  6. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-08-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that the pattern is complex, representing two constructional generations of dunes. The oldest and best-organized generation forms the primary crestlines and is transverse to circumpolar easterly winds. Gross bed form-normal analysis of the younger pattern of crestlines indicates that it emerged with both circumpolar easterly winds and NE winds and is reworking the older pattern. Mapping of secondary flow fields over the dunes indicates that the most recent transporting winds were from the NE. The younger pattern appears to represent an influx of sediment to the dune field associated with the development of the Olympia Cavi reentrant, with NE katabatic winds channeling through the reentrant. A model of the pattern reformation based upon the reconstructed primary winds and resulting secondary flow fields shows that the development of the secondary pattern is controlled by the boundary condition of the older dune topography.

  7. Impacts of Landscape Context on Patterns of Wind Downfall Damage in a Fragmented Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Uriarte, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wind is a major disturbance in the Amazon and has both short-term impacts and lasting legacies in tropical forests. Observed patterns of damage across landscapes result from differences in wind exposure and stand characteristics, such as tree stature, species traits, successional age, and fragmentation. Wind disturbance has important consequences for biomass dynamics in Amazonian forests, and understanding the spatial distribution and size of impacts is necessary to quantify the effects on carbon dynamics. In November 2013, a mesoscale convective system was observed over the study area in Ucayali, Peru, a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape. We mapped downfall damage associated with the storm in order to ask: how does the severity of damage vary within forest patches, and across forest patches of different sizes and successional ages? We applied spectral mixture analysis to Landsat images from 2013 and 2014 to calculate the change in non-photosynthetic vegetation fraction after the storm, and combined it with C-band SAR data from the Sentinel-1 satellite to predict downfall damage measured in 30 field plots using random forest regression. We then applied this model to map damage in forests across the study area. Using a land cover classification developed in a previous study, we mapped secondary and mature forest, and compared the severity of damage in the two. We found that damage was on average higher in secondary forests, but patterns varied spatially. This study demonstrates the utility of using multiple sources of satellite data for mapping wind disturbance, and adds to our understanding of the sources of variation in wind-related damage. Ultimately, an improved ability to map wind impacts and a better understanding of their spatial patterns can contribute to better quantification of carbon dynamics in Amazonian landscapes.

  8. Use of Dual-Polarization Radar Variables to Assess Low-Level Wind Shear in Severe Thunderstorm Near-storm Environments in the Tennessee Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Christina C.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Kumjian, Matthew; Carey, Lawerence D.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the National Weather Service (NWS) network of S ]band dual-polarization radars is currently underway, and the incorporation of polarimetric information into the real ]time forecasting process will enhance the forecaster fs ability to assess thunderstorms and their near ]storm environments. Recent research has suggested that the combination of polarimetric variables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) can be useful in the assessment of low level wind shear within a thunderstorm. In an environment with strong low ]level veering of the wind, ZDR values will be largest along the right inflow edge of the thunderstorm near a large gradient in horizontal reflectivity (indicative of large raindrops falling with a relative lack of smaller drops), and take the shape of an arc. Meanwhile, KDP values, which are proportional to liquid water content and indicative of a large number of smaller drops, are maximized deeper into the forward flank precipitation shield than the ZDR arc as the smaller drops are being advected further from the updraft core by the low level winds than the larger raindrops. Using findings from previous work, three severe weather events that occurred in North Alabama were examined in order to assess the utility of these signatures in determining the potential for tornadic activity. The first case is from October 26, 2010, where a large number of storms indicated tornadic potential from a standard reflectivity and velocity analysis but very few storms actually produced tornadoes. The second event is from February 28, 2011, where tornadic storms were present early on in the event, but as the day progressed, the tornado threat transitioned to a high wind threat. The third case is from April 27, 2011, where multiple rounds of tornadic storms ransacked the Tennessee Valley. This event provides a dataset including multiple modes of tornadic development, including QLCS and supercell structures. The overarching goal

  9. On damage diagnosis for a wind turbine blade using pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervilis, N.; Choi, M.; Taylor, S. G.; Barthorpe, R. J.; Park, G.; Farrar, C. R.; Worden, K.

    2014-03-01

    With the increased interest in implementation of wind turbine power plants in remote areas, structural health monitoring (SHM) will be one of the key cards in the efficient establishment of wind turbines in the energy arena. Detection of blade damage at an early stage is a critical problem, as blade failure can lead to a catastrophic outcome for the entire wind turbine system. Experimental measurements from vibration analysis were extracted from a 9 m CX-100 blade by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) throughout a full-scale fatigue test conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The blade was harmonically excited at its first natural frequency using a Universal Resonant EXcitation (UREX) system. In the current study, machine learning algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), including an Auto-Associative Neural Network (AANN) based on a standard ANN form and a novel approach to auto-association with Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) networks are used, which are optimised for fast and efficient runs. This paper introduces such pattern recognition methods into the wind energy field and attempts to address the effectiveness of such methods by combining vibration response data with novelty detection techniques.

  10. Diagnostic performance and color overlay pattern in shear wave elastography (SWE) for palpable breast mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoon; Woo, Ok Hee; Shin, Hye Seon; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kang, Eun Young

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SWE in palpable breast mass and to compare with color overlay pattern in SWE with conventional US and quantitative SWE for assessing palpable breast mass. SWE and conventional breast US were performed in 133 women with 156 palpable breast lesions (81 benign, 75 malignant) between August 2013 to June 2014. Either pathology or periodic imaging surveillance more than 2 years was a reference standard. Existence of previous image was blinded to performing radiologists. US BI-RADS final assessment, qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE and US combined to SWE were calculated and compared. Correlation between pattern classification and quantitative SWE was evaluated. Both color overlay pattern and quantitative SWE improved the specificity of conventional US, from 81.48% to 96.30% (p=0.0005), without improvement in sensitivity. Color overlay pattern was significantly related to all quantitative SWE parameters and malignancy rate (pbreast mass, conventional US combine to SWE improves specificity and reduces the number of biopsies that ultimately yield a benign result. Color overlay pattern classification is more quick and easy and may represent quantitative SWE measurements with similar diagnostic performances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scale-free channeling patterns near the onset of erosion of sheared granular beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussillous, Pascale; Zou, Zhenhai; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Yan, Le; Wyart, Matthieu

    2016-10-18

    Erosion shapes our landscape and occurs when a sufficient shear stress is exerted by a fluid on a sedimented layer. What controls erosion at a microscopic level remains debated, especially near the threshold forcing where it stops. Here we study, experimentally, the collective dynamics of the moving particles, using a setup where the system spontaneously evolves toward the erosion onset. We find that the spatial organization of the erosion flux is heterogeneous in space and occurs along channels of local flux σ whose distribution displays scaling near threshold and follows [Formula: see text], where J is the mean erosion flux. Channels are strongly correlated in the direction of forcing but not in the transverse direction. We show that these results quantitatively agree with a model where the dynamics is governed by the competition of disorder (which channels mobile particles) and particle interactions (which reduces channeling). These observations support that, for laminar flows, erosion is a dynamical phase transition that shares similarity with the plastic depinning transition occurring in dirty superconductors. The methodology we introduce here could be applied to probe these systems as well.

  12. Scale-free channeling patterns near the onset of erosion of sheared granular beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussillous, Pascale; Zou, Zhenhai; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Yan, Le; Wyart, Matthieu

    2016-10-01

    Erosion shapes our landscape and occurs when a sufficient shear stress is exerted by a fluid on a sedimented layer. What controls erosion at a microscopic level remains debated, especially near the threshold forcing where it stops. Here we study, experimentally, the collective dynamics of the moving particles, using a setup where the system spontaneously evolves toward the erosion onset. We find that the spatial organization of the erosion flux is heterogeneous in space and occurs along channels of local flux σ whose distribution displays scaling near threshold and follows P(σ)≈J/σ, where J is the mean erosion flux. Channels are strongly correlated in the direction of forcing but not in the transverse direction. We show that these results quantitatively agree with a model where the dynamics is governed by the competition of disorder (which channels mobile particles) and particle interactions (which reduces channeling). These observations support that, for laminar flows, erosion is a dynamical phase transition that shares similarity with the plastic depinning transition occurring in dirty superconductors. The methodology we introduce here could be applied to probe these systems as well.

  13. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  14. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Foy, B.; Clappier, A.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  15. NON-NEUTRALIZED ELECTRIC CURRENT PATTERNS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: ORIGIN OF THE SHEAR-GENERATING LORENTZ FORCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikić, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Using solar vector magnetograms of the highest available spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, we perform a detailed study of electric current patterns in two solar active regions (ARs): a flaring/eruptive and a flare-quiet one. We aim to determine whether ARs inject non-neutralized (net) electric currents in the solar atmosphere, responding to a debate initiated nearly two decades ago that remains inconclusive. We find that well-formed, intense magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) within ARs are the only photospheric magnetic structures that support significant net current. More intense PILs seem to imply stronger non-neutralized current patterns per polarity. This finding revises previous works that claim frequent injections of intense non-neutralized currents by most ARs appearing in the solar disk but also works that altogether rule out injection of non-neutralized currents. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that magnetically isolated ARs remain globally current-balanced. In addition, we confirm and quantify the preference of a given magnetic polarity to follow a given sense of electric currents, indicating a dominant sense of twist in ARs. This coherence effect is more pronounced in more compact ARs with stronger PILs and must be of sub-photospheric origin. Our results yield a natural explanation of the Lorentz force, invariably generating velocity and magnetic shear along strong PILs, thus setting a physical context for the observed pre-eruption evolution in solar ARs.

  16. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-01-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that ...

  17. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuga, Y., E-mail: kosuga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); CASS and CMTFO, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Dif-Pradalier, G. [CEA, IRFM, Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gürcan, Ö. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2014-05-15

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.

  18. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  19. Simulating price patterns for tradable green certificates to promote electricity generation from wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article uses computer simulation to anticipate the price dynamics in a market for Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs). These markets have been used in Europe to promote generation of electricity from renewable resources like wind. Similar markets have been proposed in the United States of America (USA) where the certificates are called Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). The certificates are issued to the generating companies for each megawatt-hour of renewable electricity generation. The companies may sell the certificates in a market, and the revenues from certificate sales provide an extra incentive to invest in new generating capacity. Proponents argue that this market-based incentive can be designed to support government mandates for a growing fraction of electricity generation from renewable sources. In the USA, these mandates are set by the states and are known as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS). We simulate the price dynamics of a market designed to support an aggressive mandate for wind generation in the northwestern USA. The simulations show that the certificate price climbs rapidly to the cap in the early years after the market opens. Investors then react to these high prices with construction of new wind capacity. After a few years, wind generation meets, and then exceeds the requirement. We show that this pattern appears again and again when the simulations are repeated with wide variations in the estimates of behavioral parameters. We use the model to study the impact of different trading strategies by the wind companies and by the distribution companies. We also study the simulated market response if the USA adopts the carbon allowance market envisioned in The Climate Stewardship Act. The article concludes with recommendations for policy makers involved in TGC market design. [Author

  20. Simulating price patterns for tradable green certificates to promote electricity generation from wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Andrew; Vogstad, Klaus; Flynn, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    This article uses computer simulation to anticipate the price dynamics in a market for Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs). These markets have been used in Europe to promote generation of electricity from renewable resources like wind. Similar markets have been proposed in the United States of America (USA) where the certificates are called Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). The certificates are issued to the generating companies for each megawatt-hour of renewable electricity generation. The companies may sell the certificates in a market, and the revenues from certificate sales provide an extra incentive to invest in new generating capacity. Proponents argue that this market-based incentive can be designed to support government mandates for a growing fraction of electricity generation from renewable sources. In the USA, these mandates are set by the states and are known as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS). We simulate the price dynamics of a market designed to support an aggressive mandate for wind generation in the northwestern USA. The simulations show that the certificate price climbs rapidly to the cap in the early years after the market opens. Investors then react to these high prices with construction of new wind capacity. After a few years, wind generation meets, and then exceeds the requirement. We show that this pattern appears again and again when the simulations are repeated with wide variations in the estimates of behavioral parameters. We use the model to study the impact of different trading strategies by the wind companies and by the distribution companies. We also study the simulated market response if the USA adopts the carbon allowance market envisioned in The Climate Stewardship Act. The article concludes with recommendations for policy makers involved in TGC market design

  1. On Wind Forces in the Forest-Edge Region During Extreme-Gust Passages and Their Implications for Damage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2018-03-01

    A damage pattern that is occasionally found after a period of strong winds shows an area of damaged trees inside a forest stand behind an intact stripe of trees directly at the windward edge. In an effort to understand the mechanism leading to this damage pattern, wind loading in the forest-edge region during passages of extreme gusts with different characteristics are investigated using a scaled forest model in the wind tunnel. The interaction of a transient extreme gust with the stationary atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) as a background flow at the forest edge leads to the formation of a vortex at the top of the canopy. This vortex intensifies when travelling downstream and subsequently deflects high-momentum air from above the canopy downwards resulting in increased wind loading on the tree crowns. Under such conditions, the decrease in wind loading in the streamwise direction can be relatively weak compared to stationary ABL approach flows. The resistance of trees with streamwise distance from the forest edge, however, is the result of adaptive growth to wind loading under stationary flow conditions and shows a rapid decline within two to three tree heights behind the windward edge. For some of the extreme gusts realized, an exceedance of the wind loading over the resistance of the trees is found at approximately three tree heights behind the forest edge, suggesting that the damage pattern described above can be caused by the interaction of a transient extreme gust with the stationary ABL flow.

  2. Wind effect in turbulence parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.

    2005-09-01

    The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.

  3. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  4. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  5. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  6. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  7. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  8. Tornado Damage Assessment: Reconstructing the Wind Through Debris Tracking and Treefall Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, C. M.; Peterson, C. J.; Lombardo, F.

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to enhance the resilience of communities to tornadoes requires an understanding of the interconnected nature of debris and damage propagation in both the built and natural environment. A first step toward characterizing the interconnectedness of these elements within a given community involves detailed post-event surveys of tornado damage. Such damage surveys immediately followed the 22 January 2017 EF3 tornadoes in the southern Georgia towns of Nashville and Albany. After assigning EF-scale ratings to impacted structures, the authors geotagged hundreds of pieces of debris scattered around selected residential structures and outbuildings in each neighborhood and paired each piece of debris with its source structure. Detailed information on trees in the vicinity of the structures supplements the debris data, including the species, dimensions, location, fall direction, and level of damage. High-resolution satellite imagery helps to identify the location and fall direction of hundreds of additional forest trees. These debris and treefall patterns allow an estimation of the near-surface wind field using a Rankine vortex model coupled with both a tree stability model and an infrastructure fragility model that simulates debris flight. Comparisons between the modeled damage and the actual treefall and debris field show remarkable similarities for a selected set of vortex parameters, indicating the viability of this approach for estimating enhanced Fujita scale levels, determining the near-surface wind field of a tornado during its passage through a neighborhood, and identifying how debris may contribute to the overall risk from tornadoes.

  9. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  10. A Pattern Recognition Approach to Acoustic Emission Data Originating from Fatigue of Wind Turbine Blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jialin; Soua, Slim; Mares, Cristinel; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2017-11-01

    The identification of particular types of damage in wind turbine blades using acoustic emission (AE) techniques is a significant emerging field. In this work, a 45.7-m turbine blade was subjected to flap-wise fatigue loading for 21 days, during which AE was measured by internally mounted piezoelectric sensors. This paper focuses on using unsupervised pattern recognition methods to characterize different AE activities corresponding to different fracture mechanisms. A sequential feature selection method based on a k-means clustering algorithm is used to achieve a fine classification accuracy. The visualization of clusters in peak frequency-frequency centroid features is used to correlate the clustering results with failure modes. The positions of these clusters in time domain features, average frequency-MARSE, and average frequency-peak amplitude are also presented in this paper (where MARSE represents the Measured Area under Rectified Signal Envelope). The results show that these parameters are representative for the classification of the failure modes.

  11. Computational study: The influence of omni-directional guide vane on the flow pattern characteristic around Savonius wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Standart Savonius wind turbine have a low performance such as low coefficient of power and low coefficient of torque compared with another type of wind turbine. This phenomenon occurs because the wind stream can cause the negative pressure at the returning rotor. To solve this problem, standard Savonius combined with Omni Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) proposed. The aim of this research is to study the influence of ODGV on the flow pattern characteristic around of Savonius wind turbine. The numerical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with the standard k-ɛ turbulent model. This equation solved by a finite volume discretization method. This case was analyzed by commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such as SolidWorks Flow Simulations. Simulations were performed at the different wind directions; there are 0°, 30°,60° at 4 m/s wind speed. The numerical method validated with the past experimental data. The result indicated that the ODGV able to augment air flow to advancing rotor and decrease the negative pressure in the upstream of returning rotor compared to the bare Savonius wind turbine.

  12. Wind reduction patterns around isolated biomass for wind erosion control in a desertified area of Central Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasr Al-amin, N.K.; Stigter, C.J.; El-Tayeb Mohammed, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sparse vegetation, feature common in arid zone, to reduce wind force (velocity) and hence protect the surface and regions downwind from drifting sand and their consequences. Respectively 4 (with heights h of 4, 3.2, 2 and 1.66 m), 2 (with h of

  13. Coefficient of Friction Patterns Can Identify Damage in Native and Engineered Cartilage Subjected to Frictional-Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, G. A.; Mansour, J. M.; Dennis, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical loading environment encountered by articular cartilage in situ makes frictional-shear testing an invaluable technique for assessing engineered cartilage. Despite the important information that is gained from this testing, it remains under-utilized, especially for determining damage behavior. Currently, extensive visual inspection is required to assess damage; this is cumbersome and subjective. Tools to simplify, automate, and remove subjectivity from the analysis may increase the accessibility and usefulness of frictional-shear testing as an evaluation method. The objective of this study was to determine if the friction signal could be used to detect damage that occurred during the testing. This study proceeded in two phases: first, a simplified model of biphasic lubrication that does not require knowledge of interstitial fluid pressure was developed. In the second phase, frictional-shear tests were performed on 74 cartilage samples, and the simplified model was used to extract characteristic features from the friction signals. Using support vector machine classifiers, the extracted features were able to detect damage with a median accuracy of approximately 90%. The accuracy remained high even in samples with minimal damage. In conclusion, the friction signal acquired during frictional-shear testing can be used to detect resultant damage to a high level of accuracy. PMID:25691395

  14. Coefficient of Friction Patterns Can Identify Damage in Native and Engineered Cartilage Subjected to Frictional-Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, G A; Mansour, J M; Dennis, J E

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical loading environment encountered by articular cartilage in situ makes frictional-shear testing an invaluable technique for assessing engineered cartilage. Despite the important information that is gained from this testing, it remains under-utilized, especially for determining damage behavior. Currently, extensive visual inspection is required to assess damage; this is cumbersome and subjective. Tools to simplify, automate, and remove subjectivity from the analysis may increase the accessibility and usefulness of frictional-shear testing as an evaluation method. The objective of this study was to determine if the friction signal could be used to detect damage that occurred during the testing. This study proceeded in two phases: first, a simplified model of biphasic lubrication that does not require knowledge of interstitial fluid pressure was developed. In the second phase, frictional-shear tests were performed on 74 cartilage samples, and the simplified model was used to extract characteristic features from the friction signals. Using support vector machine classifiers, the extracted features were able to detect damage with a median accuracy of approximately 90%. The accuracy remained high even in samples with minimal damage. In conclusion, the friction signal acquired during frictional-shear testing can be used to detect resultant damage to a high level of accuracy.

  15. Wind Speed Pattern in Nigeria (A Case Study of Some Coastal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Department of Physics and Solar Energy, Bowen University Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria ... ABSTRACT: In this study, wind speeds were analysed using the daily wind data obtained from Nigeria ..... Selected sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in.

  16. The Effect of the South Asia Monsoon on the Wind Sea and Swell Patterns in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves have a considerable impact on coastal and offshore infrastructures, and are determinant on ship design and routing. But waves also play an important role on the coastal dynamics and beach erosion, and modulate the exchanges of momentum, and mass and other scalars between the atmosphere and the ocean. A constant quantitative and qualitative knowledge of the wave patterns is therefore needed. There are two types of waves at the ocean surface: wind-sea and swell. Wind-sea waves are growing waves under the direct influence of local winds; as these waves propagate away from their generation area, or when their phase speed overcomes the local wind speed, they are called swell. Swell waves can propagate thousands of kilometers across entire ocean basins. The qualitative analysis of ocean surface waves has been the focus of several recent studies, from the wave climate to the air-sea interaction community. The reason for this interest lies mostly in the fact that waves have an impact on the lower atmosphere, and that the air-sea coupling is different depending on the wave regime. Waves modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface, and this modulation is different and dependent on the prevalence of one type of waves: wind sea or swell. For fully developed seas the coupling between the ocean-surface and the overlaying atmosphere can be seen as quasi-perfect, in a sense that the momentum transfer and energy dissipation at the ocean surface are in equilibrium. This can only occur in special areas of the Ocean, either in marginal seas, with limited fetch, or in Open Ocean, in areas with strong and persistent wind speed with little or no variation in direction. One of these areas is the Arabian Sea, along the coasts of Somalia, Yemen and Oman. The wind climate in the Arabian sea is under the direct influence of the South Asia monsoon, where the wind blows steady from the northeast during the boreal winter, and

  17. Investigation of Airflow Patterns in a New Design of Wind Tower with a Wetted Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Soltani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive cooling systems, such as wind towers, can help to reduce energy consumption in buildings and at the same time reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Wind towers can naturally ventilate buildings and also can create enhanced thermal comfort for occupants during the warm months. This study proposes a modern wind tower design with a moistened pad. The new design includes a fixed column, a rotating and movable head, an air opening with a screen, and two windows at the end of the column. The wind tower can be installed on roof-tops to take advantage of ambient airflow. The wind tower’s head can be controlled manually or automatically to capture optimum wind velocity based on desired thermal condition. To maximize its performance, a small pump was considered to circulate and spray water on an evaporative cooling pad. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of airflow around and inside the proposed wind tower is conducted to analyze the ventilation performance of this new design of wind tower. Thereby, the velocity, total pressure, and pressure coefficient distributions around and within the wind tower for different wind velocities are examined. The simulation results illustrate that the new wind tower design with a moistened pad can be a reasonable solution to improve naturally the thermal comfort of buildings in hot and dry climates.

  18. Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.

  19. A Pattern Recognition Approach to Acoustic Emission Data Originating from Fatigue of Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of particular types of damage in wind turbine blades using acoustic emission (AE techniques is a significant emerging field. In this work, a 45.7-m turbine blade was subjected to flap-wise fatigue loading for 21 days, during which AE was measured by internally mounted piezoelectric sensors. This paper focuses on using unsupervised pattern recognition methods to characterize different AE activities corresponding to different fracture mechanisms. A sequential feature selection method based on a k-means clustering algorithm is used to achieve a fine classification accuracy. The visualization of clusters in peak frequency−frequency centroid features is used to correlate the clustering results with failure modes. The positions of these clusters in time domain features, average frequency−MARSE, and average frequency−peak amplitude are also presented in this paper (where MARSE represents the Measured Area under Rectified Signal Envelope. The results show that these parameters are representative for the classification of the failure modes.

  20. Computing and Learning Year-Round Daily Patterns of Hourly Wind Speed and Direction and Their Global Associations with Meteorological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ti Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daily wind patterns and their relational associations with other metocean (oceanographic and meteorological variables were algorithmically computed and extracted from a year-long wind and weather dataset, which was collected hourly from an ocean buoy located in the Penghu archipelago of Taiwan. The computational algorithm is called data cloud geometry (DCG. This DCG algorithm is a clustering-based nonparametric learning approach that was constructed and developed implicitly based on various entropy concepts. Regarding the bivariate aspect of wind speed and wind direction, the resulting multiscale clustering hierarchy revealed well-known wind characteristics of year-round pattern cycles pertaining to the particular geographic location of the buoy. A wind pattern due to a set of extreme weather days was also identified. Moreover, in terms of the relational aspect of wind and other weather variables, causal patterns were revealed through applying the DCG algorithm alternatively on the row and column axes of a data matrix by iteratively adapting distance measures to computed DCG tree structures. This adaptation technically constructed and integrated a multiscale, two-sample testing into the distance measure. These computed wind patterns and pattern-based causal relationships are useful for both general sailing and competition planning.

  1. Physically-based modeling of topographic effects on spatial evapotranspiration and soil moisture patterns through radiation and wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simulations with the Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP model are performed to quantify the spatial variability of both potential and actual evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture content (SMC caused by topography-induced spatial wind and radiation differences. To obtain the spatially distributed ET/SMC patterns, the field scale SWAP model is applied in a distributed way for both pointwise and catchment wide simulations. An adapted radiation model from r.sun and the physically-based meso-scale wind model METRAS PC are applied to obtain the spatial radiation and wind patterns respectively, which show significant spatial variation and correlation with aspect and elevation respectively. Such topographic dependences and spatial variations further propagate to ET/SMC. A strong spatial, seasonal-dependent, scale-relevant intra-catchment variability in daily/annual ET and less variability in SMC can be observed from the numerical experiments. The study concludes that topography has a significant effect on ET/SMC in the humid region where ET is a energy limited rather than water availability limited process. It affects the spatial runoff generation through spatial radiation and wind, therefore should be applied to inform hydrological model development. In addition, the methodology used in the study can serve as a general method for physically-based ET estimation for data sparse regions.

  2. Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Henrik; Desholm, Mark; Heinänen, Stefan; Kahlert, Johnny A; Laubek, Bjarke; Jensen, Niels Einar; Žydelis, Ramūnas; Jensen, Bo Præstegaard

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring of bird migration at marine wind farms has a short history, and unsurprisingly most studies have focused on the potential for collisions. Risk for population impacts may exist to soaring migrants such as raptors with K-strategic life-history characteristics. Soaring migrants display strong dependence on thermals and updrafts and an affinity to land areas and islands during their migration, a behaviour that creates corridors where raptors move across narrow straits and sounds and are attracted to islands. Several migration corridors for soaring birds overlap with the development regions for marine wind farms in NW Europe. However, no empirical data have yet been available on avoidance or attraction rates and behavioural reactions of soaring migrants to marine wind farms. Based on a post-construction monitoring study, we show that all raptor species displayed a significant attraction behaviour towards a wind farm. The modified migratory behaviour was also significantly different from the behaviour at nearby reference sites. The attraction was inversely related to distance to the wind farm and was primarily recorded during periods of adverse wind conditions. The attraction behaviour suggests that migrating raptor species are far more at risk of colliding with wind turbines at sea than hitherto assessed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Near-surface wind pattern in regional climate projections over the broader Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic region is characterized by the complex coastline, strong topographic gradients and specific wind regimes. This represents excellent test area for the latest generation of the regional climate models (RCMs) applied over the European domain. The most famous wind along the Adriatic coast is bora, which due to its strength, has a strong impact on all types of human activities in the Adriatic region. The typical bora wind is a severe gusty downslope flow perpendicular to the mountains. Besides bora, in the Adriatic region, typical winds are sirocco (mostly during the wintertime) and sea/land breezes (dominantly in the warm part of the year) as a part of the regional Mediterranean wind system. Thus, it is substantial to determine future changes in the wind filed characteristics (e.g., changes in strength and frequencies). The first step was the evaluation of a suite of ten EURO- and MED-CORDEX models (at 50 km and 12.5 km resolution), and two additional high resolution models from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ, at 12.5 km and 2.2. km resolution) in the present climate. These results provided a basis for the next step where wind field features, in an ensemble of RCMs forced by global climate models (GCMs) in historical and future runs are examined. Our aim is to determine the influence of the particular combination of RCMs and GCMs, horizontal resolution and emission scenario on the future changes in the near-surface wind field. The analysis reveals strong sensitivity of the simulated wind flow and its statistics to both season and location analyzed, to the horizontal resolution of the RCM and on the choice of the particular GCM that provides boundary conditions.

  4. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  5. Effects of opening in shear walls of 30- storey building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tall towers and multi-storey buildings have fascinated mankind from the beginning of civilization, their construction being initially for defense and subsequently for ecclesiastical purposes. These tall buildings because of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake actions tends to snap the building in shear and push it over in bending. In general, the rigidity (i.e. Resistance to lateral deflection and stability (i.e. Resistance to overturning moments requirement become more important. Shear walls (Structural walls contribute significant lateral stiffness, strength, and overall ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In many structural walls a regular pattern of openings has to be provided due to various functional requirements such as to accommodate doors, windows and service ducts. Such type of openings reduces the stiffness of the shear wall to some extent depending on the shape and size of the opening. In the present parametric study, efforts are made to investigate and critically assess the effects of various size of openings in shear walls on the responses and behaviors of multi-storey buildings. The 30 storey Prototype buildings with different types of openings in shear wall with and without incorporating the volume of shear wall reduced in the boundary elements are analyzed using software E-TABS using Response spectrum method (1893(Part-1-2002 and Time history method.

  6. Prediction of Wind Environment and Indoor/Outdoor Relationships for PM2.5 in Different Building–Tree Grouping Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airflow behavior and indoor/outdoor PM2.5 dispersion in different building–tree grouping patterns depend significantly on the building–tree layouts and orientation towards the prevailing wind. By using a standard k-ε model and a revised generalized drift flux model, this study evaluated airflow fields and indoor/outdoor relationships for PM2.5 resulting from partly wind-induced natural ventilation in four hypothetical building–tree grouping patterns. Results showed that: (1 Patterns provide a variety of natural ventilation potential that relies on the wind influence, and buildings that deflect wind on the windward facade and separate airflow on the leeward facade have better ventilation potential; (2 Patterns where buildings and trees form a central space and a windward opening side towards the prevailing wind offer the best ventilation conditions; (3 Under the assumption that transported pollution sources are diluted through the inlet, the aerodynamics and deposition effects of trees cause the lower floors of a multi-storey building to be exposed to lower PM2.5 compared with upper floors, and lower indoor PM2.5 values were found close to the tree canopy; (4 Wind pressure differences across each flat showed a poor correlation (R2 = 0.059, with indoor PM2.5 concentrations; and (5 Patterns with the long facade of buildings and trees perpendicular to the prevailing wind have the lowest indoor PM2.5 concentrations.

  7. Estimation of the mid-century Etesians wind pattern from EURO-CORDEX models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafka, Stella; Toreti, Andrea; Luterbacher, Juerg; Zanis, Prodromos; Tyrlis, Evangelos; Xoplaki, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The Etesians are one of the major and most prominent wind system, prevailing over the Aegean Sea during summer and early autumn. Here, projections of changes in 30-year (2021-2050) wind speeds relative to 1971-2000, under the 8.5 and 4.5 Representative Concentration Pathways, have been produced for Etesians. Future changes in the number of Etesian days and the associated large scale dynamics are also considered. We analyze seven simulations from three EURO-CORDEX regional climate models at a 12 km grid resolution. Both scenarios indicate that in most RCMs daily wind speeds are projected to increase by 1-1.5m/s over the Aegean Sea, suggesting that the current estimate of wind power potential for Aegean Sea will be increased with the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades (2021-2050). Wind direction at 10-m as well as the number of Etesian days have shown to undergo minor changes. The projected changes in sea level pressure and geopotential height anomalies at 500 hPa have a large spread among the seven simulations with a disperse tendency of strengthening of the ridge over the Balkans.

  8. Extreme fire severity patterns in topographic, convective and wind-driven historical wildfires of Mediterranean pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Lecina-Diaz

    Full Text Available Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1 determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together and (2 ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires. The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn

  9. Extreme fire severity patterns in topographic, convective and wind-driven historical wildfires of Mediterranean pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Alvarez, Albert; Retana, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1) determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together) and (2) ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires). The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires) showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn as extreme

  10. Análise dos padrões de vento no Estado de Alagoas Wind patterns analysis in Alagoas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Brito Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar áreas do Estado de Alagoas com boas perspectivas de aproveitamento eólico, comparou-se dados de velocidade e direção do vento observados por torres anemométricas do projeto Atlas Eólico e Disseminação da Tecnologia Eólica no Estado de Alagoas. A série utilizada é de 12/2007 a 11/2008 e o estudo focou três regiões distintas: Litoral, Agreste e Sertão. Os padrões médios com maiores velocidades do vento ocorreram na região do Agreste (7,1 ±1,2 ms-1 mensal, seguido do Sertão (6,8 ±0,9 ms-1 mensal e Litoral ( 5,3 ±0,8 ms-1 mensal. A regularidade da velocidade e a pouca variabilidade de direção do vento torna Alagoas uma ótima opção para a instalação de aerogeradores.Aiming to evaluate areas with good prospects for harnessing wind power, the patterns of wind speed and direction measured at anemometric towers within the Atlas Eólico e Disseminação da Tecnologia Eólica no Estado de Alagoas project were compared for the period from 12/2007 to 11/2008, at Alagoas State. We analyzed three distinct regions: Coast, Agreste and Sertão. The patterns with higher average wind speeds were in the Agreste regions (7.1 ± 1.2 ms-1 monthly followed by Sertão (6.8 ± 0.9 ms- 1 monthly and by Coast (5.3 ± 0.8 ms-1 monthly. The regularity of the wind speed and the low variability of wind direction make Alagoas be a great option for the installation of wind turbines.

  11. Mass detection, localization and estimation for wind turbine blades based on statistical pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colone, L.; Hovgaard, K.; Glavind, Lars

    2018-01-01

    A method for mass change detection on wind turbine blades using natural frequencies is presented. The approach is based on two statistical tests. The first test decides if there is a significant mass change and the second test is a statistical group classification based on Linear Discriminant Ana...

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of airflow across a foredune and beach surface under offshore winds: implications for aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Lynch, K.; Baas, A. C.; Cooper, J. A.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    The input of aeolian sediment into foredune systems from beaches represents a key component of sediment budget analysis along many soft sedimentary coastlines. Where there are significant offshore wind components in local wind regimes this is normally excluded from analysis. However, recent work has shown that if the topography of the foredune is favourable then this offshore component is steered or undergoes flow reversal through leeside eddying to give onshore transport events at the back beach under offshore flow conditions. At particular distances from the foredune crest flow reattaches to the surface to continue its incident offshore direction. The location of this reattachment point has important implications for aeolian transport of sand on the back beach and foredune toe locations. This study reports initial results where the positioning of the reattachment point is mobile and is driven by incident wind velocity (at the foredune crest) and the actual undulations of the foredune crest’s topography, dictating heterogeneous flow behaviour at the beach. Using detailed field measurements (25 Hz, three-dimensional sonic anemometry) and computational fluid dynamic modelling, a temporal and spatial pattern of reattachment positions are described. Implications for aeolian transport and dune evolution are also examined.

  13. A modelling framework to predict bat activity patterns on wind farms: An outline of possible applications on mountain ridges of North Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carmen; Cabral, João Alexandre; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Mário

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide ecological impact assessments of wind farms have gathered relevant information on bat activity patterns. Since conventional bat study methods require intensive field work, the prediction of bat activity might prove useful by anticipating activity patterns and estimating attractiveness concomitant with the wind farm location. A novel framework was developed, based on the stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) principles, to predict bat activity on mountain ridges with wind farms. We illustrate the framework application using regional data from North Portugal by merging information from several environmental monitoring programmes associated with diverse wind energy facilities that enable integrating the multifactorial influences of meteorological conditions, land cover and geographical variables on bat activity patterns. Output from this innovative methodology can anticipate episodes of exceptional bat activity, which, if correlated with collision probability, can be used to guide wind farm management strategy such as halting wind turbines during hazardous periods. If properly calibrated with regional gradients of environmental variables from mountain ridges with windfarms, the proposed methodology can be used as a complementary tool in environmental impact assessments and ecological monitoring, using predicted bat activity to assist decision making concerning the future location of wind farms and the implementation of effective mitigation measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Repetitive model predictive approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2011-01-01

    prediction. As a consequence, individual pitch feed-forward control action is generated by the controller, taking ”future” wind disturbance into account. Information about the estimated wind spatial distribution one blade experience can be used in the prediction model to better control the next passing blade......Wind turbines are inherently exposed to nonuniform wind fields with of wind shear, tower shadow, and possible wake contributions. Asymmetrical aerodynamic rotor loads are a consequence of such periodic, repetitive wind disturbances experienced by the blades. A controller may estimate and use...... this peculiar disturbance pattern to better attenuate loads and regulate power by controlling the blade pitch angles individually. A novel model predictive (MPC) approach for individual pitch control of wind turbines is proposed in this paper. A repetitive wind disturbance model is incorporated into the MPC...

  15. Seabird aggregative patterns: a new tool for offshore wind energy risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Certain, Grégoire; Cama, Albert; Vieites, David R; Ferrer, Xavier

    2013-01-15

    The emerging development of offshore wind energy has raised public concern over its impact on seabird communities. There is a need for an adequate methodology to determine its potential impacts on seabirds. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are mostly relying on a succession of plain density maps without integrated interpretation of seabird spatio-temporal variability. Using Taylor's power law coupled with mixed effect models, the spatio-temporal variability of species' distributions can be synthesized in a measure of the aggregation levels of individuals over time and space. Applying the method to a seabird aerial survey in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea, we were able to make an explicit distinction between transitional and feeding areas to define and map the potential impacts of an offshore wind farm project. We use the Ebro Delta study case to discuss the advantages of potential impacts maps over density maps, as well as to illustrate how these potential impact maps can be applied to inform on concern levels, optimal EIA design and monitoring in the assessment of local offshore wind energy projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  17. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  18. Pollen, water, and wind: Chaotic mixing in a puddle of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    and nutrient distribution in puddles and small ponds.The flow patterns are generated by wind blowing across the puddle surface. This causes a shear stress at the atmospheric interface, which drives a flow in the liquid below. Chaotic mixing can occur if the wind direction changes over time. A fluid patch......This paper talks about how pine pollen grains dispersedin an approximately 1 m wide and 1 cm deep water puddle. The pollen has mixed due to wind blowing across the liquid surface, revealing a strikingly complex flow pattern. The flows revealed by nature’s tracer particles may influence circulation...

  19. Centennial eolian cyclicity in the Great Plains, USA: A dominant pattern of wind transport over the past 4000 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalb, Antje; Dean, Walter E.; Fritz, C. Sherilyn; Geiss, Christoph E.; Kromer, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Proxy evidence at decadal resolution from Late Holocene sediments from Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, shows distinct centennial cycles (400-700 years) in magnetic susceptibility; contents of carbonate, organic carbon, and major elements; abundance in ostracodes; and delta18O and delta13C values in calcite. Proxies indicate cyclic changes in eolian input, productivity, and temperature. Maxima in magnetic susceptibility are accompanied by maxima in aluminum and iron mass accumulation rates (MARs), and in abundances of the ostracode Fabaeformiscandona rawsoni. This indicates variable windy, and dry conditions with westerly wind dominance, including during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Maxima in carbonates, organic carbon, phosphorous, and high delta13C values of endogenic calcite indicate moister and less windy periods with increased lake productivity, including during the Little Ice Age, and alternate with maxima of eolian transport. Times of the Maunder, Sporer and Wolf sunspot minima are characterized by maxima in delta18O values and aluminum MARs, and minima in delta13C values and organic carbon content. We interpret these lake conditions during sunspot minima to indicate decreases in lake surface water temperatures of up to 4-5 degrees C associated with decreases in epilimnetic productivity during summer. We propose that the centennial cycles are triggered by solar activity, originate in the tropical Pacific, and their onset during the Late Holocene is associated with insolation conditions driven by precession. The cyclic pattern is transmitted from the tropical Pacific into the atmosphere and transported by westerly winds into the North Atlantic realm where they strengthen the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during periods of northern Great Plains wind maxima. This consequently leads to moister climates in Central and Northern Europe. Thus, Pickerel Lake provides evidence for mechanisms of teleconnections including an atmospheric link

  20. Fast calculation of microphone array steering vectors with shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast method for calculating the acoustic time delay between an observer and a receiver in a shear flow. This method is applied to an outdoor microphone array measurement on a large-scale wind turbine. In such a set-up, a shear flow represents the actual wind field better than a

  1. A tall tower study of Missouri winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Neil I. [Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, 332 ABNR Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes the results of a study of wind speeds observed at heights up to 150 m above ground level around Missouri. This is an amalgamation of four projects that allowed a total of eleven tall communication towers to be instrumented with wind observation equipment across the State of Missouri. This provided an assessment of the wind resource and the characteristics of the seasonal and diurnal cycles of wind in different areas of Missouri at the heights of utility scale wind turbines. Comparisons were also made to wind speeds predicted at these levels from a previously published wind map. The main finding was that the observed winds at each tower were smaller than those presented in the wind map. The discrepancy is most likely to be due to underestimation of the surface roughness and turbulence leading to an overestimation of near-surface wind shear. However, the wind shear, as expressed by the shear parameter was consistently greater than the 'standard' value of 1.4. The reconciliation of these two apparently contradictory findings is that the shear varies with the height at which it is measured. In wind resource assessment, wind shear is usually observed below 50 m and is tacitly assumed to be constant with height when used to extrapolate winds to higher levels. The author advocates the use of the friction velocity as a measure of shear in wind power applications in preference to the shear parameter that is usually used. This is because the shear parameter has a velocity bias that can also manifest as a bias with height or season. As wind power resource assessment is starting to use taller towers than the standard 50 m, intercomparison of site resources and extrapolation to turbine heights can be compromised if the shear parameter is used. (author)

  2. Wind turbine rotor aerodynamics : The IEA MEXICO rotor explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbines are operating under very complex and uncontrolled environmental conditions, including atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric boundary layer effects, directional and spatial variations in wind shear, etc. Over the past decades, the size of a commercial wind turbine has increased

  3. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  4. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  5. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assessment of the structural behaviour of coupled shear wall bents in mixed shear wall ... efficient lateral load resisting system against wind and earthquake effects. .... can be obtained from the second derivative of equation (11) which must be ...

  6. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone bodies deposited in Eocene time by a 40-kilometer segment of the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River that exended westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel-sandstone bodies with a Granite Mountains source occur south of this segment of the paleo-Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district, but the channel-sandstone bodies between the Gas Hills district and the 40-kilometer segment of the paleo-Wind River may also be mineralized. This area includes the southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel-sandstone bodies derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the paleo-Wind River in Paleocene time flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River of Eocene time. The channel-sandstone bodies of the paleo-Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where they are underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene paleo-Wind River channel-sandstone bodies, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel-sandstone bodies and natural-gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits

  7. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

  8. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  9. The wide-spread presence of rib-like patterns in basal shear of ice streams detected by surface data inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The direct observations of the basal conditions under continental-scale ice sheets are logistically impossible. A possible approach to estimate conditions at the ice - bed interface is from surface observations by means of inverse methods. The recent advances in remote and ground-based observations have allowed to acquire a wealth observations from Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Using high-resolution data sets of ice surface and bed elevations and surface velocities, inversions for basal conditions have been performed for several ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica. The inversion results reveal the wide-spread presence of rib-like spatial structures in basal shear. The analysis of the hydraulic potential distribution shows that these rib-like structures co-locate with highs of the gradient of hydraulic potential. This suggests that subglacial water plays a role in the development and evolution of the basal shear ribs.

  10. Counterintuitive effects of global warming-induced wind patterns on primary production in the Northern Humboldt Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón, Rodrigo; R Calil, Paulo H

    2018-04-14

    It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced. This is due to a complex balance between nutrient availability, nutrient use efficiency, as well as eddy- and wind-driven factors. Mesoscale activity induces a net offshore transport of inorganic nutrients, thus reducing primary production in the coastal upwelling region. Wind mixing, in general disadvantageous for primary producers, leads to shorter residence times in the southern and central coastal zones. Overall, instead of a proportional enhancement in primary production due to increased winds, the NHCS becomes only 5% more productive (+5 mol C m -2 year -1 ), 10% less limited by nutrients and 15% less efficient due to eddy-driven effects. It is found that regions with a initial strong nutrient limitation are more efficient in terms of nutrient assimilation which makes them more resilient in face of the acceleration of the upwelling circulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Regional Analysis of Long-term Local and Synoptic Effects on Wind Velocity and Energy Patterns in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Koracin, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Investments in renewable energy are justified in both environmental and economic terms. Climate change risks call for mitigation strategies aimed to reduce pollutant emissions, while the energy supply is facing high uncertainty by the current or future global economic and political contexts. Wind energy is playing a strategic role in the efforts of any country for sustainable development and energy supply security. Wind energy is a weather and climate-dependent resource, having a natural spatio-temporal variability at time scales ranging from fraction of seconds to seasons and years, while at spatial scales is strongly affected by the topography and vegetation. Main objective of the study is to investigate spatio-temporal characteristics of the wind velocity in the Southwest U.S., that are relevant to wind energy assessment, analysis, development, operation, and grid integration, by using long-term multiple meteorological tower observations. Wind velocity data and other meteorological parameters from five towers, located near Tonopah, Nevada, operated between 2003 to 2008, and from three towers are located in Carson Valley, Nevada, operated between 2006 and 2014 were used in this study. Multi-annual wind speed data collected did not show significant increase trends with increasing elevation; the differences are mainly governed by the topographic complexity, including local atmospheric circulations. Auto- and cross-correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multi-day periodicity with increasing lag periods. Besides pronounced diurnal periodicity at all locations, detrended fluctuation analysis also showed significant seasonal and annual periodicities, and long-memory persistence with similar characteristics. In spite of significant differences in mean wind speeds among the towers, due to location specifics, the relatively high auto- and cross-correlation coefficients among the towers indicate

  12. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  13. Delayed shear enhancement in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, M.D. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a much more important role on the mesoscale: horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and often dominated by vertical wind shear on these scales through the interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. Just over 30 years ago, Pasquill suggested that this interaction need not be simultaneous and that the combination of differential horizontal advection with delayed or subsequent vertical mixing could maintain effective horizontal diffusion in spite of temporal or spatial reductions in boundary-layer turbulence intensity. This two-step mechanism has not received much attention since then, but a recent analysis of observations from and numerical simulations of two mesoscale tracer experiments suggests that delayed shear enhancement can play an important role in MAD. This paper presents an overview of this analysis, with particular emphasis on the influence of resolvable vertical shear on MAD in these two case studies and the contributions made by delayed shear enhancement.

  14. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  15. Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    should give a valid representation of most terminal areas. For air- ports located near unusual terrain features such as mountains or cliffs...A ( IP+t—1 , 11, 2 )—A(1~~+i— 1 , 10,2) )/u1~ lJd L J U INt)r. ~AA (1. O ALEA )* (1. O — b E L A ) $ L )X X ( 1, 1) +bE.Lu *C 1.0 ALd~A )*L)XX (1

  16. Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Fichtl, "Rough to Smooth Transition of an Equilibrium Neutral Constant Stress Layer," NASA TM X-3322, (1975). 5-36 Geiger, Rudolf , The Climate Near the...Roy Steiner , and K. G. Pratt. "Dynamic Response of Airplanes to Atmospheric Turbulence Including Flight Data on Input and Response," NASA TR R-199

  17. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  18. Smart Wind Turbine: Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure, thereby driving the loads and the design of turbines in general and blades in particular. In response to this, several control mechanisms have been applied to wind turbines since the generation of s...

  19. Assessment of homogeneity of the shear-strain pattern in Al–7 wt%Si casting alloy processed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepeda-Jiménez, C.M., E-mail: carmen.cepeda@imdea.org [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Orozco-Caballero, A.; García-Infanta, J.M. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zhilyaev, A.P. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturina, 450001 Ufa (Russian Federation); Ruano, O.A.; Carreño, F. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    An as-cast Al–7 wt%Si alloy was subjected to processing by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature, through 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 5 turns at a pressure of 6 GPa and two rotation speeds, 0.1 and 1 rpm. Vickers microhardness was measured along diameters of HPT disk surfaces. The final hardness values were higher than in the initial as-cast condition and, unexpectedly, nearly constant under all different processing conditions, and along the disk diameter. The microstructure was characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The as-cast microstructure comprises equiaxed primary α dendrite cells embedded in the Al–Si eutectic constituent. The morphology and distribution of the eutectic constituent in the HPT processed materials is used to delineate the shear strain, which was analysed in the cross-section planes of the disks. A high degree of homogeneity in the imposed shear strain throughout the samples was observed, being congruent with the ideal rigid-body torsion. In addition, the high compressive pressure applied, causing compressive strain prior to the torsional strain, is responsible for the deformation-induced precipitation of small Si particles and for the (sub)grain refinement in the primary Al constituent. The role of torsional strain is that of increasing monothonically the redistribution of the eutectic silicon and the misorientation of the (sub)grains.

  20. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  1. General aspects of meteorology and wind flow patterns at the National Medical Cyclotron site, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bartsch, F.J.K.

    1994-06-01

    As part of an assessment into the consequences of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW., Australia, two meteorological stations were installed to monitor the winds, temperatures and atmospheric dispersion conditions. The data will be used to assess environmental impacts of the Cyclotron's operation. In spite of the relatively poor performance of the stations, the wind data indicated significant effects of local buildings and the general urban surface roughness features. The prevailing winds during the study were from the north-north-west at night and south-south-west or north-east sea breezes during the day. Atmospheric stability/dispersion categories were typical of an urban heat island location. 11 refs., 10 tabs, 6 figs

  2. An evaluation of WRF's ability to reproduce the surface wind over complex terrain based on typical circulation patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, P.A.; Dudhia, J.; González-Rouco, J.F.; Montávez, J.P.; Garcia-Bustamante, E.; Navarro, J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Munoz-Roldán, A.

    2013-01-01

    [1] The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to reproduce the surface wind circulations over complex terrain is examined. The atmospheric evolution is simulated using two versions of the WRF model during an over 13¿year period (1992 to 2005) over a complex terrain region

  3. Complex terrain experiments in the New European Wind Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelou, N.; Callies, D.; Cantero, E.; Arroyo, R. Chávez; Courtney, M.; Cuxart, J.; Dellwik, E.; Gottschall, J.; Ivanell, S.; Kühn, P.; Lea, G.; Matos, J. C.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Peña, A.; Rodrigo, J. Sanz; Söderberg, S.; Vasiljevic, N.; Rodrigues, C. Veiga

    2017-01-01

    The New European Wind Atlas project will create a freely accessible wind atlas covering Europe and Turkey, develop the model chain to create the atlas and perform a series of experiments on flow in many different kinds of complex terrain to validate the models. This paper describes the experiments of which some are nearly completed while others are in the planning stage. All experiments focus on the flow properties that are relevant for wind turbines, so the main focus is the mean flow and the turbulence at heights between 40 and 300 m. Also extreme winds, wind shear and veer, and diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind are of interest. Common to all the experiments is the use of Doppler lidar systems to supplement and in some cases replace completely meteorological towers. Many of the lidars will be equipped with scan heads that will allow for arbitrary scan patterns by several synchronized systems. Two pilot experiments, one in Portugal and one in Germany, show the value of using multiple synchronized, scanning lidar, both in terms of the accuracy of the measurements and the atmospheric physical processes that can be studied. The experimental data will be used for validation of atmospheric flow models and will by the end of the project be freely available. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Wind energy in complex terrains’. PMID:28265025

  4. [Playing of wind instruments is associated with an obstructive pattern in the spirometry of adolescents with a good aerobic resistance capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Javier; Granell, Jose; Ruiz, Diana; Tapias, Jose A

    2011-03-01

    There is controversy in the medical literature regarding the beneficial or detrimental effects of playing wind musical instruments on the respiratory system. The aim of this study is to analyse this relationship, taking the physical condition of the subjects into consideration. Cross-sectional observational study. Public institution with coordinated medium grade musical instruction and primary and secondary education. Young performers (between 13 and 17 years). We collected basic epidemiological parameters (gender, age, weight, size, heath status), and each subject underwent a fitness test ("course navette" cardiorespiratory fitness test) and a forced spirometry. We included 90 students, 53 females and 37 males. Thirty two were wind instrument players and 58 studied other instruments. The two groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, age and body mass index. The maximum oxygen uptake showed no significant difference (P=0.255), further demonstrating an adequate level of fitness compared to the general population. FVC was normal and similar in both groups (P=0.197). The FEV(1) percentage and the FEV(1)/FVC ratio were significantly lower (Pstudy of wind instruments was associated with an obstructive spirometric pattern in young musicians with a normal level of physical fitness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Airflow over Barchan dunes: field measurements, mathematical modelling and wind tunnel testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggs, G. F. S.

    1992-01-01

    There are few empirical measurements of velocity, shear velocity, sand transport, morphological change on the windward slopes of dunes.This thesis compares field measurements on a barchan dune in Oman with calculations using a mathematical model (FLOWSTAR) and measurements in a wind tunnel. All three techniques demonstrate similar patterns of velocity, confirming the acceleration of flow up the windward slope, deceleration between the crest and brink and significant flow decele...

  6. The role of streamline curvature in sand dune dynamics: evidence from field and wind tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Livingstone, Ian; Warren, Andrew

    1996-09-01

    Field measurements on an unvegetated, 10 m high barchan dune in Oman are compared with measurements over a 1:200 scale fixed model in a wind tunnel. Both the field and wind tunnel data demonstrate similar patterns of wind and shear velocity over the dune, confirming significant flow deceleration upwind of and at the toe of the dune, acceleration of flow up the windward slope, and deceleration between the crest and brink. This pattern, including the widely reported upwind reduction in shear velocity, reflects observations of previous studies. Such a reduction in shear velocity upwind of the dune should result in a reduction in sand transport and subsequent sand deposition. This is not observed in the field. Wind tunnel modelling using a near-surface pulse-wire probe suggests that the field method of shear velocity derivation is inadequate. The wind tunnel results exhibit no reduction in shear velocity upwind of or at the toe of the dune. Evidence provided by Reynolds stress profiles and turbulence intensities measured in the wind tunnel suggest that this maintenance of upwind shear stress may be a result of concave (unstable) streamline curvature. These additional surface stresses are not recorded by the techniques used in the field measurements. Using the occurrence of streamline curvature as a starting point, a new 2-D model of dune dynamics is deduced. This model relies on the establishment of an equilibrium between windward slope morphology, surface stresses induced by streamline curvature, and streamwise acceleration. Adopting the criteria that concave streamline curvature and streamwise acceleration both increase surface shear stress, whereas convex streamline curvature and deceleration have the opposite effect, the relationships between form and process are investigated in each of three morphologically distinct zones: the upwind interdune and concave toe region of the dune, the convex portion of the windward slope, and the crest-brink region. The

  7. Combining dispersion modelling with synoptic patterns to understand the wind-borne transport into the UK of the bluetongue disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Laura; Ekström, Marie; Dessai, Suraje

    2017-07-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent. A PCA was conducted on high-pass-filtered mean sea-level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into five classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main synoptic types present. Midge incursion events were found to mainly occur in two synoptic categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess frequency and timings of incursions of virus into new areas on seasonal and decadal timescales, currently not possible with other dispersion or biological modelling methods.

  8. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  9. Analysis of extreme wind events at Høvsøre and the effect on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Kelly, Mark C.; Mann, Jakob

    used to simulate wind turbine response in time domain. The simulations are made for the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine. Load analysis shows that the maximum tilt moment on the tower yaw bearing correlates well with the wind shear of the measurements. When these loads are compared with the extreme...... wind shear load case of the IEC standards, it is seen that they are of similar magnitude and in one case even higher....

  10. Advancements in Wind Energy Metrology – UPWIND 1A2.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Courtney, Michael

    of wind turbines. These measurements document the meandering wake pattern. The second part of the overview considers power performance measurements. A new investigation on the influence of wind shear points to a revision of the definition of a power curve. A new measurement method has been developed which...... has a good chance of being implemented in the present revision of the IEC performance standard. Also, a turbulence normalization method has been tested but not found efficient enough for inclusion in the IEC standard. In relation to the coming IEC standard on performance verification with the use...

  11. In-Class Quantification of the Mentos and Diet Coke Analogue Experiment: Effects of Wind on Volcanic Isopach Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quane, S.; Klos, Z.; Jacobsen, R.

    2009-05-01

    The Mentos and Diet Coke experiment, where instantaneous emplacement of Mentos candy in Diet Coke creates a soda/CO2 eruptive plume, is a common educational analogue for a volcanic eruption. In this paper, we quantify the effects of varying directional wind speeds on the eruptive plume as a learning tool in advanced Introductory Geology and Volcanology courses. The Mentos and Diet Coke reaction is a fun, safe and affordable analogue for explosive, single pulse, basaltic eruptions (e.g., Strombolian eruptions). Specifically, the physical and chemical reaction nucleating CO2 bubbles on the pitted surface of Mentos candy is directly analogous to the collapsing foam eruption regime described by Parfitt (2004) where inertia driven fragmentation of the liquid (Namiki and Manga, 2008) leads to basaltic pyroclastic eruptions. Often, in these systems, the pyroclasts are carried downwind, resulting lopsided (downwind side taller) cinder cones. In our experiments, we create a single pulse eruption by simultaneously dropping four Mentos candies into a 16.9 oz. bottle of Diet Coke. The experiments are run under different wind conditions created by three stacked box fans in the off (control experiment) low, medium and high settings. Wind speed is measured using a hand held anemometer. The pyroclast dispersal is recorded by degree of liquid saturation through four layers of newspaper. The liquid is allowed to soak in for thirty seconds post eruption and then the individual layers of newspaper are separated and the saturation envelope is traced with a black marker and digitally photographed. The pyroclast dispersal envelope (or saturation area) is then quantified from the photos by image analysis in Adobe Photoshop. In addition, the experiments are videotaped to quantify ejection velocity using frame by frame analysis in iMovie. The resulting isopach ("deposit thickness") maps indicate a strong tightening of dispersal envelopes with increasing wind speed as seen in natural

  12. Wind inflow observation from load harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marta, Bertelè; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Cacciola, Stefano; Fabiano Daher Adegas,; Sara, Delport

    2017-01-01

    The wind field leaves its fingerprint on the rotor response. This fact can be exploited by using the rotor as a sensor: by looking at the rotor response, in the present case in terms of blade loads, one may infer the wind characteristics. This paper describes a wind state observer that estimates four wind parameters, namely the vertical and horizontal shears and the yaw and upflow misalignment angles, from out-of-plane and in-plane blade bending moments. The resulting observ...

  13. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  14. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  15. On the Effect of Offshore Wind Parks on Ocean Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, E.; Pohlmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    being hundred times bigger than the wind park itself. The emerged vertical structure is generated due to a newly created geostrophic balance resulting in a redistribution of the ocean mass field. A number of additional upwelling and downwelling cells around the wind park support an intensified vertical dispersion through all layers and incline the thermocline which also influences the lower levels. The disturbances of mass show a dipole structure across the main wind direction with a maximum change in thermocline depth of some meters close to the OWP. Diffusion, mostly driven by direct wind induced surface shear is also modified by the wind turbines and supports a further modification of the vertical patterns. Considering that wind turbines operate only in a special window of wind speed, i.e. wind turbines will stop in case of too weak or too strong wind speeds as well as in case of technical issues, the averaged dimension and intensity of occurring vertical cells depend on the number of rotors and expected wind speeds. Finally we will focus on scenario runs for the North Sea under fully realistic conditions to estimate possible changes in ocean dynamics due to OWPs in future and these results will be further used for process analyzes of the ecosystem. If we assume a continuous operation of North Sea's OWPs in future we expect a fundamental constant change in ocean dynamics and moreover in the ecosystem in its vicinity.

  16. Barotropic wind-driven circulation patterns in a closed rectangular basin of variable depth influenced by a peninsula or an island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Chubarenko

    Full Text Available We study how a coastal obstruction (peninsula or coastal island affects the three-dimensional barotropic currents in an oblong rectangular basin with variable bathymetry across the basin width. The transverse depth profile is asymmetric and the peninsula or island lies in the middle of the long side of the rectangle. A semi-spectral model for the Boussinesq-approximated shallow water equations, developed in Haidvogel et al. and altered for semi-implicit numerical integration in time in Wang and Hutter, is used to find the steady barotropic state circulation pattern to external winds. The structural (qualitative rearrangements and quanti2tative features of the current pattern are studied under four principal wind directions and different lengths of the peninsula and its inclination relative to the shore. The essentially non-linear relationships of the water flux between the two sub-basins (formed by the obstructing peninsula and the corresponding cross-sectional area left open are found and analysed. It is further analysed whether the depth-integrated model, usually adopted by others, is meaningful when applied to the water exchange problems. The flow through the channel narrowing is quantitatively estimated and compared with the three-dimensional results. The dynamics of the vortex structure and the identification of the up-welling/down-welling zones around the obstruction are discussed in detail. The influence of the transformation of the peninsula into a coastal island on the global basin circulation is considered as are the currents in the channel. The geometric and physical reasons for the anisotropy of the current structure which prevail through all obtained solutions are also discussed.

    Key words: Oceanography: general (limnology; numerical modeling - Oceanography: physical (currents

  17. Barotropic wind-driven circulation patterns in a closed rectangular basin of variable depth influenced by a peninsula or an island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Chubarenko

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how a coastal obstruction (peninsula or coastal island affects the three-dimensional barotropic currents in an oblong rectangular basin with variable bathymetry across the basin width. The transverse depth profile is asymmetric and the peninsula or island lies in the middle of the long side of the rectangle. A semi-spectral model for the Boussinesq-approximated shallow water equations, developed in Haidvogel et al. and altered for semi-implicit numerical integration in time in Wang and Hutter, is used to find the steady barotropic state circulation pattern to external winds. The structural (qualitative rearrangements and quanti2tative features of the current pattern are studied under four principal wind directions and different lengths of the peninsula and its inclination relative to the shore. The essentially non-linear relationships of the water flux between the two sub-basins (formed by the obstructing peninsula and the corresponding cross-sectional area left open are found and analysed. It is further analysed whether the depth-integrated model, usually adopted by others, is meaningful when applied to the water exchange problems. The flow through the channel narrowing is quantitatively estimated and compared with the three-dimensional results. The dynamics of the vortex structure and the identification of the up-welling/down-welling zones around the obstruction are discussed in detail. The influence of the transformation of the peninsula into a coastal island on the global basin circulation is considered as are the currents in the channel. The geometric and physical reasons for the anisotropy of the current structure which prevail through all obtained solutions are also discussed.Key words: Oceanography: general (limnology; numerical modeling - Oceanography: physical (currents

  18. Micromechanics of soil responses in cyclic simple shear tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind turbine (OWT foundations are subjected to a combination of cyclic and dynamic loading arising from wind, wave, rotor and blade shadowing. Under cyclic loading, most soils change their characteristics including stiffness, which may cause the system natural frequency to approach the loading frequency and lead to unplanned resonance and system damage or even collapse. To investigate such changes and the underlying micromechanics, a series of cyclic simple shear tests were performed on the RedHill 110 sand with different shear strain amplitudes, vertical stresses and initial relative densities of soil. The test results showed that: (a Vertical accumulated strain is proportional to the shear strain amplitude but inversely proportional to relative density of soil; (b Shear modulus increases rapidly in the initial loading cycles and then the rate of increase diminishes and the shear modulus remains below an asymptote; (c Shear modulus increases with increasing vertical stress and relative density, but decreasing with increasing strain amplitude. Coupled DEM simulations were performed using PFC2D to analyse the micromechanics underlying the cyclic behaviour of soils. Micromechanical parameters (e.g. fabric tensor, coordination number were examined to explore the reasons for the various cyclic responses to different shear strain amplitudes or vertical stresses. Both coordination number and magnitude of fabric anisotropy contribute to the increasing shear modulus.

  19. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  20. CFD modelling of nocturnal low-level jet effects on wind energy related variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The development of a wind speed maximum in the nocturnal boundary layer, referred to as a low-level jet (LLJ), is a common feature of the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Characterizing and understanding LLJ streams is growing in importance as wind turbines are being built larger and taller to take advantage of higher wind speeds at increased heights. We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to explore LLJs effect on wind speed, wind directional and speed shear inside the surface layer 40 - 130 m, where their physical measurements are not trivial and still rare today. We used the one-dimensional version of the ABL model SCADIS (Sogachev et al. 2002: Tellus 54:784-819). The unique feature of the model, based on a two-equation closure approach, is the treatment of buoyancy effects in a universal way, which overcomes the uncertainties with model coefficients for non-shear source/sink terms (Sogachev, 2009: Boundary Layer Meteor. 130:423-435). From a variety of mechanisms suggested for formation of LLJs, such as inertial oscillations, baroclinicity over sloping terrain, and land-sea breeze effects, the one-dimensional ABL model is capable of simulating only the first one. However, that mechanism, which is caused by the diurnal oscillation of eddy viscosity, is often responsible for jet formation. Sensitivity tests carried out showed that SCADIS captures the most prominent features of the LLJ, including its vertical structure as well as its diurnal phase and amplitude. We simulated ABL pattern under conditions typical for LLJ formation (a fair day on July 1, a flat low-roughness underlying surface) at 30 and 50o latitudes. Diurnal variability of wind speed and turbulence intensity at four levels of 40, 70, 100 and 130 m above ground and of wind and directional shear between those levels were analysed. Despite of small differences in LLJ structure the properties of LLJ important for wind energy production are still common for two

  1. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  2. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is an engineering wake model designed to physically model the wake deficit evolution and the unsteady meandering that occurs in wind turbine wakes. The present study aims at improving two features of the model: The effect of the atmospheric boundary layer s...

  3. Wind forces and related saltation transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, J.K.; van Boxel, J.H.; Sterk, G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of several wind characteristics on sand transport was studied in three experiments in north Burkina Faso, West Africa. The first experiment is used to analyse the relation between wind speed and shear stress fluctuations across height. The second experiment is used to study the relation

  4. Wind inflow observation from load harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bertelè

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The wind field leaves its fingerprint on the rotor response. This fact can be exploited by using the rotor as a sensor: by looking at the rotor response, in the present case in terms of blade loads, one may infer the wind characteristics. This paper describes a wind state observer that estimates four wind parameters, namely the vertical and horizontal shears and the yaw and upflow misalignment angles, from out-of-plane and in-plane blade bending moments. The resulting observer provides on-rotor wind inflow characteristics that can be exploited for wind turbine and wind farm control. The proposed formulation is evaluated through extensive numerical simulations in turbulent and nonturbulent wind conditions using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic model of a multi-MW wind turbine.

  5. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  6. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  7. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  8. Wind effects on coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll patterns in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight during spring 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, David L.; Iverson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) chlorophyll concentration increases in the Mid-Atlantic Bight were associated with high wind speeds in continental shelf waters during March and May 1979. Maximum spring CZCS chlorophyll concentrations occurred during April when the water column was not thermally stratified and were spatially and temporally associated with reductions in wind speed both in onshelf and in offshelf regions. Increased chlorophyll concentrations in offshelf waters were associated with high wind speeds during May when a deep chlorophyll maximum was present. Chlorophyll patchiness was observed on length scales typical of those controlled by biological processes during the April low-wind period but not during March or May when wind speeds were greater. The spring CZCS chlorophyll maximum in the southern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Bight occurred in response to a reduction in mixed layer depth caused by decreased wind speeds and not by increased water column stratification.

  9. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  10. The pattern of complaints about Australian wind farms does not match the establishment and distribution of turbines: support for the psychogenic, 'communicated disease' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; St George, Alexis; Waller, Karen; Cakic, Vince

    2013-01-01

    With often florid allegations about health problems arising from wind turbine exposure now widespread, nocebo effects potentially confound any future investigation of turbine health impact. Historical audits of health complaints are therefore important. We test 4 hypotheses relevant to psychogenic explanations of the variable timing and distribution of health and noise complaints about wind farms in Australia. All Australian wind farms (51 with 1634 turbines) operating 1993-2012. Records of complaints about noise or health from residents living near 51 Australian wind farms were obtained from all wind farm companies, and corroborated with complaints in submissions to 3 government public enquiries and news media records and court affidavits. These are expressed as proportions of estimated populations residing within 5 km of wind farms. There are large historical and geographical variations in wind farm complaints. 33/51 (64.7%) of Australian wind farms including 18/34 (52.9%) with turbine size >1 MW have never been subject to noise or health complaints. These 33 farms have an estimated 21,633 residents within 5 km and have operated complaint-free for a cumulative 267 years. Western Australia and Tasmania have seen no complaints. 129 individuals across Australia (1 in 254 residents) appear to have ever complained, with 94 (73%) being residents near 6 wind farms targeted by anti wind farm groups. The large majority 116/129(90%) of complainants made their first complaint after 2009 when anti wind farm groups began to add health concerns to their wider opposition. In the preceding years, health or noise complaints were rare despite large and small-turbine wind farms having operated for many years. The reported historical and geographical variations in complaints are consistent with psychogenic hypotheses that expressed health problems are "communicated diseases" with nocebo effects likely to play an important role in the aetiology of complaints.

  11. The Pattern of Complaints about Australian Wind Farms Does Not Match the Establishment and Distribution of Turbines: Support for the Psychogenic, ‘Communicated Disease’ Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; St. George, Alexis; Waller, Karen; Cakic, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives With often florid allegations about health problems arising from wind turbine exposure now widespread, nocebo effects potentially confound any future investigation of turbine health impact. Historical audits of health complaints are therefore important. We test 4 hypotheses relevant to psychogenic explanations of the variable timing and distribution of health and noise complaints about wind farms in Australia. Setting All Australian wind farms (51 with 1634 turbines) operating 1993–2012. Methods Records of complaints about noise or health from residents living near 51 Australian wind farms were obtained from all wind farm companies, and corroborated with complaints in submissions to 3 government public enquiries and news media records and court affidavits. These are expressed as proportions of estimated populations residing within 5 km of wind farms. Results There are large historical and geographical variations in wind farm complaints. 33/51 (64.7%) of Australian wind farms including 18/34 (52.9%) with turbine size >1 MW have never been subject to noise or health complaints. These 33 farms have an estimated 21,633 residents within 5 km and have operated complaint-free for a cumulative 267 years. Western Australia and Tasmania have seen no complaints. 129 individuals across Australia (1 in 254 residents) appear to have ever complained, with 94 (73%) being residents near 6 wind farms targeted by anti wind farm groups. The large majority 116/129(90%) of complainants made their first complaint after 2009 when anti wind farm groups began to add health concerns to their wider opposition. In the preceding years, health or noise complaints were rare despite large and small-turbine wind farms having operated for many years. Conclusions The reported historical and geographical variations in complaints are consistent with psychogenic hypotheses that expressed health problems are “communicated diseases” with nocebo effects likely to play an

  12. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    again by six years, from October 1996 to April 2002, by interpolating 1000-ft sounding data to 100-ft increments. The Phase II developmental data set included observations for the cool season months of October 1996 to February 2007. The AMU calculated 68 candidate predictors from the XMR soundings, to include 19 stability parameters, 48 wind speed parameters and one wind shear parameter. Each day in the data set was stratified by synoptic weather pattern, low-level wind direction, precipitation and Richardson Number, for a total of 60 stratification methods. Linear regression equations, using the 68 predictors and 60 stratification methods, were created for the tool's three forecast parameters: the highest peak wind speed of the day (PWSD), 5-minute average speed at the same time (A WSD), and timing of the PWSD. For PWSD and A WSD, 30 Phase II methods were selected for evaluation in the verification data set. For timing of the PWSD, 12 Phase\\I methods were selected for evaluation. The verification data set contained observations for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The data set was used to compare the Phase I and II forecast methods to climatology, model forecast winds and wind advisories issued by the 45 WS. The model forecast winds were derived from the 0000 and 1200 UTC runs of the 12-km North American Mesoscale (MesoNAM) model. The forecast methods that performed the best in the verification data set were selected for the Phase II version of the tool. For PWSD and A WSD, linear regression equations based on MesoNAM forecasts performed significantly better than the Phase I and II methods. For timing of the PWSD, none of the methods performed significantly bener than climatology. The AMU then developed the Microsoft Excel and MIDDS GUls. The GUIs display the forecasts for PWSD, AWSD and the probability the PWSD will meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. Since none of the prediction methods for timing of the PWSD performed significantly better

  13. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Extreme and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  14. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  15. Characterization of traffic-related PM concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in near-highway urban residential street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Intaek; Brixey, Laurie A; Wiener, Russell W; Henkle, Stacy W; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of outdoor traffic-related particulate matter (PM) concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in urban street canyons within a microscale distance of less than 500 m from a highway source are presented as part of the results from the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. Various patterns of spatial and temporal changes in the street canyon PM concentrations were investigated using time-series data of real-time PM concentrations measured during multiple monitoring periods. Concurrent time-series data of local street canyon wind conditions and wind data from the John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport National Weather Service (NWS) were used to characterize the effects of various wind conditions on the behavior of street canyon PM concentrations.Our results suggest that wind direction may strongly influence time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution patterns in near-highway urban street canyons. The rooftop-level wind speeds were found to be strongly correlated with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities in the middle sections of the street blocks. The ambient turbulence generated by shifting local wind directions (angles) showed a good correlation with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities along the entire distance of the first and second street blocks only when the wind angle standard deviations were larger than 30 degrees. Within-canyon turbulent shearing, caused by fluctuating local street canyon wind speeds, showed no correlation with PM concentration fluctuation intensities. The time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution along the longitudinal distances of the street blocks when wind direction was mostly constantly parallel to the street was found to be similar to the distribution pattern for the entire monitoring period when wind direction fluctuated wildly. Finally, we showed that two different PM concentration metrics-time-averaged mean

  16. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  17. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  18. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  19. Tidal influence on offshore wind fields and resource predictions[Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, D. [Entec UK Ltd., Doherty Innovation Centre, Penicuik (United Kingdom); Infield, D. [Loughborough Univ., Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Tecnology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    The rise and fall of the sea surface due to tides effectively moves an offshore wind turbine hub through the wind shear profile. This effect is quantified using measured data from 3 offshore UK sites. Statistical evidence of the influence of tide on mean wind speed and turbulence is presented. The implications of this effect for predicting offshore wind resource are outlined. (au)

  20. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three

  1. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  2. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  3. An underwater shear compactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, E.; Sims, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper, originally presented at the WM'96 Conference in Tucson Arizona, describes a concept of a specialised decommissioning tool designed to operate underwater and to reduce the volume of radioactive components by shearing and compacting. The shear compactor was originally conceived to manage the size reduction of a variety of decommissioned stainless steel tubes stored within a reactor fuel cooling pond and which were consuming a substantial volume of the pond. The main objective of this tool was to cut the long tubes into shorter lengths and to compact them into a flat rectangular form which could be stacked on the pond floor, thus saving valuable space. The development programme, undertaken on this project, investigated a wide range of factors which could contribute to an extended cutting blade performance, ie: materials of construction, cutting blade shape and cutting loads required, shock effects, etc. The second phase was to review other aspects of the design, such as radiological protection, cutting blade replacement, maintenance, pond installation and resultant wall loads, water hydraulics, collection of products of shearing/compacting operations, corrosion of the equipment, control system, operational safety and the ability of the equipment to operate in dry environments. The paper summarises the extended work programme involved with this shear compactor tool. (author)

  4. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  5. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation

  6. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  7. Self-organization in circular shear layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, K.; Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1996-01-01

    Experiments on forced circular shear layers performed in both magnetized plasmas and in rotating fluids reveal qualitatively similar self-organization processes leading to the formation of patterns of coherent vortical structures with varying complexity. In this paper results are presented from...... both weakly nonlinear analysis and full numerical simulations that closely reproduce the experimental observations. Varying the Reynolds number leads to bifurcation sequences accompanied by topological changes in the distribution of the coherent structures as well as clear transitions in the total...

  8. Combined shearing interferometer and hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchin, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive wavefront sensor combining attributes of both a Hartmann type of wavefront sensor and an AC shearing interferometer type of wavefront sensor. An incident wavefront, the slope of which is to be detected, is focussed to first and second focal points at which first and second diffraction gratings are positioned to shear and modulate the wavefront, which then diverges therefrom. The diffraction patterns of the first and second gratings are positioned substantially orthogonal to each other to shear the wavefront in two directions to produce two dimensional wavefront slope data for the AC shearing interferometer portion of the wavefront sensor. First and second dividing optical systems are positioned in the two diverging wavefronts to divide the sheared wavefront into an array of subapertures and also to focus the wavefront in each subaperture to a focal point. A quadrant detector is provided for each subaperture to detect the position of the focal point therein, which provides a first indication, in the manner of a Hartmann wavefront sensor, of the local wavefront slope in each subaperture. The total radiation in each subaperture, as modulated by the diffraction grating, is also detected by the quadrant detector which produces a modulated output signal representative thereof, the phase of which relative to modulation by the diffraction grating provides a second indication of the local wavefront slope in each subaperture, in the manner of an AC shearing interferometer wavefront sensor. The data from both types of sensors is then combined by long term averaging thereof to provide an extremely sensitive wavefront sensor

  9. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  10. Gelation under shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  11. Forflytning: shear og friktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    friktion). Formålet med filmprojektet er: At give personalet i Apopleksiafsnittet viden om shear og friktion, så det motiveres til forebyggelse. Mål At udarbejde et enkelt undervisningsmateriale til bed-side-brug Projektbeskrivelse (resume) Patienter med apopleksi er særligt udsatte for tryksår, fordi de...... ofte er immobile, har svært ved at opretholde en god siddestilling eller ligger tungt i sengen som følger efter apopleksien Hvis personalet bruger forkert lejrings-og forflytningsteknik, udsættes patienterne for shear og friktion. Målgruppen i projektet er de personer, der omgås patienterne, dvs...

  12. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  13. Gusts and Shear in an Idealized LES-modeled Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, R.; Lundquist, J. K.; Bryan, G. H.; Damiani, R.; Musial, W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclone winds can cause extreme loading and damage to coastal structures such as buildings and energy infrastructure. Offshore wind energy development is underway along the US East Coast where hurricanes pose a substantial risk. Understanding wind gusts, gust factor, shear, and veer in the hurricane boundary layer (HBL) can help manufacturers assess risk and design wind turbines to better withstand these extreme wind conditions. Because of the paucity of observational data at low-levels (200 m and below), we use the Cloud Model Version I (CM1) large-eddy simulation numerical model to simulate high spatial- (10 m) and temporal- (0.1 s) resolution data. This unique dataset is used to answer the following questions: do severe mean wind speeds and gusts that exceed current design limits occur?; how does the gust factor vary with distance from the eye?; and lastly, how does wind direction vary horizontally and with height? We find that mean winds and gusts near the eyewall can exceed current turbine design thresholds of 50 m s-1 and 70 m s-1, respectively. Gust factors are greatest at the eye-eyewall interface just inward of the peak gust location and can exceed the 1.4 value used to convert a 50 m s-1 reference wind speed to a 50-year 3-second gust. Strong veer (15-30 degrees) across a 120 m-layer suggests that veer should be assessed against standard design prescriptions. Lastly, wind directions can shift 10-25 degrees in durations shorter than 10 minutes, which can challenge structures designed to endure winds from a consistent direction for periods longer than 10 minutes, including wind turbines.

  14. Plasticity Approach to Shear Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing....

  15. Seismic cycle feedbacks in a mid-crustal shear zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, Benjamin L.; Rowe, Christie D.; Gerbi, Christopher; Smit, Louis; Macey, Paul

    2018-07-01

    Mid-crustal fault rheology is controlled by alternating brittle and plastic deformation mechanisms, which cause feedback cycles that influence earthquake behavior. Detailed mapping and microstructural observations in the Pofadder Shear Zone (Namibia and South Africa) reveal a lithologically heterogeneous shear zone core with quartz-rich mylonites and ultramylonites, plastically overprinted pseudotachylyte and active shear folds. We present evidence for a positive feedback cycle in which coseismic grain size reduction facilitates active shear folding by enhancing competency contrasts and promoting crystal plastic flow. Shear folding strengthens a portion of a shear zone by limb rotation, focusing deformation and promoting plastic flow or brittle slip in resulting areas of localized high stress. Using quartz paleopiezometry, we estimate strain and slip rates consistent with other studies of exhumed shear zones and modern plate boundary faults, helping establish the Pofadder Shear Zone as an ancient analogue to modern, continental-scale, strike-slip faults. This feedback cycle influences seismicity patterns at the scale of study (10s of meters) and possibly larger scales as well, and contributes to bulk strengthening of the brittle-plastic transition on modern plate boundary faults.

  16. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  17. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  18. Influence of orographically steered winds on Mutsu Bay surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Effects of spatially dependent sea surface wind field on currents in Mutsu Bay, which is located at the northern end of Japanese Honshu Island, are investigated using winds derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and a numerical model. A characteristic wind pattern over the bay was evidenced from analysis of 118 SAR images and coincided with in situ observations. Wind is topographically steered with easterly winds entering the bay through the terrestrial gap and stronger wind blowing over the central water toward its mouth. Nearshore winds are weaker due to terrestrial blockages. Using the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigated currents forced by the observed spatially dependent wind field. The predicted current pattern agrees well with available observations. For a uniform wind field of equal magnitude and average direction, the circulation pattern departs from observations demonstrating that vorticity input due to spatially dependent wind stress is essential in generation of the wind-driven current in Mutsu Bay.

  19. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  20. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  1. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  2. Effects of Yaw Error on Wind Turbine Running Characteristics Based on the Equivalent Wind Speed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural wind is stochastic, being characterized by its speed and direction which change randomly and frequently. Because of the certain lag in control systems and the yaw body itself, wind turbines cannot be accurately aligned toward the wind direction when the wind speed and wind direction change frequently. Thus, wind turbines often suffer from a series of engineering issues during operation, including frequent yaw, vibration overruns and downtime. This paper aims to study the effects of yaw error on wind turbine running characteristics at different wind speeds and control stages by establishing a wind turbine model, yaw error model and the equivalent wind speed model that includes the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Formulas for the relevant effect coefficients Tc, Sc and Pc were derived. The simulation results indicate that the effects of the aerodynamic torque, rotor speed and power output due to yaw error at different running stages are different and that the effect rules for each coefficient are not identical when the yaw error varies. These results may provide theoretical support for optimizing the yaw control strategies for each stage to increase the running stability of wind turbines and the utilization rate of wind energy.

  3. Individual pitch control of NREL 5MW wind turbine blade for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Yo Han; Nam, Yoon Su; Hoon, Son Jae

    2012-01-01

    As the size of a wind turbine increases, the rotor diameter increases. Rotor blades experience mechanical loads caused by the wind shear and the tower shadow effect. These mechanical loads reduce the life of the wind turbine. Therefore, with increasing size of the wind turbine, wind turbine control system design for the mitigation of mechanical loads is important. In this study, Individual Pitch Control in introduced for reducing the mechanical loads of rotor blades, and a simulation for IPC performance verification is discussed

  4. Shear-induced chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kevin K; Young, Lai-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel but different situations. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed

  5. Shear-induced chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kevin K.; Young, Lai-Sang

    2008-05-01

    Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel but different situations. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed.

  6. Bolt Shear Force Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    0030] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a deformable ring of the bolt shear force sensor of the present invention with an optical Attorney Docket No...102587 9 of 19 fiber having Bragg gratings wound around the ring; [0031] FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the deformable ring with wire strain... strength . [0047] Once the joint is subjected to an external load (see force arrows “F” and “F/2”); any frictional resistance to slip is overcome and

  7. The influence of coastal morphology on wind dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Jarmalavičius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dynamics of wind velocity along the Baltic coast of Lithuania is presented, based on data collected during field experiments in the summer, fall and winter of 1999–2001 and 2007–2009 at several sites (Būtingė, Šaipiai, Smiltynė, Juodkrantė, Pervalka and Nida. The locations were chosen in order to encompass a wide spectrum of beach and dune ridge morphology. The relationship between wind velocity dynamics and coastal morphology was established, based on measurements of the slope angle, height and shape of the dune crest, as well as measurements of the morphology of the area behind the foredune ridge. On the basis of a comparison of near-surface wind velocity patterns, shear velocity (U* and surface roughness length (z0 were calculated. It was determined that U* decreases from the middle of the beach towards the foredune toe, then increases towards the crest of the foredune and decreases down the lee slope. A direct correlation exists between U* and the stoss slope inclination, and the relative height of the foredune. Surface roughness length also increases from the beach towards the foredune crest.

  8. Excited waves in shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  9. Designing shear-thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Arif Z.; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2017-11-01

    Design in fluid mechanics often focuses on optimizing geometry (airfoils, surface textures, microfluid channels), but here we focus on designing fluids themselves. The dramatically shear-thinning ``yield-stress fluid'' is currently the most utilized non-Newtonian fluid phenomenon. These rheologically complex materials, which undergo a reversible transition from solid-like to liquid-like fluid flow, are utilized in pedestrian products such as paint and toothpaste, but also in emerging applications like direct-write 3D printing. We present a paradigm for yield-stress fluid design that considers constitutive model representation, material property databases, available predictive scaling laws, and the many ways to achieve a yield stress fluid, flipping the typical structure-to-rheology analysis to become the inverse: rheology-to-structure with multiple possible materials as solutions. We describe case studies of 3D printing inks and other flow scenarios where designed shear-thinning enables performance remarkably beyond that of Newtonian fluids. This work was supported by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1463203.

  10. Effects of opening in shear walls of 30- storey building

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Sharma; Jignesh A Amin

    2015-01-01

    Tall towers and multi-storey buildings have fascinated mankind from the beginning of civilization, their construction being initially for defense and subsequently for ecclesiastical purposes. These tall buildings because of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake actions tends to snap the building in shear and push it over in bending. In general, the rigidity (i.e. Resistance to lateral deflection) and stability (i.e. Resistance to overturning moments) requirement ...

  11. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  12. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show......Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...

  13. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  14. Some consequences of shear on galactic dynamos with helicity fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongzhe; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-08-01

    Galactic dynamo models sustained by supernova (SN) driven turbulence and differential rotation have revealed that the sustenance of large-scale fields requires a flux of small-scale magnetic helicity to be viable. Here we generalize a minimalist analytic version of such galactic dynamos to explore some heretofore unincluded contributions from shear on the total turbulent energy and turbulent correlation time, with the helicity fluxes maintained by either winds, diffusion or magnetic buoyancy. We construct an analytic framework for modelling the turbulent energy and correlation time as a function of SN rate and shear. We compare our prescription with previous approaches that include only rotation. The solutions depend separately on the rotation period and the eddy turnover time and not just on their ratio (the Rossby number). We consider models in which these two time-scales are allowed to be independent and also a case in which they are mutually dependent on radius when a radial-dependent SN rate model is invoked. For the case of a fixed rotation period (or a fixed radius), we show that the influence of shear is dramatic for low Rossby numbers, reducing the correlation time of the turbulence, which, in turn, strongly reduces the saturation value of the dynamo compared to the case when the shear is ignored. We also show that even in the absence of winds or diffusive fluxes, magnetic buoyancy may be able to sustain sufficient helicity fluxes to avoid quenching.

  15. Heat generation by a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    It will be shown that an actuator disk operating in wind turbine mode extracts more energy from the fluid than can be transferred into useful energy. At the Lanchester-Betz limit the decrease of the kinetic energy in the wind is converted by 2 /3 into useful power and by 1 /3 into heat. Behind the wind turbine the outer flow and the flow that has passed the actuator disk will mix. In this process momentum is conserved but part of the kinetic energy will dissipate in heat via viscous shear. 7 refs.

  16. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  17. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    reduced the wake size and enhanced the vortices in the flow downstream of the turbine-tower compared with the tower alone case. Mean and rms velocity distributions from hot wire anemometer data confirmed that in a downwind configuration, the wake of the tower dominates the flow, thus the flow fields of a tower alone and tower-turbine combinations are nearly the same. For the upwind configuration, the mean velocity shows a narrowing of the wake compared with the tower alone case. The downwind configuration wake persisted longer than that of an upwind configuration; however, it was not possible to quantify this difference because of the size limitation of the wind tunnel downstream of the test section. The water tunnel studies demonstrated that the scale model studies could be used to adequately produce accurate motions to model the motions of a wind turbine platform subject to large waves. It was found that the important factors that affect the platform is whether the platform is submerged or surface piercing. In the former, the loads on the platform will be relatively reduced whereas in the latter case, the structure pierces the wave free surface and gains stiffness and stability. The other important element that affects the movement of the platform is depth of the sea in which the wind turbine will be installed. Furthermore, the wildlife biology component evaluated migratory patterns by different monitoring systems consisting of marine radar, thermal IR camera and acoustic recorders. The types of radar used in the project are weather surveillance radar and marine radar. The weather surveillance radar (1988 Doppler), also known as Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), provides a network of weather stations in the US. Data generated from this network were used to understand general migratory patterns, migratory stopover habitats, and other patterns caused by the effects of weather conditions. At a local scale our marine radar was used to complement the datasets from NEXRAD and

  18. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat...... subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured...... and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber...

  19. An in silico framework to analyze the anisotropic shear wave mechanics in cardiac shear wave elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenen, Annette; Pernot, Mathieu; Peirlinck, Mathias; Mertens, Luc; Swillens, Abigail; Segers, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a potential tool to non-invasively assess cardiac muscle stiffness. This study focused on the effect of the orthotropic material properties and mechanical loading on the performance of cardiac SWE, as it is known that these factors contribute to complex 3D anisotropic shear wave propagation. To investigate the specific impact of these complexities, we constructed a finite element model with an orthotropic material law subjected to different uniaxial stretches to simulate SWE in the stressed cardiac wall. Group and phase speed were analyzed in function of tissue thickness and virtual probe rotation angle. Tissue stretching increased the group and phase speed of the simulated shear wave, especially in the direction of the muscle fiber. As the model provided access to the true fiber orientation and material properties, we assessed the accuracy of two fiber orientation extraction methods based on SWE. We found a higher accuracy (but lower robustness) when extracting fiber orientations based on the location of maximal shear wave speed instead of the angle of the major axis of the ellipsoidal group speed surface. Both methods had a comparable performance for the center region of the cardiac wall, and performed less well towards the edges. Lastly, we also assessed the (theoretical) impact of pathology on shear wave physics and characterization in the model. It was found that SWE was able to detect changes in fiber orientation and material characteristics, potentially associated with cardiac pathologies such as myocardial fibrosis. Furthermore, the model showed clearly altered shear wave patterns for the fibrotic myocardium compared to the healthy myocardium, which forms an initial but promising outcome of this modeling study.

  20. Siting wind farms in and around forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, N. [Natural Power Consultants, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of assessing the impact of trees on wind resources. Turbulence is generated and also absorbed by trees. Disturbances generated at tree level are then transported upwards and down-wind by the wind. The turbulence induced by trees can be felt kilometers downwind of forests at wind turbine hub heights. Wind speeds can be less than predicted, and significant over-estimations can occur with modelled results. The effects of high shear and high turbulence can also have an impact on power curve performance and lead to higher levels of mechanical stress. A SCADA analysis was used to demonstrate the impact of forests on power curves. Wind power predictions near forests can be optimized by using a full year of data capture at hub height, full rotor measurements, and a consideration of seasonal variations. Accurate tree maps are needed to determine the effects of trees on wind shear. Various forestry scenarios were modelled to demonstrate the effects of forestry management over time. tabs., figs.

  1. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  2. Using machine learning to predict wind turbine power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, A; Kilcher, L; Lundquist, J K; Fleming, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to rank atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that from the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data are required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of the different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site. (letter)

  3. Investigation of Shear Stud Performance in Flat Plate Using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Viswanathan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of shear stud arrangement, respectively featuring an orthogonal, a radial and a critical perimeter pattern, were evaluated numerically. A numerical investigation was conducted using the finite element software ABAQUS to evaluate their ability to resist punching shear in a flat plate. The finite element analysis here is an application of the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using three-dimensional solid finite elements. The nonlinear characteristics of concrete were achieved by employing the concrete damaged plasticity model in the finite element program. Transverse shear stress was evaluated using finite element analysis in terms of shear stress distribution for flat plate with and without shear stud reinforcement. The model predicted that shear studs placed along the critical perimeter are more effective compared to orthogonal and radial patterns.

  4. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  5. Wind-induced response analysis of a wind turbine tower including the blade-tower coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo CHEN; Jing LI; Jian-yun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    To analyze wind-induced response characteristics of a wind turbine tower more accurately, the blade-tower coupling effect was investigated. The mean wind velocity of the rotating blades and tower was simulated according to wind shear effects,and the fluctuating wind velocity time series of the wind turbine were simulated by a harmony superposition method. A dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate the wind-induced response of the blades and tower. Wind-induced responses of the tower were calculated in two cases (one included the blade-tower coupling effect, and the other only added the mass of blades and the hub at the top of the tower), and then the maximal displacements at the top of the tower of the tow cases were compared with each other. As a result of the influence of the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades, the maximal displacement of the first case increased nearly by 300% compared to the second case. To obtain more precise analysis, the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades should be considered simultaneously in the design of wind turbine towers.

  6. Integration of wind generation forecasts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, M.; Zavadil, B.; Jones, L.

    2005-01-01

    WindLogics is a company that specializes in atmospheric modelling, visualization and fine-scale forecasting systems for the wind power industry. A background of the organization was presented. The complexities of wind modelling were discussed. Issues concerning location and terrain, shear, diurnal and interannual variability were reviewed. It was suggested that wind power producers should aim to be mainstream, and that variability should be considered as intrinsic to fuel supply. Various utility operating impacts were outlined. Details of an Xcel NSP wind integration study were presented, as well as a studies conducted in New York state and Colorado. It was concluded that regulations and load following impacts with wind energy integration are modest. Overall impacts are dominated by costs incurred to accommodate wind generation variability and uncertainty in the day-ahead time frame. Cost impacts can be reduced with adjustments to operating strategies, improvements in wind forecasting and access to real-time markets. Details of WindLogic's wind energy forecast system were presented, as well as examples of day ahead and hour ahead forecasts and wind speed and power forecasts. Screenshots of control room integration, EMS integration and simulations were presented. Details of a utility-scale wind energy forecasting system funded by Xcel Renewable Development Fund (RDF) were also presented. The goal of the system was to optimize the way that wind forecast information is integrated into the control room environment. Project components were outlined. It was concluded that accurate day-ahead forecasting can lead to significant asset optimization. It was recommended that wind plants share data, and aim to resolve issues concerning grid codes and instrumentation. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H. [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  8. The Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    ALERT SYSTEM (LLWSAS). (May R.. a.-ol - 8..’P" Imng Organization Report No, 9, Perfo~ring Or~ni-otlon Ro-r. -andAddress 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) Federal...rather than electronic approach. The 2-minute average adheres to recommended International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards (referernce 14...speed of 140 knots. **Cold front. 80 ’ # 90 0 STRONG CASES: COFF , 1975 80 9STRONG CASES: UNPU1BLISHED 70 60 A STRONG CASES: COFF , et al., 1978 50 \\ 50 -0

  9. Alfven eigenmodes in shear reversed plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Berk, H.L.; Pekker, M.S.; Sharapov, S.E.; Hawkes, N.C.; Borba, D.N.; Pinches, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments on JT-60U and JET have shown that plasma configurations with shear reversal are prone to the excitation of unusual Alfven Eigenmodes by energetic particles. These modes emerge outside the TAE frequency gap, where one might expect them to be strongly damped. The modes often appear in bunches and they exhibit a quasi-periodic pattern of predominantly upward frequency sweeping (Alfven Cascades) as the safety factor q changes in time. This work presents a theory that explains the key features of the observed unusual modes including their connection to TAE's as well as the modifications of TAE's themselves near the shear reversal point. The developed theory has been incorporated into a reduced numerical model and verified with full geometry codes. JET experimental data on Alfven spectroscopy have been simulated to infer the mode numbers and the evolution of q min in the discharge. This analysis confirms the values of q that characterize the internal transport barrier triggering in reversed shear plasmas. (author)

  10. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  11. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  12. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Non-gyrotropic pressure anisotropy induced by velocity shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenerani, A.; Del Sarto, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Califano, F.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss how, in a collisionless magnetized plasma, a sheared velocity field may lead to the anisotropization of an initial Maxwellian state. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show, analytically and numerically, that a sheared velocity field makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic and non-gyrotropic [1], i.e., makes the plasma pressure tensor anisotropic also in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The propagation of transverse magneto-elastic waves in the anisotropic plasma affects the process of formation of a non-gyrotropic pressure and can lead to its spatial filamentation. This plasma dynamics implies in particular that isotropic MHD equilibria cease to be equilibria in presence of a stationary sheared flow. Similarly, in the case of turbulence, where small-scale spatial inhomogeneities are naturally developed during the direct cascade, we may expect that isotropic turbulent states are not likely to exist whenever a full pressure tensor evolution is accounted for. These results may be relevant to understanding the agyrotropic pressure configurations which are well documented in solar wind measurements and possibly correlated to plasma flows (see e.g. Refs.[2,3]), and which have also been measured in Vlasov simulations of Alfvenic turbulence [4]. [1] D. Del Sarto, F. Pegoraro, F. Califano, "Pressure anisotropy and small spatial scales induced by a velocity shear", http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.04895 [2] H.F. Astudillo, E. Marsch, S. Livi, H. Rosenbauer, "TAUS measurements of non-gyrotropic distribution functions of solar wind alpha particles", AIP Conf. Proc. 328, 289 (1996). [3] A. Posner, M.W. Liemhon, T.H. Zurbuchen, "Upstream magnetospheric ion flux tube within a magnetic cloud: Wind/STICS", Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, (2003). [4] S. Servidio, F. Valentini, F. Califano, P. Veltri, "Local kinetic effects in Two-Dimensional Plasma Turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045001 (2012).

  14. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  15. Effect of wind turbine wakes on summer-time wind profiles in the US Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. E.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.

    2011-12-01

    Wind energy is steadily becoming a significant source of grid electricity in the United States, and the Midwestern United States provides one of the nation's richest wind resources. This study examines the effect of wind turbine wakes on the wind profile in central Iowa. Data were collected using a coherent Doppler LiDAR system located approximately 2.5 rotor diameters north of a row of modern multi-MW wind turbine generators. The prevailing wind direction was from the South allowing the LiDAR to capture wind turbine wake properties; however, a number of periods existed where the LiDAR captured undisturbed flow. The LiDAR system reliably obtained readings up to 200 m above ground level (AGL), spanning the entire rotor disk (~40 m to 120 m AGL) which far surpasses the information provided by traditional wind resource assessment instrumentation. We extract several relevant parameters from the lidar data including: horizontal wind speed, vertical velocity, horizontal turbulence intensity, wind shear, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Each time period at a particular LiDAR measurement height was labeled "wake" or "undisturbed" based on the wind direction at that height. Wake and undisturbed data were averaged separately to create a time-height cross-section averaged day for each parameter. Significant differences between wake and undisturbed data emerge. During the day, wake conditions experience larger values of TKE within the altitudes of the turbine rotor disk while TKE values above the rotor disk are similar between waked and undisturbed conditions. Furthermore, the morning transition of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer commences earlier during wake conditions than in undisturbed conditions, and the evening decay of TKE persists longer during wake conditions. Waked wind shear is consistently greater than undisturbed periods at the edges of the wind turbine rotor disk (40m & 120m AGL), but especially so during the night where wind shear values during wake

  16. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  17. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  18. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  19. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated measurements of the entire wind and turbulence fields, of all three wind components scanned in 3D space. Although primarily developed for research related to on- and offshore wind turbines and wind farms, the facility is also well suited for scanning turbulent wind fields around buildings, bridges, aviation structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation of flow pattern and dynamical loads from turbines, building structures and bridges and in relation to optimization of the location of, for example, wind farms and suspension bridges. This paper presents our achievements to date and reviews briefly the state-of-the-art of the WindScanner measurement technology with examples of uses for wind engineering applications.

  1. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....

  2. N-S crustal shear system in the Bundelkhand massif: a unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    In the light of our detailed geological studies of the massif (Singh and Bhattacharya,. 2010 .... relations with, and displace, the earlier shear systems, i.e. BS1, BS2 and BS3 (Fig. 3D), (3) ..... and shear zone patterns: The South Indian case. Jour.

  3. Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    temporary network formed by the fibres, their entangle- ment etc. The structural density is also a function of vol- ume fraction of reinforcing fibres (Amari et al 1992). The complex flow pattern encountered during moulding/ stamping are generally far from simple steady or oscilla- tory shear flow. Therefore, it is important to ...

  4. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...

  5. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    characteristics and variable features where the wind circulation pattern is ..... is extended to understand the quality of AMSR-2 wind speed in a constructive ...... New Disclosures (potential conflicts of interest, funding, acknowledgements):.

  6. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  7. Size effects in shear interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  8. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  9. Shear Alfven waves in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieras, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Shear Alfven waves in an axisymmetric tokamak are examined within the framework of the linearized ideal MHD equations. Properties of the shear Alfven continuous spectrum are studied both analytically and numerically. Implications of these results in regards to low frequency rf heating of toroidally confined plasmas are discussed. The structure of the spatial singularities associated with these waves is determined. A reduced set of ideal MHD equations is derived to describe these waves in a very low beta plasma

  10. Wind tunnel and CFD modelling of wind pressures on solar energy systems on flat roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.J.; Franke, J.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, van C.A.; Grepinet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Design of solar energy mounting systems requires more knowledge on the wind patterns around these systems. To obtain more insight in the flow patterns, which cause the pressure distributions on the solar energy systems, a wind tunnel test and Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis have been

  11. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response

  12. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  13. SERPENTINE COIL TOPOLOGY FOR BNL DIRECT WIND SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARKER, B.; ESCALLIER, J.

    2005-01-01

    Serpentine winding, a recent innovation developed at BNL for direct winding superconducting magnets, allows winding a coil layer of arbitrary multipolarity in one continuous winding process and greatly simplifies magnet design and production compared to the planar patterns used before. Serpentine windings were used for the BEPC-II Upgrade and JPARC magnets and are proposed to make compact final focus magnets for the EC. Serpentine patterns exhibit a direct connection between 2D body harmonics and harmonics derived from the integral fields. Straightforward 2D optimization yields good integral field quality with uniformly spaced (natural) coil ends. This and other surprising features of Serpentine windings are addressed in this paper

  14. Short-Term Wind Speed Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Bias Correcting Study and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mingfei Niu; Shaolong Sun; Jie Wu; Yuanlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of wind speed forecasting is becoming increasingly important to improve and optimize renewable wind power generation. In particular, reliable short-term wind speed forecasting can enable model predictive control of wind turbines and real-time optimization of wind farm operation. However, due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty of wind speed, the forecasting of wind speed data using different patterns is difficult. This paper proposes a novel combination bias c...

  15. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  16. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  17. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  18. Transcription profiling of S. cerevisiae cultures grown under low shear-modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this study was to assess whether low shear-modeled microgravity (LSMMG) effects yeast ,genomic expression patterns using the powerful tool of whole...

  19. Shear viscosity of phase-separating polymer blends with viscous asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H. S.; Hobbie, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Rheo-optical measurements of phase separating polymer mixtures under simple shear flow have been used to investigate the influence of domain morphology on the viscosity of emulsionlike polymer blends, in which the morphology under weak shear is droplets of one coexisting phase dispersed in a matrix of the second. The structure and viscosity of low-molecular-weight polybutadiene and polyisoprene mixtures, phase separated by quenching to a temperature inside the coexistence region of the phase diagram, were measured as a function of shear rate and composition. In the weak shear regime, the data are in qualitative agreement with an effective medium model for non-dilute suspensions of slightly deformed interacting droplets. In the strong shear regime, where a stringlike pattern appears en route to a shear-homogenized state, the data are in qualitative agreement with a simple model that accounts for viscous asymmetry in the components

  20. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  1. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Engineering handbook on the atmospheric environmental guidelines for use in wind turbine generator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Long, B. H.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The guidelines are given in the form of design criteria relative to wind speed, wind shear, turbulence, wind direction, ice and snow loading, and other climatological parameters which include rain, hail, thermal effects, abrasive and corrosive effects, and humidity. This report is a presentation of design criteria in an engineering format which can be directly input to wind turbine generator design computations. Guidelines are also provided for developing specialized wind turbine generators or for designing wind turbine generators which are to be used in a special region of the United States.

  3. The effect of baroclinicity on the wind in the planetary boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2015-01-01

    close to zero and a standard deviation of approximately 3ms−1km−1. The geostrophic wind shear had a strong seasonal dependence because of temperature differences between land and sea. The mean wind profile in Hamburg, observed during an intensive campaign using radio sounding and during the whole year...... using the wind lidar, was influenced by baroclinicity. For easterly winds at Høvsøre, the estimated gradient wind decreased rapidly with height, resulting in a mean low-level jet. The turning of the wind in the boundary layer, the boundary-layer height and the empirical constants in the geostrophic drag...

  4. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed in uncracked concrete.Proposals have been made on how the derived standard solutions may be applied to more complicated cases, such as continuous beams, beams......The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  5. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  6. Modeling of shear wall buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A K [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1984-05-01

    Many nuclear power plant buildings, for example, the auxiliary building, have reinforced concrete shear walls as the primary lateral load resisting system. Typically, these walls have low height to length ratio, often less than unity. Such walls exhibit marked shear lag phenomenon which would affect their bending stiffness and the overall stress distribution in the building. The deformation and the stress distribution in walls have been studied which is applicable to both the short and the tall buildings. The behavior of the wall is divided into two parts: the symmetric flange action and the antisymmetry web action. The latter has two parts: the web shear and the web bending. Appropriate stiffness equations have been derived for all the three actions. These actions can be synthesized to solve any nonlinear cross-section. Two specific problems, that of lateral and torsional loadings of a rectangular box, have been studied. It is found that in short buildings shear lag plays a very important role. Any beam type formulation which either ignores shear lag or includes it in an idealized form is likely to lead to erroneous results. On the other hand a rigidity type approach with some modifications to the standard procedures would yield nearly accurate answers.

  7. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  8. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  9. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  10. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  11. Nonlinear internal gravity waves and their interaction with the mean wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, R.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of a wave packet of internal gravity waves with the mean wind is investigated, for the case when there is a region of wind shear and hence a critical level. The principal equations are the Doppler-shifted dispersion relation, the equation for conservation of wave action and the mean momentum equation, in which the mean wind is accelerated by a 'radiation stress' tensor, due to the waves. These equations are integrated numerically to study the behaviour of a wave packet approaching a critical level, where the horizontal phase speed matches the mean wind. The results demonstrate the exchange of energy from the waves to the mean wind in the vicinity of the critical level. The interaction between the waves and the mean wind is also studied in the absence of any initial wind shear. (author)

  12. Visualization of bonding at an inclusion boundary using axial-shear strain elastography: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Krouskop, Thomas A; Garra, Brian S; Ophir, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography produces strain images of compliant tissues under quasi-static compression. In axial-shear strain elastography, the local axial-shear strain resulting from application of quasi-static axial compression to an inhomogeneous material is imaged. The overall hypothesis of this work is that the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution around the inclusion/background interface is completely determined by the bonding at the interface after normalization for inclusion size and applied strain levels, and that it is feasible to extract certain features from the axial-shear strain elastograms to quantify this pattern. The mechanical model used in this study consisted of a single stiff circular inclusion embedded in a homogeneous softer background. First, we performed a parametric study using finite-element analysis (FEA) (no ultrasound involved) to identify possible features that quantify the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution around an inclusion/background interface. Next, the ability to extract these features from axial-shear strain elastograms, estimated from simulated pre- and post-compression noisy RF data, was investigated. Further, the feasibility of extracting these features from in vivo breast data of benign and malignant tumors was also investigated. It is shown using the FEA study that the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution is determined by the degree of bonding at the inclusion/background interface. The results suggest the feasibility of using normalized features that capture the region of positive and negative axial-shear strain area to quantify the pattern of the axial-shear strain distribution. The simulation results showed that it was feasible to extract the features, as identified in the FEA study, from axial-shear strain elastograms. However, an effort must be made to obtain axial-shear strain elastograms with the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR asse ) possible, without compromising the resolution. The in vivo

  13. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  14. Earth aeolian wind streaks: Comparison to wind data from model and stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, A. L.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    Wind streak is a collective term for a variety of aeolian features that display distinctive albedo surface patterns. Wind streaks have been used to map near-surface winds and to estimate atmospheric circulation patterns on Mars and Venus. However, because wind streaks have been studied mostly on Mars and Venus, much of the knowledge regarding the mechanism and time frame of their formation and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation cannot be verified. This study aims to validate previous studies' results by a comparison of real and modeled wind data with wind streak orientations as measured from remote-sensing images. Orientations of Earth wind streaks were statistically correlated to resultant drift direction (RDD) values calculated from reanalysis and wind data from 621 weather stations. The results showed good agreement between wind streak orientations and reanalysis RDD (r = 0.78). A moderate correlation was found between the wind streak orientations and the weather station data (r = 0.47); a similar trend was revealed on a regional scale when the analysis was performed by continent, with r ranging from 0.641 in North America to 0.922 in Antarctica. At sites where wind streak orientations did not correspond to the RDDs (i.e., a difference of 45°), seasonal and diurnal variations in the wind flow were found to be responsible for deviation from the global pattern. The study thus confirms that Earth wind streaks were formed by the present wind regime and they are indeed indicative of the long-term prevailing wind direction on global and regional scales.

  15. Domino structures evolution in strike-slip shear zones; the importance of the cataclastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N.; Dias, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo dextral Shear Zone is one of the most important structures of the Iberian Variscides. In its vicinity, close to Abrantes (Central Portugal), a localized heterogeneous strain pattern developed in a decimetric metamorphic siliceous multilayer. This complex pattern was induced by the D2 dextral shearing of the early S0//S1 foliation in brittle-ductile conditions, giving rise to three main shear zone families. One of these families, with antithetic kinematics, delimits blocks with rigid clockwise rotation surrounded by coeval cataclasites, generating a local domino structure. The proposed geometrical and kinematic analysis, coupled with statistical studies, highlights the relation between subsidiary shear zones and the main shear zone. Despite the heterogeneous strain pattern, a quantitative approach of finite strain was applied based on the restoration of the initial fracture pattern. This approach shows the importance of the cataclastic flow coupled with the translational displacement of the domino domain in solving space problems related to the rigid block rotation. Such processes are key in allowing the rigid block rotation inside shear zones whenever the simple shear component is a fundamental mechanism.

  16. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2007-01-01

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant

  17. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-12-10

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  18. WindScanner.eu - a new remote sensing research infrastructure for on- and offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Knudsen, Soeren; Sjoeholm, M.; Angeloua, N.; Tegtmeier, A. [Technical Univ. og Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    A new remote sensing based research infrastructure for atmospheric boundary-layer wind and turbulence measurements named WindScanner have during the past three years been in its early phase of development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. During the forthcoming three years the technology will be disseminated throughout Europe to pilot European wind energy research centers. The new research infrastructure will become an open source infrastructure that also invites collaboration with wind energy related atmospheric scientists and wind energy industry overseas. Recent achievements with 3D WindScanners and spin-off innovation activity are described. The Danish WindScanner.dk research facility is build from new and fast-scanning remote sensing equipment spurred from achievements within fiber optics and telecommunication technologies. At the same time the wind energy society has demanded excessive 3D wind flow and ever taller wind profile measurements for the wind energy resource assessment studies on- and off shore of the future. Today, hub heights on +5 MW wind turbines exceed the 100 m mark. At the Danish DTU test site Oesterild testing is ongoing with a Siemens turbine with hub height 120 meters and a rotor diameter of 154 meters; hence its blade tips reaches almost 200 meters into the sky. The wind speed profiles over the rotor planes are consequently no longer representatively measured by a single cup anemometer at hub height from a nearby met-mast; power curve assessment as well as turbine control call for multi-height multi point measurement strategies of wind speed and wind shear within the turbines entire rotor plane. The development of our new remote sensing-based WindScanner.dk facility as well as the first measurement results obtained to date are here presented, including a first wind lidar measurement of turbulence in complex terrain within an internal boundary layer developing behind an escarpment. Also measurements of wind speed and direction profiles

  19. Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.

    1990-03-01

    Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effect of shear span, concrete strength and strrup spacing on behavior of pre-stressed concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bukhari, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    The shear strength of pre-stressed concrete beams is one of the most important factors to be considered in their design. The available data on shear behavior of pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beams is very limited. In this experimental study, pre-tensioned prestressed concrete I-beams are fabricated with normal and high- strength concretes, varying stirrup spacing and shear span-to-depth ratios. 1Wenty one I-beam specimens that are 300 mm deep and 3745-4960mm long are tested up to failure while deflections, cracking pattern, cracking and failure loads were recorded. The research results are compared with ACI 318-02 and Structure Analysis Program, Response 2000. It was observed that with the decrease in concrete strength, failure mode of prestressed concrete beams changes from flexure shear to web shear cracking for values of shear span-to-depth ratio less than 4.75. Increase in stirrup spacing decreased the effectiveness of stirrups in transmitting shear across crack as a result of which failure mode is changed to web shear cracking especially for beams with lower values of shear span-to-depth ratios. ACI code underestimates the shear carrying capacity of prestressed concrete beams with lower values of shear span- to-depth ratios. Response 2000 can be used more effectively in predicting shear behavior of normal strength prestressed concrete beams. (author)

  1. Air permeability for a concrete shear wall after a damaging seismic load simulation cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Farrar, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated to estimate air leakage, driven by wind-generated pressure gradients, from a seismically damaged concrete structure. This paper describes an experiment performed to measure the air permeability in a reinforced concrete shear wall, both before and after simulated seismic loading. Static load-cycle testing was used to simulate earthquake loading. Permeability measurements were made by pressurizing one side of the shear wall above atmospheric conditions and recording the transient-pressure decay. Air permeability measurements made on the shear wall before loading fell within the range of values for concrete permeability published in the literature. As long as the structure exhibited linear load-displacement response, no variation in the air permeability was detected. However, experimental results indicate that the air permeability in the shear wall increased by a factor of 40 after the wall had been damaged (cracked)

  2. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  3. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    , vortex shedding, and local turbulence intensity and wind shear values. To achieve accurate results, attention must of course be paid to issues such as ensuring Reynolds number independence, avoiding blockage issues, and properly matching the velocity power spectrum, but once this is done, the laws of fluid mechanics take care of the rest. There will not be an overproduction of turbulent kinetic energy at the top of escarpments, or unacceptable dissipation of inlet turbulence levels. Modern atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnels are also often used to provide validation data for evaluating the performance of CFD model in complex flow environments. Present day computers have further increased the quality and quantity of data that can be economically obtained in a timely manner, for example through wind speed measurement using a computer controlled 3-D measurement positioning system Given this accuracy and widespread acceptance, it is perhaps surprising that ours was the only wind tunnel model in the Bolund blind experiment, an indication of how seldom physical modelling is used when estimating terrain effect for wind farms. In demonstrating how the Bolund test was modeled, this presentation will provide background on wind tunnel testing, including the governing scaling parameters. And we’ll see how our results compared to the full scale tests.

  4. Performance of the CORDEX regional climate models in simulating offshore wind and wind potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumeet; Deo, M. C.; Ghosh, Subimal

    2018-03-01

    This study is oriented towards quantification of the skill addition by regional climate models (RCMs) in the parent general circulation models (GCMs) while simulating wind speed and wind potential with particular reference to the Indian offshore region. To arrive at a suitable reference dataset, the performance of wind outputs from three different reanalysis datasets is evaluated. The comparison across the RCMs and their corresponding parent GCMs is done on the basis of annual/seasonal wind statistics, intermodel bias, wind climatology, and classes of wind potential. It was observed that while the RCMs could simulate spatial variability of winds, well for certain subregions, they generally failed to replicate the overall spatial pattern, especially in monsoon and winter. Various causes of biases in RCMs were determined by assessing corresponding maps of wind vectors, surface temperature, and sea-level pressure. The results highlight the necessity to carefully assess the RCM-yielded winds before using them for sensitive applications such as coastal vulnerability and hazard assessment. A supplementary outcome of this study is in form of wind potential atlas, based on spatial distribution of wind classes. This could be beneficial in suitably identifying viable subregions for developing offshore wind farms by intercomparing both the RCM and GCM outcomes. It is encouraging that most of the RCMs and GCMs indicate that around 70% of the Indian offshore locations in monsoon would experience mean wind potential greater than 200 W/m2.

  5. Measurements in support of wind farm simulations and power forecasts: The Crop/Wind-energy Experiments (CWEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takle, E S; Rajewski, D A; Lundquist, J K; Gallus, W A Jr; Sharma, A

    2014-01-01

    The Midwest US currently is experiencing a large build-out of wind turbines in areas where the nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) is a prominent and frequently occurring feature. We describe shear characteristics of the NLLJ and their influence on wind power production. Reports of individual turbine power production and concurrent measurements of near-surface thermal stratification are used to turbine wake interactions and turbine interaction with the overlying atmosphere. Progress in forecasting conditions such as wind ramps and shear are discussed. Finally, the pressure perturbation introduced by a line of turbines produces surface flow convergence that may create a vertical velocity and hence a mesoscale influence on cloud formation by a wind farm

  6. Along-wind response of a wind turbine tower with blade coupling subjected to rotationally sampled wind loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtagh, P J; Basu, B; Broderick, B M [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-07-15

    This paper proposes an approach to investigate the along-wind forced vibration response of a wind turbine tower and rotating blades assembly subjected to rotationally sampled stationary wind loading. The wind turbine assembly consists of three rotating rotor blades connected to the top of a flexible annular tower, constituting a multi-body dynamic entity. The tower and rotating blades are each modelled as discretized multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) entities, allowing the free vibration characteristics of each to be obtained using a discrete parameter approach. The free vibration properties of the tower include the effect of a rigid mass at the top, representing the nacelle, and those of the blade include the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation and blade gravity loadings. The blades are excited by drag force time-histories derived from discrete Fourier transform (DFT) representations of rotationally sampled wind turbulence spectra. Blade response time-histories are obtained using the mode acceleration method, which allows for the quantification of base shear forces due to flapping for the three blades to be obtained. This resultant base shear is imparted into the top of the tower. Wind drag loading on the tower is also considered, with a series of spatially correlated nodal force time-histories being derived using DFTs of wind force spectra. The tower/nacelle is then coupled with the rotating blades by combining their equations of motion and solving for the displacement at the top of the tower under compatibility conditions in the frequency domain. An inverse Fourier transform of the frequency domain response yields the response time-history of the coupled system. The response of an equivalent system that does not consider the blade/tower interaction is also investigated, and the results are compared. (Author)

  7. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  8. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  9. Simulation of reinforced concrete short shear wall subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Pegon, P.; Wenzel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the capacity of squat shear wall using tests and analysis. • Modification of model of concrete in the softening part. • Pushover analysis using softened truss theory and FE analysis is performed. • Modified concrete model gives reasonable accurate peak load and displacement. • The ductility, ultimate load and also crack pattern can be accurately predicted. - Abstract: This paper addresses the strength and deformation capacity of stiff squat shear wall subjected to monotonic and pseudo-static cyclic loading using experiments and analysis. Reinforced concrete squat shear walls offer great potential for lateral load resistance and the failure mode of these shear walls is brittle shear mode. Shear strength of these shear walls depend strongly on softening of concrete struts in principal compression direction due to principal tension in other direction. In this work simulation of the behavior of a squat shear wall is accurately predicted by finite element modeling by incorporating the appropriate softening model in the program. Modification of model of concrete in the softening part is suggested and reduction factor given by Vecchio et al. (1994) is used in the model. The accuracy of modeling is confirmed by comparing the simulated response with experimental one. The crack pattern generated from the 3D model is compared with that obtained from experiments. The load deflection for monotonic loads is also obtained using softened truss theory and compared with experimental one

  10. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.

    2017-12-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree -1

  11. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  12. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  13. Centrifuges and inertial shear forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.W.A.; Folgering, H.T.E.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Smit, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Centrifuges are often used in biological studies for 1xg control samples in space flight microgravity experiments as well as in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the

  14. Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.

  15. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  16. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  17. Wind load effects on high rise buildings in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Z.; Thang, K. C.; Haider, B.; Shariff, M.

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a randomly varying dynamic phenomenon composed of a multitude of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics along a general stream of air moving relative to the ground. These eddies give wind its gustiness, creating fluctuation and results in a complex flow characteristics. The wind vector at any point can be regarded as the sum of mean wind vector and the fluctuation components. These components not only vary with height but also dependant on the approach terrain and topography. Prevailing wind exerts pressure onto the structural surfaces. The effects of wind pressure in the form of shear and bending moments are found to be a major problem in structural failure. This study aims to study the effects of wind load on a fifteen-storey high rise building using EN 1991-1-4 code and MS1553:2002. The simulation results showed that by increasing the wind speed, the storey resultant forces, namely storey shear and storey moment increases significantly. Furthermore, simulation results according to EN 1991-1-4 yield higher values compared to the simulation results according to MS1553:2002.

  18. Physical Patterns Associated with 27 April 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Salem, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The National Weather Service office in Memphis, Tennessee has aimed their efforts to improve severe tornado forecasting. Everything is not known about tornadogenesis, but one thing is: tornadoes tend to form within supercell thunderstorms. Hence, 27 April 2011 and 25 May 2011 were days when a Tornado Outbreak was expected to arise. Although 22 tornadoes struck the region on 27 April 2011, only 1 impacted the area on 25 May 2011. In order to understand both events, comparisons of their physical features were made. These parameters were studied using the Weather Event Simulator system and the NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction database. This research concentrated on the Surface Frontal Analysis, NAM40 700mb Dew-Points, NAM80 250mb Wind Speed and NAM20 500mb Vorticity images as well as 0-6 km Shear, MUCAPE and VGP mesoscale patterns. As result of this research a Dry-Line ahead of a Cold Front, Dew-points 5C and higher, and high Vorticity values^ were synoptic patterns that influenced to the formation of supercell tornadoes. Finally, MUCAPE and VGP favored the possibility of tornadoes occurrence on 25 May 2011, but shear was the factor that made 27 April 2011 a day for a Tornado Outbreak weather event.

  19. Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn

    2014-01-01

    in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could...

  20. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  1. Wind energy resources assessment for Yanbo, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal and diurnal variations at Yanbo, which is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The wind speed and wind direction hourly data for a period of 14 years between 1970 and 1983 is used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the seasonal and diurnal pattern of wind speed matches the electricity load pattern of the location. Higher winds of the order of 5.0 m/s and more were observed during the summer months of the year and noon hours (09:00 to 16:00 h) of the day. The wind duration availability is discussed as the percent of hours during which the wind remained in certain wind speed intervals or bins. Wind energy calculations were performed using wind machines of sizes 150, 250, 600, 800, 1000, 1300, 1500, 2300 and 2500 kW rated power. Wind speed is found to remain above 3.5 m/s for 69% of the time during the year at 40, 50, 60, and 80 m above ground level. The energy production analysis showed higher production from wind machines of smaller sizes than the bigger ones for a wind farm of 30 MW installed capacity. Similarly, higher capacity factors were obtained for smaller wind machines compared to larger ones

  2. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  3. An Innovative Adaptive Pushover Procedure Based on Storey Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, Kazem; Shayanfar, Mohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the conventional pushover analyses are unable to consider the effect of the higher modes and progressive variation in dynamic properties, recent years have witnessed the development of some advanced adaptive pushover methods. However in these methods, using the quadratic combination rules to combine the modal forces result in a positive value in load pattern at all storeys and the reversal sign of the modes is removed; consequently these methods do not have a major advantage over their non-adaptive counterparts. Herein an innovative adaptive pushover method based on storey shear is proposed which can take into account the reversal signs in higher modes. In each storey the applied load pattern is derived from the storey shear profile; consequently, the sign of the applied loads in consecutive steps could be changed. Accuracy of the proposed procedure is examined by applying it to a 20-storey steel building. It illustrates a good estimation of the peak response in inelastic phase

  4. Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2005-01-01

    -induced destabilization is discussed in relation to analogous observations on shear-induced order-to-order and disorder-to-order transitions observed in related block copolymer systems and in microemulsions. It is discussed whether these phenomena originate in shear-reduced fluctuations or shear-induced dislocations....

  5. Discrete Analysis of Damage and Shear Banding in Argillaceous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Özge; Scholtès, Luc

    2018-05-01

    A discrete approach is proposed to study damage and failure processes taking place in argillaceous rocks which present a transversely isotropic behavior. More precisely, a dedicated discrete element method is utilized to provide a micromechanical description of the mechanisms involved. The purpose of the study is twofold: (1) presenting a three-dimensional discrete element model able to simulate the anisotropic macro-mechanical behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone as a particular case of argillaceous rocks; (2) studying how progressive failure develops in such material. Material anisotropy is explicitly taken into account in the numerical model through the introduction of weakness planes distributed at the interparticle scale following predefined orientation and intensity. Simulations of compression tests under plane-strain and triaxial conditions are performed to clarify the development of damage and the appearance of shear bands through micromechanical analyses. The overall mechanical behavior and shear banding patterns predicted by the numerical model are in good agreement with respect to experimental observations. Both tensile and shear microcracks emerging from the modeling also present characteristics compatible with microstructural observations. The numerical results confirm that the global failure of argillaceous rocks is well correlated with the mechanisms taking place at the local scale. Specifically, strain localization is shown to directly result from shear microcracking developing with a preferential orientation distribution related to the orientation of the shear band. In addition, localization events presenting characteristics similar to shear bands are observed from the early stages of the loading and might thus be considered as precursors of strain localization.

  6. Study on shear properties of coral sand under cyclic simple shear condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wendong; Zhang, Yuting; Jin, Yafei

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, the ocean development in our country urgently needs to be accelerated. The construction of artificial coral reefs has become an important development direction. In this paper, experimental studies of simple shear and cyclic simple shear of coral sand are carried out, and the shear properties and particle breakage of coral sand are analyzed. The results show that the coral sand samples show an overall shear failure in the simple shear test, which is more accurate and effective for studying the particle breakage. The shear displacement corresponding to the peak shear stress of the simple shear test is significantly larger than that corresponding to the peak shear stress of the direct shear test. The degree of particle breakage caused by the simple shear test is significantly related to the normal stress level. The particle breakage of coral sand after the cyclic simple shear test obviously increases compared with that of the simple shear test, and universal particle breakage occurs within the whole particle size range. The increasing of the cycle-index under cyclic simple shear test results in continuous compacting of the sample, so that the envelope curve of peak shearing force increases with the accumulated shear displacement.

  7. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  8. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  9. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  10. Determination of mechanical properties of some glass fiber reinforced plastics suitable to Wind Turbine Blade construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigmann, R.; Savin, A.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Leitoiu, B.; Iftimie, N.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The control of wind turbine's components is very rigorous, while the tower and gearbox have more possibility for revision and repairing, the rotor blades, once they are deteriorated, the defects can rapidly propagate, producing failure, and the damages can affect large regions around the wind turbine. This paper presents the test results, performed on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) suitable to construction of wind turbine blades (WTB). The Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, ultimate stress have been determined using tensile and shear tests. Using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), the activation energy for transitions that appear in polyester matrix as well as the complex elastic modulus can be determined, function of temperature.

  11. Shear failure of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310

  12. Global composites of surface wind speeds in tropical cyclones based on a 12 year scatterometer database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Bradley W.; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-10-01

    A 12 year global database of rain-corrected satellite scatterometer surface winds for tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to produce composites of TC surface wind speed distributions relative to vertical wind shear and storm motion directions in each TC-prone basin and various TC intensity stages. These composites corroborate ideas presented in earlier studies, where maxima are located right of motion in the Earth-relative framework. The entire TC surface wind asymmetry is down motion left for all basins and for lower strength TCs after removing the motion vector. Relative to the shear direction, the motion-removed composites indicate that the surface wind asymmetry is located down shear left for the outer region of all TCs, but for the inner-core region it varies from left of shear to down shear right for different basin and TC intensity groups. Quantification of the surface wind asymmetric structure in further stratifications is a necessary next step for this scatterometer data set.

  13. Wind profiler observations of a monsoon low-level jet over a tropical Indian station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. R. Kalapureddy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-year high-resolution wind observations of the wind profiler have been utilized to characterize the diurnal and seasonal features of the monsoon Low-Level Jet (LLJ over a tropical station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, with a focus on the diurnal variability of low-level winds. The Boreal summer monsoon winds show a conspicuously strong westerly LLJ with average wind speed exceeding 20 m s−1. The L-band wind profiler measurements have shown an advantage of better height and time resolutions over the conventional radiosonde method for diurnal wind measurements. An interesting diurnal oscillation of LLJ core has been observed. It is varying in the height range of 1.8±0.6 km with the maximum and minimum intensity noticed during the early morning and afternoon hours, respectively. The jet core (wind maxima height is observed to coincide with the inversion height. Strong wind shears are normally located beneath the LLJ core. The sole wind profiler observations are capable of identifying the monsoon phases, such as onset, break and active spells, etc. The mutual influence between the LLJ and the boundary layer has been discussed. One notices that the observed LLJ diurnal structures depend on the local convective activity, wind shears and turbulence activity associated with boundary layer winds. The day-to-day change in the LLJ structure depends on the latitudinal position of the LLJ core.

  14. Taylor dispersion in wind-driven current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Li; Li, Zhi; Chen, G. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Taylor dispersion associated with wind-driven currents in channels, shallow lakes and estuaries is essential to hydrological environmental management. For solute dispersion in a wind-driven current, presented in this paper is an analytical study of the evolution of concentration distribution. The concentration moments are intensively derived for an accurate presentation of the mean concentration distribution, up to the effect of kurtosis. The vertical divergence of concentration is then deduced by Gill's method of series expansion up to the fourth order. Based on the temporal evolution of the vertical concentration distribution, the dispersion process in the wind-driven current is concretely characterized. The uniform shear leads to a special symmetrical distribution of mean concentration free of skewness. The non-uniformity of vertical concentration is caused by convection and smeared out gradually by the effect of diffusion, but fails to disappear even at large times.

  15. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  16. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  17. Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Using experimental data acquired during a wind turbine measurement campaign, it is shown that amplitude modulation of aerodynamic noise can be generated by the rotating blades in conjunction with the atmospheric wind shear. As an attempt to alleviate this phenomenon, a control strategy is designed...... if such a strategy is to be implemented on an actual wind turbine, though at the expense of an increased wear and tear of the pitch control system....

  18. Unsteady aerodynamics simulation of a full-scale horizontal axis wind turbine using CFD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Xin; Gu, Rongrong; Pan, Pan; Zhu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A full-scale HAWT is simulated under operational conditions of wind shear and yaw. • The CFD method and sliding mesh are adopted to complete the calculation. • Thrust and torque of blades reach the peak and valley at the same time in wind shear. • The wind turbine produces yaw moment during the whole revolution in yaw case. • The torques and thrusts of the three blades present cyclical changes. - Abstract: The aerodynamic performance of wind turbines is significantly influenced by the unsteady flow around the rotor blades. The research on unsteady aerodynamics for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) is still poorly understood because of the complex flow physics. In this study, the unsteady aerodynamic configuration of a full-scale HAWT is simulated with consideration of wind shear, tower shadow and yaw motion. The calculated wind turbine which contains tapered tower, rotor overhang and tilted rotor shaft is constructed by making reference of successfully commercial operated wind turbine designed by NEG Micon and Vestas. A validated CFD method is utilized to analyze unsteady aerodynamic characteristics which affect the performance on such a full-scale HAWT. The approach of sliding mesh is used to carefully deal with the interface between static and moving parts in the flow field. The annual average wind velocity and wind profile in the atmospheric border are applied as boundary conditions. Considering the effects of wind shear and tower shadow, the simulation results show that the each blade reaches its maximum and minimum aerodynamic loads almost at the same time during the rotation circle. The blade–tower interaction imposes great impact on the power output performance. The wind turbine produces yaw moment during the whole revolution and the maximum aerodynamic loads appear at the upwind azimuth in the yaw computation case.

  19. Retrograde shear rate in formerly preeclamptic and healthy women before and after exercise training: relationship with endothelial function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood flow patterns in conduit arteries characterized by high levels of retrograde shear stress can be detrimental for vascular health. In this study we examined whether retrograde shear rate and endothelial function are related in healthy and formerly preeclamptic (PE) women and whether this

  20. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  1. Continuous shear - a method for studying material elements passing a stationary shear plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Maria; Wiwe, Birgitte; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    circumferential groove. Normally shear in metal forming processes is of another nature, namely where the material elements move through a stationary shear zone, often of small width. In this paper a method enabling the simulation of this situation is presented. A tool for continuous shear has beeen manufactured...... and tested with AlMgSil and copper. The sheared material has thereafter been tested n plane strain compression with different orientation concerning the angle between the shear plane and the compression direction....

  2. Turbulent wind field characterization and re-generation based on pitot tube measurements mounted on a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2015-01-01

    models that compensate for axial and tangential induction, approximated by blade element momentum theory, radial expansion of the inflow, rotor tilt, dynamic and skew inflow, tip loss, as well as braking and circulation of the flow local to the airfoil. The wind speeds measured on the rotating blades...... the measured wind speeds at the recording position. In the theoretical part of this study a quite good agreement is seen between load sensors on a turbine model exposed to the reference and the re-generated turbulence field. Finally the method is applied to full scale measurements and reasonable wind shear...

  3. Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.

  4. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  5. Filament winding technique, experiment and simulation analysis on tubular structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Kaige, Jiang; Idris, M. S.; Harith, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    Filament winding process has emerged as one of the potential composite fabrication processes with lower costs. Filament wound products involve classic axisymmetric parts (pipes, rings, driveshafts, high-pressure vessels and storage tanks), non-axisymmetric parts (prismatic nonround sections and pipe fittings). Based on the 3-axis filament winding machine has been designed with the inexpensive control system, it is completely necessary to make a relative comparison between experiment and simulation on tubular structure. In this technical paper, the aim of this paper is to perform a dry winding experiment using the 3-axis filament winding machine and simulate winding process on the tubular structure using CADWIND software with 30°, 45°, 60° winding angle. The main result indicates that the 3-axis filament winding machine can produce tubular structure with high winding pattern performance with different winding angle. This developed 3-axis winding machine still has weakness compared to CAWIND software simulation results with high axes winding machine about winding pattern, turnaround impact, process error, thickness, friction impact etc. In conclusion, the 3-axis filament winding machine improvements and recommendations come up with its comparison results, which can intuitively understand its limitations and characteristics.

  6. Wind speed estimation using multilayer perceptron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, Ramón; López, Paz; Maseda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a method for determining the average wind speed using neural networks. • We use data from that site in the short term and data from other nearby stations. • The inputs used in the ANN were wind speed and direction data from a station. • The method allows knowing the wind speed without topographical data. - Abstract: Wind speed knowledge is prerequisite in the siting of wind turbines. In consequence the wind energy use requires meticulous and specified knowledge of the wind characteristics at a location. This paper presents a method for determining the annual average wind speed at a complex terrain site by using neural networks, when only short term data are available for that site. This information is useful for preliminary calculations of the wind resource at a remote area having only a short time period of wind measurements measurement in a site. Artificial neural networks are useful for implementing non-linear process variables over time, and therefore are a useful tool for estimating the wind speed. The neural network used is multilayer perceptron with three layers and the supervised learning algorithm used is backpropagation. The inputs used in the neural network were wind speed and direction data from a single station, and the training patterns used correspond to sixty days data. The results obtained by simulating the annual average wind speed at the selected site based on data from nearby stations with correlation coefficients above 0.5 were satisfactory, compared with actual values. Reliable estimations were obtained, with errors below 6%

  7. Strength and behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Satadru Das [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Bing, E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Fujikake, Kazunori [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka 239 8686 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of wider range of loading rates on dynamic shear behavior of RC deep beams. ► Experimental investigation of RC deep beam with and without shear reinforcements. ► Verification of experimental results with truss model and FE simulation results. ► Empirical equations are proposed to predict the dynamic increase factor of maximum resistance. -- Abstract: Research on reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams has seen considerable headway over the past three decades; however, information on the dynamic shear strength and behavior of RC deep beams under varying rates of loads remains limited. This paper describes the experimental results of 24 RC deep beams with and without shear reinforcements under varying rates of concentrated loading. Results obtained serve as useful data on shear resistance, failure patterns and strain rates corresponding to varying loading rates. An analytical truss model approach proves its efficacy in predicting the dynamic shear resistance under varying loading rates. Furthermore, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model is described and the simulation results are verified with the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and shear span to effective depth ratio on shear behavior. Subsequently, two empirical equations were proposed by integrating the various parameters to assess the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of maximum resistance under varying rates of concentrated loading.

  8. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  9. Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.

  10. The thermal structure of a wind-driven Reynolds ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Peter Judd, K.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Handler, Robert A. [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 20375, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the nature of a Reynolds ridge formed by wind shear. We have simultaneously imaged the water surface, with a deposit of a monolayer of the surfactant, oleyl alcohol, subject to different wind shears, by using a high-resolution infrared (IR) detector and a high-speed (HS) digital camera. The results reveal that the regions around the wind-driven Reynolds ridge, which have subtle manifestations in visual imagery, possess surprisingly complex hydrodynamical and thermal structures when observed in the infrared. The IR measurements reveal a warm, clean region upstream of the ridge, which is composed of the so called fishscale structures observed in earlier investigations. The region downstream of the ridge is composed of colder fluid which forms two counter-rotating cells. A region of intermediate temperature, which we call the mixing (wake) region, forms immediately downstream of the ridge near the channel centerline. By measuring the velocity of the advected fishscales, we have determined a surface drift speed of about 2% of the wind speed. The spanwise length-scale of the structures has also been used to estimate the wind shear. In addition, a comparison of IR and visual imagery shows that the thermal field is a very sensitive indicator of the exact position of the ridge itself. (orig.)

  11. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  12. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  13. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  14. Nonlinear coupling of the resistive tearing modes under the unperturbed shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Kazuhiro

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the unperturbed shear flow on the nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is studied. In the case of single helicity, the shear flow activates the unstable mode which finally saturates to a rigid rotor state. In the case of multiple helicity, a variety of flow patterns is created depending on parameters, and always forms the current bubble soon after the collapse of the 3/2 magnetic island. (author)

  15. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  16. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  17. Wind power deployment outcomes: How can we account for the differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toke, D.; Breukers, S.; Wolsink, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to understand different outcomes of implementation of wind power deployment programmes. Geographical variables such as quantity of wind resources are in themselves insufficient to explain patterns of implementation of wind power. To enhance the review of the factors affecting wind

  18. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future. PMID:27653976

  19. Evaluation of wind energy investment interest and electricity generation cost analysis for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdag, Seyit Ahmet; Gueler, Oender

    2010-01-01

    Turkey has remarkable wind energy potential, but its utilisation rate is very low. However, in 2007, energy investors applied to the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) with 751 wind projects to obtain a 78180.2 MW wind power plant license. This paper first presents an overview of wind energy development in the world and then reviews related situations in Turkey. Second, to motivate the interest in wind energy investment, new wind power plant license applications in Turkey are analysed. Finally, wind electricity generation cost analyses were performed at 14 locations in Turkey. Capacity factors of investigated locations were calculated between 19.7% and 56.8%, and the production cost of electrical energy was between 1.73 and 4.99 cent/kW h for two different wind shear coefficients. (author)

  20. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind......Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...

  1. Small wind rising? Is the market for building-mounted wind power about to pick up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowe, J.

    2006-01-01

    The potential market for small roof-mounted wind turbines is discussed. Should the technology prove popular, the market would be enormous. Delta Energy and Environment has prepared a study called, Roof Top Wind Turbines: A Product for Mass Markets? At present, the future for roof-mounted wind turbines is unclear: predictions range from little or no market at all to mass installations with a payback period of as little as five years. Several small roof-top turbines are described. A critical factor influencing the efficiency of a roof-mounted wind turbine is the air flow pattern over the roof which may in turn be affected by neighbouring buildings. (author)

  2. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simley, Eric J.

    Wind turbines typically rely on feedback controllers to maximize power capture in below-rated conditions and regulate rotor speed during above-rated operation. However, measurements of the approaching wind provided by Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) can be used as part of a preview-based, or feedforward, control system in order to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce structural loads. But the effectiveness of preview-based control depends on how accurately lidar can measure the wind that will interact with the turbine. In this thesis, lidar measurement error is determined using a statistical frequency-domain wind field model including wind evolution, or the change in turbulent wind speeds between the time they are measured and when they reach the turbine. Parameters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5-MW reference turbine model are used to determine measurement error for a hub-mounted circularly-scanning lidar scenario, based on commercially-available technology, designed to estimate rotor effective uniform and shear wind speed components. By combining the wind field model, lidar model, and turbine parameters, the optimal lidar scan radius and preview distance that yield the minimum mean square measurement error, as well as the resulting minimum achievable error, are found for a variety of wind conditions. With optimized scan scenarios, it is found that relatively low measurement error can be achieved, but the attainable measurement error largely depends on the wind conditions. In addition, the impact of the induction zone, the region upstream of the turbine where the approaching wind speeds are reduced, as well as turbine yaw error on measurement quality is analyzed. In order to minimize the mean square measurement error, an optimal measurement prefilter is employed, which depends on statistics of the correlation between the preview measurements and the wind that interacts with the turbine. However, because the wind speeds encountered by

  3. Investigation of the Shear Flow Effect and Tip Clearance on a Low Speed Axial Flow Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Varpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of inlet shear flow on the tip leakage flow in an axial flow compressor cascade. A flow with a high shear rate is generated in the test section of an open circuit cascade wind tunnel by using a combination of screens with a prescribed solidity. It is observed that a stable shear flow of shear rate 1.33 is possible and has a gradual decay rate until 15 times the height of the shear flow generator downstream. The computational results obtained agree well with the available experimental data on the baseline configuration. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the tip clearance improves the blade loading near the tip through the promotion of favorable incidence by the tip leakage flow. The tip clearance shifts the centre of pressure on the blade surface towards the tip. It, however, has no effect on the distribution of end wall loss and deviation angle along the span up to 60% from the hub. In the presence of a shear inflow, the end wall effects are considerable. On the other hand, with a shear inflow, the effects of tip leakage flow are observed to be partly suppressed. The shear flow reduces the tip leakage losses substantially in terms of kinetic energy associated with it.

  4. The dynamics of a shear band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide

    2018-03-01

    A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.

  5. Economic feasibility of developing wind turbines in Aligoodarz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation

  6. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  7. Steel Plate Shear Walls: Efficient Structural Solution for Slender High-Rise in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Neville; Long, Eric; Sarkisian, Mark; Huang Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    The 329.6 meter tall 74-story Jinta Tower in Tianjin, China, is expected, when complete, to be the tallest building in the world with slender steel plate shear walls used as the primary lateral load resisting system. The tower has an overall aspect ratio close to 1:8, and the main design challenge was to develop an efficient lateral system capable of resisting significant wind and seismic lateral loads, while simultaneously keeping wind induced oscillations under acceptable perception limits. This paper describes the process of selection of steel plate shear walls as the structural system, and presents the design philosophy, criteria and procedures that were arrived at by integrating the relevant requirements and recommendations of US and Chinese codes and standards, and current on-going research

  8. Mechanism of drag reduction for circular cylinders with patterned surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, U.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced drag of patterned cylinders over a wide range of Re numbers. • Hexagonal patterns cannot be characterized as roughness structures. • Hexagonal bumps affect the flow like spherical dimples of smaller k/d ratio do. • Main separation is delayed caused by a partial separation. • Angle of a separation line is not constant over the length of cylinder. -- Abstract: In this paper, the flow over cylinders with a patterned surface (k/d = 1.98 × 10 −2 ) is investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel over Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.14 × 10 4 to 2.77 × 10 5 by measuring drag, flow visualization and measuring velocity profiles above the surface of the cylinders, to observe the effect of hexagonal patterns on the flow of air. These patterns can also be referred as hexagonal dimples or bumps depending on their configuration. The investigations revealed that a patterned cylinder with patterns pressed outwards has a drag coefficient of about 0.65 times of a smooth one. Flow visualization techniques including surface oil-film technique and velocity profile measurement were employed to elucidate this effect, and hence present the mechanism of drag reduction. The measurement of velocity profiles using hot-wire anemometry above the surface reveal that a hexagonal bump cause local separation generating large turbulence intensity along the separating shear layer. Due to this increased turbulence, the flow reattaches to the surface with higher momentum and become able to withstand the pressure gradient delaying the main separation significantly. Besides that, the separation does not appear to occur in a straight line along the length of the cylinder as in case of most passive drag control methods, but follow exactly the hexagonal patterns forming a wave with its crest at 115° and trough at 110°, in contrast to the laminar separation line at 85° for a smooth cylinder

  9. Predicting Shear Transformation Events in Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Falk, Michael L.; Li, J. F.; Kong, L. T.

    2018-03-01

    Shear transformation is the elementary process for plastic deformation of metallic glasses, the prediction of the occurrence of the shear transformation events is therefore of vital importance to understand the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses. In this Letter, from the view of the potential energy landscape, we find that the protocol-dependent behavior of shear transformation is governed by the stress gradient along its minimum energy path and we propose a framework as well as an atomistic approach to predict the triggering strains, locations, and structural transformations of the shear transformation events under different shear protocols in metallic glasses. Verification with a model Cu64 Zr36 metallic glass reveals that the prediction agrees well with athermal quasistatic shear simulations. The proposed framework is believed to provide an important tool for developing a quantitative understanding of the deformation processes that control mechanical behavior of metallic glasses.

  10. Investigation of the Behavior of Steel Shear Walls Using Finite Elements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abubakri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, steel shear walls are considered by engineers as an economic method against lateral loads imposed by wind and earthquake in tall structures. Accordingly, there is a growing need to develop accurate methods alongside approximation methods to estimate the behavior of these structural elements. The finite element technique is one of the strongest numerical methods in analysis of solid mechanics problems. Finite element analysis however requires high technical knowledge of the behavioral models of materials. Therefore, it is less used by designers for certain structural elements such as steel shear walls. This study examines the failure mechanism of steel shear walls using finite elements analysis and validates this modeling by comparing the results with experimental studies.

  11. Wind energy in China. Current scenario and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changliang, Xia; Zhanfeng, Song

    2009-01-01

    Wind power in China registered a record level of expansion recently, and has doubled its total capacity every year since 2004. Many experts believe that China will be central to the future of the global wind energy market. Consequently, the growth pattern of wind power in China may be crucial to the further development of the global wind market. This paper firstly presented an overview of wind energy potential in China and reviewed the national wind power development course in detail. Based on the installed wind capacity in China over the past 18 years and the technical potential of wind energy resources, the growth pattern was modeled in this study for the purpose of prospect analysis, in order to obtain projections concerning the development potential. The future perspectives of wind energy development in China are predicted and analyzed. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of wind power in China and some insights into the prospects of China's wind power market, which is emerging as a new superpower in the global wind industry. (author)

  12. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  13. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  14. The importance of site selection for setting up a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunandan, A.; Gowda, G.; Pandian, A. [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Ramanan, G. [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    A wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. Building a wind turbine is far more than simply a matter of finding a field or mountaintop where the wind is blowing and plopping one down. A great deal of attention should be given to finding the proper site for a wind turbine. The main factor one should consider is the average speed of the wind over an extended time. Estimation of the wind power potential for a site is the most important requirement for selecting a site for the installation of a wind turbine. Also wind turbines should be sited well above trees, buildings, and other obstacles else, the result will be poor energy production and increased wear and tear on the turbine. One way to get rid of this is to place the wind turbine on a tall tower. When selecting a place for setting up a wind turbine, engineers consider factors such as wind hazards, characteristics of the land that affect wind speed, and the effects of one turbine on nearby turbines in wind farms. The other factors that are important for selecting a site for installation of wind turbines are Hill effect, Roughness, or the amount of friction that Earth's surface exerts on wind, Tunnel effect, Turbulence, Variations in wind speed, Wind obstacles and Wind shear. This paper will emphasis on the necessary inspections which are to be done on the site before installing a Wind Turbine. (Author)

  15. Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise

    in generated power are a particular problem for oshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that uctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water......Mesoscale wind uctuations aect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large uctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large uctuations...... that realistic hour-scale wind uctuations and open cellular convection patterns develop in WRF simulations with 2km horizontal grid spacing. The atmospheric conditions during one of the case studies are then used to initialise a simplied version of the model that has no large scale weather forcing, topography...

  16. Investigation of the Behavior of Steel Shear Walls Using Finite Elements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakri, K.; Veladi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, steel shear walls are considered by engineers as an economic method against lateral loads imposed by wind and earthquake in tall structures. Accordingly, there is a growing need to develop accurate methods alongside approximation methods to estimate the behavior of these structural elements. The finite element technique is one of the strongest numerical methods in analysis of solid mechanics problems. Finite element analysis however requires high technical knowledge of the behavior...

  17. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  18. Analysis of Disturbance Source Inducing by The Variable Speed Wind Turbine System Forced Power Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of forced low frequency oscillations is to analyze the disturbance source and the origin of forced oscillations. In this paper, the origin of low-frequency periodical oscillations induced by wind turbines’ mechanical power is investigated and the mechanism is studied of fluctuating...... power transfer through permanent magnet generator wind turbine system. Considering the tower shadow and the wind shear effect, the mechanical and generator coupling model is developed by PSCAD. Simulation is done to analyze the impacts on output power of operation points and mechanical fluctuation...... components. It is shown that when the oscillation frequency of tower shadow coincides with the system natural frequency, it may cause forced oscillations, whereas, the wind shear and natural wind speed fluctuation are not likely to induce forced oscillations....

  19. Accounting for variation in wind deployment between Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson-Martin, Christopher J.; Hill, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy deployment varies widely across regions and this variation cannot be explained by differences in natural wind resources alone. Evidence suggests that institutional factors beyond physical wind resources can influence the deployment of wind energy systems. Building on the work of , this study takes a historical institutionalist approach to examine the main factors influencing wind energy deployment across four Canadian provinces Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Our case studies suggest that wind energy deployment depends upon a combination of indirect causal factors-landscape values, political and social movements, government electricity policy, provincial electricity market structure and incumbent generation technologies and direct causal factors-grid architecture, ownership patterns, renewable incentive programs, planning and approvals processes and stakeholder support and opposition. - Research highlights: → Examines the reasons for variations in wind deployment between Canadian provinces. → Employs a historical institutional approach to the analysis. → Discusses social factors that affect wind deployment across Canadian jurisdictions.

  20. Wind energy availability above gaps in a forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba

    2009-01-01

    installation strategies. The canopy-planetary boundary-layer model SCADIS is used to investigate the effect of forest gap size (within the diameter range of 3 - 75 tree heights, h) on wind energy related variables. A wind turbine was assumed with following features: the hub height and rotor diameter of 3.5h...... were estimated from modelled data. The results show that the effect of the forest gaps with diameters smaller than 55h on wind energy captured by the assumed wind turbine and located in the centre of round low-roughness gap is practically insignificant. The high level of spatial variation of considered......There is a lack of data on availability of wind energy above a forest disturbed by clear-cuts, where a wind energy developer may find an opportunity to install a wind farm. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can provide spatial patterns of wind and turbulence, and help to develop optimal...

  1. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  2. Origins of Shear Jamming for Frictional Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Hu; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Granular systems have been shown to be able to behave like solids, under shear, even when their densities are below the critical packing fraction for frictionless isotropic jamming. To understand such a phenomena, called shear jamming, the question we address here is: how does shear bring a system from a unjammed state to a jammed state, where the coordination number, Z, is no less than 3, the isotropic jamming point for frictional grains? Since Z can be used to distinguish jammed states from unjammed ones, it is vital to understand how shear increases Z. We here propose a set of three particles in contact, denoted as a trimer, as the basic unit to characterize the deformation of the system. Trimers, stabilized by inter-grain friction, fail under a certain amount of shear and bend to make extra contacts to regain stability. By defining a projection operator of the opening angle of the trimer to the compression direction in the shear, O, we see a systematically linear decrease of this quantity with respect to shear strain, demonstrating the bending of trimers as expected. In addition, the average change of O from one shear step to the next shows a good collapse when plotted against Z, indicating a universal behavior in the process of shear jamming. We acknowledge support from NSF DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G, the William M. Keck Foundation and a RT-MRSEC Fellowship.

  3. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  4. Shearing-induced asymmetry in entorhinal grid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensola, Tor; Stensola, Hanne; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2015-02-12

    Grid cells are neurons with periodic spatial receptive fields (grids) that tile two-dimensional space in a hexagonal pattern. To provide useful information about location, grids must be stably anchored to an external reference frame. The mechanisms underlying this anchoring process have remained elusive. Here we show in differently sized familiar square enclosures that the axes of the grids are offset from the walls by an angle that minimizes symmetry with the borders of the environment. This rotational offset is invariably accompanied by an elliptic distortion of the grid pattern. Reversing the ellipticity analytically by a shearing transformation removes the angular offset. This, together with the near-absence of rotation in novel environments, suggests that the rotation emerges through non-coaxial strain as a function of experience. The systematic relationship between rotation and distortion of the grid pattern points to shear forces arising from anchoring to specific geometric reference points as key elements of the mechanism for alignment of grid patterns to the external world.

  5. Reconnection During Periods of Large IMF By Producing Shear Instabilities at the Dayside Convection Reversal Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, S.; Clauer, C. R.; Hartinger, M.; Xu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of large interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component and small negative Bz (GSM Coordinates), the ionospheric polar electric potential system is distorted so as to produce large east-west convection shears across local noon. Past research has shown examples of ULF waves with periods of approximately 10 - 20 minutes observed at this convection shear by the Greenland west coast chain of magnetometers. Past work has shown examples of these waves and associated them with conditions in the solar wind and IMF, particularly periods of large IMF By component. Here we report the results of a search of several years of solar wind data to identify periods when the IMF By component is large and the magnetometer chains along the 40-degree magnetic meridian (Greenland west coast and conjugate Antarctic chains) are within a few hours of local noon. We test here the hypothesis that large IMF By reconnection leads to large convection shears across local noon that generate ULF waves through, presumably, a shear instability such as Kelvin-Helmholtz.

  6. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  7. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  8. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  9. Conjunction of 2D and 3D modified flow solvers for simulating spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Sabbagh-Yazdi, Saeed-Reza

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study is the simulation of flow dynamics in the deep parts of the Caspian Sea, in which the southern and middle deep regions are surrounded by considerable areas of shallow zones. To simulate spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in deep waters, a conjunctive numerical model consisting of a 2D depth average model and a 3D pseudo compressible model is proposed. The 2D model is applied to determine time dependent free surface oscillations as well as the surface velocity patterns and is conjunct to the 3D flow solver for computing three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields which coverage to steady state for the top boundary condition. The modified 2D and 3D sets of equations are conjunct considering interface shear stresses. Both sets of 2D and 3D equations are solved on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes using the Galerkin Finite Volume Method. The conjunctive model is utilized to investigate the deep currents affected by wind, Coriolis forces and the river inflow conditions of the Caspian Sea. In this study, the simulation of flow field due to major winds as well as transient winds in the Caspian Sea during a period of 6 hours in the winter season has been conducted and the numerical results for water surface level are then compared to the 2D numerical results.

  10. Volumetric scans of wind turbine wakes performed with three simultaneous wind LiDARs under different atmospheric stability regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic optimization of wind farm layout is a crucial task to reduce wake effects on downstream wind turbines, thus to maximize wind power harvesting. However, downstream evolution and recovery of wind turbine wakes are strongly affected by the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow, such as wind shear and turbulence intensity, which are in turn affected by the ABL thermal stability. In order to characterize the downstream evolution of wakes produced by full-scale wind turbines under different atmospheric conditions, wind velocity measurements were performed with three wind LiDARs. The volumetric scans are performed by continuously sweeping azimuthal and elevation angles of the LiDARs in order to cover a 3D volume that includes the wind turbine wake. The minimum wake velocity deficit is then evaluated as a function of the downstream location for different atmospheric conditions. It is observed that the ABL thermal stability has a significant effect on the wake evolution, and the wake recovers faster under convective conditions

  11. Study of wind forces on low-rise hip-roof building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    to predict the wind loads and the flow patterns around the hip-roof building. .... various wind angle attack on the roof using CFD simulation. .... SIMPLE algorithm substitutes the flux correction equations into the discrete continuity equation to ...

  12. Evaluating the impacts of climate change on diurnal wind power cycles using multiple regional climate models

    KAUST Repository

    Goddard, Scott D.; Genton, Marc G.; Hering, Amanda S.; Sain, Stephan R.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical utility system operators must plan resources so that electricity supply matches demand throughout the day. As the proportion of wind-generated electricity in the US grows, changes in daily wind patterns have the potential either

  13. Shear thinning behaviors in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, F. P.; Cassetta, M.; Perugini, D.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on magma rheology are of fundamental importance to understanding magmatic processes from depth to surface. Since viscosity is one of the most important parameter controlling eruption mechanisms, as well as lava flow emplacement, a comprehensive knowledge on the evolution of magma viscosities during crystallization is required. We present new viscosity data on partly crystalized basalt, andesite and analogue lavas comparable to those erupted on Mercury's northern volcanic plains. High-temperature viscosity measurements were performed using a rotational Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the PVRG labs, in Perugia (Italy) (http://pvrg.unipg.it). The relative proportion of phases in each experimental run were determined by image analysis on BS-SEM images at different magnifications; phases are glasses, clinopyroxene, spinel, plagioclase for the basalt, plagioclase and spinel for the andesite and pure enstatite and clinopyroxenes, for the analogue Mercury's composition. Glass and crystalline fractions determined by image analysis well correlate with compositions of residual melts. In order to constrain the viscosity (η) variations as a function of crystallinity, shear rate (γ) was varied from 0.1 to 5 s-1. Viscosity vs. time at constant temperature shows a typical S-shape curve. In particular, for basaltic composition η vary from 3.1-3.8 Pa s [log η] at 1493 K and crystallinity of 19 area % as γ vary from 1.0 to 0.1 s-1; the andesite viscosity evolution is 3.2 and 3.7 Pa s [log η] as γ varies from 1 to 0.1 at 1493 K and crystal content of 17 area %; finally, Mercury's analogue composition was investigated at different temperature ranging from 1533 to 1502 K (Vetere et al., 2017). Results, for γ = 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 s-1, show viscosity variation between 2.7-4.0, 2.5-3.4 and 2.0-3.0 [log η inPa s] respectively while crystallinity vary from 9 to 27 (area %). As viscosity decreases as shear rate increases, these data points to a shear thinning behaviour

  14. CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds(C3Winds) A New Wind Observing System to Study Mesoscale Cloud Dynamics and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Kelly, M.A.; Yee, J.-H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E. L.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L. D.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to better understand mesoscale dynamics and their structures in severe weather systems. With potential catastrophic damage and loss of life, strong extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) have profound three-dimensional impacts on the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic structures, producing complex cloud precipitation patterns, strong low-level winds, extensive tropopause folds, and intense stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Employing a compact, stereo IR-visible imaging technique from two formation-flying CubeSats, C3Winds seeks to measure and map high-resolution (2 km) cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and cloud geometric height (CGH) accurately by tracking cloud features within 5-15 min. Complementary to lidar wind observations from space, the high-resolution wind fields from C3Winds will allow detailed investigations on strong low-level wind formation in an occluded ETC development, structural variations of TC inner-core rotation, and impacts of tropopause folding events on tropospheric ozone and air quality. Together with scatterometer ocean surface winds, C3Winds will provide a more comprehensive depiction of atmosphere-boundary-layer dynamics and interactive processes. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with potential of increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  15. Profiling the regional wind power fluctuation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dayang; Liang Jun; Han Xueshan; Zhao Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    As China starts to build 6 10-GW wind zones in 5 provinces by 2020, accommodating the wind electricity generated from these large wind zones will be a great challenge for the regional grids. Inadequate wind observing data hinders profiling the wind power fluctuations at the regional grid level. This paper proposed a method to assess the seasonal and diurnal wind power patterns based on the wind speed data from the NASA GEOS-5 DAS system, which provides data to the study of climate processes including the long-term estimates of meteorological quantities. The wind power fluctuations for the 6 largest wind zones in China are presented with both the capacity factor and the megawatt wind power output. The measured hourly wind output in a regional grid is compared to the calculating result to test the analyzing model. To investigate the offsetting effect of dispersed wind farms over large regions, the regional correlations of hourly wind power fluctuations are calculated. The result illustrates the different offsetting effects of minute and hourly fluctuations.

  16. Comparison of direct shear and simple shear responses of municipal solid waste in USA

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Although large-size simple shear (SS) testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) may arguably provide a more realistic estimate of the shear strength (τ ) of MSW than the most commonly used direct shear (DS) testing, a systematic comparison between

  17. Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.A.; Budny, R.V.; Challis, C.D.; Conway, G.

    2000-01-01

    The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier

  18. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiliang Zhang; Shuhua Gu; Wenqiang Liu; Lin Gan

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analysed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (Author)

  19. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiliang; Liu Wenqiang; Gu Shuhua; Gan Lin

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analyzed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (author)

  20. Serpentine Coil Topology for BNL Direct Wind Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Brett

    2005-01-01

    BNL direct wind technology, with the conductor pattern laid out without need for extra tooling (no collars, coil presses etc.) began with RHIC corrector production. RHIC patterns were wound flat and then wrapped on cylindrical support tubes. Later for the HERA-II IR magnets we improved conductor placement precision by winding directly on a support tube. To meet HERA-II space and field quality goals took sophisticated coil patterns, (some wound on tapered tubes). We denote such patterns, topologically equivalent to RHIC flat windings, "planar patterns." Multi-layer planar patterns run into trouble because it is hard to wind across existing turns and magnet leads get trapped at poles. So we invented a new "Serpentine" winding style, which goes around 360 degrees while the conductor winds back and forth on the tube. To avoid making solenoidal fields, we wind Serpentine layers in opposite handed pairs. With a Serpentine pattern each turn can have the same projection on the coil axis and integral field harmonics t...

  1. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  2. Optimal Tuning of Multivariable Disturbance-Observer-Based Control for Flicker Mitigation Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Multivariable disturbance accommodated observer based control (DOBC) scheme is presented to mitigate loads generated due to wind shear and tower shadow using individual blade pitch for above-rated wind speed condition of wind turbine. Wind shear and tower shadow add flickers as 1p, 3p, 6p and so on......, (p is the rotor rotational frequency) for three-bladed wind turbine. Novel DOBC with individual pitch control (IPC) to mitigate the flickers is presented and linear state-space model of wind turbine with tower dynamics is developed. The proposed controller is tuned using optimal control theory...... density of generator speed, drive-train torsion and tower fore-aft moment shows better mitigation to the flickers by proposed controller as compared with proportional–integral (PI) and disturbance accommodation control (DAC) with collective pitch control. Furthermore, it shows less degradation...

  3. Effect of tip clearance on wall shear stress of an axial LVAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, S.; Vikas, R.

    2017-09-01

    Wall shear stress is a crucial parameter used for blood damage analysis, and typically a value of 400 Pa is set as a limit. Tip clearance is a major factor contributing to hemolysis and pump efficiency. In this study, different tip gap configurations are used to analyse the wall shear stress developed on the blade surface of a constant thickness blade design, and a varying thickness blade design using CFD analysis. It was found that, for a particular geometry, as the clearance gap reduces, flow rate over the high wall shear stress area decreases even though the high wall shear stress span is found to extend. For each design, the optimum clearance gap is iteratively attained, keeping the maximum WSS as a limiting factor. Thus a better pump designs is obtained, whose leakage flow patterns are lower than that of the initial design, hence also leading to higher pump efficiency.

  4. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  5. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  6. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  7. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  8. Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the

  9. Simulations of biopolymer networks under shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Elisabeth Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we present a new method to simulate realistic three-dimensional networks of biopolymers under shear. These biopolymer networks are important for the structural functions of cells and tissues. We use the method to analyze these networks under shear, and consider the elastic modulus,

  10. Rating precast prestressed concrete bridges for shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Shear capacity of real-world prestressed concrete girders designed in the 1960s and 1970s is a concern because : AASHTO Standard Specifications (AASHTO-STD) employed the quarter-point rule for shear design, which is less : conservative for shea...

  11. Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.

  12. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  13. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  14. Performance Enhancement and Load Reduction on Wind Turbines Using Inflow Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    . The load variations on a wind turbine can be alleviated using either yaw or pitch actuation. A method is presented for alleviating load variations using yaw control, and it is shown how the method can be efficiently applied for decreasing the load variations that are caused by a vertical wind shear...... wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded...... excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator...

  15. Zonal flow shear amplification by depletion of anisotropic potential eddies in a magnetized plasma: idealized models and laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorczak, N; Manz, P; Chakraborty Thakur, S; Xu, M; Tynan, G R

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of vorticity conservation on the spatio-temporal interaction of a E × B zonal shear with a generic pattern of plasma potential modes are investigated in a magnetized plasma environment. Eddies organized on a chain along the zonal direction are locally depleted, resulting in what appears to be a radial decorrelation by the shear flow in the absence of dissipation. The eddy depletion occurs due to a transfer of enstrophy from the chain to the shear flow during the progressive growth in the chain anisotropy. The rate of zonal shear acceleration is derived analytically and its expression is validated by numerical simulations. The rate is proportional to the chain amplitude in the weak shear regime and to the shearing rate in the strong shear regime. Basic properties of the model are validated with fast visible imaging data collected on a magnetized plasma column experiment. A characteristic vorticity flux across the edge shear layer of tokamak plasmas is associated with the model predictions. The dependence of the interaction rate with turbulence amplitude and shearing rate could be an important ingredient of the low to high confinement mode transition. (paper)

  16. A Multi-Phase Based Fluid-Structure-Microfluidic interaction sensor for Aerodynamic Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher; Dutta, Diganta; Bashirzadeh, Yashar; Ahmed, Kareem; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-11-01

    A novel innovative microfluidic shear stress sensor is developed for measuring shear stress through multi-phase fluid-structure-microfluidic interaction. The device is composed of a microfluidic cavity filled with an electrolyte liquid. Inside the cavity, two electrodes make electrochemical velocimetry measurements of the induced convection. The cavity is sealed with a flexible superhydrophobic membrane. The membrane will dynamically stretch and flex as a result of direct shear cross-flow interaction with the seal structure, forming instability wave modes and inducing fluid motion within the microfluidic cavity. The shear stress on the membrane is measured by sensing the induced convection generated by membrane deflections. The advantages of the sensor over current MEMS based shear stress sensor technology are: a simplified design with no moving parts, optimum relationship between size and sensitivity, no gaps such as those created by micromachining sensors in MEMS processes. We present the findings of a feasibility study of the proposed sensor including wind-tunnel tests, microPIV measurements, electrochemical velocimetry, and simulation data results. The study investigates the sensor in the supersonic and subsonic flow regimes. Supported by a NASA SBIR phase 1 contract.

  17. Possible ionospheric preconditioning by shear flow leading to equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical shear in the zonal plasma drift speed is apparent in incoherent and coherent scatter radar observations of the bottomside F region ionosphere made at Jicamarca from about 1600–2200 LT. The relative importance of the factors controlling the shear, which include competition between the E and F region dynamos as well as vertical currents driven in the E and F regions at the dip equator, is presently unknown. Bottom-type scattering layers arise in strata where the neutral and plasma drifts differ widely, and periodic structuring of irregularities within the layers is telltale of intermediate-scale waves in the bottomside. These precursor waves appear to be able to seed ionospheric interchange instabilities and initiate full-blown equatorial spread F. The seed or precursor waves may be generated by a collisional shear instability. However, assessing the viability of shear instability requires measurements of the same parameters needed to understand shear flow quantitatively - thermospheric neutral wind and off-equatorial conductivity profiles. Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (Waves and instabilities

  18. Glass Masonry - Experimental Verification of Bed Joint under Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fíla, J.; Eliášová, M.; Sokol, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Glass is considered as a traditional material for building industry but was mostly used for glazing of the windows. At present, glass is an integral part of contemporary architecture where glass structural elements such as beams, stairs, railing ribs or columns became popular in the last two decades. However, using glass as structural material started at the beginning of 20th century, when masonry from hollow glass blocks were used. Using solid glass brick is very rare and only a few structures with solid glass bricks walls have been built in the last years. Pillars and walls made from solid glass bricks are mainly loaded by compression and/or bending from the eccentricity of vertical load or wind load. Due to high compressive strength of glass, the limiting factor of the glass masonry is the joint between the glass bricks as the smooth surface requires another type of mortar / glue compared to traditional masonry. Shear resistance and failure modes of brick bed joint was determined during series of tests using various mortars, two types of surface treatment and different thickness of the mortar joint. Shear tests were completed by small scale tests for mortar - determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar.

  19. Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2015-04-22

    In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks including predicting wind power production and assessing a turbine’s energy production efficiency. Nevertheless, actual wind power data indicate that the power output is affected by more than just wind speed. Several other environmental factors, such as wind direction, air density, humidity, turbulence intensity, and wind shears, have potential impact. Yet, in industry practice, as well as in the literature, current power curve models primarily consider wind speed and, sometimes, wind speed and direction. We propose an additive multivariate kernel method that can include the aforementioned environmental factors as a new power curve model. Our model provides, conditional on a given environmental condition, both the point estimation and density estimation of power output. It is able to capture the nonlinear relationships between environmental factors and the wind power output, as well as the high-order interaction effects among some of the environmental factors. Using operational data associated with four turbines in an inland wind farm and two turbines in an offshore wind farm, we demonstrate the improvement achieved by our kernel method.

  20. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.

    2017-12-01

    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  1. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  2. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  3. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  4. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  5. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  6. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  7. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  8. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  9. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  10. Comparative Study on Uni- and Bi-Directional Fluid Structure Coupling of Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Belayneh Ageze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of wind turbine blade designs are geared towards a longer and slender blade with high flexibility, exhibiting complex aeroelastic loadings and instability issues, including flutter; in this regard, fluid-structure interaction (FSI plays a significant role. The present article will conduct a comparative study between uni-directional and bi-directional fluid-structural coupling models for a horizontal axis wind turbine. A full-scale, geometric copy of the NREL 5MW blade with simplified material distribution is considered for simulation. Analytical formulations of the governing relations with appropriate approximation are highlighted, including turbulence model, i.e., Shear Stress Transport (SST k-ω. These analytical relations are implemented using Multiphysics package ANSYS employing Fluent module (Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-based solver for the fluid domain and Transient Structural module (Finite Element Analysis-based solver for the structural domain. ANSYS system coupling module also is configured to model the two fluid-structure coupling methods. The rated operational condition of the blade for a full cycle rotation is considered as a comparison domain. In the bi-directional coupling model, the structural deformation alters the angle of attack from the designed values, and by extension the flow pattern along the blade span; furthermore, the tip deflection keeps fluctuating whilst it tends to stabilize in the uni-directional coupling model.

  11. A New Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for PMSG Wind Turbine Power Converters under Variable Wind Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingning Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbines (WTs mitigate gearbox impacts, they requires high reliability of generators and converters. Statistical analysis shows that the failure rate of direct-drive PMSG wind turbines’ generators and inverters are high. Intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms to detect inverters faults is a premise for the condition monitoring system aimed at improving wind turbines’ reliability and availability. The influences of random wind speed and diversified control strategies lead to challenges for developing intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms for converters. This paper studies open-circuit fault features of wind turbine converters in variable wind speed situations through systematic simulation and experiment. A new fault diagnosis algorithm named Wind Speed Based Normalized Current Trajectory is proposed and used to accurately detect and locate faulted IGBT in the circuit arms. It is compared to direct current monitoring and current vector trajectory pattern approaches. The results show that the proposed method has advantages in the accuracy of fault diagnosis and has superior anti-noise capability in variable wind speed situations. The impact of the control strategy is also identified. Experimental results demonstrate its applicability on practical WT condition monitoring system which is used to improve wind turbine reliability and reduce their maintenance cost.

  12. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  13. Advancements in Wind Energy Metrology - UPWIND 1A2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Troels F.; Wagner, R.

    2011-02-15

    An overview of wind related metrology research made at Risoe DTU over the period of the UPWIND project is given. A main part of the overview is devoted to development of the Lidar technology with several sub-chapters considering different topics of the research. Technical problems are not rare for this new technology, and testing against a traditional met mast have shown to be efficient for gaining confidence with the ground based Lidar technology and for trust in accuracy of measurements. In principle, Lidar measurements could be traceable through the fundamental measurement principles, but at this stage of development it is not found feasible. Instead, traceability is secured through comparison with met masts that are traceable through wind tunnel calibrations of cup anemometers. The ground based Lidar measurement principle works almost acceptable in flat terrain. In complex terrain and close to woods the measurement volume is disturbed because the flow is no longer horizontally homogeneous. These conditions require special attention and correction methods. Due to the large measurement volume, ground based Lidars perform a spatial averaging which has the effect of a low pass filter on turbulence measurements. Theory and measurements seem to be in good agreement. Lidar measurements from a rotating spinner have been performed. The analysis show good perspectives for scanning the incoming wind, which may lead to better controlled wind turbines. Lidars have also been used to scan the wake of wind turbines. These measurements document the meandering wake pattern. The second part of the overview considers power performance measurements. A new investigation on the influence of wind shear points to a revision of the definition of a power curve. A new measurement method has been developed which has a good chance of being implemented in the present revision of the IEC performance standard. Also, a turbulence normalization method has been tested but not found efficient

  14. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  15. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  16. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  17. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  18. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  19. Detection of Wind Evolution and Lidar Trajectory Optimization for Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schlipf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in remote sensing are offering a promising opportunity to rethink conventional control strategies of wind turbines. With technologies such as lidar, the information about the incoming wind field - the main disturbance to the system - can be made available ahead of time. Initial field testing of collective pitch feedforward control shows, that lidar measurements are only beneficial if they are filtered properly to avoid harmful control action. However, commercial lidar systems developed for site assessment are usually unable to provide a usable signal for real time control. Recent research shows, that the correlation between the measurement of rotor effective wind speed and the turbine reaction can be modeled and that the model can be used to optimize a scan pattern. This correlation depends on several criteria such as turbine size, position of the measurements, measurement volume, and how the wind evolves on its way towards the rotor. In this work the longitudinal wind evolution is identified with the line-of-sight measurements of a pulsed lidar system installed on a large commercial wind turbine. This is done by staring directly into the inflowing wind during operation of the turbine and fitting the coherence between the wind at different measurement distances to an exponential model taking into account the yaw misalignment, limitation to line-of-sight measurements and the pulse volume. The identified wind evolution is then used to optimize the scan trajectory of a scanning lidar for lidar-assisted feedforward control in order to get the best correlation possible within the constraints of the system. Further, an adaptive filer is fitted to the modeled correlation to avoid negative impact of feedforward control because of uncorrelated frequencies of the wind measurement. The main results of the presented work are a first estimate of the wind evolution in front of operating wind turbines and an approach which manufacturers of

  20. Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo P. Chamorro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span. Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout.

  1. The necessary distance between large wind farms offshore - study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, S.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    the new Storpark Analytical Model has been developed and evaluated. As it is often the need for offshore wind farms, the model handles a regular array-geometry with straight rows of wind turbines and equidistantspacing between units in each row and equidistant spacing between rows. Firstly, the case...... with the flow direction being parallel to rows in a rectangular geometry is considered by defining three flow regimes. Secondly, when the flow is not in line withthe main rows, solutions are found for the patterns of wind turbine units emerging corresponding to each wind direction. The model complex......A review of state of the art wake and boundary layer wind farms was conducted. The predictions made for wind recovery distances (that might be used to estimate optimal placing of neighbouring wind farms) range between 2 and 14 km. In order to model thelink between wakes and the boundary layer...

  2. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  3. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  4. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  5. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  6. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  7. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  8. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  9. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  11. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  12. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  13. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  14. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  15. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  16. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  17. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  18. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar...

  19. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  20. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  1. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  2. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  3. Probabilistic Fatigue Model for Reinforced Concrete Onshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Reinforced Concrete Slab Foundation (RCSF) is the most common onshore wind turbine foundation type installed by the wind industry around the world. Fatigue cracks in a RCSF are an important issue to be considered by the designers. Causes and consequences of the cracks due to fatigue damage in RCSFs...... are discussed in this paper. A probabilistic fatigue model for a RCSF is established which makes a rational treatment of the uncertainties involved in the complex interaction between fatigue cyclic loads and reinforced concrete. Design and limit state equations are established considering concrete shear...

  4. Potential Coir Fibre Composite for Small Wind Turbine Blade Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Bakri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been developed as reinforcement of composite to shift synthetic fibers. One of potential natural fibers developed is coir fiber. This paper aims to describe potential coir fiber as reinforcement of composite for small wind turbine blade application. The research shows that mechanical properties ( tensile, impact, shear, flexural and compression strengths of coir fiber composite have really similar to wood properties for small wind turbine blade material, but inferior to glass fiber composite properties. The effect of weathering was also evaluated to coir fiber composite in this paper.

  5. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  6. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  7. Shear Melting of a Colloidal Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Christoph; Kim, Chanjoong; Mattsson, Johan; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We use confocal microscopy to explore shear melting of colloidal glasses, which occurs at strains of ˜0.08, coinciding with a strongly non-Gaussian step size distribution. For larger strains, the particle mean square displacement increases linearly with strain and the step size distribution becomes Gaussian. The effective diffusion coefficient varies approximately linearly with shear rate, consistent with a modified Stokes-Einstein relationship in which thermal energy is replaced by shear energy and the length scale is set by the size of cooperatively moving regions consisting of ˜3 particles.

  8. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  9. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2015-08-26

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the centre of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing Lidars for Wind Turbine Control Applications—Results from the IEA Wind Task 32 Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Simley

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IEA Wind Task 32 serves as an international platform for the research community and industry to identify and mitigate barriers to the use of lidars in wind energy applications. The workshop “Optimizing Lidar Design for Wind Energy Applications” was held in July 2016 to identify lidar system properties that are desirable for wind turbine control applications and help foster the widespread application of lidar-assisted control (LAC. One of the main barriers this workshop aimed to address is the multidisciplinary nature of LAC. Since lidar suppliers, wind turbine manufacturers, and researchers typically focus on their own areas of expertise, it is possible that current lidar systems are not optimal for control purposes. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop, addressing both practical and theoretical aspects, beginning with a review of the literature on lidar optimization for control applications. Next, barriers to the use of lidar for wind turbine control are identified, such as availability and reliability concerns, followed by practical suggestions for mitigating those barriers. From a theoretical perspective, the optimization of lidar scan patterns by minimizing the error between the measurements and the rotor effective wind speed of interest is discussed. Frequency domain methods for directly calculating measurement error using a stochastic wind field model are reviewed and applied to the optimization of several continuous wave and pulsed Doppler lidar scan patterns based on commercially-available systems. An overview of the design process for a lidar-assisted pitch controller for rotor speed regulation highlights design choices that can impact the usefulness of lidar measurements beyond scan pattern optimization. Finally, using measurements from an optimized scan pattern, it is shown that the rotor speed regulation achieved after optimizing the lidar-assisted control scenario via time domain simulations matches the performance

  11. The Effect of Wind-Turbine Wakes on Summertime US Midwest Atmospheric Wind Profiles as Observed with Ground-Based Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michael E.; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2013-07-01

    We examine the influence of a modern multi-megawatt wind turbine on wind and turbulence profiles three rotor diameters (D) downwind of the turbine. Light detection and ranging (lidar) wind-profile observations were collected during summer 2011 in an operating wind farm in central Iowa at 20-m vertical intervals from 40 to 220 m above the surface. After a calibration period during which two lidars were operated next to each other, one lidar was located approximately 2D directly south of a wind turbine; the other lidar was moved approximately 3D north of the same wind turbine. Data from the two lidars during southerly flow conditions enabled the simultaneous capture of inflow and wake conditions. The inflow wind and turbulence profiles exhibit strong variability with atmospheric stability: daytime profiles are well-mixed with little shear and strong turbulence, while nighttime profiles exhibit minimal turbulence and considerable shear across the rotor disk region and above. Consistent with the observations available from other studies and with wind-tunnel and large-eddy simulation studies, measurable reductions in wake wind-speeds occur at heights spanning the wind turbine rotor (43-117 m), and turbulent quantities increase in the wake. In generalizing these results as a function of inflow wind speed, we find the wind-speed deficit in the wake is largest at hub height or just above, and the maximum deficit occurs when wind speeds are below the rated speed for the turbine. Similarly, the maximum enhancement of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity occurs at hub height, although observations at the top of the rotor disk do not allow assessment of turbulence in that region. The wind shear below turbine hub height (quantified here with the power-law coefficient) is found to be a useful parameter to identify whether a downwind lidar observes turbine wake or free-flow conditions. These field observations provide data for validating turbine-wake models and wind

  12. On the relationship between hurricane cost and the integrated wind profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Toumi, R.

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to identify metrics that best capture hurricane destructive potential and costs. Although it has been found that the sea surface temperature and vertical wind shear can both make considerable changes to the hurricane destructive potential metrics, it is still unknown which plays a more important role. Here we present a new method to reconstruct the historical wind structure of hurricanes that allows us, for the first time, to calculate the correlation of damage with integrated power dissipation and integrated kinetic energy of all hurricanes at landfall since 1988. We find that those metrics, which include the horizontal wind structure, rather than just maximum intensity, are much better correlated with the hurricane cost. The vertical wind shear over the main development region of hurricanes plays a more dominant role than the sea surface temperature in controlling these metrics and therefore also ultimately the cost of hurricanes.

  13. Small UAS-Based Wind Feature Identification System Part 1: Integration and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Rodriguez Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS. The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain, was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz

  14. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  15. Application of Ring Shear Testing to Optimize Pharmaceutical Formulation and Process Development of Solid Dosage Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten

    This study investigates how shear and wall friction tests performed at small stresses can be applied to predict critical flow properties of powders, such as flow patterns and arching tendencies, in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The study showed that this approach is a promising method...

  16. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  17. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  18. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  19. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  20. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...