WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind river summer

  1. A River Summer on the Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Selleck, B.; Son, L.; Land, M.; Cronin, J.

    2006-12-01

    River Summer is a month-long faculty development program extending from the continental shelf off New York City to the headwaters of the Hudson in the Adirondack Mountains. During the program, faculty from the Environmental Consortium of Hudson Valley Colleges and Universities teach each other about the Hudson environment, using innovative methods of teaching and learning, with a focus on incorporation of hands-on approaches from the perspective of multiple disciplines. Over four weeks, faculty from research universities, community colleges, liberal arts institutions, and middle and high schools work and live together, on board a research vessel or in a remote tent campsite, for several days at a time. Using the geology, hydrology, and landscape of the River as a foundation, River Summer focuses on understanding development of the Hudson within the context of its natural resources and cultural history. Participants conduct field sampling and analyses and consider issues through approaches that are common to many disciplines: scaling for problem solving; sampling and assessing bias and representation; observing and documenting; representing and depicting; interpretation and assessing relationships and causality; and evaluation. They also get a chance to experience, first-hand, the complexity and often open-ended nature of doing science. By allowing individuals, many of whom come from non-science disciplines, to experience these methods and processes in a safe learning environment, science is made more meaningful and accessible. The program's pedagogy is based on the principles of cognitive psychology and immersive field-, place- and inquiry-based learning. Field programs have been found to provide memorable, transformative experiences for undergraduate students, and our experience with River Summer 2005 and 2006 suggests they are equally effective with faculty. Evaluation shows that River Summer has a significant impact on its participants. Participants develop new

  2. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  4. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Schillinger, William F.; Bary, Andrew I.; Cogger, Craig G.

    2018-06-01

    Conservation tillage is a viable management strategy to control soil wind erosion, but other strategies such as land application of biosolids that enhance soil quality may also reduce wind erosion. No studies have determined the effects of biosolids on wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolids fertilizer to traditional (disk) and conservation (undercutter) tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF) rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Soil loss ranged from 12 to 61% lower for undercutter than disk tillage, possibly due to retention of more biomass on the soil surface of the undercutter versus disk tillage treatment. In contrast, soil loss was similar to or lower for biosolids as compared with synthetic fertilizer treatment. Our results suggest that biosolids applications to agricultural lands will have minimal impact on wind erosion.

  5. The role of summer surface wind anomalies in the summer Arctic sea ice extent in 2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, M.; Wallace, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Masayo Ogi 1 and John M. Wallace 2 masayo.ogi@jamstec.go.jp wallace@atmos.washington.edu 1Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan 2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington The seasonal evolutions of Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) during the summers of 2010 and 2011 are contrasted with that in 2007. The June SIE in 2010 was lower than that in 2007 and was the lowest for that calendar month in the 32-year (1979-2010) record. The September SIE in 2010 would have set a new record low had it not been for the fact that the ice retreated more slowly during the summer months in that year than it did in 2007. Hence from early July onward, the SIE in 2010 remained at levels above those observed in 2007. The SIE minimum in September 2010 proved to be the third lowest on record, eclipsed by values in both 2007 and 2008. In spring and summer of 2011, the Arctic SIE was as low as it was in 2007, but the SIE in September 2011 did not reach record low levels. The SIE minimum in 2011 proved to be the second lowest on record for the period of 1979-2011. Summertime atmospheric conditions play an important role in controlling the variations in Arctic SIE. In a previous study based on statistical analysis of data collected prior to 2007, we showed that anticyclonic summertime circulation anomalies over the Arctic Ocean during the summer months favor low September SIE. We also found that the record-low ice summer year 2007 was characterized by a strong anticyclonic circulation anomaly, accompanied by an Ekman drift of ice out of the marginal seas toward the central Arctic and eventually toward the Fram Strait, as evidenced by the tracks of drifting buoys. Here we assess the extent to which year-to-year differences in summer winds over the Arctic might have contributed to the differing rates of retreat of ice during the summers of 2007, 2010, and 2011. Our results show that the May-June (MJ) pattern in 2010 is

  6. Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts, 1995. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achord, S.; Eppard, M.B.; Sandford, B.P.; Matthews, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing

  7. Ornithological studies of the Cold Northcott Wind Farm in the spring/summer 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Results of ornithological studies carried out at Cold Northcott Wind Farm in North Cornwall during 1994 are presented. Flight patterns of species using the area were studied as were breeding patterns and bird mortality due to collisions with wind turbines. No significant effect on the spring and summer bird communities was observed. Long-term influences on the birds seem, rather, to stem from large scale population changes and local agricultural practice. Wind strength was shown to affect flight patterns in some species, but turbine operation seems unrelated. Death by collision with wind turbines is shown to be very rare. (UK)

  8. Surface Wind Gust Statistics at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects meteorological data for many purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) including weather forecasting. This study focuses on wind gusts and also, to a lesser degree, turbulence intensities that occur in fair weather conditions near the surface over time periods from 1 hour to one week (168 hours)

  9. Dispersal of the Pearl River plume over continental shelf in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Gong, Wenping; Cai, Huayang; Chen, Yunzhen; Zhang, Heng

    2017-07-01

    Satellite images of turbidity were used to study the climatological, monthly, and typical snapshot distributions of the Pearl River plume over the shelf in summer from 2003 to 2016. These images show that the plume spreads offshore over the eastern shelf and is trapped near the coast over the western shelf. Eastward extension of the plume retreats from June to August. Monthly spatial variations of the plume are characterized by eastward spreading, westward spreading, or both. Time series of monthly plume area was quantified by applying the K-mean clustering method to identify the turbid plume water. Decomposition of the 14-year monthly turbidity data by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis isolated the 1st mode in both the eastward and westward spreading pattern as the time series closely related to the Pearl River discharge, and the 2nd mode with out-of-phase turbidity anomalies over the eastern and western shelves that is associated with the prevailing wind direction. Eight typical plume types were detected from the satellite snapshots. They are characterized by coastal jet, eastward offshore spreading, westward spreading, bidirectional spreading, bulge, isolated patch, offshore branch, and offshore filaments, respectively. Their possible mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Dust emission and transport over Iraq associated with the summer Shamal winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Karam Francis, D.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Banks, J.; Cuesta, J.; Brindley, H.; Oolman, L.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the diurnal evolution of the summer Shamal wind (a quasi-permanent low-level northwesterly wind feature) and its role in dust emission and transport over Iraq, using ground-based and space-borne observations together with a numerical simulation performed with the mesoscale model meso-NH. A 6-year dataset from the synoptic stations over Iraq allows establishing the prominence of the link between strong near surface winds and reduced visibility in the summer. The detailed processes at play during Shamal events are explored on the basis of a meso-NH simulation for a given, representative case study (25 June-3 July 2010). The Shamal exhibits an out-of-phase relationship between the surface wind and winds in the lower troposphere (typically 500 m above ground level), the maximum surface wind speeds being observed during the day while in altitude the maximum wind speeds are observed at night. The daytime near surface winds, at the origin of dust emission, are associated with the downward transfer of momentum from the nocturnal low-level jet to the surface due to turbulent mixing after solar heating commences each day. For the first time, an estimate of the dust load associated with summer Shamal events over Iraq has been made using aerosol optical depths derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the simulation. The dust load exhibits a large diurnal variability, with a daily minimum value of 1 Tg around 0600 UTC and a daily peak of 2.5 Tg or more around 1500 UTC, and is driven by the diurnal cycle of the near surface wind speed. The daily dust load peak associated with the summer Shamal over Iraq is in the same order of magnitude as those derived from simulations downstream of the Bodélé depression in Chad, known to be the world's largest dust source.

  11. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  12. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Save with Solar and Wind, Summer 2002 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    This newsletter is published by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for facility managers, contracting officials, energy specialists, and others involved in helping Federal agencies increase their use of cost-effective solar and wind energy systems at their facilities. Renewable energy systems ultimately save agencies money by reducing utility costs; they also help to lower the emissions associated with the use of fossil fuels. This issue describes a new strategy to achieve the Federal goal for renewable energy, as well as some new solar and wind systems installed at facilities of the Department of Defense, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Postal Service, the National Park Service, and other agencies.

  14. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  15. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  16. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Green, Ethan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcmichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  17. How East Asian westerly jet's meridional position affects the summer rainfall in Yangtze-Huaihe River Valley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Zuo, Hongchao; Zhao, Shuman; Zhang, Jiankai; Lu, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Existing studies show that the change in the meridional position of East Asian westerly jet (EAWJ) is associated with rainfall anomalies in Yangtze-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV) in summer. However, the dynamic mechanism has not been resolved yet. The present study reveals underlying mechanisms for this impact for early summer and midsummer, separately. Mechanism1: associated with EAWJ's anomalously southward displacement, the 500-hPa westerly wind over YHRV is strengthened through midtropospheric horizontal circulation anomalies; the westerly anomalies are related to the formation of warm advection anomalies over YHRV, which cause increased rainfall through adiabatic ascent motion and convective activities; the major difference in these processes between early summer and midsummer is the midtropospheric circulation anomaly pattern. Mechanism 2: associated with EAWJ's anomalously southward displacement, the large day-to-day variability of midtropospheric temperature advection in midlatitudes is displaced southward by the jet's trapping transient eddies; this change enhances the day-to-day variability of temperature advection over YHRV, which in turn causes the increased rainfall in most part of YHRV through "lower-bound effect" (rainfall amount can not become negative); there is not much difference in these processes between early summer and midsummer.

  18. Seasonal forecasts of the summer 2016 Yangtze River basin rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Bett, Philip E.; Scaife, Adam A.; Li, Chaofan; Hewitt, Chris; Golding, Nicola; Zhang, Peiqun; Dunstone, Nick; Smith, Doug M.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Lu, Riyu; Ren, Hong-Li

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River has been subject to heavy flooding throughout history, and in recent times severe floods such as those in 1998 have resulted in heavy loss of life and livelihoods. Dams along the river help to manage flood waters, and are important sources of electricity for the region. Being able to forecast high-impact events at long lead times therefore has enormous potential benefit. Recent improvements in seasonal forecasting mean that dynamical climate models can start to be used direc...

  19. Effect of wind turbine wakes on summer-time wind profiles in the US Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. E.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.

    2011-12-01

    Wind energy is steadily becoming a significant source of grid electricity in the United States, and the Midwestern United States provides one of the nation's richest wind resources. This study examines the effect of wind turbine wakes on the wind profile in central Iowa. Data were collected using a coherent Doppler LiDAR system located approximately 2.5 rotor diameters north of a row of modern multi-MW wind turbine generators. The prevailing wind direction was from the South allowing the LiDAR to capture wind turbine wake properties; however, a number of periods existed where the LiDAR captured undisturbed flow. The LiDAR system reliably obtained readings up to 200 m above ground level (AGL), spanning the entire rotor disk (~40 m to 120 m AGL) which far surpasses the information provided by traditional wind resource assessment instrumentation. We extract several relevant parameters from the lidar data including: horizontal wind speed, vertical velocity, horizontal turbulence intensity, wind shear, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Each time period at a particular LiDAR measurement height was labeled "wake" or "undisturbed" based on the wind direction at that height. Wake and undisturbed data were averaged separately to create a time-height cross-section averaged day for each parameter. Significant differences between wake and undisturbed data emerge. During the day, wake conditions experience larger values of TKE within the altitudes of the turbine rotor disk while TKE values above the rotor disk are similar between waked and undisturbed conditions. Furthermore, the morning transition of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer commences earlier during wake conditions than in undisturbed conditions, and the evening decay of TKE persists longer during wake conditions. Waked wind shear is consistently greater than undisturbed periods at the edges of the wind turbine rotor disk (40m & 120m AGL), but especially so during the night where wind shear values during wake

  20. Cold weather damages promising species in the Wind River Arboretum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Steele

    1954-01-01

    Before an introduced tree species is. recommended for wide-scale forest planting, its adaption to the local climate and soil should be carefully checked over a long period of years. This need has been clearly demonstrated at the Wind River Arboretum where many introduced species are being evaluated for possible use in plantations. The purpose of this note is to call...

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  2. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River... Waterboard Warrior Ski Team will perform two 30-minute shows on the Fox River between the Hwy 141 Bridge and...

  3. Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over the Pearl River Delta, China, during the summer of 2006: measurement and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Fan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL measurements were performed in Qingyuan, Panyu, and Xinken over the Pearl River Delta (PRD on 1–30 July 2006. During the summer, the surface winds over the PRD are generally controlled by the south, usually with vertical wind shear at a height of approximately 800 m. Subsidence and precipitation from a tropical cyclone affects the air quality of the PRD. Under subsidence, wind speed in the ABL and the height of the ABL decrease and result in high-level concentrations. When the background wind speed is small or calm, the wind profile in Panyu and Xinken changes dramatically with height, which is perhaps caused by local circulation, such as sea-land breezes. To better understand the ABL of the PRD, simulations that used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF mesoscale model were utilized to analyze the ABL characteristics over the PRD. Based on three types of weather condition simulations (i.e., subsidence days, rainy days, and sunny days, the WRF model revealed that the simulated temperature and wind fields in these three cases were moderately consistent with the measurements. The results showed that diurnal variations of the ABL height on subsidence days and sunny days were obvious, but diurnal variations of the ABL height on rainy days were not apparent. The ABL is obviously affected by local circulation, and the ABL features are different at various stations. A simulation focused on a high pollution episode during the subsidence days on 12–15 July 2006, occurred under high-pressure conditions, accompanied by the tropical cyclone "Bilis". A comparison of the simulated vertical wind fields and temperature structure with the ABL measurements at Xinken, Panyu, and Qingyuan stations found that the modeled and measured atmospheric fields revealed two different types of ABL characteristics over the PRD. When the surface winds over the PRD were light or nearly calm

  4. Wind River Watershed restoration: 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey-Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination-Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring-Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment-Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration-Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  5. Characteristics of pools used by adult summer steelhead oversummering in the New River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - I assessed characteristics of pools used by oversummering adults of summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss between July and October 1991 in the New River, northwestern California. Most fish occupied channel confluence pools and other pools of moderate size (200-1,200 m 2); these pools had less than 35% substrate embeddedness and mean water depths of about 1.0...

  6. Ecological setting of the Wind River old-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jerry F. Franklin; Ken Bible; Jeffrey Klopatek; Elizabeth Freeman; Sarah Greene; Geoffrey G. Parker

    2004-01-01

    The Wind River old-growth forest, in the southern Cascade Range of Washington State, is a cool (average annual temperature, 8.7°C), moist (average annual precipitation, 2223 mm), 500-year-old Douglas-fir-western hemlock forest of moderate to low productivity at 371-m elevation on a less than 10% slope. There is a seasonal snowpack (November-March), and rain-on-snow and...

  7. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars atmosphere has low levels of dust during Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring and summer (the non-dusty season) and increased levels during NH autumn and winter (the dusty season). In the absence of regional or global storms, dust devils and local storms maintain a background minimum dust loading during the non-dusty season. While observational surveys and Global Climate Model (GCM) studies suggest that dust devils are likely to be major contributors to the background haze during NH spring and summer, a complete understanding of the relative contribution of dust devils and local dust storms has not yet been achieved. We present preliminary results from an investigation that focuses on the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on dust lifting processes during these seasons. Water ice clouds are known to affect atmospheric temperatures directly by absorption and emission of thermal infrared radiation and indirectly through dynamical feedbacks. Our goal is to understand how clouds affect the contribution by local (wind stress) dust storms to the background dust haze during NH spring and summer. The primary tool for this work is the NASA Ames Mars GCM, which contains physical parameterizations for a fully interactive dust cycle. Three simulations that included wind stress dust lifting were executed for a period of 5 Martian years: a case that included no cloud formation, a case that included radiatively inert cloud formation and a case that included radiatively active cloud (RAC) formation. Results show that when radiatively active clouds are included, the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt radiatively heat the atmosphere aloft in the tropics (Figure 1). This heating produces a stronger overturning circulation, which in turn produces an enhanced low-level flow in the Hadley cell return branch. The stronger low-level flow drives higher surface stresses and increased dust lifting in those locations. We examine how realistic these simulated results are by

  8. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.; Munz, Carrie S. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-04

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  9. Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

    2008-09-01

    A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

  10. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  11. Iteroparity in Columbia River summer-run steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : implications for conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, M.L.; Boggs, C.T.; Peery, C.A.; Evans, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outmigration environment for steelhead kelts (anadromous rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, where summer-run kelts must pass up to 9 hydroelectric dams and reservoirs to reach the Pacific Ocean. Such fish passage barriers present many direct and indirect mortality hazards for outmigrating kelts. In some years, kelt migration mortality in the impounded portion of the system can be higher than 95 per cent. Current efforts to improve kelt survival in the Columbia system include increasing iteroparity to take advantage of genetic and demographic benefits of repeat spawners. Some of the basic iteroparity information gaps in the aggregated summer-run steelhead population of the interior Columbia River Basin were addressed in this study. Kelt demographics were collected along the outmigration corridor. Repeat spawner return rates were examined along with kelt demographics, outmigration timing and collection location and year. The roles of these factors in predicting repeat spawner returns were evaluated using an information-theoretic approach. The life history characteristics of returning fish was examined with reference to breeding interval, migration timing and distribution within the Columbia River Basin. The study tested whether repeat spawner return rates would be affected by outmigration distance and whether they would differ among demographic groups. It was concluded that the expression of iteroparity among interior Columbia River steelhead has persisted despite decades of impoundment-related selection pressures. Post spawn kelts and repeat spawners in downstream fish bypass systems at the Columbia River and Snake River dams were found to be disproportionately female and of wild origin. The results of this study provide baseline data for evaluating kelt mortality mitigation efforts and basic life history information for steelhead conservation planning. 78 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  12. A Research Plan for Assessing the Power and Energy Capability of a River Network Under an Integrated Wind/Hydro-Electric Dispatchable Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, John Czeslaw

    The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.

  13. Summer planetary-scale oscillations: aura MLS temperature compared with ground-based radar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Meek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of satellite based sampling brings with it the opportunity to examine virtually any part of the globe. Aura MLS mesospheric temperature data are analysed in a wavelet format for easy identification of possible planetary waves (PW and aliases masquerading as PW. A calendar year, 2005, of eastward, stationary, and westward waves at a selected latitude is shown in separate panels for wave number range −3 to +3 for period range 8 h to 30 days (d. Such a wavelet analysis is made possible by Aura's continuous sampling at all latitudes 82° S–82° N. The data presentation is suitable for examination of years of data. However this paper focuses on the striking feature of a "dish-shaped" upper limit to periods near 2 d in mid-summer, with longer periods appearing towards spring and fall, a feature also commonly seen in radar winds. The most probable cause is suggested to be filtering by the summer jet at 70–80 km, the latter being available from ground based medium frequency radar (MFR. Classically, the phase velocity of a wave must be greater than that of the jet in order to propagate through it. As an attempt to directly relate satellite and ground based sampling, a PW event of period 8d and wave number 2, which appears to be the original rather than an alias, is compared with ground based radar wind data. An appendix discusses characteristics of satellite data aliases with regard to their periods and amplitudes.

  14. On the role of tides and strong wind events in promoting summer primary production in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Postlethwaite, Clare; Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Bélanger, Simon; Babin, Marcel

    2011-11-01

    Tides and wind-driven mixing play a major role in promoting post-bloom productivity in subarctic shelf seas. Whether this is also true in the high Arctic remains unknown. This question is particularly relevant in a context of increasing Arctic Ocean stratification in response to global climatic change. We have used a three-dimensional ocean-sea ice-plankton ecosystem model to assess the contribution of tides and strong wind events to summer (June-August 2001) primary production in the Barents Sea. Tides are responsible for 20% (60% locally) of the post-bloom primary production above Svalbard Bank and east of the Kola Peninsula. By contrast, more than 9% of the primary production is due to winds faster than 8 m s -1 in the central Barents Sea. Locally, this contribution reaches 25%. In the marginal ice zone, both tides and wind events have only a limited effect on primary production (central Barents Sea), respectively. When integrated over all Barents Sea sub-regions, tides and strong wind events account, respectively, for 6.8% (1.55 Tg C; 1 Tg C=10 12 g C) and 4.1% (0.93 Tg C) of the post-bloom primary production (22.6 Tg C). To put this in context, this contribution to summer primary production is equivalent to the spring bloom integrated over the Svalbard area. Tides and winds are significant drivers of summer plankton productivity in the Barents Sea.

  15. The Indian Summer Monsoon onset revisited: new approach based on the analysis of historical wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Paulina; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gómez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon onset is one of the meteorological events most anticipated in the world. Due to its relevance for the population, the India Meteorological Department has dated the onset over the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula (Kerala) since 1901. The traditional method to date the onset was based in the judgment of skilled meteorologist and because of this, the method was considered subjective and not adequate for the study of long-term changes in the onset. A new method for determining the monsoon onset based solely on objective criteria has been in use since 2006. Unfortunately, the new method relies -among other variables- on OLR measurements. This requirement impedes the construction of an objective onset series before the satellite era. An alternative approach to establish the onset by objective methods is the use of the wind field. During the last decade, some works have demonstrated that the changes in the wind direction in some areas of the Indian Ocean can be used to determine the monsoon onset rather precisely. However, this method requires precise wind observations over a large oceanic area which has limited the periods covered for such kind of indices to those of the reanalysis products. In this work we present a new approach to track the Indian monsoon onset based solely on historical wind direction measurements taken onboard ships. Our new series provides an objective record of the onset since the last decade of the 19th century and perhaps more importantly, it can incorporate any new historical wind record not yet known in order to extend the series length. The new series captures quite precisely the rapid precipitation increase associated to the monsoon onset, correlates well with previous approaches and it is robust against anomalous (bogus) onsets. Although no significant trends in the onset date were detected, a tendency to later than average onsets during the 1900-1925 and 1970-1990 periods and earlier than average onsets between

  16. Effects of air temperature and discharge on Upper Mississippi River summer water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rogala, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the potential effects of climate change has prompted studies of air temperature and precipitation associations with water temperatures in rivers and streams. We examined associations between summer surface water temperatures and both air temperature and discharge for 5 reaches of the Upper Mississippi River during 1994–2011. Water–air temperature associations at a given reach approximated 1:1 when estimated under an assumption of reach independence but declined to approximately 1:2 when water temperatures were permitted to covary among reaches and were also adjusted for upstream air temperatures. Estimated water temperature–discharge associations were weak. An apparently novel feature of this study is that of addressing changes in associations between water and air temperatures when both are correlated among reaches.

  17. Numerical simulations of island-scale airflow over Maui and the Maui vortex under summer trade wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaNa L. Carlis; Yi-Leng Chen; Vernon R. Morris

    2010-01-01

    The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) coupled with the Noah land surface model (LSM) is employed to simulate island-scale airflow and circulations over Maui County, Hawaii, under summer trade wind conditions, during July–August 2005. The model forecasts are validated by surface observations with good agreement.

  18. Analysis on the Extreme Heat Wave over China around Yangtze River Region in the Summer of 2013 and Its Main Contributing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2013, a rare extreme heat wave occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Based on high resolution reanalysis data from ECMWF, comprehensive analyses on the associated atmospheric circulation and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA were provided. The stable and strong West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH was the direct cause for the heat wave. The WPSH had four westward extensions, which brought about four hot spells in southern China. The South Asia High (SAH at 150 hPa was more eastward and more northward than normal. The strong Hadley circulation in the central and western Pacific and the anomalous easterlies at 500 hPa and 250 hPa in the middle and high latitudes were favorable for more hot days (HDs. The total HDs in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River had close relationships with the zonal wind anomalies in the middle and high latitudes, the SSTA in the Indian Ocean and Pacific, and the dry soil conditions of the Yangtze River Valley in spring and summer. The anomalies of the tropical, subtropical, and polar circulation and the underlying surfaces could be responsible for this extreme heat wave.

  19. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... (BPA) has decided to offer Puget Sound Energy Inc., a Large Generator Interconnection Agreement for...

  20. The response of the Red Sea to a strong wind jet near the Tokar Gap in summer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Ping

    2013-01-01

    [1] Remote sensing and in situ observations are used to investigate the ocean response to the Tokar Wind Jet in the Red Sea. The wind jet blows down the atmospheric pressure gradient through the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese coast, at about 19°N, during the summer monsoon season. It disturbs the prevailing along-sea (southeastward) winds with strong cross-sea (northeastward) winds that can last from days to weeks and reach amplitudes of 20-25 m/s. By comparing scatterometer winds with along-track and gridded sea level anomaly observations, it is observed that an intense dipolar eddy spins up in response to the wind jet. The eddy pair has a horizontal scale of 140 km. Maximum ocean surface velocities can reach 1 m/s and eddy currents extend more than 100 m into the water column. The eddy currents appear to cover the width of the sea, providing a pathway for rapid transport of marine organisms and other drifting material from one coast to the other. Interannual variability in the strength of the dipole is closely matched with variability in the strength of the wind jet. The dipole is observed to be quasi-stationary, although there is some evidence for slow eastward propagation in an idealized numerical model. Simulation of the dipole in an idealized high-resolution numerical model suggests that this is the result of self-advection. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  2. Wind River Watershed Project; 1998 Annual Report; Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds

  3. Summer Season Water Temperature Modeling under the Climate Change: Case Study for Fourchue River, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that human-induced climate change is unavoidable and it will have effects on physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquatic habitats. This will be especially important for cold water fishes such as trout. The objective of this study is to simulate water temperature for future periods under the climate change situations. Future water temperature in the Fourchue River (St-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska, QC, Canada were simulated by the CEQUEAU hydrological and water temperature model, using meteorological inputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. The result of the study indicated that water temperature in June will increase 0.2–0.7 °C and that in September, median water temperature could decrease by 0.2–1.1 °C. The rise in summer water temperature may be favorable to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis growth, but several days over the Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature (UILT are also likely to occur. Therefore, flow regulation procedures, including cold water releases from the Morin dam may have to be considered for the Fourchue River.

  4. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  5. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone bodies deposited in Eocene time by a 40-kilometer segment of the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River that exended westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel-sandstone bodies with a Granite Mountains source occur south of this segment of the paleo-Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district, but the channel-sandstone bodies between the Gas Hills district and the 40-kilometer segment of the paleo-Wind River may also be mineralized. This area includes the southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel-sandstone bodies derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the paleo-Wind River in Paleocene time flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River of Eocene time. The channel-sandstone bodies of the paleo-Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where they are underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene paleo-Wind River channel-sandstone bodies, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel-sandstone bodies and natural-gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits

  6. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

  7. 76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG11-115-000, EG11-116-000...

  8. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  9. Assessing summer and fall chinook salmon restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberg, B.D.; Statler, D.P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  10. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  11. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  12. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and bio...

  13. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  14. Multivariate Regression Analysis and Statistical Modeling for Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most severe meteorological disasters in China; however, studies on the physical factors affecting precipitation extremes and corresponding prediction models are not accurately available. From a new point of view, the sensible heat flux (SHF and latent heat flux (LHF, which have significant impacts on summer extreme rainfall in Yangtze River basin (YRB, have been quantified and then selections of the impact factors are conducted. Firstly, a regional extreme precipitation index was applied to determine Regions of Significant Correlation (RSC by analyzing spatial distribution of correlation coefficients between this index and SHF, LHF, and sea surface temperature (SST on global ocean scale; then the time series of SHF, LHF, and SST in RSCs during 1967–2010 were selected. Furthermore, other factors that significantly affect variations in precipitation extremes over YRB were also selected. The methods of multiple stepwise regression and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV were utilized to analyze and test influencing factors and statistical prediction model. The correlation coefficient between observed regional extreme index and model simulation result is 0.85, with significant level at 99%. This suggested that the forecast skill was acceptable although many aspects of the prediction model should be improved.

  15. InfraSound from wind turbines : observations from Castle River wind farm. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.; Hepburn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although infrasound has been discussed as a concern by groups opposed to wind farm facilities, there is very little information available about infrasound and wind turbines. This paper presented details of a project conducted by VisionQuest, the largest wind power producer in Canada. Three sensor types were used: precision sound analyzer, seismic geophones, and calibrated microphones to take measurements in low, medium and high winds. The project also measured infrasound when the wind farm was not operating. Acquisition geometry was presented, as well as details of apparent attenuations of wind noise. It was noted that high wind noise was a dominant factor and that there was little difference when the wind farm was not operational. It was suggested that turbines have no impact with high wind, since wind noise is not attenuated with distance. It was noted that increased geophone amplitudes indicate high wind coupled motion which is attenuated when the turbines are on. Results indicate that all frequencies showed attenuation with distance. Evidence showed that low frequency sound pressure levels were often lower when the turbines were switched on. Where turbines contributed to sound pressure levels, the magnitude of the contribution was below levels of concern to human health. Ambient sound pressure levels were much higher than contributions from wind turbines. It was concluded that wind itself generates infrasound. Wind turbines generate low levels of infrasound, detectable very close to facilities at low to medium wind speeds. Wind turbines may reduce ambient infrasound levels at high wind speeds by converting the energy from the wind into electricity. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  17. Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Kristin; Donath, Tobias W.; Zelle, Bianka; Eckstein, R. Lutz; Mosner, Eva; Otte, Annette; Jensen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future. Methods We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Results The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments. Conclusion We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change. PMID:25950730

  18. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, Helsinki, 00101 (Finland); Pauscher, L. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Ward, H.C. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Kotthaus, S. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.F., E-mail: j.f.barlow@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Gouvea, M. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lane, S.E. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Grimmond, C.S.B. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65-0.68 m s{sup -1}) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35-0.73 m s{sup -1}). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12-1.63 m s{sup -1}) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new lidar operating technique was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  19. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.; Pauscher, L.; Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Barlow, J.F.; Gouvea, M.; Lane, S.E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65–0.68 m s −1 ) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35–0.73 m s −1 ). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12–1.63 m s −1 ) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: ► An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. ► A new lidar operating technique was developed. ► Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  20. Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during summer at a background site of the Yangtze River Delta in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Zhang, Xiaoye; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Yangmei; Xu, Wanyun; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Gen; Liu, Xuyan; Ma, Qianli

    2017-12-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, particular attention has been paid to atmospheric chemical studies in the Yangtze River Delta in China. PM2.5 samples were collected by a MiniVol™ air sampler in summer time at a background site of the Yangtze River Delta in China. Carbonaceous components, i.e., OC and EC, levoglucosan and water-soluble inorganic ions, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, etc., were quantified. The average concentration of PM2.5 in summer at Lin'an was 30.19 ± 8.86 μg m-3, lower than previous studies reported, confirming that air pollution in China is improving, e.g., by emission control measures and subsequent reduction in PM emissions in China. Investigating the relationship among sulfate, nitrate and ammonium showed that SO42- existed as (NH4)2SO4, while NO3- may have been present as NaNO3 and KNO3. Based on molecular tracers, synoptic data as well as air mass back trajectory analysis, it was revealed that regional transport and stable synoptic conditions both play an important role in controlling the variations of aerosol chemical components. The comparison of chemical species between clean and hazy days showed that secondary organic and inorganic aerosols have different production processes. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was much more important during clean days, while secondary inorganic aerosol species were readily produced and consequently became more important during polluted periods in Lin'an during summer time.

  1. Study and proposals related to extensive flooding in the Siret River area during the summer of 2008 in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Victor; Stefan, Sabina; Irimescu, Anisoara

    2010-05-01

    Extensive flooding due to overflowing of the Siret River and associated runoff in smaller rivers in northeastern Romania at the end of July 2008 are discussed, taking into account the meteorological and hydrological contexts. The flooding events in Romania claimed human deaths and population displacement, large-scale destruction of housing and infrastructure. Although the Siret river is quite shallow, and several dams and reservoirs restrict and control its flow, the area along the river remains prone to periodic flooding, mainly in spring and summer. Several observations are made on the viability of settlements close to Siret riverbed in Romania, related to the repeatability of situations such as that during the summer of 2008. Generally, the relative shallowness of the river Siret may cause flash floods, when its level increases rapidly due to abundant precipitation. As such, the horizontal extent of the flooding due to runoff is a factor seemingly more important than the short-lived increases in depth, combined with the speed of the flow. As a direct result of the flooding, crops and buildings were damaged. The probability that similar meteorological contexts can cause flooding with the extent of that in 2008 will be discussed. Also, some possible means to improve the reaction of authorities and delivery of relief by them to the affected population will be proposed. Regarding the meteorological context, a presentation of the cyclonic system that has brought heavy and/or continuous rain in northern and northeastern Romania will be made. As proposal for improving the delivery of resources toward the affected area and population, a software system designed to shorten the process of conveying relevant information to decisional factors, and to increase the speed of information between interesed parties will be discussed. The possible outcome of this specific case study will be the improvement of the decisional flux required in times of natural disasters, flooding

  2. Water temperature profiles for reaches of the Raging River during summer baseflow, King County, western Washington, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Opatz, Chad C.

    2016-03-22

    Re-introducing wood into rivers where it was historically removed is one approach to improving habitat conditions in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. The Raging River drainage basin, which flows into the Snoqualmie River at Fall City, western Washington, was largely logged during the 20th century and wood was removed from its channel. To improve habitat conditions for several species of anadromous salmonids that spawn and rear in the Raging River, King County Department of Transportation placed untethered log jams in a 250-meter reach where wood was historically removed. The U.S. Geological Survey measured longitudinal profiles of near-streambed temperature during summer baseflow along 1,026 meters of channel upstream, downstream, and within the area of wood placements. These measurements were part of an effort by King County to monitor the geomorphic and biological responses to these wood placements. Near-streambed temperatures averaged over about 1-meter intervals were measured with a fiber‑optic distributed temperature sensor every 30 minutes for 7 days between July 7 and 13, 2015. Vertical temperature profiles were measured coincident with the longitudinal temperature profile at four locations at 0 centimeters (cm) (at the streambed), and 35 and 70 cm beneath the streambed to document thermal dynamics of the hyporheic zone and surface water in the study reach.

  3. Prediction of Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Ning, L.; Liu, J.; Yan, M.; Sun, W.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Summer extreme precipitation (SEP) often causes severe landslide, debris flow and floods over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin(MLYRB), so skillful prediction of the SEP is critical to the future climate adaptions and mitigations. In this work, the characteristic region over the MLYRB (27°N-32°N,108°1-118°E) is defined by the spatial mode of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) of SEP over the China from 1961 to 2014. A physics-based empirical model (PEM) of SEP predictions is built with two preceding predictors with significant physical influences on the SEP over the MLYRB. The first predictor is the spring sea surface temperature (SST) over the Northern Indian Ocean (20°S-20°N,50°E-95°E), and the second predictor is the spring sea surface pressure (SLP) over the Aleutian Island (50°N-70°N,160°E-160°W). Analyses of physical mechanism show that when the spring SST over the Northern Indian Ocean is higher, the South Asian High (SAH) extends to the east and the western Pacific sub-tropical high (WPSH) extends to the west, therefore, the generated secondary circulation induces anomalous upward motions and more water vapor transportation to the MLYRB, resulting more SEP. Meanwhile, when the spring SLP over the Aleutian Island is lower, the also WPSH extends to the west, which leads to a negative omega anomaly centered the MLYRB and more water vapor transportation to the MLYRB, resulting in more SEP. The regression model is built using the data from a training period from 1961 to 1999 with correlation coefficient skill of 0.57 (p<0.01) for prediction of SEP in 1961-1999. The independent forecast of the PEM shows that it is skillful in SEP prediction with the correlation coefficient between observed SEP and model-simulated SEP over the validation period 2000-2014 is 0.51 (p<0.05). This finding shows that the preceding spring SST and SLP can provide useful information for prediction of SEP, and the methodology

  4. High-resolution numerical simulation of summer wind field comparing WRF boundary-layer parametrizations over complex Arctic topography: case study from central Spitsbergen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, K.; Chládová, Zuzana; Hošek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2017), s. 391-408 ISSN 0941-2948 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : surface wind field * model evaluation * topographic effect * circulation pattern * Svalbard Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016 http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/metz/detail/prepub/87659/High_resolution_numerical_simulation_of_summer_wind_field_comparing_WRF_boundary_layer_parametrizations_over_complex_Arctic_topography_case_study_from_central_Spitsbergen

  5. River-flow predictions for the South African mid-summer using a coupled general circulation model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx 1 Tel: +27 12 367 6008 Fax: +27 12 367 6189 Email: cobus.olivier@weathersa.co.za RIVER-FLOW PREDICTIONS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN MID-SUMMER USING A COUPLED... for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx 2 drops to 127 nationally and 65 stations for the area of interest. A recent coupled modeling system developed at the South African Weather Service (SAWS), that utilizes...

  6. Warm winds from the Pacific caused extensive Arctic sea-ice melt in summer 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graversen, Rune G.; Drijfhout, Sybren [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Tjernstroem, Michael; Maartensson, Sebastian [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    During summer 2007 the Arctic sea-ice shrank to the lowest extent ever observed. The role of the atmospheric energy transport in this extreme melt event is explored using the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We find that in summer 2007 there was an anomalous atmospheric flow of warm and humid air into the region that suffered severe melt. This anomaly was larger than during any other year in the data (1989-2008). Convergence of the atmospheric energy transport over this area led to positive anomalies of the downward longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes. In the region that experienced unusual ice melt, the net anomaly of the surface fluxes provided enough extra energy to melt roughly one meter of ice during the melting season. When the ocean successively became ice-free, the surface-albedo decreased causing additional absorption of shortwave radiation, despite the fact that the downwelling solar radiation was smaller than average. We argue that the positive anomalies of net downward longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes played a key role in initiating the 2007 extreme ice melt, whereas the shortwave-radiation changes acted as an amplifying feedback mechanism in response to the melt. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  8. Observations and Predictability of Gap Winds in the Salmon River Canyon of Central Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates gap winds in a steep, deep river canyon prone to wildland fire. The driving mechanisms and the potential for forecasting the gap winds are investigated. The onset and strength of the gap winds are found to be correlated to the formation of an along-gap pressure gradient linked to periodic development of a thermal trough in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Numerical simulations are performed using a reanalysis dataset to investigate the ability of numerical weather prediction (NWP to simulate the observed gap wind events, including the timing and flow characteristics within the canyon. The effects of model horizontal grid spacing and terrain representation are considered. The reanalysis simulations suggest that horizontal grid spacings used in operational NWP could be sufficient for simulating the gap flow events given the regional-scale depression in which the Salmon River Canyon is situated. The strength of the events, however, is under-predicted due, at least in part, to terrain smoothing in the model. Routine NWP, however, is found to have mixed results in terms of forecasting the gap wind events, primarily due to problems in simulating the regional sea level pressure system correctly.

  9. Behavior and movement of adult summer steelhead following collection and release, lower Cowlitz River, Washington, 2012--2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Gibson, Scott; Murphy, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Executive SummaryHistorically, adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss returning to hatcheries on the lower Cowlitz River were sometimes transported and released in the river (recycled) to provide additional angling opportunity for the popular sport fishery in the basin. However, this practice has not been used in recent years because of concerns associated with interactions between hatchery fish and wild fish. Fishery managers were interested in resuming recycling but lacked information regarding effects of this practice on wild steelhead so we conducted a study during 2012–2013 to: (1) enumerate recycled steelhead that returned to the hatchery or were removed by anglers; and (2) determine if steelhead that were not removed from the river remained in the system where they could interact with wild fish.During June–August 2012, a total of 549 summer steelhead were captured at the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery, tagged, and released downstream near the Interstate 5 Bridge. All recycled steelhead were tagged with a white Floy® tag and opercle-punched; 109 (20 percent) of these fish also were radio-tagged. All adult steelhead that return to the hatchery were handled by hatchery staff so recycled steelhead that returned to the hatchery were enumerated daily. A creel survey and voluntary angler reports were used to determine the number of recycled steelhead that were caught by anglers. We established three fixed telemetry monitoring sites on the mainstem Cowlitz River and eight additional sites were deployed on tributaries to the lower Cowlitz River where wild winter steelhead are known to spawn. We also conducted mobile tracking from a boat during October 2012, November 2012, and January 2013 to locate radio-tagged fish.A total of 10,722 summer steelhead were captured at the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery in 2012, which was the largest return since 2008. River flows during much of the study period were similar to 2008–2011 average flows, however, high-flow periods in July

  10. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  11. [Distribution and source of particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen in the Yangtze River Estuary in summer 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-Wei; Xian, Wei-Wei; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-07-01

    Based on the data from the cruise carried out in August 2012 in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters, spatial distributions of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and their relationships with environmental factors were studied, and the source of POC and the contribution of phytoplankton to POC were analyzed combined with n (C)/n (N) ratio and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the Yangtze River Estuary in summer 2012. The results showed that the concentrations of POC in the Yangtze River Estuary ranged from 0.68 mg x L(-1) to 34.80 mg x L(-1) in summer and the average content was 3.74 mg x L(-1), and PN contents varied between 0.03 mg x L(-1) and 9.13 mg x L(-1) with an average value of 0.57 mg x L(-1). Both of them presented that the concentrations in bottom layers were higher than those in the surface. POC and PN as well as total suspended matter (TSM) showed a extremel similar horizontal distribution trend that the highest values appeared in the near of the mouth and southwest of the survey waters, and decreased rapidly as toward the open seas, both of them showed higher contents in coastal zones and lower in outer sea. There was a fairly good positive linear relationship between POC and PN, which indicated that they had the same source. POC and PN expressed significantly positive correlations with TSM and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but showed relatively weak correlations with salinit and chlorophyll a, which demonstrated that terrestrial inputs had a strong influence on the distribution of POC and PN, and phytoplankton production was not the major source of organic matters in the Yangtze River Estuary. Both the n (C)/n (N) ratio and POC/Chl a analysis showed that the main source of POC was terrestrial inputs, and organic debris was the main existence form of POC. Quantitative analysis showed the biomass of phytoplankton only made an average of 2.54% contribution to POC in the Yangtze Rive Estuary in summer and non-living POC

  12. Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2008 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne H.; Schricker, Jaym' e; Ruzychi, James R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2009-02-13

    The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations remain depressed relative to historic levels and limited information is available for steelhead life history. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects have been implemented in the basin to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival. However, these projects often lack effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed programmatic or watershed (status and trend) information to help evaluate project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts as well as meet some data needs as index stocks. Our continued monitoring efforts to estimate salmonid smolt abundance, age structure, SAR, smolts/redd, freshwater habitat use, and distribution of critical life states will enable managers to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the level of emphasis by the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Independent Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB), Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP), NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds (OWEB). Each of these groups have placed priority on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. The objective is to estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer

  13. Paleogene Vertebrate Paleontology, Geology and Remote Sensing in the Wind River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, R. K.; Krishtalka, L.

    1985-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies were used to correlate different events in the geologic evolution of the northeastern part of the Wind River Basin and have suggested several conclusions. Laterally equivalent exposures of the Lysite member from Cedar Ridge to Bridger Creek show a gradation in lithology from interbedded boulder conglomerates and sandstones to interbedded lenticular sandstones and mudstones to interbedded carbonaceous shales, coals and tabular sandstones. This gradation suggests a shift from alluvial fan to braided stream to paludal or lacustrine sedimentary environments during the late early Eocene. The Lysite and Lost Cabin members of the Wind River Formation are in fault contact in the Bridger Creek area and may intertongue to the east along Cedar Ridge. Ways in which remote sensing could be used in these studies are discussed.

  14. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  15. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  16. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  17. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. Spawning ground surveys for spring (stream-type) Chinook salmon were conducted in four main spawning areas (Mainstem, Middle Fork, North Fork, and Granite Creek System) and seven minor spawning areas (South Fork, Camas Creek, Desolation Creek, Trail Creek, Deardorff Creek, Clear Creek, and Big Creek) in the John Day River basin during August and September of 2005. Census surveys included 298.2 river kilometers (88.2 rkm within index, 192.4 rkm additional within census, and 17.6 rkm within random survey areas) of spawning habitat. We observed 902 redds and 701 carcasses including 227 redds in the Mainstem, 178 redds in the Middle Fork, 420 redds in the North Fork, 62 redds in the Granite Creek System, and 15 redds in Desolation Creek. Age composition of carcasses sampled for the entire basin was 1.6% age 3, 91.2% age 4, and 7.1% age 5. The sex ratio was 57.4% female and 42.6% male. Significantly more females than males were observed in the Granite Creek System. During 2005, 82.3% of female carcasses sampled had released all of their eggs. Significantly more pre-spawn mortalities were observed in Granite Creek. Nine (1.3%) of 701 carcasses were of hatchery origin. Of 298 carcasses examined, 4.0% were positive for the presence of lesions. A significantly higher incidence of gill lesions was found in the Granite Creek System when compared to the rest of the basin. Of 114 kidney samples tested, two (1.8%) had clinical BKD levels. Both infected fish were age-4 females in the Middle Fork. All samples tested for IHNV were negative. To estimate spring Chinook and summer steelhead smolt-to-adult survival (SAR) we PIT tagged 5,138 juvenile

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  19. Quantitative diagnosis of moisture sources and transport pathways for summer precipitation over the mid-lower Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zeng, Xin-Min; Guo, Wei-Dong; Chen, Chaohui; You, Wei; Zheng, Yiqun; Zhu, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Using a moisture tracking model with 32-year reanalysis data and station precipitation observations, we diagnosed the sources of moisture for summer (June 1-August 31) precipitation in mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin (YRB). Results indicate the dominant role of oceanic evaporation compared to terrestrial evapotranspiration, and the previously overlooked southern Indian Ocean, as a source region, is found to contribute more moisture than the well-known Arabian Sea or Bay of Bengal. Terrestrial evapotranspiration appears to be important for summer precipitation, especially in early June when moisture contribution is more than 50%. The terrestrial contribution then decreases and is generally less than 40% after late June. The Indian Ocean is the most important oceanic source before mid-July, with its largest contribution during the period of heavy precipitation, while the Pacific Ocean becomes the more important oceanic source after mid-July. To quantitatively analyze paths of moisture transport to YRB, we proposed the Trajectory Frequency Method. The most intense branch of water vapor transport to YRB stretches from the Arabian Sea through the Bay of Bengal, the Indochina Peninsula, the South China Sea, and South China. The other main transport branches are westerly moisture fluxes to the south of the Tibetan Plateau, cross-equatorial flows north of Australia, and separate branches located in the north and equatorial Pacific Ocean. Significant intraseasonal variability for these branches is presented. Additionally, the importance of the South China Sea for moisture transport to YRB, especially from the sea areas, is emphasized.

  20. Distinctive Features of Surface Winds over Indian Ocean Between Strong and Weak Indian Summer Monsoons: Implications With Respect To Regional Rainfall Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M. A.; Ali, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This observational study focuses on characterizing the surface winds in the Arabian Sea (AS), the Bay of Bengal (BoB), and the southern Indian Ocean (SIO) with special reference to the strong and weak Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) using the latest daily gridded rainfall dataset provided by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) gridded wind product version 2.0 produced by Remote Sensing System (RSS) over the overlapped period 1991-2014. The potential links between surface winds and Indian regional rainfall are also examined. Results indicate that the surface wind speeds in AS and BoB during June-August are almost similar during strong ISMRs and weak ISMRs, whereas significant discrepancies are observed during September. By contrast, the surface wind speeds in SIO during June-August are found to be significantly different between strong and weak ISMRs, where they are similar during September. The significant differences in monthly mean surface wind convergence between strong and weak ISMRs are not coherent in space in the three regions. However, the probability density function (PDF) distributions of daily mean area-averaged values are distinctive between strong and weak ISMRs in the three regions. The correlation analysis indicates the area-averaged surface wind speeds in AS and the area-averaged wind convergence in BoB are highly correlated with regional rainfall for both strong and weak ISMRs. The wind convergence in BoB during strong ISMRs is relatively better correlated with regional rainfall than during weak ISMRs. The surface winds in SIO do not greatly affect Indian rainfall in short timescales, however, they will ultimately affect the strength of monsoon circulation by modulating Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode via atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  1. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and

  3. Automated prediction of boundary layer winds and turbulence for the Savannah River Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilhousen, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective forecasts of many weather elements produced twice daily for about 230 US cities are made by applying the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique (Glahn and Lowry, 1972). This technique relates by a statistical method the output of numerical models interpolated to a location (predictors) to a corresponding sample of observed local weather at that location (predictand). This study describes the development and testing of MOS wind forecasts for an instrumented TV tower located near the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). If shown to be useful, these forecasts could serve as valuable guidance in case of a nuclear incident at the installation. This study introduces several new applications of the MOS technique. In addition to forecasts of wind speed and direction, forecasts of two turbulence parameters were developed and evaluated. These turbulence parameters were the standard deviations of both the azimuth and elevation of the wind. These quantities help to estimate the amount of plume and puff spread. Forecasts of all these elements were produced for several levels on the 335 m WJBF-TV tower. Tests were conducted to see if MOS forecasts of each element were capable of resolving differences between tower levels. MOS forecasts were compared to two other types of forecasts to determine their utility. Short range persistence forecasts served as one type of comparison since SRL uses the current observed winds in their diffusion models. Climatology forecasts served as the other comparison set

  4. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  5. Response of small glaciers to climate change: runoff from glaciers of the Wind River range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, A. K.; Stamper, B.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff from glaciers affects downstream ecosystems by influencing the quantity, seasonality, and chemistry of the water. We describe the present state of glaciers in the Wind River range, Wyoming and consider how these glaciers will change in the future. Wind River glaciers have been losing mass in recent decades, as seen with geodetic techniques and by examining glacier morphology. Interestingly, the 2016/7 winter featured one of the largest snowfalls on record. Our primary focus is the Dinwoody Glacier ( 3 km^2, 3300-4000 m above sea level). We present data collected in mid-August 2017 including glacier ablation rates, snow line elevations, and streamflow. We compare measured glacier mass loss to streamflow at the glacier terminus and at a USGS stream gauge farther downstream. Using a hydrological model, we explore the fate of glacial runoff as it moves into downstream ecosystems and through ranchlands important to local people. The techniques used here can be applied to similar small-glacier systems in other parts of the world.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and

  7. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  8. Runoff Variability in the Scott River (SW Spitsbergen in Summer Seasons 2012–2013 in Comparison with the Period 1986–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franczak Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available River runoff variability in the Scott River catchment in the summer seasons 2012 and 2013 has been presented in comparison to the multiannual river runoff in 1986–2009. Both in particular seasons and in the analysed multiannual, high variability of discharge rate was recorded. In the research periods 2012–2013, a total of 11 952 water stages and 20 flow rates were measured in the analysed cross-section for the determination of 83 daylong discharges. The mean multiannual discharge of the Scott River amounted to 0.96 m3·s−1. The value corresponds to a specific runoff of 94.6 dm3·s−1·km2, and the runoff layer 937 mm. The maximum values of daily discharge amounted to 5.07 m3·s−1, and the minimum values to 0.002 m3·s−1. The highest runoff occurs in the second and third decade of July, and in the first and second decade of August. The regime of the river is determined by a group of factors, and particularly meteorological conditions affecting the intensity of ablation, and consequently river runoff volume. We found a significant correlation (0.60 in 2012 and 0.67 in 2013 between the air temperature and the Scott River discharge related to the Scott Glacier ice melt.

  9. Analysis on the Extreme Heat Wave over China around Yangtze River Region in the Summer of 2013 and Its Main Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Ting Ding; Xiaolong Jia; Xianchan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2013, a rare extreme heat wave occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Based on high resolution reanalysis data from ECMWF, comprehensive analyses on the associated atmospheric circulation and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) were provided. The stable and strong West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) was the direct cause for the heat wave. The WPSH had four westward extensions, which brought about four hot spells in southern China. The ...

  10. The response of the Red Sea to a strong wind jet near the Tokar Gap in summer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy

    2013-01-01

    [1] Remote sensing and in situ observations are used to investigate the ocean response to the Tokar Wind Jet in the Red Sea. The wind jet blows down the atmospheric pressure gradient through the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese coast, at about 19°N, during

  11. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  12. Tree growth and soil relations at the 1925 Wind River spacing test in coast Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; Harry W. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    The 1925 Wind River spacing test is the earliest field trial seeking to determine the most appropriate spacing for planting Douglas-fir. Spacing treatments were not replicated, although individual spacings were subsampled by two to four tree-measurement plots. Previously, greater growth occurred at the wider spacings (10 and 12 ft) than at the closer spacings (4, 5, 6...

  13. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends

  14. Study of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Thermopolis Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the following data from the Thermopolis Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location map; eU symbol anomaly map; eU/eTh symbol anomaly map; eU/K symbol anomaly map; eTh symbol anomaly map; K symbol anomaly map; eU profile anomaly map; eU/eTh profile anomaly map; eU/K profile anomaly map; eTh profile anomaly map; K profile anomaly map; eTh/K profile anomaly map; preferred anomaly maps (4- and 7-point), combined 4- and 7-point preferred anomaly map; and stacked significance factor profiles

  15. Anatomy of an interrupted irrigation season: Micro-drought at the Wind River Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. McNeeley

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex phenomenon manifested through interactions between biophysical and social factors. At the Wind River Indian Reservation (WRIR in west-central Wyoming, water shortages have become increasingly common since the turn of the 21st century. Here we discuss the 2015 water year as an exemplar year, which was characterized by wetter-than-normal conditions across the reservation and, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, remained drought-free throughout the year. Yet parts of the reservation experienced harmful water shortages, or “micro-drought” conditions, during the growing season in 2015. In this assessment of the 2015 water year at the WRIR we: (1 describe the hydroclimatic and social processes under way that contributed to the 2015 water year micro-drought in the Little Wind Basin; (2 compare water availability conditions within and between other basins at the WRIR to illustrate how micro-droughts can result from social and environmental features unique to local systems; and (3 describe how a collaborative project is supporting drought preparedness at the WRIR. We combine a social science assessment with an analysis of the hydroclimate to deconstruct how shortages manifest at the WRIR. We provide insights from this study to help guide drought assessments at local scales. Keywords: Drought, Climate vulnerability, Drought preparedness, Indigenous adaptation, Co-production

  16. Short-Term Optimal Operation of a Wind-PV-Hydro Complementary Installation: Yalong River, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively use clean renewable energy to improve the capacity of the power grid to absorb new energy and optimize the power grid structure has become one of China’s current issues. The Yalong River Wind-PV-Hydro complementary clean energy base was chosen as the research object from which to analyze the output complementarity principle and characteristics of wind farms, photovoltaic power plants, and hydropower stations. Then, an optimization scheduling model was established with the objective of minimizing the amount of abandoned wind and photovoltaic power and maximizing the stored energy in cascade hydropower stations. A Progress Optimality Algorithm (POA was used for the short-term optimal operation of Wind-PV-Hydro combinations. The results show that use of cascaded hydropower storage capacity can compensate for large-scale wind power and photovoltaic power, provide a relatively sustained and stable power supply for the grid. Wind-PV-Hydro complementary operation not only promotes wind power and photovoltaic power consumption but also improves the efficiency of using the original transmission channel of hydropower. This is of great significance to many developing countries in formatting a new green approach, realizing low-carbon power dispatch and trade and promoting regional economic development.

  17. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  18. South Asian summer monsoon variability during the last ˜54 kyrs inferred from surface water salinity and river runoff proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, D.; Hathorne, E. C.; Sijinkumar, A. V.; Nath, B. Nagender; Nürnberg, D.; Frank, M.

    2016-04-01

    The past variability of the South Asian Monsoon is mostly known from records of wind strength over the Arabian Sea while high-resolution paleorecords from regions of strong monsoon precipitation are still lacking. Here, we present records of past monsoon variability obtained from sediment core SK 168/GC-1, which was collected at the Alcock Seamount complex in the Andaman Sea. We utilize the ecological habitats of different planktic foraminiferal species to reconstruct freshwater-induced stratification based on paired Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses and to estimate seawater δ18O (δ18Osw). The difference between surface and thermocline temperatures (ΔT) and δ18Osw (Δδ18Osw) is used to investigate changes in upper ocean stratification. Additionally, Ba/Ca in G. sacculifer tests is used as a direct proxy for riverine runoff and sea surface salinity (SSS) changes related to monsoon precipitation on land. Our Δδ18Osw time series reveals that upper ocean salinity stratification did not change significantly throughout the last glacial suggesting little influence of NH insolation changes. The strongest increase in temperature gradients between the mixed layer and the thermocline is recorded for the mid-Holocene and indicate the presence of a significantly shallower thermocline. In line with previous work, the δ18Osw and Ba/Ca records demonstrate that monsoon climate during the LGM was characterized by a significantly weaker southwest monsoon circulation and strongly reduced runoff. Based on our data the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SAM) over the Irrawaddyy strengthened gradually after the LGM beginning at ∼18 ka. This is some 3 kyrs before an increase of the Ba/Ca record from the Arabian Sea and indicates that South Asian Monsoon climate dynamics are more complex than the simple N-S displacement of the ITCZ as generally described for other regions. Minimum δ18Osw values recorded during the mid-Holocene are in phase with Ba/Ca marking a stronger monsoon precipitation

  19. A numerical analysis of biogeochemical controls with physical modulation on hypoxia during summer in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D physical–biogeochemical coupled model was applied to explore the mechanisms controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO dynamics and bottom hypoxia during summer in the Pearl River estuary (PRE. By using the numerical oxygen tracers, we proposed a new method (namely the physical modulation method to quantify the contributions of boundary conditions and each source and sink process occurring in local and adjacent waters to the DO conditions. A mass balance analysis of DO based on the physical modulation method indicated that the DO conditions at the bottom layer were mainly controlled by the source and sink processes, among which the sediment oxygen demand (SOD at the water–sediment interface and the re-aeration at the air–sea interface were the two primary processes determining the spatial extent and duration of bottom hypoxia in the PRE. The SOD could cause a significant decrease in the bottom DO concentrations (averaged over July–August 2006 by over 4 mg L−1 on the shelf off the Modaomen sub-estuary, leading to the formation of a high-frequency zone of hypoxia (HFZ. However, the hypoxia that occurred in the HFZ was intermittent and distributed in a small area due to the combined effects of re-aeration and photosynthesis, which behaved as sources for DO and offset a portion of the DO consumed by SOD. The bottom DO concentrations to the west of the lower Lingdingyang Bay (i.e. the western shoal near Qi'ao Island were also largely affected by high SOD, but there was no hypoxia occurring there because of the influence of re-aeration. Specifically, re-aeration could lead to an increase in the bottom DO concentrations by ∼ 4.8 mg L−1 to the west of the lower Lingdingyang Bay. The re-aeration led to a strong vertical DO gradient between the surface and the lower layers. As a result, the majority (∼ 89 % of DO supplemented by re-aeration was transported to the lower layers through vertical diffusion and

  20. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Zheleznyak, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ''Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,'' of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising 90 Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum 90 Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak 90 Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, 90 Sr concentrations in Kiev's drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike 90 Sr, 137 Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated 137 Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for 137 Cs

  1. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  2. Thinning shock and response to fertilizer less than expected in young Douglas-fir stand at Wind River Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington; John. Shumway

    2002-01-01

    Three thinning treatments (thinned to 3.7 by 3.7 m, thinned to 4.3 by 4.3 m, and an unthinned control treatment with nominal spacing averaging 2.6 by 2.6 m) were installed in a 10-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation growing on a low-quality site at the Wind River Experimental Forest in southwest Washington. Two...

  3. Descriptions of the Animas River-Cement Creek confluence and mixing zone near Silverton, Colorado, during the late summers of 1996 and 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.

    2005-01-01

    Acidic waters from Cement Creek discharge into the circum-neutral Animas River in a high-elevation region of the San Juan Mountains near Silverton, Colorado. Cement Creek is acidic and enriched in metals and sulfate because it is fed by discharges from abandoned mines and natural mineral deposits. Mixing with the Animas River raises the pH and produces precipitates of iron and aluminum (oxy)hydroxides, which in turn can adsorb other metals. This confluence was studied in 1996 and 1997 to better understand mixing and sorption processes which are common during the neutralization of acidic streams. The photographs in this report show flow braiding and other features that influenced the way the two streams mixed during the late summers of the two years. They also show 'banding' due to incomplete mixing and 'opalescence' due to chemical reactions and the formation of colloidal-size particles in the mixing zone.

  4. Experimental research on the poly-aluminum chloride for treating the Pi River water in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rusheng; Bai, Yulin; Yang, Jie

    2018-02-01

    In the beaker experiments that the disposal of low turbidity water, we observed the influence of some factors, such as the dosage of poly-aluminum chloride coagulant, the pH value of raw water, in disposing the high natural organic matters of low turbidity water in winter and summer. we discussed the removal of residual aluminum and UV254 in summer. The experimental results show that when the turbidity is less than 10 NTU, the optimum dosage are 14.4 mg.L-1 and 8.2 mg.L-1 respectively in winter and summer. No matter in winter or summer, the effect of pH value on coagulation treatment is very significant, the best pH value is about 8.1. In summer, with the increase of dosage of poly-aluminum chloride, residual aluminum increased slowly after decrease, turbidity and UV254 after precipitation is similar removal trend. Finally, according to the current market price of poly-aluminum chloride economic analysis, daily differences in pharmaceutical costs about 1600 yuan in summer and winter in the second water plant in Lu’an.

  5. [Distributions and air-sea fluxes of dissolved nitrous oxide in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area in spring and summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Gui-ling; Sun, Ming-shuang; Ren, Jing-ling

    2014-12-01

    Distributions and air-sea fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the seawaters of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area were investigated during two cruises in March and July 2012. Dissolved N2O concentrations in surface waters ranged from 9.34 to 49.08 nmol x L(-1) with an average of (13.27 ± 6.40) nmol x L(-1) in spring and ranged from 7.27 to 27.81 nmol x L(-1) with an average of (10.62 ± 5.03) nmol x L(-1) in summer. There was no obvious difference between surface and bottom N2O concentrations. N2O concentrations in both surface and bottom waters decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea. High values of dissolved N2O were found in turbidity maximum zone, which suggests that maximal turbidity enhances nitrification. Temperature had dual effects on dissolved N2O concentrations. N2O saturations in surface waters ranged from 86.9% to 351.3% with an average of (111.5 ± 41.4)% in spring and ranged from 111.7% to 396.0% with an average of (155.9 ± 68.4)% in summer. N2O were over-saturated at most stations. The sea-to-air fluxes of N2O were estimated to be (3.2 ± 10.9), (5.5 ± 19.3) and (12.2 ±52.3) μmol x (m2 x d)(-1) in spring and (7.3 ± 12.4), (12.7 ± 20.4) and (20.4 ± 35.9) μmol x (m2 x d)(-1) in summer using the LM86, W92 and RC01 relationships, respectively. The annual emissions of N2O from the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area were estimated to be 0.6 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (LM86), 1.1 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (W92) and 2.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (RC01). Although the area of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area only accounts for 0.02% of the total area of the world's oceans, their emission of N2O accounts for 0.06% of global oceanic N2O emission, indicating that the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area is an active area to produce and emit N2O.

  6. Summer bird/vegetation associations in Tamarisk and native habitat along the Pecos River, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Livingston; S. D. Schemnitz

    1996-01-01

    The middle Pecos River lies in the short-grass prairie ecotype and lacked a substantial woodland community prior to tamarisk (Tamarisk chinensis) invasion. Tamarisk control is a concern for land managers on the Pecos River and other Southwestern riparian systems. Our research is part of a long term study investigating hydrological and wildlife response to tamarisk...

  7. The Effect of Mississippi River Discharge on the Concentration and Composition of Particulate Matter along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf during Summers 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. J.; Zuck, N.; Gardner, W. D.

    2016-02-01

    Flow from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System generally peaks during the spring freshet, discharging nutrient-rich fresh water and sediment into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The peak discharge varies year to year as a result of varying drought or flood conditions in the Mississippi watershed. When compared to an 8-year climatological average, summer 2012 is characterized by low discharge into the northern Gulf of Mexico, whereas summer 2013 is characterized by average discharge conditions. Water samples were collected during four cruises during June and August of 2012 and 2013 to assess the changes in concentration and composition of bulk particulate matter. While no consistent relationship between particulate matter composition and hypoxia was observed, there are several statistically significant seasonal and inter-annual changes in the concentration and composition of particulate matter associated with varying river discharge. There is also evidence that some sub-pycnocline turbidity and chlorophyll-a may be due to in situ primary productivity, rather than settled plankton containing chlorophyll-a.

  8. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  9. Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

  10. Evaluation of the behavior and movement of adult summer steelhead in the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, following collection and release, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) produced by a hatchery on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, support a popular sport fishery during June–September each year. Many of these fish return to the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery and are held until they are spawned in December. In the past, fishery managers have released some of the steelhead that return to the hatchery at downstream release sites (hereafter referred to as “recycled steelhead”) to increase angling opportunity. The recycling of summer steelhead is a potential use of hatchery fish that can benefit anglers in the lower Cowlitz River, provided these fish are harvested or return to the hatchery. However, recycled steelhead that are not removed from the river could compete against or spawn with wild winter steelhead, which would be a negative consequence of recycling. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) conducted an evaluation during 1998 and recycled 632 summer steelhead. They determined that 55 percent of the recycled steelhead returned to the hatchery and 15 percent of the fish were harvested by anglers. The remaining 30 percent of recycled fish were not known to have been removed from the river. Recycling has not occurred in recent years because definitive studies have not been conducted to determine the fate of the fish that remain in the lower Cowlitz River after being recycled. The U.S. Geological Survey and WDFW conducted a 2-year study during 2012–2014 to quantify recycled steelhead that (1) returned to the hatchery, (2) were captured by anglers, or (3) remained in the river. All recycled steelhead were marked with a Floy® tag and opercle punch, and 20 percent of the recycled fish were radio-tagged to determine post-release behavior and movement patterns, and to describe locations of tagged fish that remained in the river during the spawning period. During 2012–2013, we recycled 549 steelhead and determined that 50 percent of the fish returned to the hatchery, 18 percent

  11. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    approximately 14% of these fish leaving as early migrants. Juvenile spring chinook salmon PIT-tagged at trap sites in the fall and in upper rearing areas during winter were used to compare migration timing and survival to Lower Granite Dam of the early and late migrant groups. Juvenile spring chinook tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 May to 20 May 2001, with a median passage date of 17 May. Too few fish were collected and tagged to conduct detection rate and survival comparisons between migrant groups. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek trap were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 27 April to 13 July 2001. Early migrants were detected significantly earlier (median = 10 May) than late migrants (median = 1 June). Also, early migrants from Catherine Creek were detected at a significantly higher rate than fish tagged in upper rearing areas in the winter, suggesting better survival for fish that migrated out of upper rearing areas in the fall. Juvenile spring chinook salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 2 April through 4 July 2001. Early migrants were detected significantly earlier (median = 27 April) than late migrants (median = 14 May). However, there was no difference in detection rates between early and late migrants. Survival probabilities showed similar patterns as dam detection rates. Juvenile spring chinook salmon from the Minam River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 8 April through 18 August 2001. Early migrants were detected significantly earlier (median = 28 April) than late migrants (median = 14 May). Late migrants from the Minam River were tagged at the trap in the spring. Spring chinook salmon parr PIT-tagged in summer 2000 on Catherine Creek and the Imnaha, Lostine, and Minam rivers were detected at Lower Granite Dam over an 87 d period from 8 April to 3 July 2001. The migratory period of individual populations ranged from 51 d (Imnaha River) to 67 d (Catherine Creek) in length

  12. Spring and Summer Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Anderson, Greer O.

    2009-01-01

    Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year, and age-1 and older subadult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. In 2007, we continued research on juvenile sucker habitat use begun by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2001. Age-0 catch rates in 2006 were more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous years, which prompted us to refocus our research from age-0 suckers to age-1 sucker distributions and habitat use. We took a two-phased approach to our research in 2007 that included preliminary spring sampling and intense summer sampling components. Spring sampling was a pilot study designed to gather baseline data on the distribution of age-1 suckers as they emerge from winter in shoreline environments throughout Upper Klamath Lake (Chapter 1). Whereas, summer sampling was designed to quantitatively estimate the influence of environmental variables on age-0 and age-1 sucker distribution throughout Upper Klamath Lake, while accounting for imperfect detection (Chapter 2). In addition to these two components, we began a project to evaluate passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag loss and the effects of PIT tags on mortality of age-1 Lost River suckers (Chapter 3). The spring pilot study built the foundation for future research

  13. Regional scale flood modeling using NEXRAD rainfall, GIS, and HEC-HMS/RAS: a case study for the San Antonio River Basin Summer 2002 storm event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebl, M R; Yang, Z-L; Hutchison, K; Maidment, D R

    2005-06-01

    This paper develops a framework for regional scale flood modeling that integrates NEXRAD Level III rainfall, GIS, and a hydrological model (HEC-HMS/RAS). The San Antonio River Basin (about 4000 square miles, 10,000 km2) in Central Texas, USA, is the domain of the study because it is a region subject to frequent occurrences of severe flash flooding. A major flood in the summer of 2002 is chosen as a case to examine the modeling framework. The model consists of a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-HMS) that converts precipitation excess to overland flow and channel runoff, as well as a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) that models unsteady state flow through the river channel network based on the HEC-HMS-derived hydrographs. HEC-HMS is run on a 4 x 4 km grid in the domain, a resolution consistent with the resolution of NEXRAD rainfall taken from the local river authority. Watershed parameters are calibrated manually to produce a good simulation of discharge at 12 subbasins. With the calibrated discharge, HEC-RAS is capable of producing floodplain polygons that are comparable to the satellite imagery. The modeling framework presented in this study incorporates a portion of the recently developed GIS tool named Map to Map that has been created on a local scale and extends it to a regional scale. The results of this research will benefit future modeling efforts by providing a tool for hydrological forecasts of flooding on a regional scale. While designed for the San Antonio River Basin, this regional scale model may be used as a prototype for model applications in other areas of the country.

  14. Intensified oxygen minimum zone on the western shelf of Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon: Influence of river discharge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Rao, V.D.; Sridevi, B.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Prasad, V.R.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Acharyya, T.; Bandopadhyay, D.

    monsoon 2001. Deep Sea Res. II, 50, 881–896. McAullife, C. (1971). GC Determination of solutes by multiple phase equilibration. Chemical Technology, 1, 46-50. Milliman, J.D., and R.H. Meade (1983). World-wide delivery of river sediment...

  15. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  16. Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant spring/summer yearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.L.; Yasuda, D.; Skalski, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a post-season analysis of the accuracy of the 1996 predictions from the program RealTime. Observed 1996 migration data collected at Lower Granite Dam were compared to the predictions made by RealTime for the spring outmigration of wild spring/summer chinook. Appendix A displays the graphical reports of the RealTime program that were interactively accessible via the World Wide Web during the 1996 migration season. Final reports are available at address http://www.cqs.washington.edu/crisprt/. The CRISP model incorporated the predictions of the run status to move the timing forecasts further down the Snake River to Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary Dams. An analysis of the dams below Lower Granite Dam is available separately

  17. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  18. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  19. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  20. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  1. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Duo; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Yaqiang; Che, Haochi; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2018-07-15

    Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's. During the weak monsoon years, the aerosol pollution load was heavier in the M-LYR and opposite in the strong monsoon years mainly influenced by EASM and associated maintenance position of the anti-Hadley cell around 115°E. The interdecadal changes in meteorological conditions and their associated aerosol pollution in the context of such climate change have experienced four periods since the 1960's, which were a relatively large decreased period from 1961 to 1980, a large rise between 1980 and 1999, a period of slow rise or maintenance from 1999 to 2006, and a relatively rapid rise between 2006 and 2014. Among later three pollution increased periods, about 51%, 25% and 60% of the aerosol pollution change respectively come from the contribution of worsening weather conditions, which are found to be greatly affected by changes in EASM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals

  3. Summer co-existence of small-sized cyprinid and percid individuals in natural and impounded stretches of a lowland river: food niche partitioning among fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lik, J; Dukowska, M; Grzybkowska, M; Leszczyńska, J

    2017-04-01

    Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater. Fishes were sampled every 2 weeks from June to August, together with their food resources to assess the partitioning of the diet among small individuals of the three species in both stretches (the natural and affected ones). The aim of the analysis was to answer how animal food associated with water plants was partitioned between the species. In both stretches, G. cernua were primarily benthivorous, but epiphytic fauna, zooplankton and large-sized benthic chironomid larvae replaced lack of many large, benthic insects in the tailwater. Levins' food breath index decreased from 0·36 in the backwater to 0·29 in the tailwater. An opposite trend was observed for P. fluviatilis occurring among macrophytes. Perca fluviatilis were competitors of R. rutilus and took food not only in or on the river bed, but also in the water column. They ate zooplankton and epiphytic fauna and Levins' index increased from 0·32 to 0·44 in the tailwater. Rutilus rutilus fed on adult insects, algae and plant fragments in the natural stretch. In the tailwater, these food types were chiefly complemented by zooplankton. Despite this, the niche breadth of R. rutilus was similar at the two sites. Abundance of food associated with the macrophytes appeared to facilitate cohabitation in the abundant fish populations, but P. fluviatilis appeared to benefit the most in the altered river

  4. Summer use of the tidal freshwaters of the River Seine by three estuarine fish: Coupling telemetry and GIS spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, C.; Coustillas, J.; Zahm, A.; Bunel, M.; Gazeau-Nadin, C.; Rochard, E.

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic telemetry and GIS-based spatial analysis were used to investigate the summer habitat use and movement patterns of three fish species in the tidal freshwaters of the Seine estuary (France). Experimental displacement of tagged individuals of thin-lipped grey mullet (Liza ramada), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and common bream (Abramis brama) were conducted to test for their spatial fidelity and home range establishment. Most tagged individuals (95%) successfully returned to their previously occupied capture site, showing spatial homing abilities. The studied upstream tidal freshwater segment of the Seine estuary was regularly used by grey mullet as a part of its larger summer home range, while European eel and common bream were resident in this segment. The fidelity of eel to small nocturnal refuges and the regular use of intertidal waterbodies at high tide by grey mullet and bream suggested that they possess a capacity of acquiring spatial memory of habitats in a fluctuating environment. Importantly, the scale of movements travelled by each species was positively related to tidal phase. Grey mullet and bream, both visual feeders, exhibited short-term tidal movements to known habitats, providing food resources and contiguous resting habitat suggesting that they have shown behavioural strategies adaptive to fluctuating environments. Eel, in contrast, was found to have a different strategy strongly related to diel dynamics: it stayed in subtidal habitats rich in refuges that remained available at low tide. The results of this study emphasize the importance of restoring intertidal waterbodies and the relevance of considering the availability of adjacent subtidal habitats providing refuge at low tides.

  5. Coalbed methane potential of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde and Meeteetse formations, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Clark, A.C.; Barker, C.E.; Crysdale, B.L.; Higley, D.K.; Szmajter, R.J.; Finn, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The environments of deposition of the uppermost part of the Cody Shale and the Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations of Late Cretaceous age were studied on outcrop in the Shotgun Butte area in the north-central part of the Wind River Reservation. A shoreface sandstone occurs in the lower part of the Mesaverde Formation at all localities studied, and is directly overlain by a coaly interval. Repetitive coarsening-upward cycles of mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone occur in the 200 ft interval of the upper part of the Cody Shale below the shoreface sandstone. These Cody sandstones are typically hummocky cross stratified with symmetrical ripples near the top, indicating that they are largely storm surge deposits that were later reworked. Channel-form sandstones from 10 to 20 ft thick, with abundant locally derived clayey clasts, occur in a 75 ft thick interval below the shoreface at one locality. These unusual sandstones are largely confined to a narrow area of the outcrop and grade laterally into more typical storm surge deposits. They may be unusually large storm surge channels created when high-energy flow conditions were localized to a limited area of the shelf.The Mesaverde Formation above the shoreface sandstone is divided into a middle member and the Teapot Sandstone Member. The lower part of the middle member is everywhere coaly. Erosional-based sandstones in this coaly interval are highly variable in thickness and architecture. Thin, single channel sandstone bodies were deposited by moderate to high sinuosity streams, and thick, multistory channel sandstone bodies were deposited by rapidly switching fluvial channel systems that remained relatively stationary for extended periods of time. The architecture of the fluvial channel sandstones in the overlying noncoaly interval appears to be highly variable as well, with complex multistory sandstones occurring at different stratigraphic levels at different localities. This distribution may be explained by long term

  6. Fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang River on the northern fringe of Mt. Huangshan, eastern China: Responses to weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunsheng; Liu, Shaochen; Hu, Chenqi; Xu, Guanglai; Zhou, Yingqiu

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on climatic and tectonic controls to determine their relative importance to the Quaternary fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang River, eastern China. The Qingyijiang, which is one of longest tributaries of the lower Yangtze River, drains the northern piedmont of Mt. Huangshan. A field survey focused on three natural sections of the Qingyijiang in the Jingxian basin, where a well-preserved sequence of one alluvial platform (P) and three fluvial terraces (T3, T2, and T1) is presented. The heights of the platform and the terraces above river level are 65, 40, 20, and 7 m respectively. In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR), optical stimulated luminescence (OSL), and palaeomagnetic dating were applied to reconstruct the fluvial incision history of the Qingyijiang and evaluate the possible influence of tectonic uplift and/or climate change on the fluvial incision. The main results show that (1) the ages of P, T3, T2, and T1 were determined to be ∼ 1300, ∼ 900, ∼ 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka respectively, corresponding to four incision events in the Qingyijiang; (2) the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experienced four significant weakening events at 1300, 900, 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka, according to previous research. Correspondingly, we propose that four significant increased periods of regional precipitation occurred at 1300, 900, 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka in the study area because of the negative correlation between the intensity of the EASM and regional precipitation from 1960 to 2012; and (3) fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang arose as a result of the weakening of the EASM in combination with tectonic uplift, determined by matching fluvial incision history of the Qingyijiang with tectonic movement and EASM change. In addition, the weakening of the EASM climatically triggered fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang. This study supports the conclusion that major fluvial incision has been climatically triggered; however, it also suggests that the mechanism of

  7. Variability of wind stress and currents at selected locations over the north Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.V.

    Intra-seasonal variability of wind stress, wind stress curl and currents at different locations over the northern Indian Ocean during two contrasting monsoon seasons has been investigated making use of the time series data collected during MONSOON...

  8. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  9. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  10. Wind forcing controls on river plume spreading on a tropical continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarya, A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf is located close to the Equator in the Indonesian Archipelago, hosting a complex of coral reefs along its oceanic edge. The Berau coral reefs have a very high biodiversity, but the area is under serious risk due to river-derived nutrients and sediments. The region is

  11. Early summer precipitation in the lower Yangtze River basin for AD 1845-2011 based on tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenxi; Shi, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Yesi; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Shi, Shiyuan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation from June to August is generally used to reflect the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) variability. However, the principal modes of the EASM rainfall are different between May-June (MJ) and July-August due to the seasonal march of East Asian subtropical front. Therefore, it is necessary to study them separately. In this study, we reconstruct a 167-year MJ precipitation time series using tree-ring cellulose δ18O that explains 46.9% of the variance in the lower Yangtze River basin, Southeast China, that extends the meteorological data back more than 100 years and makes the precipitation study at decadal scales possible. The decades with 5 or more anomalously dry or wet years are the 1880s, 1890s, and 1910s, and the 1980s and 2000s have only one anomalous year per decade. MJ precipitation shows a significantly negative relationship with absolute Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature, especially during the developing phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, indicating that there is less rainfall during El Niño events. However, the relationship is not uniform throughout the period. Further analyses show that it is stronger when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is in its positive phases.

  12. Summer Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) species richness and community structure in the lower Illinois River basin of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R.E.; Webb, D.W.; Harris, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) species richness is useful for monitoring stream health, but no published studies in Illinois quantitatively document EPT richness or assemblage structure. The objectives of this study were to characterize adult EPT richness and structure and relate these to relative water quality at eight stream sites (160-69,300 km3 area) in the lower Illinois River basin. Adults were ultra-violet light trapped in June, July, and August 1997. Nutrient enrichment by nitrate and nitrite nitrogen was strongly evident, especially in smaller drainages, while critical loss of stable habitat was observed in larger water bodies. Seventy EPT species were identified from 17,889 specimens. Trichoptera were by far the most speciose (41 species), followed by Ephemeroptera (26), and Plecoptera (3). Caddisflies also dominated species richness across sites, contributing 18.0 of the average 28.9 total EPT species collected. Site EPT richness varied significantly (F = 5.51, p = 0.003, df = 7), with smaller drainages supporting greater richness, generally. Differences were also evident for months (F = 21.7, p = 0.0001, df = 2), with June being lower (11.8 average) than either July (20.6) or August (18.1) values. Hilsenhoff biotic index (HBI) scores did not vary significantly across sites (F = 0.7, p = 0.7, df = 7), but were different across months (F = 5.4, p = 0.02, df = 2). June (4.23) and July (4.53) means were not different, but both were lower (of better quality) than August (5.33) scores. The relationship of EPT to HBI scores was not investigated statistically due to problems of sample size and interdependence of monthly samples, but graphical analysis suggested no consistent relationship. This suggested a decoupling of the HBI from the EPT and implied that the gain in taxonomic resolution achieved by using adults outstripped the resolution of the HBI. Use of the HBI to characterize adult aquatic insect communities is discouraged. New state

  13. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River in and into Missouri during summer flooding, July-August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation, in the vicinity of 36 bridges at 27 highway crossings of the Missouri River between Brownville, Nebraska and St. Louis, Missouri, from July 13 through August 3, 2011, during a summer flood. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,350 to 1,860 feet and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. These bathymetric scans provide a "snapshot" of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, in extremely shallow water, or surrounded by debris rafts. Scour holes were present at most piers for which bathymetry could be obtained, except at piers on channel banks, those near or embedded in lateral or longitudinal spur dikes, and those on exposed bedrock outcrops. Scour holes observed at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to depth and shape. Although exposure of parts of foundational support elements was observed at several piers, at most sites the exposure likely can be considered minimal compared to the overall substructure that remains buried in bed material; however, there were several notable exceptions where the bed material thickness between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock was less than 6 feet. Such substantial exposure of usually buried substructural elements may warrant special observation in future flood events. Previous bathymetric surveys had been done at several of the sites

  14. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  15. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  16. Source apportionment of VOCs and the contribution to photochemical ozone formation during summer in the typical industrial area in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; An, Junlin; Xin, Jinyuan; Wu, Fangkun; Wang, Junxiu; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continuously observated in a northern suburb of Nanjing, a typical industrial area in the Yangtze River Delta, in a summer observation period from 15th May to 31st August 2013. The average concentration of total VOCs was (34.40 ± 25.20) ppbv, including alkanes (14.98 ± 12.72) ppbv, alkenes (7.35 ± 5.93) ppbv, aromatics (9.06 ± 6.64) ppbv and alkynes (3.02 ± 2.01) ppbv, respectively. Source apportionment via Positive Matrix Factorization was conducted, and six major sources of VOCs were identified. The industry-related sources, including industrial emissions and industrial solvent usage, occupied the highest proportion, accounting for about 51.26% of the VOCs. Vehicular emissions occupied the second highest proportion, accounting for about 34.08%. The rest accounted for about 14.66%, including vegetation emission and liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas usage. Contributions of VOCs to photochemical O3 formation were evaluated by the application of a detailed chemical mechanism model (NCAR MM). Alkenes were the dominant contributors to the O3 photochemical production, followed by aromatics and alkanes. Alkynes had a very small impact on photochemical O3 formation. Based on the outcomes of the source apportionment, a sensitivity analysis of relative O3 reduction efficiency (RORE), under different source removal regimes such as using the reduction of VOCs from 10% to 100% as input, was conducted. The RORE was the highest (~ 20%-40%) when the VOCs from solvent-related sources decreased by 40%. The highest RORE values for vegetation emissions, industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, and LPG/NG usage were presented in the scenarios of 50%, 80%, 40% and 40%, respectively.

  17. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-06-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  18. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  19. Inferring Groundwater Age in an Alluvial Aquifer from Tracer Concentrations in the Stream - Little Wind River, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, D.; Gardner, W. P.; Naftz, D. L.; Solder, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    We use environmental tracers: CFC's, SF6, and 222Rn measured in stream water to determine volume and mean age of groundwater discharging to the Little Wind River, near Riverton, Wyoming. Samples of 222Rn were collected every 200 m along a 2 km reach, surrounding a known groundwater discharge zone. Nearby groundwater wells, in-stream piezometers and seepage meters were sampled for 222Rn, CFC's and SF6. Tracer concentrations measured in groundwater and in-stream piezometers were used to estimate the mean age of the subsurface system. High resolution 222Rn samples were used to determine the location and volume of groundwater inflow using a model of instream transport that includes radioactive decay and gas exchange with the atmosphere. The age of groundwater entering the stream was then estimated from in-stream measured CFC and SF6 concentrations using a new coupled stream transport and lumped-parameter groundwater age model. Ages derived from in-stream measurements were then compared to the age of subsurface water measured in piezometers, seepage meters, and groundwater wells. We then asses the ability of groundwater age inferred from in-stream samples to provide constraint on the age of the subsurface discharge to the stream. The ability to asses groundwater age from in-stream samples can provide a convenient method to constrain the regional distribution of groundwater circulation rates when groundwater sampling is challenging or wells are not in place.

  20. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang

    2018-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH 4 was more obvious than the others. CO 2 and N 2 O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH 4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO 3 - +NO 2 - -N) and ammonia (NH 4 + -N) were positively correlated with CO 2 concentration and CH 4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH 4 concentration and N 2 O concentration. The effect of

  1. Summer Appendicitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    The increasing number of “fast food” restaurants where mainly high‑carbohydrate ... factors, food culture and the effect of migration for touristic purposes during the summer. .... Lal A, Hales S, French N, Baker MG. Seasonality in human.

  2. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  3. The Effect of Heat Waves and Drought on Surface Wind Circulations in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula during the Summer of 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, P.A.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; González-Rouco, J.F.; Navarro, J.; Montávez, J.P.; García-Bustamante, E.; Dudhia, J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in the diurnal wind pattern associated with heat waves and drought conditions are investigated climatologically at a regional level (northeast of the Iberian Peninsula). The study, based on high-density observational evidence and fine spatial-scale mesoscale modeling for the 1992–2004

  4. Fates of dissolved and particulate materials from the Mississippi river immediately after discharge into the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA, during a period of low wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, M. J.; Bianchi, T.; McKee, B.; Powell, R.

    2008-07-01

    In June 2003, we conducted a two-part field exercise to examine biogeochemical characteristics of water in the lower Mississippi river during the 4 days prior to discharge and in the Mississippi river plume over 2 days after discharge. Here we describe the fates of materials immediately after their discharge through Southwest Pass of the Mississippi delta into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Changes in surface water properties immediately after discharge were much larger and more rapid than changes prior to discharge. Total suspended matter (TSM) declined, probably due to sinking, dissolved macronutrients were rapidly diminished by mixing and biological uptake, and phytoplankton populations increased dramatically, and then declined. This decline appeared to begin at salinities of approximately 10 and was nearly complete by 15. A large increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurred over approximately the same salinity range. Weak winds (releasing large amounts of DOC. Macronutrients from the river were utilized by the river phytoplankton community in the extensive freshwater lens. This contrasted with the more typical situation in which river nutrients stimulate a marine phytoplankton bloom at salinities in the mid-20s. We concluded that the direct effects of dissolved and particulate bio-reactive materials discharged by the Mississippi river were spatially restricted at this time to low-salinity water, at least as surface phenomena. After being transported through the lower river essentially unaltered, these materials were biogeochemically processed within days and tens of km. More generally, the mixing rate of plume water with receiving oceanic water has profound effects on the food web structure and biogeochemical cycling in the plume.

  5. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  6. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Jameson, J.W.; Baerwald, E.F.; Willis, C.K.R.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Snider, E.A.; Crichton, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  7. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Cryan

    Full Text Available Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus, eastern red bats (L. borealis, and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  8. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Jameson, Joel W; Baerwald, Erin F; Willis, Craig K R; Barclay, Robert M R; Snider, E Apple; Crichton, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  9. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  10. THE QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE CONTENT OF JUVENILE FISH AT THE MOUTH OF THE RIVERS NERETVA AND MALA NERETVA DURING THE SUMMER-AUTUMN PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antolović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the changes in content and abundance of local juvenile fish community species at stations along the mouth of the Rivers Neretva and Mala Neretva during August, October and December 2008. A total of 690 specimens were collected using a small coastal trawl, out of which 437 were collected at the mouth of the River Neretva and 253 at the mouth of the River Mala Neretva. The specimens were categorized into 14 families and 19 species. The most abundant species from the total catch belonged to the families Atherinidae (40%, Mugilidae (15.79%, Gobiidae (15.50% and Sparidae (13.04%. The Margalef index on specie richness was greater in the regions inhabited by larger numbers of species, ranging between 1.66 in August and 4.13 in October, wheras the highest diversity ranging between 0.393 in December and 0.923 in October was noted using the Simpson index. The highest value using the Shannon Wiener index was 1.18 in December and the lowest at 0.36 was in October, as almost 90% of the catch consisted of only two species. The Pielou index, which describes the variety of ichtiocenoza numerically, ranged between 0.14 in October and 0.74 in December. The stations investigated showed great similarities considering specie content, wheras there were differences in quantitative structure. The station at the mouth of the River Mala Neretva was richer in species as compared to the station at the mouth of the River Neretva, where we came across a smaller number of species, but a greater number of specimens.

  11. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 6 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. CERUTTI (CERN) Presentation of the Summer Student Programme D. Heagerty (CERN) Computer rules O. ULLALAND (CERN) Workshops presentation 10:15 - 11:00 D. SCHLATTER (CERN) Introduction to CERN 11:15 Film on CERN Thursday 7 July 09:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1-2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session 14:00 - 14:45 M. Lindroos (CERN) ISOLDE Facility 15:00 M. Lindroos (CERN) ISOLDE Visit Friday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Introduction to Nuclear Physics (2/3) 11:15 - 12:00 G. ROLANDI (CERN) How an experiment is designed (1/2) 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 11 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physi...

  12. Assessment of the Flow-Survival Relationship Obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C.R. (Cleveland R.)

    1994-04-01

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic`s chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts.

  13. Assessment of the flow-survival relationship obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic's chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts

  14. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, D.; (NOEMAIL), A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  15. Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baborowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

  16. Summer 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and the Environment Editor, Eric Strauss, provides an introduction to the Summer 2011 issue. He discusses the journal's transition to its new home at Loyola Marymount University and the creation of the Center for Urban Resilience and Ecological Solution, while underscoring highlights of the special topics section on Urban Predators. The contributors to this section participated in the International Symposium on Urban Wildlife and the Environment hosted by the Wildlife Society at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in June of 2009. Finally, Dr. Strauss notes the breadth of our issue by mentioning the additional articles' focus on rain gardens, water quality, arthropod diversity, green roofs, and socio-ecological dynamics.

  17. Artists Paint ... Summer: Grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    A humid summer haze covers the River Seine and the grassy bank where young men and boys go swimming on Sunday. Everything seems so quiet, still, and very hot. They wear hats to protect them from the hot sun. The artist Georges Seurat used warm tones to give viewers the feeling of the hot sun. Seurat was trying to catch the dazzle of hot sunlight…

  18. Diurnal Evolution and Annual Variability of Boundary Layer Height in the Columbia River Gorge through the `Eye' of Wind Profiling Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; Djalalova, I.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kenyon, J.; Olson, J. B.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a DoE- and NOAA-sponsored program whose goal is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts in complex terrain. WFIP2 consists of an 18-month (October 2015 - March 2017) field campaign held in the Columbia River basin, in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. As part of WFIP2 a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation has been deployed, including, among several others, a network of eight 915-MHz wind profiling radars (WPRs) equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs), and many surface meteorological stations. The diurnal evolution and annual variability of boundary layer height in the area of WFIP2 will be investigated through the `eye' of WPRs, employing state-of-the-art automated algorithms, based on fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence. The results will be used to evaluate possible errors in NWP models in this area of complex terrain.

  19. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Monday 8 August 09:15 - 10:00 A. Höcker CP Violation (3/4) 10:15 - 12:00 J-J. GOMEZ-CADENAS Neutrino Physics (1-2/4) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 9 August 09:15 - 10:00 A. Höcker CP Violation (4/4) 10:15 - 11:00 J-J. GOMEZ-CADENAS Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. GREY The GRID 12:00 Discussion Session 14:15 - 17:00 Student Sessions Wednesday 10 August 09:15 - 10:00 J-J. GOMEZ-CADENAS Neutrino Physics (4/4) 10:15 - 12:00 J. LESGOURGUES Introduction to Cosmology (1-2/5) 12:00 Discussion Session 14:15 - 17:00 Student Sessions Thursday 11 August 09:15 - 11:00 J. LESGOURGUES Introduction to Cosmology (3-4/5) 11:15 - 12:00 G. KALMUS The ILC Story 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 12 August 09:15 - 10:00 J. LESGOURGUES Introduction to Cosmology (5/5) 10:15 - 11:00 G. VENEZIANO String theory: has Einstein's dream come true? 11:00  Discussion...

  20. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 P. WELLS The Higgs Saga at LEP 10:15 - 11:00 E. KIRITSIS Beyond the Standard Model (1/4) 11:15 - 12:00 G. COWAN Introduction to Statistics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 2 August 09:15 - 11:00 E. KIRITSIS Beyond the Standard Model (2-3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 G. COWAN Introduction to Statistics (2/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 3 August 09:15 - 10:00 G. COWAN Introduction to Statistics (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 E. KIRITSIS Beyond the Standard Model (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 K. JAKOBS Physics at Hadronic Colliders (1/4) 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 4 August 09:15 - 11:00 K. JAKOBS Physics at Hadronic Colliders (2-3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 A. WEINSTEIN Gravitation Waves 12:00 Discussion Session 16:30 - 18:00 Poster Session Friday 5 August 09:15 - 11:00 A. Höcker CP Violation (1-2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 K. JA...

  1. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 18 July 09:15 - 11:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (1-2/6) 11:15 - 12:00 N. PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE Astroparticle Physics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 19 July 09:15 - 10:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (3/6) 10:15 - 12:00 N. PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE Astroparticle Physics (2-3/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 20 July 09:15 - 10:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (4/6) 10:15 - 11:00 F. RADEMAKERS ROOT 11:15 - 12:00 L. ROSSI Super-conducting magnet technology for particle accelerators and detectors 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 21 July 09:15 - 10:00 G. ROSS Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics (5/6) 10:15 - 12:00 C. DE LA TAILLE Introduction to Electronics (1-2/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 22 July 09:15 - 10:00 C. DE LA TAILLE Introduction to Electronics (3/3) 10:15 -...

  2. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 25 July 09:15 - 11:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (2-3/8) 11:15 - 12:00 J. STACHEL Quark Gluon Plasma Physics (1/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 26 July 09:15 - 10:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (4/8) 10:15 - 12:00 J. STACHEL Quark Gluon Plasma Physics (2-3/3) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 27 July 09:15 - 11:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (5-6/8) 11:15 - 12:00 J-P. DELAHAYE The CLIC Concept and Technology for an e+e-Collider at the Energy Frontier 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 28 July 09:15 - 10:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (7/8) 10:15 - 11:00 P. SPHICAS Data Acquisition Systems (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 R. JACOBSEN From Raw data to Physics Results (1/2) 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 A. PICH The Standard Model (8/8) 10:15 - 11:00 P. SPHICAS Data Acquisition Systems (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 R. JACOBSEN Fr...

  3. Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 11 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (4/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Introduction to Nuclear Physics (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 G. ROLANDI (CERN) How an experiment is designed (2/2) 12:00 Discussion Session Tuesday 12 July  09:15 - 11:00 O. BrÜning (CERN) Accelerators (1-2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 O. ULLALAND (CERN) Detectors (1/5) 12:00 Discussion Session Wednesday 13 July 09:15 - 10:00 O. BrÜning (CERN) Accelerators (3/5) 10:15 - 11:00 R. LANDUA (CERN) Antimatter in the Lab (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 O. ULLALAND (CERN) Detectors (2/5) 12:00 Discussion Session Thursday 14 July 09:15 - 10:00 O. ULLALAND (CERN) Detectors (3/5) 10:15 - 11:00 G. ROLANDI (CERN) Antimatter in the Lab (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 O. BrÜning (CERN) Accelerators (4/5) 12:00 Discussion Session Friday 1...

  4. Vertically and Horizontally Mounted Wind Mills : Wind Energy Production in Tampere University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to gather information about vertical and horizontal wind mills and to complete a research on wind power production by wind mills which were installed in Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The horizontally mounted wind mill Windspot 3.5 and vertically mounted wind mill Cypress were installed in summer 2011 but they started functioning and supplying energy only during 2012. In the theoretical part of this thesis wind speed and wind power production is dis...

  5. Interannual variability of surface and bottom sediment transport on the Laptev Sea shelf during summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wegner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport dynamics were studied during ice-free conditions under different atmospheric circulation regimes on the Laptev Sea shelf (Siberian Arctic. To study the interannual variability of suspended particulate matter (SPM dynamics and their coupling with the variability in surface river water distribution on the Laptev Sea shelf, detailed oceanographic, optical (turbidity and Ocean Color satellite data, and hydrochemical (nutrients, SPM, stable oxygen isotopes process studies were carried out continuously during the summers of 2007 and 2008. Thus, for the first time SPM and nutrient variations on the Laptev Sea shelf under different atmospheric forcing and the implications for the turbidity and transparency of the water column can be presented.

    The data indicate a clear link between different surface distributions of riverine waters and the SPM transport dynamics within the entire water column. The summer of 2007 was dominated by shoreward winds and an eastward transport of riverine surface waters. The surface SPM concentration on the southeastern inner shelf was elevated, which led to decreased transmissivity and increased light absorption. Surface SPM concentrations in the central and northern Laptev Sea were comparatively low. However, the SPM transport and concentration within the bottom nepheloid layer increased considerably on the entire eastern shelf. The summer of 2008 was dominated by offshore winds and northward transport of the river plume. The surface SPM transport was enhanced and extended onto the mid-shelf, whereas the bottom SPM transport and concentration was diminished. This study suggests that the SPM concentration and transport, in both the surface and bottom nepheloid layers, are associated with the distribution of riverine surface waters which are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns over the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean during the open water season. A continuing trend toward

  6. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  7. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  8. Projected change in East Asian summer monsoon by dynamic downscaling: Moisture budget analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chun-Yong; Shin, Ho-Jeong; Jang, Chan Joo; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2015-02-01

    The summer monsoon considerably affects water resource and natural hazards including flood and drought in East Asia, one of the world's most densely populated area. In this study, we investigate future changes in summer precipitation over East Asia induced by global warming through dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecast model. We have selected a global model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 based on an objective evaluation for East Asian summer monsoon and applied its climate change under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario to a pseudo global warming method. Unlike the previous studies that focused on a qualitative description of projected precipitation changes over East Asia, this study tried to identify the physical causes of the precipitation changes by analyzing a local moisture budget. Projected changes in precipitation over the eastern foothills area of Tibetan Plateau including Sichuan Basin and Yangtze River displayed a contrasting pattern: a decrease in its northern area and an increase in its southern area. A local moisture budget analysis indicated the precipitation increase over the southern area can be mainly attributed to an increase in horizontal wind convergence and surface evaporation. On the other hand, the precipitation decrease over the northern area can be largely explained by horizontal advection of dry air from the northern continent and by divergent wind flow. Regional changes in future precipitation in East Asia are likely to be attributed to different mechanisms which can be better resolved by regional dynamical downscaling.

  9. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, Kevin; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  10. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  11. Measurements of aerosol and CCN properties in the Mackenzie River delta (Canadian Arctic during spring–summer transition in May 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Herenz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the RACEPAC (Radiation–Aerosol–Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle project, the Arctic aerosol, arriving at a ground-based station in Tuktoyaktuk (Mackenzie River delta area, Canada, was characterized during a period of 3 weeks in May 2014. Basic meteorological parameters and particle number size distributions (PNSDs were observed and two distinct types of air masses were found. One type were typical Arctic haze air masses, termed accumulation-type air masses, characterized by a monomodal PNSD with a pronounced accumulation mode at sizes above 100 nm. These air masses were observed during a period when back trajectories indicate an air mass origin in the north-east of Canada. The other air mass type is characterized by a bimodal PNSD with a clear minimum around 90 nm and with an Aitken mode consisting of freshly formed aerosol particles. Back trajectories indicate that these air masses, termed Aitken-type air masses, originated from the North Pacific. In addition, the application of the PSCF receptor model shows that air masses with their origin in active fire areas in central Canada and Siberia, in areas of industrial anthropogenic pollution (Norilsk and Prudhoe Bay Oil Field and the north-west Pacific have enhanced total particle number concentrations (NCN. Generally, NCN ranged from 20 to 500 cm−3, while cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentrations were found to cover a range from less than 10 up to 250 cm−3 for a supersaturation (SS between 0.1 and 0.7 %. The hygroscopicity parameter κ of the CCN was determined to be 0.23 on average and variations in κ were largely attributed to measurement uncertainties. Furthermore, simultaneous PNSD measurements at the ground station and on the Polar 6 research aircraft were performed. We found a good agreement of ground-based PNSDs with those measured between 200 and 1200 m. During two of the four overflights, particle number concentrations at 3000

  12. Combining genetic, isotopic, and field data to better describe the influence of dams and diversions on Burbot Movement in the Wind River Drainage, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley-Underwood, Zachary; Mandeville, Elizabeth G.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Deromedi, J. W.; Johnson, Kevin; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Dams and water diversions fragment habitat, entrain fish, and alter fish movement. Many Burbot Lota lota populations are declining, with dams and water diversions thought to be a major threat. We used multiple methods to identify Burbot movement patterns and assess entrainment into an irrigation system in the Wind River, Wyoming. We assessed seasonal movement of Burbot with a mark–recapture (PIT tagging) study, natal origins of entrained fish with otolith microchemistry, and historic movement with genotyping by sequencing. We found limited evidence of entrainment in irrigation waters across all approaches. The mark–recapture study indicated that out‐migration from potential source populations could be influenced by flow regime but was generally low. Otolith and genomic results suggested the presence of a self‐sustaining population within the irrigation network. We conclude that emigration from natural tributary populations is not the current source of the majority of Burbot found in irrigation waters. Instead, reservoir and irrigation canal construction has created novel habitat in which Burbot have established a population. Using a multi‐scale approach increased our inferential abilities and mechanistic understanding of movement patterns between natural and managed systems.

  13. The Vulcano 1994 summer campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, P.; Valenza, M. [CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi; Graziani, G.; Martilli, A.; Mosca, S. [JRC Environment Institute, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Pareschi, M.T. [CNR, Pisa, (Italy). Centro di Studio per la Geologia Strutturale e Dinamica dell`Appennino

    1996-03-01

    A set of measurements from various sources was collected for the island of Vulcano (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian sea) during summer 1994 with the scope of characterising the circulation pattern and the volcanic emission of the island. Ground meteorological stations were activated, wind profiles from pilot balloons were obtained, ground temperature measurements were produced. Furthermore, temperature and humidity data from satellite (Landsat TM) were also derived. A critical analysis of the data on the gathered information was performed to quantify the volcanic risk related to the toxic-volcanic-gas release in foreseeable paroxysmal events.

  14. Modelling the Asian summer monsoon using CCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kim Chi; McGregor, John L. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    A ten-year mean (1989-1998) climatology of the Asian summer monsoon is studied using the CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) to downscale NCEP reanalyses. The aim of the current study is to validate the model results against previous work on this topic, in order to identify model strengths and weaknesses in simulating the Asian summer monsoon. The model results are compared with available observations and are presented in two parts. In the first part, the mean summer rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures and winds are compared with the observations. The second part focuses on validation of the monsoon onset. The model captures the mean characteristics such as the cross-equatorial flow of low-level winds over the Indian Ocean and near the Somali coast, rainfall patterns, onset indices, northward movements, active-break and revival periods. (orig.)

  15. Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  16. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  17. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  18. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  19. 3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub

    2002-11-18

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  20. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausel, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  1. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers, David; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in October and November (0.95±0.24) than in August (0.73±0.22). Collectively, our results are the first to describe the diets of SMB, WAL, and CHC over a large spatial area in

  2. Why is Bay of Bengal warmer than Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    the summer monsoon. In the Arabian Sea, the winds associated with the summer monsoon are stronger and favour the transfer of heat to deeper layers owing to overturning and turbulent mixing. In contrast, the weaker winds over the bay force a relatively...

  3. Envisat/ASAR images for the calibration of wind drag action in the Doñana wetlands 2D hydrodynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuertes, Anaïs; Martí Cardona, Belén; Bladé i Castellet, Ernest; Dolz Ripollès, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Doñana National Park wetlands are located in southwest Spain, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, near the Atlantic Ocean coast. The wetlands dry out completely every summer and progressively flood again throughout the fall and winter seasons. Given the flatness of Doñana’s topography, the wind drag action can induce the flooding or emergence of extensive areas, detectable in remote sensing images. Envisat/ASAR scenes acquired before and during strong and persistent wind episodes ena...

  4. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  5. The wind power state of the art and development outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presented during the Physics Summer school, deals with the wind power situation in Europe. The wind energy conversion in electric power is explained as the management and implementing of a wind site. The author discusses also the economy of the wind power and the market and development outlooks. (A.L.B.)

  6. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS-derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant end toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  7. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  8. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  9. Interannual variability of Danube waters propagation in summer period of 1992-2015 and its influence on the Black Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The propagation of the Danube River plume has strong interannual variability that impacts the local balance of nutrients and the thermohaline structure in the western Black Sea. In the present study, we use a particle-tracking model based on satellite altimetry measurements and wind reanalysis data, as well as satellite measurements (SeaWiFS, MODIS), to investigate the interannual variability in the Danube plume pathways during the summer from 1993 to 2015. The wind conditions largely define the variability in the Danube water propagation. Relatively low-frequency variability (on periods of a week to months) in the wind stress curl modulates the intensity of the geostrophic Rim Current and related mesoscale eddy dynamics. High-frequency offshore wind-drift currents transport the plume across isobaths and provide an important transport link between shelf and offshore circulation. Inherent plume dynamics play an additional role in the near-mouth transport of the plume and its connection with offshore circulation. During the years with prevailing northeast winds ( 30% of studied cases), which are usually accompanied by increased wind curl over the Black Sea and higher Danube discharge, an alongshore southward current at the NorthWestern Shelf (NWS) is formed near the western Black Sea coast. Advected southward, the Danube waters are entrained in the Rim Current jet, which transports them along the west coast of the basin. The strong Rim Current, fewer eddies and downwelling winds substantially decrease the cross-shelf exchange of nutrients. During the years with prevailing southeastern winds ( 40%), the Rim Current is less intense. Mesoscale eddies effectively trap the Danube waters, transporting them to the deep western part of the basin. The low- and high-frequency southeastern wind-drift currents contribute significantly to cross-isobath plume transport and its connection with offshore circulation. During several years ( 15%), the Danube waters moved eastward to

  10. Changes in urban-related precipitation in the summer over three city clusters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Wu, Jian

    2017-09-01

    The impacts of urban surface expansion on the summer precipitations over three city clusters [Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD)] in eastern China under different monsoonal circulation backgrounds were explored using the nested fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 3.7 (MM5 V3.7), including the urban-related thermal and dynamical parameters. Ten-year integrations were performed using satellite image data from 2000 and 2010 to represent the urban surface distributions and expansions in China. Changes in the precipitation revealed obvious subregional characteristics, which could be explained by the influences of the vertical wind velocity and moisture flux. With urban-related warming, vertical wind motion generally intensified over urban surface-expanded areas. Meanwhile, the increase in impervious surface areas induced rapid rainwater runoff into drains, and the Bowen ratio increased over urban areas, which further contributed to changes in the local moisture fluxes in these regions. The intensities of the changes in precipitation were inconsistent over the three city clusters, although the changes in vertical motion and local evaporation were similar, which indicates that the changes in precipitation cannot be solely explained by the changes in the local evaporation-related moisture flux. The changes in precipitation were also influenced by the changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation and the corresponding moisture flux, which are expressed in marked subregional characteristics. Therefore, the influence of urban-related precipitation over the three city clusters in China, for which changes in moisture flux from both the impacted local evaporation and EASM circulation should be considered, varied based on the precipitation changes of only a single city.

  11. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  12. Your Best Summer Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    "It must be nice to have summers off." Only other teachers know just how short summer is, with much of August devoted to planning for the new school year. This article offers 17 fresh ideas for exploring, making money, and preparing for next year. Plus, a reading list that hits all the marks!

  13. Indian Summer Arts Festival


    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Yann; Tabu; Tejpal, Tarun; Kunzru, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The SFU Woodward's Cultural Unit partnered with the Indian Summer Festival Society to kick off the inaugural Indian Summer Festival. Held at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts, it included an interactive Literature Series with notable authors from both India and Canada, including special guests Yann Martel, Bollywood superstar Tabu, journalist Tarun Tejpal, writer Hari Kunzru, and many others.

  14. Exploratory Long-Range Models to Estimate Summer Climate Variability over Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Mulenga, Henry M.; Mason, Simon J.

    1999-07-01

    Teleconnection predictors are explored using multivariate regression models in an effort to estimate southern African summer rainfall and climate impacts one season in advance. The preliminary statistical formulations include many variables influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) such as tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Atmospheric circulation responses to ENSO include the alternation of tropical zonal winds over Africa and changes in convective activity within oceanic monsoon troughs. Numerous hemispheric-scale datasets are employed to extract predictors and include global indexes (Southern Oscillation index and quasi-biennial oscillation), SST principal component scores for the global oceans, indexes of tropical convection (outgoing longwave radiation), air pressure, and surface and upper winds over the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Climatic targets include subseasonal, area-averaged rainfall over South Africa and the Zambezi river basin, and South Africa's annual maize yield. Predictors and targets overlap in the years 1971-93, the defined training period. Each target time series is fitted by an optimum group of predictors from the preceding spring, in a linear multivariate formulation. To limit artificial skill, predictors are restricted to three, providing 17 degrees of freedom. Models with colinear predictors are screened out, and persistence of the target time series is considered. The late summer rainfall models achieve a mean r2 fit of 72%, contributed largely through ENSO modulation. Early summer rainfall cross validation correlations are lower (61%). A conceptual understanding of the climate dynamics and ocean-atmosphere coupling processes inherent in the exploratory models is outlined.Seasonal outlooks based on the exploratory models could help mitigate the impacts of southern Africa's fluctuating climate. It is believed that an advance warning of drought risk and seasonal rainfall prospects will

  15. Physical biological coupling in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul J.; Yin, Kedong; Lee, J. H. W.; Gan, Jianping; Liu, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    The Pearl River Estuary is a subtropical estuary and the second largest in China based on discharge volume from the Pearl River. Processes in the estuary vary spatially and temporally (wet vs dry season). In the dry season at the head of the estuary, hypoxic and nearly anoxic conditions occur and NH 4 reaches >600 μM, NO 3 is ˜300 μM and nitrite is ˜60 μM indicating that nitrification and denitrification may be important dry season processes in the region extending 40 km upstream of the Humen outlet. There are very few biological studies conducted in this upper section of the estuary in either the dry or wet seasons and hence there is a need for further research in this region of the river. In the wet season, the salinity wedge extends to the Hongqimen outlet and oxygen is low (35-80% saturation). Nitrate is ˜100 μM, silicate ˜140 μM; and phosphate is relatively low at ˜0.5 μM, yielding an N:P ratio up to ˜200:1 in summer. Nutrients decrease in the lower estuary and primary productivity may become potentially P-limited. Eutrophication is not as severe as one would expect from the nutrient inputs from the Pearl River and from Hong Kong's sewage discharge. This estuary shows a remarkable capacity to cope with excessive nutrients. Physical processes such as river discharge, tidal flushing, turbulent dispersion, wind-induced mixing, and estuarine circulation play an important role in controlling the production and accumulation of algal blooms and the potential occurrence of hypoxia. Superimposed on the physical processes of the estuary are the chemical and biological processes involved in the production of the bloom. For example, the 100N:1P ratio indicates that P potentially limits the amount of algal biomass (and potential biological oxygen demand) in summer. While extended periods of hypoxia are rare in Hong Kong waters, episodic events have been reported to occur during late summer due to factors such as low wind, high rainfall and river discharge which

  16. The Summer Monsoon of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Subramaniam, M.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper we have examined the evolution of a number of parameters we believe were important for our understanding of the drought over India during the summer of 1987. The list of parameters includes monthly means or anomalies of the following fields: sea surface temperatures, divergent circulations, outgoing longwave radiation, streamfunction of the lower and upper troposphere, and monthly precipitation (expressed as a percentage departure from a long-term mean). The El Niño related warm sea surface temperature anomaly and a weaker warm sea surface temperature anomaly over the equatorial Indian Ocean provide sustained convection, as reflected by the negative values of the outgoing longwave radiation. With the seasonal heating, a pronounced planetary-scale divergent circulation evolved with a center along the western Pacific Ocean. The monsoonal divergent circulation merged with that related to the El Niño, maintaining most of the heavy rainfall activity between the equatorial Pacific Ocean and east Asia. Persistent convective activity continued south of India during the entire monsoon season. Strong Hadley type overturnings with rising motions over these warm SST anomaly regions and descent roughly near 20° to 25°S was evident as early as April 1987. The subtropical high pressure areas near 20° to 25°S showed stronger than normal circulations. This was revealed by the presence of a counterclockwise streamfunction anomaly at 850 mb during April 1987. With the seasonal heating, this anomaly moved northwards and was located over the Arabian Sea and India. This countermonsoon circulation anomaly at the low levels was associated with a weaker than normal Somali jet and Arabian Sea circulation throughout this summer. The monsoon remained active along northeast India, Bangladesh, northern lndochina, and central China during the summer monsoon season. This was related to the eastward shift of the divergent circulation. An eastward shift of the upper tropospheric

  17. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  18. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  19. 2003 SOLAS Summer School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGillis, Wade R

    2003-01-01

    In 2003, the United States provided support for the participation of 18 students, three research assistants, and seven lecturers in the first Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) Summer School...

  20. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  1. Summer Steelhead Distribution [ds341

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Summer Steelhead Distribution October 2009 Version This dataset depicts observation-based stream-level geographic distribution of anadromous summer-run steelhead...

  2. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile

  3. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  4. Is ENSO related to 2015 Easter Star Capsized on the Yangtze River of China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural disasters have profound effects on community security and economic damage of China's Hubei province. In June 1st, 2015, a cruise ship, Easter Star, capsized on Yangtze River in Hubei province with 442 died. What reason gives rise to such strong convection causing ship sunk? Based on the wind disasters of Hubei province happened in 1963-2015, this study analyzes their features bytime-series regression, and correlates them to global El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The compared results demonstrated that the wind disasters shown an increasing tendency. There are two peaks corresponding to the strongest ENSO peaks during the past 50 years; each peak lasts two-three years. The facts demonstrated an essential linear relation between the ENSO phenomena and wind disasters in Hubei province. 2015 Easter Star capsized happened at current El Niño event in 2014-2015. We also observed that the historical wind disasters appeared in seasonal variation. Over 90% events concentrated in spring and summer; very few events happened in autumn and winter. Moreover, the disasters depend on the geographic conditions. Most disasters concentrated in four zones, named as Xingshan-Baokang, Xuanen, Wufeng-Yichang, Jingzhou-Gongan, in which Xingshan and Changyang are the two most density of zones. Yangtze River provides an air flowing conduct for strong convective winds. It can be concluded that the strong convection causing 2015 Easter Star capsized is related to current global ENSO phenomenon.Keywords: ENSO, wind disaster, time-series regression analysis, Easter Star, Yangtze River, Hubei Province,

  5. Wind energy potential in Peshawar, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hourly wind data at Peshawar airport, received from the Headquarters, Pakistan Air Force, has been used to determine the diurnal variations, speed duration and speed frequency curves. The applicability of Weibull distribution is then tested over probability density function, which shows that weibull distribution fits the wind data satisfactorily and with a good precision, provided the observations of calm spells are omitted. Our analysis shows that monthly mean wind speed and wind power varies from 0.6 to 2.0 m/s and 0.2 to 4.0 wm-2, respectively, giving fair prospects for wind owe applications over the summer months. (author)

  6. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Green; Jin Xu [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  8. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  9. Summer Camp Registrations 2018

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp, for children from 4 to 6 years old, is now open. The general conditions are available on the EVE and School website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch For further questions, please contact us by email at  Summer.Camp@cern.ch An inscription per week is proposed, for 450.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open on weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. This year the theme will be Vivaldi’s Four Seasons.

  10. Remote sensing for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Bay Hasager, C.; Lange, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark) (and others

    2013-06-15

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risoe) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory. The report will allow alumni to trace back details after the course and benefit from the collection of information. This is the third edition of the report (first externally available), after very successful and demanded first two, and we warmly acknowledge all the contributing authors for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art 'guideline' available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. (Author)

  11. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande Ronde...

  12. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  13. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  14. ASHRAE Summer Meeting 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1998-01-01

    ASHRAE's (American Society for Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Condition Engineering) summer meeting was visited in June in Toronto. ASHRAE is an American organization dealing with American problems in HVAC, but many results can be used under Danish conditions. It is therefore essential that Danish...

  15. Summer of history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2017-01-01

    This summer, the University of Groningen will host three events—yes, three—that will be of special interest to the historically- and theoretically-inclined. The meeting of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science (HOPOS) will be held on July 9-12, a workshop exploring the

  16. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  17. Video-Based Electroshocking Platform to Identify Lamprey Ammocoete Habitats: Field Validation and New Discoveries in the Columbia River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2017-05-04

    A deep water electroshocking platform (DEP), developed to characterize larval lampreys (ammocoetes) and associated habitat in depths up to 15 m, was recently tested in the field. The DEP samples 0.55 m2∙min-1 without requiring ammocoete transport to the surface. Searches were conducted at a known rearing location (mouth of the Wind River, WA) and at locations on the Cowlitz River, WA, where ammocoetes had not previously been found. At the mouth of the Wind River, video imaged ammocoetes ranged from 50 to 150 mm in water depths between 1.5 m and 4.5 m and were more common in sediments containing organic silt. Ammocoetes (n=137) were detected at 61% of locations sampled (summer) and 50% of the locations sampled (winter). Following the field verification, the DEP was used on the lower 11.7 km of the Cowlitz River, WA. Ammocoetes (n=41) were found with a detection rate of 26% at specific search locations. Cowlitz River sediment containing ammocoetes was also dominated by silt with organic material, often downstream of alluvial bars in water depths from 0.8 to 1.7 m. Test results indicated a high sampling efficiency, favorable detection rates, and little or no impact to ammocoetes and their surrounding benthic environments.

  18. Coastal environment of the Beaufort Sea from field data and ERTS-1 imagery, summer 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An extensive field program during the spring and summer in the coastal Beaufort Sea test site has been completed using a wide variety of sensing techniques. Reduction of field data and ERTS-1 image analysis have shown the coastal environment to be complexly influenced by unique processes, most of which involve or are related to sea ice. Active sedimentologic processes along the Arctic coast are set in motion by the melting, flooding, and eventual overflow of rivers onto the sea ice. It is now apparent that only minor amounts of sediment are transported offshore at this stage; however, scouring of the bottom is significant beneath the strudels (drain holes) which develop in the fast ice canopy in the region of overflow. Areal salinity and turbidity patterns together with ERTS-1 imagery confirm a consistent influx of colder, clearer, saltier water towards the coast just east of the Colville River. Strong (up to 3 knots) bidirectional but intermittent currents often manifest themselves in imagery and aerial photographs as wakes behind grounded ice. Ice movement vectors generated from repetitive images indicate that ice drift is closely associated with wind direction, especially in shallow bays, and displacements of 4-22 kilometers were noted in 24 hours.

  19. Envisat/ASAR Images for the Calibration of Wind Drag Action in the Doñana Wetlands 2D Hydrodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Ramos-Fuertes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Doñana National Park wetlands are located in southwest Spain, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, near the Atlantic Ocean coast. The wetlands dry out completely every summer and progressively flood again throughout the fall and winter seasons. Given the flatness of Doñana’s topography, the wind drag action can induce the flooding or emergence of extensive areas, detectable in remote sensing images. Envisat/ASAR scenes acquired before and during strong and persistent wind episodes enabled the spatial delineation of the wind-induced water displacement. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Doñana wetlands was built in 2006 with the aim to predict the effect of proposed hydrologic restoration actions within Doñana’s basin. In this work, on-site wind records and concurrent ASAR scenes are used for the calibration of the wind-drag modeling by assessing different formulations. Results show a good adjustment between the modeled and observed wind drag effect. Displacements of up to 2 km in the wind direction are satisfactorily reproduced by the hydrodynamic model, while including an atmospheric stability parameter led to no significant improvement of the results. Such evidence will contribute to a more accurate simulation of hypothetic or design scenarios, when no information is available for the atmospheric stability assessment.

  20. Determination trends and abnormal seasonal wind speed in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoon, Ahmed F. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Monthly observed wind speed data at four weather stations (Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Rutba) at 10m above surface were used to explore the temporal variations of the wind speed (1971-2000) in Iraq. There are different methods to analyze wind speed variation data, but the time series are one of the powerful analysis methods to diagnose the seasonal wind speed anomaly. The results show most high abnormal data is found in summer seasons in all the stations of study, where it concentrated at 1975, 1976, 1978,1996-1995, 2000. Rutba station is different where its high deviation about annual average at nearly all the seasons, in this station there are trends in seasonal wind towards decreases in all the seasons, for example in winter it reached to about 0.046m/s.a-1, while in other stations Mosul and Basra there increases in annual seasonal wind speed trends in seasons spring, summer, autumn where its reached higher value at summer in Basra about 0.0482m/s.a-1. The second method to determine abnormal annual seasonal wind speed is through comparison seasonal average wind speed, where the average wind speed at the seasons summer and spring in Baghdad and Basra station have very high averages at nearly all years, this cannot see in Mosul and Rutba, in Rutba the seasonal average is intersected with each other, summer and spring is not have greater seasonal average in this station.

  1. Summer 2014 Pathways Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Over the summer I had the exciting opportunity to work for NASA at the Kennedy Space Center as a Mission Assurance Engineering intern. When I was offered a position in mission assurance for the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate's Launch Services Division, I didn't really know what I would be doing, but I knew it would be an excellent opportunity to learn and grow professionally. In this report I will provide some background information on the Launch Services Division, as well as detail my duties and accomplishments during my time as an intern. Additionally, I will relate the significance of my work experience to my current academic work and future career goals. This report contains background information on Mission Assurance Engineering, a description of my duties and accomplishments over the summer of 2014, and relates the significance of my work experience to my school work and future career goals. It is a required document for the Pathways program.

  2. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  3. Summer and Autumn activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Time to recharge the batteries, and much more… The summer holidays are an ideal opportunity to spend more time with the family, to discover new countries, make new friends, in other words to take time away from the daily grind. This recharging is essential to your work-life balance, and CERN, as a modern and socially responsible employer, has recognized this as a central part of its human resources policy.Nevertheless we should not forget that, while many of you enjoy a well-deserved summer break, some of our colleagues are hard at work making LS1 (first Long Shutdown) a success in order to guarantee that at the beginning of 2015 the LHC will be able to start physics in an energy range never before reached by mankind. Preparing the questionnaire and the elections to the Staff Council During this summer your delegates in the Staff Council are hard at work preparing for the upcoming five-yearly review whose content will be decided by CERN Council in June 2014. Therefore, as every five years, to ...

  4. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  5. Controls on summer low flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C. B.; McNamara, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Summer low flow has significant impacts on aquatic flora and fauna, municipal water use, and power generation. However, the controls on the minimum annual summer discharge are complex, including a combination of snowmelt dynamics, summer evapotranspiration demand, and spring, summer precipitation patterns and surface - groundwater interactions. This is especially true in the Rocky Mountain West of the United States, where snowpack provides the majority of water available for spring runoff and groundwater replenishment. In this study, we look at summer low flow conditions at four snow dominated catchments (26 km2 - 2200 km2) in South-central Idaho currently feeling the effects of climate change. Measures of snowmelt dynamics, summer evapotranspiration demand and spring and summer precipitation are used to determine the dominant controls on late summer low flow magnitude, timing and duration. These analyses show that the controls vary between watersheds, with significant implications for the impacts of climate change in snow dominated areas of the Rocky Mountain West.

  6. Allegheny County Summer Food Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set shows the Summer Food Sites located within Allegheny County for children (18 years and younger) for breakfast and lunch during summer recess. OPEN...

  7. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  8. Investigations into the early life history of naturally produced spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : annual report 2000 : project period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzyk, Fred R.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Environment, Fish and Wildlife.

    2002-01-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring

  9. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

    2006-01-30

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key

  10. Wind energy potential of coastal Eritrea: an analysis of sparse wind data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Buskirk, R. van; Garbesi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of historical surface wind data for the small country of Eritrea, in northeastern Africa. Winds in this region are directed by summer and winter monsoons in addition to diurnal land-sea effects. An analysis of national Eritrean and historical Italian wind records indicated marginal wind resources in the central highlands near the Eritrean capital of Asmera. An analysis of wind speed records recorded at two sites in the southern port city of Aseb indicate mean annual 10-m wind speeds of 9.5 m s -1 at the windier site. Surface wind speed records for the Red Sea suggest that similar potential may be found along the lower 200 km of the Eritrean coastline. Based on these findings, wind-generated electricity in this region should be substantially cheaper than the current supply generated from imported diesel. (author)

  11. Wind Spires as an Alternative Energy Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid Rashidi, Ph.D., P.E.

    2012-10-30

    This report discloses the design and development of an innovative wind tower system having an axisymmetric wind deflecting structure with a plurality of symmetrically mounted rooftop size wind turbines near the axisymmetric structure. The purpose of the wind deflecting structure is to increase the ambient wind speed that in turn results in an overall increase in the power capacity of the wind turbines. Two working prototypes were constructed and installed in the summer of 2009 and 2012 respectively. The system installed in the Summer of 2009 has a cylindrical wind deflecting structure, while the tower installed in 2012 has a spiral-shape wind deflecting structure. Each tower has 4 turbines, each rated at 1.65 KW Name-Plate-Rating. Before fabricating the full-size prototypes, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses and scaled-down table-top models were used to predict the performance of the full-scale models. The performance results obtained from the full-size prototypes validated the results obtained from the computational models and those of the scaled-down models. The second prototype (spiral configuration) showed at a wind speed of 11 miles per hour (4.9 m/s) the power output of the system could reach 1,288 watt, when a typical turbine installation, with no wind deflecting structure, could produce only 200 watt by the same turbines at the same wind speed. At a wind speed of 18 miles per hour (8 m/sec), the spiral prototype produces 6,143 watt, while the power generated by the same turbines would be 1,412 watt in the absence of a wind deflecting structure under the same wind speed. Four US patents were allowed, and are in print, as the results of this project (US 7,540,706, US 7,679,209, US 7,845,904, and US 8,002,516).

  12. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  13. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  14. Next Generation Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2013-04-01

    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  15. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  16. The cultural analysis in the environmental impact studies. Jepirachi wind pilot project and connecting road between the Aburra valley and Cauca River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Aura Luz; Carmona, Sergio Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This article is synthesis of the investigation to choose I in environment title of Master and Development of the National University of Host Colombia Medellin, on the speech, the social images and representations that emerge in the Studies from environmental Impact -EIA- from the cultural systems from communities affected by the implantation and operation. From two macro projects, that are part of the Plans of national Development, regional and local in Colombia: one, the Project Pilot of Generation of Aeolian Energy Jepirachi, in Colombian the Guajira discharge that affects indigenous communities of several establishments Wayuu in the sector of Average Moon. The other, the project of Road Connection between Valleys of the Aburra River - and the Cauca River, which it affects communities that inhabit an axis of rural transition - urban, whose cultural composition is diverse in its origin, mobility and interactions. It was left from two hypotheses: one, is that the analysis made in the cultural dimension of the EIA, is insufficient lo identify, lo evaluate and to handle the impacts on the cultural systems; second, front lo the treatment of the cultural systems is the existence of fundamental differences. There is cultural systems in Colombia which status is recognized greater and category than to others. The analysis of the speech allowed to obtain a diagnosis on semantic the rhetorical structure and - formal and textual cohesion, coherence, correlations and associations in the EIA and to identify the social images and representations that emerge on the populations taken part by the projects. Finally conclusions. That consider they leave to the debate on the cultural analyses that have been made in the EIA ,their emptiness and limitations and the different courses open that can take futures works from investigation

  17. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  18. Multispectral processing of ERTS-A (LANDSAT) data for uranium exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: a visible region ratio to enhance surface alteration associated with roll-type uraium deposits. Final report, June 1974--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, B.C.; Pillars, W.W.

    1975-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to document possible detection capabilities of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data for use in exploration for uranium roll-type deposits. Spectral reflectivity, mineralogy, iron content, and color paramenters were measured for twenty natural surface samples collected from a semiarid region. The relationships of these properties to LANDSAT response-weighted reflectances and to reflectance ratios are discussed. It was found that the single ratio technique of multispectral processing is likely to be sensitive enough to separate hematitic stain, but not limonitic. A combination of the LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ and R/sub 7,6/ ratios, and a processing technique sensitive to vegetative cover is recommended for detecting areas of limonitic stain. Digital level slicing of LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ over the Wind River Basin, after geometric correction, resulted in adequate enhancement of Triassic redbeds and lighter red materials, but not for limonitic areas. No recommendations for prospects in the area were made. Information pertaining to techniques of evaluating laboratory reflectance spectra for remote sensing applications, ratio processing, and planimetric correction of LANDSAT data is presented qualitatively

  19. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores

  20. Link between western Arabian sea surface temperature and summer monsoon strength and high-latitude abrupt climate events

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) based on quantitative analyses of planktic foraminifera. High seasonal SST contrast between winter and summer during the last glacial period indicates weak upwelling and strong cold northeasterly winds. Minimum seasonal SST...

  1. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  2. Wind system documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  3. Summer Thermal Performance of Ventilated Roofs with Tiled Coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoloni, M; Bottarelli, M; Piva, S

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a ventilated pitched roof with tiled coverings is analysed and compared with unventilated roofs. The analysis is carried out by means of a finite element numerical code, by solving both the fluid and thermal problems in steady-state. A whole one-floor building with a pitched roof is schematized as a 2D computational domain including the air-permeability of tiled covering. Realistic data sets for wind, temperature and solar radiation are used to simulate summer conditions at different times of the day. The results demonstrate that the batten space in pitched roofs is an effective solution for reducing the solar heat gain in summer and thus for achieving better indoor comfort conditions. The efficiency of the ventilation is strictly linked to the external wind conditions and to buoyancy forces occurring due to the heating of the tiles. (paper)

  4. Summer Thermal Performance of Ventilated Roofs with Tiled Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Piva, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a ventilated pitched roof with tiled coverings is analysed and compared with unventilated roofs. The analysis is carried out by means of a finite element numerical code, by solving both the fluid and thermal problems in steady-state. A whole one-floor building with a pitched roof is schematized as a 2D computational domain including the air-permeability of tiled covering. Realistic data sets for wind, temperature and solar radiation are used to simulate summer conditions at different times of the day. The results demonstrate that the batten space in pitched roofs is an effective solution for reducing the solar heat gain in summer and thus for achieving better indoor comfort conditions. The efficiency of the ventilation is strictly linked to the external wind conditions and to buoyancy forces occurring due to the heating of the tiles.

  5. River food webs: Incorporating nature’s invisible fabric into river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Ryan Bellmore; Joseph Benjamin; Colden Baxter

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the population of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in Washington state’s Methow River is a goal of the Upper Columbia Spring Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Recovery Plan. Spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead are listed as endangered and threatened, respectively, under the Endangered Species Act. Installing logjams and...

  6. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  7. Discontinuous Galerkin modeling of the Columbia River's coupled estuary-plume dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallaeys, Valentin; Kärnä, Tuomas; Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Baptista, António M.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Hanert, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    The Columbia River (CR) estuary is characterized by high river discharge and strong tides that generate high velocity flows and sharp density gradients. Its dynamics strongly affects the coastal ocean circulation. Tidal straining in turn modulates the stratification in the estuary. Simulating the hydrodynamics of the CR estuary and plume therefore requires a multi-scale model as both shelf and estuarine circulations are coupled. Such a model has to keep numerical dissipation as low as possible in order to correctly represent the plume propagation and the salinity intrusion in the estuary. Here, we show that the 3D baroclinic discontinuous Galerkin finite element model SLIM 3D is able to reproduce the main features of the CR estuary-to-ocean continuum. We introduce new vertical discretization and mode splitting that allow us to model a region characterized by complex bathymetry and sharp density and velocity gradients. Our model takes into account the major forcings, i.e. tides, surface wind stress and river discharge, on a single multi-scale grid. The simulation period covers the end of spring-early summer of 2006, a period of high river flow and strong changes in the wind regime. SLIM 3D is validated with in-situ data on the shelf and at multiple locations in the estuary and compared with an operational implementation of SELFE. The model skill in the estuary and on the shelf indicate that SLIM 3D is able to reproduce the key processes driving the river plume dynamics, such as the occurrence of bidirectional plumes or reversals of the inner shelf coastal currents.

  8. Evaluation of Summer Bridge Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lisa D.; Paz, Chiara C.

    2009-01-01

    Many colleges and universities in the United States offer summer programs for their incoming students. While programs are structured and administered in a variety of ways and target various student populations, the most common type of summer bridge program aims to serve historically underrepresented students and students of low socioeconomic…

  9. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  10. Summer music festivals

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Although July is set to be a crucial time in the working life of the Laboratory, the CERN clubs have organised musical events to make sure that there’s also a chance to chill out and relax. The group Blend at the 2007 Hardronic Festival. From left to right (on stage): Eric Pfirsch, Stephan Petit, Frédéric Lejal, Niklaus Hirt, Paulo Dos Santos with Laurent Tarrano filming.If you have a strong appetite for music the ‘Monts Jura Jazz Festival’, might tempt you this summer. Sponsored by both the CERN Administration and the Staff Association, it is an established highlight of the local arts calendar and will this year be held on 4 and 5 July in Crozet, France. For the third year running established musicians, stars of the jazz scene, and rising talent from France, Switzerland and Brazil will be joining forces to perform an exiting mixture of jazz music. A ‘master class’ in improvisation methods will also be held on Saturda...

  11. Summer student final report

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    During my time spent at CERN I worked under the Technology Department of CERN, in the Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity (MPE) Group. The MPE Group supports LHC operations and maintains state of the art technology for magnet circuit protection and interlock systems for the present and future accelerators, magnet test facilities and CERN hosted experiments[1]. As a member of Magnet Powering Interlocks & Software (TE-MPE-MS) section I was involved in three different projects and used not only CERN developed tools like FESA Framework, but also open source C++ frameworks, Google Test and Google Mock. I had a chance to work with Programmable Logic Controllers and real-time devices known as Front End Computers. I was part of a software developer team, and familiarized myself with the Scrum agile software development methodology. The description and results of my work are presented in three parts of this report. Each part describes a separate project created during my participation in the CERN Summer St...

  12. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  13. Summer School on Spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Stuart; Idzerda, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Stuart Wolf This book originated as a series of lectures that were given as part of a Summer School on Spintronics in the end of August, 1998 at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. It has taken some time to get these lectures in a form suitable for this book and so the process has been an iterative one to provide current information on the topics that are covered. There are some topics that have developed in the intervening years and we have tried to at least alert the readers to them in the Introduction where a rather complete set of references is provided to the current state of the art. The field of magnetism, once thought to be dead or dying, has seen a remarkable rebirth in the last decade and promises to get even more important as we enter the new millennium. This rebirth is due to some very new insight into how the spin degree of freedom of both electrons and nucleons can play a role in a new type of electronics that utilizes the spin in addition to or in place of the charge. For this new field to mature and prosper, ...

  14. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimate and alpine glacier fluctuations recorded by high-resolution grain-size data from an alpine lake sediment core, Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Davis, P.; Machalett, Björn; Gosse, John

    2013-04-01

    Varved lake sediments, which provide ideal high-resolution climate proxies, are not commonly available in many geographic areas over long time scales. This paper utilizes high-resolution grain-size analyses (n = 1040) from a 520-cm long sediment core from Lower Titcomb Lake (LTL), which lies just outside the type Titcomb Basin (TTB) moraines in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. The TTB moraines lie between Lower Titcomb Lake and Upper Titcomb Lake (UTL), about 3 km beyond, and 200 m lower than the modern glacier margin and Gannett Peak (Little Ice Age) moraines in the basin. Based on cosmogenic exposure dating, the TTB moraines are believed to be Younger Dryas (YD) age (Gosse et al., 1995) and lie in a geomorphic position similar to several other outer cirque moraines throughout the western American Cordillera. Until recently, many of these outer cirque moraines were believed to be Neoglacial age. The sediment core discussed here is one of five obtained from the two Titcomb Lakes, but is by the far the longest with the oldest sediment depositional record. Two AMS radiocarbon ages from the 445- and 455-cm core depths (about 2% loss on ignition, LOI) suggest that the lake basin may have been ice-free as early as 16.1 or even 16.8 cal 14C kyr, consistent with 10Be and 26Al exposure ages from boulders and bedrock surfaces outside the TTB moraines. The 257-cm depth in the core marks an abrupt transition from inorganic, sticky gray silt below (rock flour production between the 257 and 466 cm core depths appear to be roughly correlative with the YD-Alleröd-Bölling-Meiendorf-Heinrich 1 climate events recognized in other terrestrial records and Northern Atlantic Ocean marine cores, but provide much higher resolution than most of those records from a climate-sensitive alpine region in North America.

  15. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  16. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  17. Aquatic carbon export from peatland catchments recently undergone wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Waldron, Susan; Henderson, Andrew; Flowers, Hugh; Gilvear, David

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's peat landscapes are desirable locations for wind-based renewables due to high wind resources and low land use pressures in these areas. The environmental impact of sitting wind-based renewables on peats however, is unknown. Globally, peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores. Given the topical nature of carbon-related issues, e.g. global warming and carbon footprints, it is imperative we help mitigate their degradation and maintain carbon sequestration. To do so, we need to better understand how peatland systems function with regards to their carbon balance (export versus sequestration) so we can assess their resilience and adaptation to hosting land-based renewable energy projects. Predicting carbon lost as a result of construction of wind farms built on peatland has not been fully characterised and this research will provide data that can supplement current 'carbon payback calculator' models for wind farms that aim to reinforce their 'green' credentials. Transfer of carbon from the terrestrial peatland systems to the aquatic freshwater and oceanic systems is most predominant during periods of high rainfall. It has been estimated that 50% of carbon is exported during only 10% of highest river flows, (Hinton et al., 1998). Furthermore, carbon export from peatlands is known to have a seasonal aspect with highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) found mostly in late summer months of August and September and lowest in December and January, (Dawson et al., 2004). Event sampling, where high intensity sample collection is carried out during high river flow periods, offers a better insight, understanding and estimation of carbon aquatic fluxes from peatland landscapes. The Gordonbush estate, near Brora, has an extensive peatland area where a wind farm development has recently been completed (April 2012). Investigations of aquatic carbon fluxes from this peatland system were started in July 2010, in conjunction with the start of

  18. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  19. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  20. Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington. Appendix C to Washington Windplant No. 1 EIS. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia Hills area above (north of) the Columbia River in Klickitat County, in southcentral Washington, is being considered for development of two wind power generation projects that could include the eventual placement of up to 436 wind turbines. The KENETECH Windpower Washington Windplant TM Number 1 project would include placing up to 345 KENETECH 33M-VS turbines, capable of producing up to 115 megawatts (MW), in 39 rows (strings) on a 5,110-hectare (12,630-acre) site. During scoping for these proposed developments, concerns were raised regarding the potential for avian mortality associated with wind farm development. Collision with wind turbine blade, towers, guy wires, and transmission lines, and electrocution from power lines have been identified as sources of avian mortality, particularly raptors, at existing wind farm facilities. To address these concerns, an avian study was conducted at the site in accordance with an avian study plan and protocol developed, with input from a national avian task force, state agencies (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife [WDFW]), and federal agencies (USFWS). The study included four elements: (1) a winter raptor and waterfowl study, (2) spring migration and fall migration studies, (3) a summer resident study, and (4) a raptor breeding study. The study involved extensive field studies conducted by biologists experienced in identifying raptors and other birds

  1. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  2. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  3. Dynamic modeling of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, L.B.; Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Staerdahl, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The installation of floating wind farms in deeper water is encouraged by the stronger and steadier wind, the lower visibility and noise impact, the absence of road restrictions, but also the absence or shortage of shallow water. In the summer of 2009, the first large-scale floating wind turbine

  4. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H. [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  6. NEWS: AAPT Summer Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, Steve

    2000-11-01

    The 2000 Summer Meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) was held from 28~July-2~August at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. Despite somewhat rainy weather throughout the week, the annual gathering was an enjoyable one, filled with interesting talks on the state of physics education in North America. Using a new scheduling format for the summer meeting, all of the paid workshops and tutorials were held on Saturday and Sunday 29-30 July. The invited and contributed papers for the main AAPT meeting were then presented on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. As had been done in 1999 in San Antonio, a two-day tandem meeting dedicated to Physics Education Research (PER) was held on Wednesday and Thursday 2-3 August, immediately after the main AAPT meeting. Over the three days of the main meeting, 60 sessions were held under the sponsorship of various AAPT committees. These included sessions (numbers in parentheses) organized by the committees on Apparatus (1), Astronomy Education (3), Awards (2), Computers (5), Graduate Education (2), High Schools (1), History and Philosophy (1), Instructional Media (3), International Education (1), Laboratories (2), Pre-High School Education (2), Programs (4), Professional Concerns (6), Research in Physics Education (8), Science Education for the Public (2), Two-Year Colleges (5), Undergraduate Education (7) and Women in Physics (4). Figure 1. Guelph Church of Our Lady. The main meeting opened on Sunday evening with an invited lecture by Dr John J Simpson from the host institution, the University of Guelph, describing the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. At the ceremonial session that began the activities on Monday morning, recognition was given to Clifford Swartz for his almost 30 years of service as Editor of the AAPT journal, The Physics Teacher. This was followed by an invited talk by Jim Nelson from Seminole County Public School in Florida, who received the Excellence in Pre-College Teaching Award. The

  7. CERN Summer Student Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    My Summer Student project was divided between two areas: work on Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) Level-1 muon triggers for the ATLAS experiment, and data acquisition (DAQ) for an RPC muon detector at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

  8. The year without a summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbacher, J.; Pfister, C.

    2015-04-01

    The 1815 eruption of Tambora caused an unusually cold summer in much of Europe in 1816. The extreme weather led to poor harvests and malnutrition, but also demonstrated the capability of humans to adapt and help others in worse conditions.

  9. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  10. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  11. Summer Research Fellowship Programme–2015

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 12. Summer Research Fellowship Programme - 2015. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 12 December 2014 pp 1199-1199. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    maximum 200 words ) Momentum transfer from wind forcing into the ocean is complicated by the presence of surface waves. Wind momentum and energy are...1,520 m from the mouth of the river to the deployment site ). Map created in Google Earth, October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/earth/. 33...Doppler processing electronics for each transducer uses 14 bit analog to digital converter to digitize the 1.2 MHz acoustic frequency from the four

  13. Wind energy resources assessment for Yanbo, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal and diurnal variations at Yanbo, which is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The wind speed and wind direction hourly data for a period of 14 years between 1970 and 1983 is used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the seasonal and diurnal pattern of wind speed matches the electricity load pattern of the location. Higher winds of the order of 5.0 m/s and more were observed during the summer months of the year and noon hours (09:00 to 16:00 h) of the day. The wind duration availability is discussed as the percent of hours during which the wind remained in certain wind speed intervals or bins. Wind energy calculations were performed using wind machines of sizes 150, 250, 600, 800, 1000, 1300, 1500, 2300 and 2500 kW rated power. Wind speed is found to remain above 3.5 m/s for 69% of the time during the year at 40, 50, 60, and 80 m above ground level. The energy production analysis showed higher production from wind machines of smaller sizes than the bigger ones for a wind farm of 30 MW installed capacity. Similarly, higher capacity factors were obtained for smaller wind machines compared to larger ones

  14. Summer Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidi, Nitou

    2012-01-01

    The summer of 2012 has been filled with many memorable events and activities. As an intern, I had responsibilities that had to be fulfilled. My tour of duty was completed as an administrative student trainee in the Information Technology and Communications Services Business Office (IT-A). In accordance with the Business Objectives and Agreement of the Business Office and my performance plan, I was to provide business office support, improve business, project management, and technical work processes. With this being stated, I supported a project called "The Big Move Project" (TBMP), which will take course over the next several years. The Big Move Project is the planning of the Information Technology (IT) Directorate's relocation to various buildings in the course of upcoming years, when designs and the building of Central Campus have been completed. Working directly with my supervisor and the project manager, I was responsible for gathering both administrative and operational area requirements for the Information Technology (IT) Directorate, along with its outsourced support and contractors, such as IMCS, NICS, and ACES. My first action was to create rubrics that will serve as a guideline for the information that should be given by each branch of IT. After receiving that information via a few KAITS actions, I was able to start the consolidation process, and begin working on a presentation. A SharePoint was created shortly after for others to view the progression of the project, which I managed. During the consolidation ofthis information, I would occasionally present to the IT Deputy Director and IT Chiefs. The draft of this presentation was shown to employees of Center Operations (T A) and stakeholders-IT Chief Officers and contractor managers-in the relocation of IT to make them aware of what requirements must be met that will enable IT to be accommodated appropriately in the design of Central Campus Phase 11-the time in which IT and its contractors are scheduled

  15. Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report. Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia Hills area above (north of) the Columbia River in Klickitat County, in southcentral Washington, is being considered for development of two wind power generation projects that could include the eventual placement of up to 436 wind turbines. The KENETECH Windpower Washington Windplant trademark Number 1 project would include placing up to 345 KENETECH 33M-VS turbines, capable of producing up to 115 megawatts (MW), in 39 rows (strings) on a 5,110-hectare (12,630-acre) site. The Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems (CARES) Columbia Wind Farm number-sign 1 project would include placing 91 Flowind AWT-26 turbines, capable of generating 25 MW, in 11 rows on a 395-hectare (975-acre) site. During scoping for these proposed developments, concerns were raised regarding the potential for avian mortality associated with wind farm development. Collision with wind turbine blade, towers, guy wires, and transmission lines, and electrocution from power lines have been identified as sources of avian mortality, particularly raptors, at existing wind farm facilities. To address these concerns, an avian study was conducted at the site in accordance with an avian study plan and protocol developed, with input from a national avian task force, state agencies (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife [WDFW]), and federal agencies (USFWS). The study included four elements: (1) a winter raptor and waterfowl study, (2) spring migration and fall migration studies, (3) a summer resident study, and (4) a raptor breeding study. The study involved extensive field studies conducted by biologists experienced in identifying raptors and other birds

  16. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  17. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  18. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  19. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1995-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs and Imeques C-mem-ini-kem acclimation facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O, kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. In the spring of 1994, juvenile summer steelhead were acclimated at Bonifer and Minthorn. At Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, juvenile spring chinook were acclimated in the spring and fall. A total of 92 unmarked and 42 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 1, 1993 through May 2, 1994 and held at Minthorn. An estimated 234,432 green eggs were taken from 48 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and early rearing. Fingerlings were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for final rearing and release into the Umatilla River in 1995. Fall chinook and coho salmon broodstock were not collected in 1994. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla River releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries. Total estimated juvenile adult survival rates are detailed in this document.

  20. Geomorphology and river dynamics of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges.Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005–07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36–37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36–37 during average flow periods.The U.S. Geological Survey’s Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  1. Interdecadal variations of East Asian summer monsoon northward propagation and influences on summer precipitation over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Yang, S.; He, J.; Li, J.; Liang, J.

    2008-08-01

    The interdecadal variation of northward propagation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and summer precipitation in East China have been investigated using daily surface rainfall from a dense rain gauge network in China for 1957 2001, National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis, and Global Mean Sea Level Pressure Dataset (GMSLP2) from Climatic Research Unit (CRU). Results in general show a consistent agreement on the interdecadal variability of EASM northward propagations. However, it appears that the interdecadal variation is stronger in NCEP than in ECMWF and CRU datasets. A newly defined normalized precipitation index (NPI), a 5-day running mean rainfall normalized with its standard deviation, clearly depicts the characteristics of summer rainbelt activities in East China in terms of jumps and durations during its northward propagations. The EASM northward propagation shows a prominent interdecadal variation. EASM before late 1970s had a rapid northward advance and a northern edge beyond its normal position. As a result, more summer rainfall occurred for the North China rainy season, Huaihe-River Mei-Yu, and South China Mei-Yu. In contrast, EASM after late 1970s had a slow northward movement and a northern edge located south of its normal position. Less summer precipitation occurred in East China except in Yangtze River basin. The EASM northernmost position (ENP), northernmost intensity (ENI), and EASM have a complex and good relationship at interdecadal timescales. They have significant influences on interdecadal variation of the large-scale precipitation anomalies in East China.

  2. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  3. The wind power state of the art and development outlooks; L'energie eolienne etat de l'art et perspectives de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document presented during the Physics Summer school, deals with the wind power situation in Europe. The wind energy conversion in electric power is explained as the management and implementing of a wind site. The author discusses also the economy of the wind power and the market and development outlooks. (A.L.B.)

  4. Seasonal Variability of Wind Sea and Swell Waves Climate along the Canary Current: The Local Wind Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Semedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A climatology of wind sea and swell waves along the Canary eastern boundary current area, from west Iberia to Mauritania, is presented. The study is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim. The wind regime along the Canary Current, along west Iberia and north-west Africa, varies significantly from winter to summer. High summer wind speeds generate high wind sea waves, particularly along the coasts of Morocco and Western Sahara. Lower winter wind speeds, along with stronger extratropical storms crossing the North Atlantic sub-basin up north lead to a predominance of swell waves in the area during from December to February. In summer, the coast parallel wind interacts with the coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed and the locally generated waves. The spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering.

  5. Climate influences on Vaal River flow | Jury | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of climatic influences on Vaal River discharge, near Johannesburg, South Africa, finds that peak summer flows in the period 1979–2014 coincide with ocean–atmosphere interaction in the east Atlantic. The analysis has three parts: interannual influences by correlation of summer discharge with climate fields, ...

  6. Summer transport patterns affecting the Mohave Power Project emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, R.J.; Hoffer, T.E.; Green, M.C.; Walsh, P.A. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Mohave Power Project (MPP) is an isolated 1580-MW coal-fired electric generating plant located in Laughlin, NV. Laughlin is a small desert gambling town situated in the lower Colorado River Valley near the junction of three states: Nevada, California, and Arizona. The location of the MPP is approximately 155 km southwest of the western end of the Grand Canyon National Park and about 240 km southwest from the Grand Canyon Village. This paper describes the summer transport patterns of the MPP emittants using illustrated examples from the Project MOHAVE (measurements of Haze and Visual Effects) 1992 summer intensive study. The intensive study lasted 50 days from mid-July through August and encompassed the major meteorological patterns associated with southwestern US summer meteorology. The MPP emittants were transported towards the Grand Canyon (north to the northeast) during more than 80% of the total hours. Airflow as from the south most of the time due to a combination of the semi-permanent thermal low, differential heating between the Gulf of California and lower Colorado River Valley, and upslope heating of the southern and western slopes of the nearby Colorado Plateau. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  8. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  9. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  10. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  11. Heat dispersion in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.L.

    1974-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Sonderforschungsbereich 80 is to study the dispersion of heat discharged into rivers and other bodies of water and to develop methods which permit prediction of detrimental effects caused by the heated discharges. In order to help the SFB 80 to specify this task, Dr. Shaw, lecturer of Civil Engineering at the Bristol University, conducted a literature survey on heat-dispersion studies during the two months which he spent as a visiting research fellow with the SFB 80 at the University of Karlsruhe in the summer of 1973. The following report is the outcome of this survey. It gives Dr. Shaw's assessment of the present state of knowledge - based almost exclusively on literature in the English language - and compares this with the knowledge required by river planners. The apparent discrepancy leads to suggestions for future research. Selected references as well as a representative bibliography can be found at the end of the report. (orig.) [de

  12. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  13. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  14. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  15. A distinction between summer rainy season and summer monsoon season over the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thanh, Huong; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Nguyen-Hong, Hanh; Baker, Peter; Phan-Van, Tan

    2018-05-01

    The daily rainfall data at 13 stations over the Central Highlands (CH) Vietnam were collected for the period 1981-2014. Two different sets of criteria using daily observed rainfall and 850 hPa daily reanalysis wind data were applied to determine the onset (retreat) dates of the summer rainy season (RS) and summer monsoon (SM) season, respectively. Over the study period, the mean RS and SM onset dates were April 20 and May 13 with standard deviations of 17.4 and 17.8 days, respectively. The mean RS and SM retreat dates were November 1 and September 30 with standard deviations of 17.9 and 10.2 days, respectively . The year-to-year variations of the onset dates and the rainfall amount within the RS and SM season were closely linked with the preceding winter and spring sea surface temperature in the central-eastern and western Pacific. It was also found that the onset dates were significantly correlated with the RS and SM rainfall amount.

  16. Summer Schools In Nuclear Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue; Herbert, Mieva; Mantica, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This the report for the 5 year activities for the ACS Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. The American Chemical Society's Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry were held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY) and San Jose State University (San Jose, CA) during the award period February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2007. The Summer Schools are intensive, six-week program involving both a lecture component covering fundamental principles of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry and a laboratory component allowing hands-on experience for the students to test many of the basic principles they learn about in lecture. Each site hosted 12 undergraduate students annually, and students received coursework credits towards their undergraduate degrees. Up to 7 student credit hours were earned at San Jose State University, and Brookhaven students received up to 6 college credits through BNL's management partner, SUNY Stony Brook. Funding from the award period covered travel, housing, educational expenses, and student stipends, for the 24 undergraduate participants. Furthermore, funding was also used to cover expenses for lecturers and staff to run the programs at the two facilities. The students were provided with nuclear and radiochemistry training equivalent to a three-hour upper-level undergraduate course along with a two-hour hands-on laboratory experience within the six-week summer period. Lectures were held 5 days per week. Students completed an extensive laboratory sequence, as well as radiation safety training at the start of the Summer Schools. The summer school curriculum was enhanced with a Guest Lecture series, as well as through several one-day symposia and organized field trips to nuclear-related research and applied science laboratories. This enrichment afforded an opportunity for students to see the broader impacts of nuclear science in today's world, and to experience some of the future challenges through formal and informal discussions with

  17. Technical Reports: Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Rafaela (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program was established by Dr. Samuel E. Massenberg in 1986. The program has increased from 20 participants in 1986 to 114 participants in 1995. The program is LaRC-unique and is administered by Hampton University. The program was established for the benefit of undergraduate juniors and seniors and first-year graduate students who are pursuing degrees in aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, material science, computer science, atmospheric science, astrophysics, physics, and chemistry. Two primary elements of the LARSS Program are: (1) a research project to be completed by each participant under the supervision of a researcher who will assume the role of a mentor for the summer, and (2) technical lectures by prominent engineers and scientists. Additional elements of this program include tours of LARC wind tunnels, computational facilities, and laboratories. Library and computer facilities will be available for use by the participants.

  18. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  19. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  20. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  1. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  2. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  3. Summer Student Report - Project Kryolize

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work and results obtained by the author during his summer student internship at CERN. The author of this document was attached to the project Kryolize as a software developer, overtaking the job from a recently departed technical student.

  4. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  5. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  6. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  7. Monsoon oscillations of the Findlater Jet and coastal winds of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Zhao, C.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Rao, G.S.P.; Sugimori, Y.

    Intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the Low Level Jet (LLJ) and its effects on coastal winds during the Indian summer monsoon are examined using National Centre for Environmental Prediction / National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) reanalyses...

  8. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  9. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  10. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Zhai, Ping; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  11. Can longer forest harvest intervals increase summer streamflow for salmon recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mashel Streamflow Modeling Project in the Mashel River Basin, Washington, is using a watershed-scale ecohydrological model to assess whether longer forest harvest intervals can remediate summer low flow conditions that have contributed to sharply reduced runs of spawning Chin...

  12. Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Auchmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze weather and climate during the "Year without Summer" 1816 using sub-daily data from Geneva, Switzerland, representing one of the climatically most severely affected regions. The record includes twice daily measurements and observations of air temperature, pressure, cloud cover, wind speed, and wind direction as well as daily measurements of precipitation. Comparing 1816 to a contemporary reference period (1799–1821 reveals that the coldness of the summer of 1816 was most prominent in the afternoon, with a shift of the entire distribution function of temperature anomalies by 3–4 °C. Early morning temperature anomalies show a smaller change for the mean, a significant decrease in the variability, and no changes in negative extremes. Analyzing cloudy and cloud-free conditions separately suggests that an increase in the number of cloudy days was to a significant extent responsible for these features. A daily weather type classification based on pressure, pressure tendency, and wind direction shows extremely anomalous frequencies in summer 1816, with only one day (compared to 20 in an average summer classified as high-pressure situation but a tripling of low-pressure situations. The afternoon temperature anomalies expected from only a change in weather types was much stronger negative in summer 1816 than in any other year. For precipitation, our analysis shows that the 80% increase in summer precipitation compared to the reference period can be explained by 80% increase in the frequency of precipitation, while no change could be found neither in the average intensity of precipitation nor in the frequency distribution of extreme precipitation. In all, the analysis shows that the regional circulation and local cloud cover played a dominant role. It also shows that the summer of 1816 was an example of extreme climate, not extreme weather.

  13. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  14. Summer Camp July 2017 - Registration

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association’s Summer Camp will be open for children from 4 to 6 years old during four weeks, from 3 to 28 July. Registration is offered on a weekly basis for 450 CHF, lunch included. This year, the various activities will revolve around the theme of the Four Elements. Registration opened on 20 March 2017 for children currently attending the EVE and School of the Association. It will be open from 3 April for children of CERN Members of Personnel, and starting from 24 April for all other children. The general conditions are available on the website of the EVE and School of CERN Staff Association: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch. For further questions, please contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  15. National Nuclear Physics Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 National Nuclear Physics Summer School (NNPSS) will be held from Monday July 18 through Friday July 29, 2016, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The summer school is open to graduate students and postdocs within a few years of their PhD (on either side) with a strong interest in experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. The program will include the following speakers: Accelerators and Detectors - Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, Brookhaven National Laboratory Data Analysis - Michael Williams, MIT Double Beta Decay - Lindley Winslow, MIT Electron-Ion Collider - Abhay Deshpande, Stony Brook University Fundamental Symmetries - Vincenzo Cirigliano, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hadronic Spectroscopy - Matthew Shepherd, Indiana University Hadronic Structure - Jianwei Qiu, Brookhaven National Laboratory Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 1 - Jamie Nagle, Colorado University Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 2 - Wilke van der Schee, MIT Lattice QCD - Sinead Ryan, Trinity College Dublin Neutrino Theory - Cecil...

  16. Summer Mini Atomiade June 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Atomiade are coming to CERN! Members of Clubs supported by the CERN Staff Association and in conjunction with ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes) will be organising the summer games at the beginning of June. ASCERI aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sports meetings, bringing together members of public Research Institutes at European level. The Association's members come from over 40 Research Institutes spanning 16 countries. Numerous sports and leisure activities are represented at regular events and each tournament is organised by a different research institute. Clubs in conjunction with the CERN Staff Association have sent teams to previous winter and summer games and now, the CERN Club’s Coordination Committee (CCC) has now taken on the challenge of organising a Mini Atomiade from Friday June 3rd to Monday June 6th 2016 in Divonne-les-Bains. The games are made up of four different tournaments/competitions: Small Fi...

  17. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  18. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  19. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  20. Gravity effects on wind-induced flutter of leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, Nickalaus; Kopperstad, Karsten; Solano, Tomas; Shoele, Kourosh; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Wind-Induced flutter of leaves depends on both wind velocity and the gravity. To study the gravitational effects on the oscillatory behavior of leaves in the wind, a wind tunnel that can be tilted about the center of the test section is created. This unique rotation capability allows systematic investigation of gravitational effects on the fluttering response of leaves. The flow-induced vibration will be studied for three different leaves at several different tilting angles including the wind travels horizontally, vertically downward and vertically upward. In each situation, the long axis of a leaf is placed parallel to the wind direction and its response is studied at different flow speed. Oscillation of the leaf is recorded via high-speed camera at each of setup, and the effect of the gravity on stabilizing or destabilizing the fluttering response is investigated. Summer REU student at Florida State University.

  1. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  2. My Summer with Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marissa

    This past summer I interned at the American Institute of Physics and helped research and write articles for the FYI Science Policy Bulletin. FYI is an objective digest of science policy developments in Washington, D.C. that impact the greater physical sciences community. Over the course of the summer, I independently attended, analyzed, and reported on a variety of science, technology, and funding related events including congressional hearings, government agency advisory committee meetings, and scientific society events. I wrote and co-wrote three articles on basic energy research legislation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology improvement act, and the National Science Foundation's big ideas for future investment. I had the opportunity to examine some challenging questions such as what is the role of government in funding applied research? How should science priorities be set? What is the right balance of funding across different agencies and programs? I learned about how science policy is a two-way street: science is used to inform policy decisions and policy is made to fund and regulate the conduct of science. I will conclude with how my summer working with FYI showed me the importance of science advocacy, being informed, and voting. Society of Physics Students.

  3. Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, R.

    2002-06-01

    This report provides a complete summary of what is known about basic hearing capabilities in birds in relation to the characteristics of noise generated by wind turbines. It is a review of existing data on bird hearing with some preliminary estimates of environmental noise and wind turbine noise at Altamont Pass, California, in the summer of 1999. It is intended as a resource in future discussions of the role that hearing might play in bird avoidance of turbines.

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3–4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3–4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the

  5. Close the Achievement Gap with Summer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Summer vacation from school can bring afternoons at the swimming pool, family vacations, and maybe a spirit-filled summer camp that ignites a passion for art or rock climbing. But for many children, summer also means setbacks in learning that take a tremendous toll on teaching and student performance over time. PTA leaders can make a vital…

  6. Finding Funds to Move Summer Learning Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Summer learning loss creates a permanent drag on the US education system. With the generous support of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Summer Learning Association (NSLA) developed "Moving Summer Learning Forward: A Strategic Roadmap for Funding in Tough Times" to provide out-of-school time programs, school districts,…

  7. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  8. The relation of vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau to rainfall in China during the boreal summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Beijing (China); Zhao, Ping [National Meteorological Information Centre, Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    The relationship between vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and summer (June-August) rainfall in China is investigated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Earth Resources Observation System and observed rainfall data from surface 616 stations in China for the period 1982-2001. The leading mode of empirical orthogonal functions analysis for summer rainfall variability in China shows a negative anomaly in the area from the Yangtze River valley to the Yellow River valley (YYR) and most of western China, and positive anomalies in southern China and North China. This mode is significantly correlated with summer NDVI around the southern TP. This finding indicates that vegetation around the southern TP has a positive correlation with summer rainfall in southern China and North China, but a negative correlation with summer rainfall in YYR and western China. We investigate the physical process by which vegetation change affects summer rainfall in China. Increased vegetation around the southern TP is associated with a descending motion anomaly on the TP and the neighboring area to the east, resulting in reduced surface heating and a lower Bowen ratio, accompanied by weaker divergence in the upper troposphere and convergence in the lower troposphere on the TP. In turn, these changes result in the weakening of and a westward shift in the southern Asian High in the upper troposphere and thereby the weakening of and an eastward withdrawal in the western Pacific subtropical high. These features result in weak circulation in the East Asian summer monsoon. Consequently, enhanced summer rainfall occurs in southern China and North China, but reduced rainfall in YYR. (orig.)

  9. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  10. Attitudes towards wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.

    1993-01-01

    Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

  11. Fish distribution studies near N Reactor, Summer 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes field studies that were initiated in July 1983 to provide estimates of the relative distribution of late-summer outmigrant juvenile salmonids and juvenile resident fish upstream of the N Reactor 009 Outfall. Chinook salmon are among the fish species most sensitive to thermal effects, and impacts to the juvenile outmigrant populations are of particular concern to state and federal regulatory and fisheries management agencies. Therefore, the distribution studies were conducted from late July through September, a period when high ambient river temperatures and low river flows make these salmonid populations most susceptible to thermal effects. In addition, data were not available on the spatial distribution of outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon in late summer. Information on the relative distribution of resident fish populations was also gathered. Previous studies of midstream distribution of juvenile resident fish were limited to a description of ichthyoplankton populations (Beak Consultants, Inc. 1980 Page et al. 1982), and no data were available on vertical or horizontal distribution of juvenile resident fish species near N Reactor. Relative densities and spatial distribution estimates of juvenile salmonid and resident fish species will be used in conjunction with laboratory thermal effects studies (Neitzel et al. 1984) and with plume characterization studies (Ecker et al. 1983) to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge on fish populations near N Reactor.

  12. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  13. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  14. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low ( 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As water temperatures in the mid-Atlantic region continue to increase

  15. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  16. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  17. Observed precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment from 1951 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUBuda; JIANGTong; SHIYafeng; StefanBECKER; MracoGEMMER

    2004-01-01

    The monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment have been detected through analysis of 51 meteorological stations' data between 1950-2002 provided by National Meteorological Administration. Results reveal that: 1) Summer precipitation in the Yangtze river catchment shows significant increasing tendency. The Poyanghu lake basin, Dongtinghu lake basin and Taihu lake basin in the middle and lower reaches are the places showing significant positive trends. Summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches experienced an abrupt change in the year 1992; 2) The monthly precipitation in months just adjoining to summer shows decreasing tendency in the Yangtze river catchment. The upper and middle reaches in Jialingjiang river basin and Hanshui river basin are the places showing significant negative trends; 3) Extreme precipitation events show an increasing tendency in most places, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river catchment.

  18. Research summer camp in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyanovskaya, Elizaveta; Melnik, Maksim; Egorov, Vladimir; Gleim, Artur; Lukishova, Svetlana; Kozlov, Sergei; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    ITMO University and the University of Rochester became close partners several years ago. One of the first outcomes of this mutually beneficial partnership was the creation of International Institute of Photonics and Optical Information Technologies led by Prof. Sergei Kozlov and Prof. Xi-Cheng Zhang. Universities have created a double Masters-degree program in optics in 2014, and several ITMO students have been awarded degrees from Rochester. At the same time ITMO University organizes Summer Research camp in Photonics for University of Rochester students. Students spent two weeks in the Northern Capital of Russia learning about the emerging practical applications of femtosecond optics, terahertz biomedicine and quantum information technologies.

  19. SAAPMB summer school and congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Medical and health physics are greatly stimulated by the exchange of personal experiences and research results among scientists working in their particular fields of interests. Individual contact is of exceptional importance in those rapidly developing areas of high technology which we find in hospitals and industry and therefor the social exchange of ideas at the Summer School and Congress is very important. Research in the fields of medical and health physics is covered by the papers and posters presented. 53 articles have been indexed (27 papers and 26 poster presentations), and 14 articles have been considered to be out of scope for INIS

  20. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  1. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  2. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  3. The inter-decadal correlation between summer arctic oscillation and summer drought and moist characteristic of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Zheng, Youfei; Sun, Landong; Ren, Zhenhe; He, Jinhai; Zhang, Qiang

    2007-09-01

    In the context of 1960~2003 summertime rainfall and small-sized pan evaporations from 131 stations distributed over NW China covering Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi as well as western Nei Mongolia, and Arctic Oscillation Indices (AOI) we define a homogenized index for aridity or wetness feature, with which to examine the relations between AOI and NW China aridity-wetness regime, indicating their noticeable relations on an interdecadal basis. It is found that during the decade of summer Arctic oscillation stronger than mean, the sea level pressure field shows positive (negative) anomalies over Asian landmass, a stronger anticyclonic anomaly circulation appears at 700 hPa over Lake Baikal and to the south, westerly (northerly) departure emerges in the westerly (monsoon) portion of NW China, as well as over NW China there appears a structure with a low in the west and a high in the east at the 500 hPa height field, suggestive of east-Asian summer monsoon weaker than normal such that westerly flows prevail in the westerly zone of NW China, leading to rainfall more than mean for a wetter climate while in its monsoon area the northerly winds are dominant, with precipitation less than normal, resulting in a climate drier in comparison to mean and v.v. for the decade with summer AO weaker than normal.

  4. Wind impact on the Black Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanichny, Sergey; Ratner, Yuriy; Shokurov, Mike; Stanychna, Rimma; Soloviev, Dmytro; Burdyugov, Vyacheslav

    2010-05-01

    Combination of the recent satellite and meteorological data for the regional investigation allowed to describe new features of the processes in marine ecosystem and detect some relations with wind variability for different time scales. Next topics are highlighted in presentation: 1. Inter-annual variability of the wind stress curl over the Black Sea. Shift in the atmospheric processes after 2003 year and related variations in chlorophyll concentration and intensity of the mesoscale currents. 2. Like-tropical cyclone in September 2005 and its impact o the Black Sea upper layer. 3. Strong storm November 11, 2007 and oil pollutions of the Kerch Strait. 4. Relation of the Danube waters transport with wind fields for summer 2007 and 2008. 5. "Valley" wind in the Eastern part of the Black Sea and its impact on the Rim current formation. 6. Low wind conditions and blue -green algae bloom. NCEP, SKIRON and MHI MM5 wind data together with AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS, ETM+, QuikSCAT, ASAR (ESA) satellite data were used for investigation. Work was done with support of the SESAME FP7, "Stable Ecosystem" and Operational Oceanography NASU projects.

  5. Morphology of the Zambezi River plume in the Sofala Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, hydrographic data collected in the vicinity of the Zambezi River plume between 2004-2007 is discussed alongside historical data to infer the plume morphology. The sampling plan called for 73 CTD stations that were interspersed with sampling of shrimp recruitment. Satellite-derived wind speed and river ...

  6. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  7. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  8. Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation Impact on Western North Pacific Typhoons and Rainfall in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-wen Hung; Ho-Jiunn Lin; Pei-ken Kao; Ming-fu Shih; Wei-yi Fong

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) impact on the western North Pacific (WNP) typhoons and the summer rainfall in Taiwan. The real time BSISO1 and BISISO2 indices are created using the first two and the third and fourth principal components of the multivariate empirical orthogonal function analysis, based on outgoing long-wave radiation and zonal wind at 850 hPa from Lee et al. (2013). The results show that heavy rainfall in Taiwan and the associated WNP t...

  9. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  10. Growth and Movement in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in two Norwegian Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Skjellevik, Stine Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, using stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta) as a model species, movement through the summer and autumn in two large Norwegian rivers, River Glomma and River Gudbrandsdalslågen, was observed. In addition fish from each river were sampled for age and growth analysis. The aim of the study was to test for which individual characteristics (sex, body mass, body condition factor, tagging site and cohort) that influenced movement and to test for correlations between grow...

  11. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  12. X-band COSMO-SkyMed wind field retrieval, with application to coastal circulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montuori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© synthetic aperture radar (SAR wind field retrieval is investigated, and the obtained data are used to force a coastal ocean circulation model. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band Level 1B Multi-Look Ground Detected ScanSAR Huge Region COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data, gathered in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the summer and winter seasons of 2010. The SAR-based wind vector field estimation is accomplished by resolving both the SAR-based wind speed and wind direction retrieval problems independently. The sea surface wind speed is retrieved by means of a SAR wind speed algorithm based on the azimuth cut-off procedure, while the sea surface wind direction is provided by means of a SAR wind direction algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform multi-resolution analysis. The obtained wind fields are compared with ground truth data provided by both ASCAT scatterometer and ECMWF model wind fields. SAR-derived wind vector fields and ECMWF model wind data are used to construct a blended wind product regularly sampled in both space and time, which is then used to force a coastal circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area to simulate wind-driven circulation processes. The modeling results show that X-band COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data can be valuable in providing effective wind fields for coastal circulation modeling.

  13. Wind erosion potential after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    PI, H.; Sharratt, B. S.; Schillinger, W. F.; Bary, A.; Cogger, C.

    2017-12-01

    The world population is currently 7.6 billion and, along with continued population growth, comes the challenge of disposing of wastewater and sewage sludge (biosolids). Applying biosolids to agricultural land to replace synthetic fertilizers represents a relatively safe method to recycle or sustainably use biosolids. While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolid fertilizer to conventional and conservation tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Little difference in soil loss was observed between biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments, but this result appeared to be dependent on susceptibility of the soil to erosion. Regression analysis between soil loss from fertilizer or tillage treatments indicated that soil loss was lower from biosolid versus synthetic fertilizer and conservation versus conventional tillage at high erosion rates. This suggests that biosolids may reduce wind erosion under highly erodible conditions. Meanwhile, heavy metal concentrations in the windblown sediment were similar for the biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments whereas metal loss in windblown sediment was 10% lower from biosolid than synthetic fertilizer. Our results indicate that land application of biosolids did not accelerate the loss of metals or nutrients from soils during high winds. KeywordsLand application of biosolids; wind erosion; wind tunnel; sustainable agriculture

  14. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  15. Process connectivity in a naturally prograding river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, Alicia; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-03-01

    River deltas are lowland systems that can display high hydrological connectivity. This connectivity can be structural (morphological connections), functional (control of fluxes), and process connectivity (information flow from system drivers to sinks). In this work, we quantify hydrological process connectivity in Wax Lake Delta, coastal Louisiana, by analyzing couplings among external drivers (discharge, tides, and wind) and water levels recorded at five islands and one channel over summer 2014. We quantify process connections with information theory, a branch of mathematics concerned with the communication of information. We represent process connections as a network; variables serve as network nodes and couplings as network links describing the strength, direction, and time scale of information flow. Comparing process connections at long (105 days) and short (10 days) time scales, we show that tides exhibit daily synchronization with water level, with decreasing strength from downstream to upstream, and that tides transfer information as tides transition from spring to neap. Discharge synchronizes with water level and the time scale of its information transfer compares well to physical travel times through the system, computed with a hydrodynamic model. Information transfer and physical transport show similar spatial patterns, although information transfer time scales are larger than physical travel times. Wind events associated with water level setup lead to increased process connectivity with highly variable information transfer time scales. We discuss the information theory results in the context of the hydrologic behavior of the delta, the role of vegetation as a connector/disconnector on islands, and the applicability of process networks as tools for delta modeling results.

  16. Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Jørgensen, N.O.G.; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2002-01-01

    loading of inorganic N and P. Concentrations of total N and P ranged from 9 to 220 mumol/L and from 0.14 to 5.56 mumol/L, respectively, with the highest concentrations in the southern part of the Baltic Sea drainage area and in several rivers on the Finnish western coast. Urea and dissolved combined amino......Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely neglected in studies of coastal microbial food webs. We examined 50 rivers, draining a major part...... of the Baltic Sea watershed, with respect to summer concentrations, chemical composition, and biological availability of N and P. The broad spectrum of rivers studied enabled us to assess whether the input of terrigenous organic matter can be an important nutrient source, at various levels of anthropogenic...

  17. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration in the Nagqu river basin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mijun; Zhong, Lei; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Yuanyuan; Feng, Lu

    2018-05-01

    As a critical component of the energy and water cycle, terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ET) can be influenced by many factors. This study was mainly devoted to providing accurate and continuous estimations of actual ET for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and analyzing the effects of its impact factors. In this study, summer observational data from the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) for 2003 to 2004 was selected to determine actual ET and investigate its relationship with energy, hydrological, and dynamical parameters. Multiple-layer air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation flux, wind speed, precipitation, and soil moisture were used to estimate actual ET. The regression model simulation results were validated with independent data retrieved using the combinatory method. The results suggested that significant correlations exist between actual ET and hydro-meteorological parameters in the surface layer of the Nagqu river basin, among which the most important factors are energy-related elements (net radiation flux and air temperature). The results also suggested that how ET is eventually affected by precipitation and two-layer wind speed difference depends on whether their positive or negative feedback processes have a more important role. The multivariate linear regression method provided reliable estimations of actual ET; thus, 6-parameter simplified schemes and 14-parameter regular schemes were established.

  18. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  19. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  20. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  1. Snow farming: conserving snow over the summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian; Lehning, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Summer storage of snow for tourism has seen an increasing interest in the last years. Covering large snow piles with materials such as sawdust enables more than two-thirds of the initial snow volume to be conserved. We present detailed mass balance measurements of two sawdust-covered snow piles obtained by terrestrial laser scanning during summer 2015. Results indicate that 74 and 63 % of the snow volume remained over the summer for piles in Davos, Switzerland and Martell, Italy. If snow mass is considered instead of volume, the values increase to 83 and 72 %. The difference is attributed to settling and densification of the snow. Additionally, we adapted the one-dimensional, physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK to perform simulations of the sawdust-covered snow piles. Model results and measurements agreed extremely well at the point scale. Moreover, we analysed the contribution of the different terms of the surface energy balance to snow ablation for a pile covered with a 40 cm thick sawdust layer and a pile without insulation. Short-wave radiation was the dominant source of energy for both scenarios, but the moist sawdust caused strong cooling by long-wave emission and negative sensible and latent heat fluxes. This cooling effect reduces the energy available for melt by up to a factor of 12. As a result only 9 % of the net short-wave energy remained available for melt. Finally, sensitivity studies of the parameters thickness of the sawdust layer, air temperature, precipitation and wind speed were performed. We show that sawdust thickness has a tremendous effect on snow loss. Higher air temperatures and wind speeds increase snow ablation but less significantly. No significant effect of additional precipitation could be found as the sawdust remained wet during the entire summer with the measured quantity of rain. Setting precipitation amounts to zero, however, strongly increased melt. Overall, the 40 cm sawdust provides sufficient protection for mid

  2. Application of microwave radiometer and wind profiler data in the estimation of wind gust associated with intense convective weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P W; Wong, K H

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the wind gusts associated with intense convective weather could be obtained using empirical relationships such as GUSTEX based on radiosonde measurements. However, such data are only available a couple of times a day and may not reflect the rapidly changing atmospheric condition in spring and summer times. The feasibility of combining the thermodynamic profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer and wind profiles given by radar wind profilers in the continuous estimation of wind gusts is studied in this paper. Based on the results of a 4-month trial of a microwave radiometer in Hong Kong in 2004, the estimated and the actual gusts are reasonably well correlated. It is also found that the wind gusts so estimated provide better indications of the strength of squalls compared with those based on radiosonde measurements and with a lead time of about one hour

  3. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  4. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Uri; Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Régina; Dulac, François

    2017-11-01

    The eastern Mediterranean (EM) is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates) and regional peculiarities (long-range transport) enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange) are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in the formation of O

  5. Hydrological and geochemical consequences of river regulation - hyporheic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siergieiev, Dmytro; Lundberg, Angela; Widerlund, Anders

    2014-05-01

    River-aquifer interfaces, essential for ecosystem functioning in terms of nutrient exchange and biological habitat, appear greatly threatened worldwide. Although river regulation is a vast pressure on river-aquifer interaction, influencing entire watersheds, knowledge about hyporheic exchange in regulated rivers is rather limited. In this study, we combine two decades of research on hydrological and geochemical impacts of hydropower regulation on river water and hyporheic zone in two large boreal rivers, unregulated Kalix River and regulated Lule River. Altered river discharge, with reduced spring peaks, daily summer fluctuations and elevated winter base flow severely modified Lule River water geochemistry and thus the transport of solutes to the Bothnian Bay (Baltic Sea). Further, these river modifications changed the river-aquifer exchange on both daily and seasonal scale, which resulted in deteriorated hyporheic conditions with reduced riverbed hydraulic conductivity (formation of a clogging layer) reflected in a declined hyporheic flux. Altered hydrological regime of the hyporheic zone created quasi-stagnant conditions beneath the river-aquifer interface and promoted the formation of geochemically suboxic environment. Taken that hyporheic water is a mixture of river water and groundwater, mixing models for the regulated site demonstrate a considerable addition of Fe, Mn, Al, NH4 and removal of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, which suggests the hyporheic zone in the Lule River to be a source of solutes. This contradicts the observations from the hyporheic zone in the unregulated river, with opposite behaviour functioning as a barrier. These results suggest that the hyporheic zone function is dependent on the river discharge and the state of the river-aquifer connectivity. Improved knowledge about the latter on a watershed scale will substantially increase our understanding about the status and potential pressures of riverine ecosystems and assist management and

  6. Hood River production program monitoring and evaluation. Report B: Hood River and Pelton Ladder. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.B.; Jennings, M.; McCanna, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is jointly implemented by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWS) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The primary goals of the HRPP are (1) to re-establish naturally sustaining spring chinook salmon using Deschutes River stock in the Hood River subbasin, (2) rebuild naturally sustaining runs of summer and winter steelhead in the Hood River subbasin, (3) maintain the genetic characteristics of the populations, and (4) contribute to tribal and non-tribal fisheries, ocean fisheries, and the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) interim goal of doubling salmon runs

  7. The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.

  8. The CO2 system in rivers of the Australian Victorian Alps: CO2 evasion in relation to system metabolism and rock weathering on multi-annual time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, Benjamin; Cartwright, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The patterns of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) and aqueous CO 2 in rivers and estuaries sampled during summer and winter in the Australian Victorian Alps were examined. Together with historical (1978-1990) geochemical data, this study provides, for the first time, a multi-annual coverage of the linkage between CO 2 release via wetland evasion and CO 2 consumption via combined carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering. δ 13 C values imply that carbonate weathering contributes ∼36% of the DIC in the rivers although carbonates comprise less than 5% of the study area. Baseflow/interflow flushing of respired C3 plant detritus accounts for ∼50% and atmospheric precipitation accounts for ∼14% of the DIC. The influence of in river respiration and photosynthesis on the DIC concentrations is negligible. River waters are supersaturated with CO 2 and evade ∼27.7 x 10 6 mol/km 2 /a to ∼70.9 x 10 6 mol/km 2 /a CO 2 to the atmosphere with the highest values in the low runoff rivers. This is slightly higher than the global average reflecting higher gas transfer velocities due to high wind speeds. Evaded CO 2 is not balanced by CO 2 consumption via combined carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering which implies that chemical weathering does not significantly neutralize respiration derived H 2 CO 3 . The results of this study have implications for global assessments of chemical weathering yields in river systems draining passive margin terrains as high respiration derived DIC concentrations are not directly connected to high carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering rates.

  9. Summer Programming: What Do Children Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Cobb

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies document that low-income children lose academic skills over the summer. Six years of reading achievement data collected by Energy Express, a nationally recognized summer reading and nutrition program in West Virginia, has established the efficacy of the intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of a voluntary summer program that foster participation. Interview data indicates that children attend because they perceive the program as fun; large creative art (for example, full-body portraits, appliance box castles, wall murals seems particularly important. Energy Express gives children both the fun they want and the enrichment they need in the summer.

  10. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  11. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  12. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  13. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  14. Multidecadal changes in the Etesians-Indian Summer Monsoon teleconnection along the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Delgado, F. de Paula; Vega, Inmaculada; Gallego, David; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    In this work we made use of historical winds record taken aboard ships to reconstruct a series of the prevalent summer northerly winds (Etesian winds) over the Eastern Mediterranean for the entire 20th century. Previous studies have shown a significant link between the frequency and strength of these winds and the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), but this relationship had only been studied in detail for the second half of the 20th century due to the absence of long and continous series of observed wind in the Eastern Mediterranean for previous periods. In this work, a new climatic index, the so-called " Etesian Wind Index " (EWI), is defined as the percentage of days with prevalent northerly wind (wind blowing from 305° to 35°) in a fixed region [20E-30E, 32N-37N]. By using historical wind observations, we have been able to compute this index for the summer (JJAS) since 1880 and analyze the long term variability of the Etesians, as well as to research into its relation with the ISM at an unprecedent temporal coverage. A running coverage analysis revealed a strong and significant positive correlation between the EWI and the strength of the ISM for the period 1960-1980, more markedly in July and August. This result is in accordance with other recent studies. However, we have found that the correalation fades out in the first half of the 20th century (1900-1950) and in the period 1980-2012, even showing significant negative values around the subperiod 1920-1950. Similar indices to the EWI were computed using two different 20th century reanalysis datasets (ERA20C and 20CR-V2C). Despite the fact that both indices show some discrepancies with the EWI before 1950, the correlation analysis with the ISM revealed similar results, pointing out a strong loss of the EWI-ISM correlation in the first half of the 20th century and from 1980 onwards, as well as a marked positive correlated period between 1960 and 1980, specially in August. In this study, we show that

  15. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  16. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  17. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  18. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  19. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  20. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  1. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  2. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  3. Summer Matters: Advocating for Summer Learning That Can Weather Political Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that an idle summer is not just boring; it can cost a student as much as two to three months of educational progress. Summer is critical to each child's development, both mind and body. Any meaningful attempts to get at America's equity divide and the consequent gap in opportunities for kids must include summer education as a…

  4. Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxi; Xie, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China is a recently created experience designed to further Chinese students' academic pursuits in mathematical modeling. Students are given more than three months to research on a mathematical modeling project. Researchers and teams with outstanding projects are invited to the Summer Camp to present…

  5. TREsPASS Book 2: Summer School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, Peter; Coles-Kemp, Lizzie

    2016-01-01

    The talks presented in this book were delivered as part of a summer school held at Royal Holloway University of London between the 20th and the 23rd of June 2016. The focus of the summer school was social aspects of cyber security risk and was an engagement and dissemination activity for the EU FP7

  6. Long-term changes of South China Sea surface temperatures in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Choi, Ara

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing available atmospheric and oceanographic reanalysis data sets, the long-term trend in South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) between 1950 and 2008 and the governing processes are investigated. Both winter and summer SST increased by comparable amounts, but the warming patterns and the governing processes were different. Strong warming in winter occurred in a deep central area, and during summer in the southern region. In winter the net heat flux into the sea increased, contributing to the warming. The spatial pattern of the heat flux, however, was different from that of the warming. Heat flux increased over the coastal area where warming was weaker, but decreased over the deeper area where warming was stronger. The northeasterly monsoon wind weakened lowering the shoreward Ekman transport and the sea surface height gradient. The cyclonic gyre which transports cold northern water to the south weakened, thereby warming the ocean. The effect was manifested more strongly along the southward western boundary current inducing warming in the deep central part. In summer however, the net surface heat flux decreased and could not contribute to the warming. Over the southern part of the SCS, the weakening of the southwesterly summer monsoon reduced southeastward Ekman transport, which is parallel to the mean SST gradient. Southeastward cold advection due to Ekman transport was reduced, thereby warming the surface near the southeastern boundary of the SCS. Upwelling southeast of Vietnam was also weakened, raising the SST east of Vietnam contributing to the southern summer warming secondarily. The weakening of the winds in each season was the ultimate cause of the warming, but the responses of the ocean that lead to the warming were different in winter and summer.

  7. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  8. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  9. Biotic and abiotic interactions in temporary summer pools of southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Joana; Morais, Manuela; Guilherme, Pedro; Ilheu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In the south of Portugal, the summer season is characterized by reduced precipitation and high air temperatures, which causes the disruption of surface flow and subsequent formation of disconnect pools that may dry out entirely. During this dry period, there is a natural decrease of water quality standards due to the lack of water, leaving temporary rivers very vulnerable. Nevertheless, the remaining pools and surroundings become important in the survival of biological communities. Aquatic...

  10. Long-period variations of wind parameters in the mesopause region and the solar cycle dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greisiger, K.M.; Schminder, R.; Kuerschner, D.

    1987-01-01

    The solar cycle dependence of wind parameters below 100 km on the basis of long term continuous ionospheric drift measurements in the low frequency range is discussed. For the meridional prevailing wind no significant variation was found. The same comparison as for winter was done for summer where the previous investigations gave no correlation. Now the radar meteor wind measurement values, too, showed a significant negative correlation of the zonal prevailing wind with solar activity for the years 1976 to 1983. The ionospheric drift measurement results of Collm have the same tendency but a larger dispersion due to the lower accuracy of the harmonic analysis because of the shorter daily measuring interval in summer. Continuous wind observations in the upper mesopause region over more than 20 years revealed distinct long term variations, the origin of which cannot be explained with the present knowledge

  11. Bank storage buffers rivers from saline regional groundwater: an example from the Avon River Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfedder, Benjamin; Hofmann, Harald; Cartwrighta, Ian

    2014-05-01

    experienced a prolonged summer drought. A significant increase in EC was observed in the bores towards the end of the summer, which suggest that the lack of bank recharge from the river resulted in draining of the banks and connection between the regional groundwater and the river. The long-term river salinity dataset showed that when flow events are infrequent and of low magnitude (i.e. drought conditions), salinities increase significantly. Similarly this is thought to be due to draining of the banks and connection with the regional groundwater system. Thus an increase in extended dry periods is expected to result in higher salinities in Australian waterways as the climate changes.

  12. The Effect of Wind Forcing on Modeling Coastal Circulation at a Marine Renewable Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Inaccurate wind data can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In this research, a high-resolution wind model was coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of wind forcing on model accuracy. Two wind-forcing conditions were investigated: (1 using wind data measured onshore on the NUI Galway campus (NUIG and (2 using offshore wind data provided by a high resolution wind model (HR. A scenario with no wind forcing (NW was also assessed. The onshore wind data varied with time but the speed and direction were applied across the full model domain. The modeled offshore wind fields varied with both time and space. The effect of wind forcing on modeled hydrodynamics was assessed via comparison of modeled surface currents with surface current measurements obtained from a High-Frequency (HF radar Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar (CODAR observation system. Results indicated that winds were most significant in simulating the north-south surface velocity component. The model using high resolution temporally- and spatially-varying wind data achieved better agreement with the CODAR surface currents than the model using the onshore wind measurements and the model without any wind forcing.

  13. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  14. Good-bye Summer Students 2009!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In its 47th edition, the CERN Summer Student programme has welcomed almost 200 young students from around the world. As it proves to do each year, the programme has provided a unique experience for all participants. CERN Summer Students 2009 in the Microcosm garden.During the summer months between June and August, your normal lunchtime routine is inevitably disrupted by the small stampede of students that leaves the Main Auditorium just around midday and starts queuing in Restaurant 1. When this happens, you can’t help but notice that the CERN Summer Students have arrived! With its rich lecture series, inspirational visits and actual work experience, the Summer Student programme provides a real chance to get acquainted with a career in particle physics, engineering and computation. The programme includes a morning lecture series that covers a large variety of topics, from particle physics to engineering, information technology and ...

  15. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  16. Report on field test project for wind power development at Nagashima-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Nagashimacho ni okeru furyoku field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted to study the feasibility of a wind power generation system for Nagashima-cho, Izumi-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Observation instruments were installed at the top of a hill approximately 80m above the sea level situated to the northwest of the Nagashima-cho town hall and, in the period October 1998 through September 1999, data were collected at a point 20m above ground, such as the average wind speed and direction, wind velocity standard deviation, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. The data were analyzed, and findings were obtained, as mentioned below. The annual average wind speed was 5.0m, strong in winter and weak in summer. The annual wind direction occurrence rate was 61.8%, turbulence intensity was 0.17 at wind speeds of 4m/s and more, these not presenting any particular problem. Wind energy density was 148W/m{sup 2}. Both wind speed conditions and energy density were slightly lower than the reference levels indicated for evaluation. Studies were made on the assumption that three classes of wind turbines (150, 300, and 750kW) would be introduced, and then it was found that both operating factors and facility availability rates exceeded the required levels. Since there were no detrimental factors in the surrounding conditions, it was concluded that possibilities were high that wind power generation at the site would be practical. (NEDO)

  17. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  18. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  19. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  20. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  1. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  2. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  3. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  4. The characteristics changes of pH and EC of atmospheric precipitation and analysis on the source of acid rain in the source area of the Yangtze River from 2010 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-Jie, Li; Song, Ling-Ling; Jing-zhu, Ma; Li, Yong-ge

    2017-05-01

    Through the analysis of pH value, EC, precipitation and wind speed of 402 precipitation samples in the source region of the Yangtze River from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015, especially for the analysis of the 14 acid rain events. The results showed that: the acid rain in the source region of the Yangtze River was mainly affected by the southwest monsoon and the westerly circulation. The occurrence of acid rain mainly controlled by industrial pollution and other pollutants coming from India and other surrounding areas. And the other cause was that because of the Qinghai Tibet highway and the Qinghai Tibet railway, there were a lot of cars coming and going. And there were people in the summer to plateau tourism increased year by year, and more for self-driving travelling. This added additional pollutants (automobile exhaust) for the source of the Yangtze River. During the period of sampling, the variation range of pH value was from 4.0 to 8.57, with the mean was 6.37. And the range of EC was from 5.2 to 124.4 μs/cm, the average was 27.59 μs/cm. The order of conductivity in the four seasons was Spring > Winter > Summer > Autumn. And the order of pH in four seasons was Summer > Spring = Winter > Autumn. The results are also helpful for further understanding the acid rain in the Tibetan Plateau and providing scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of acid rain.

  5. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  6. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  7. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  8. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  9. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  10. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  11. Seasonal water quality variations in a river affected by acid mine drainage: the Odiel River (South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olias, M.; Nieto, J.M.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Ceron, J.C.; Canovas, C.R

    2004-10-15

    This paper intends to analyse seasonal variations of the quality of the water of the Odiel River. This river, together with the Tinto River, drains the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a region containing an abundance of massive sulphide deposits. Because of mining activity dating back to prehistoric times, these two rivers are heavily contaminated. The Odiel and Tinto Rivers drain into a shared estuary known as the Ria of Huelva. This work studies dissolved contaminant data in water of the Odiel River collected by various organisations, between October 1980 and October 2002, close to the rivers entry into the estuary. Flow data for this location were also obtained. The most abundant metals in the water, in order of abundance, are zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are also present but in much lower quantities. The quality of the river water is linked to precipitation; the maximum sulphate, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations occur during the autumn rains, which dissolve the Fe hydroxysulphates that were precipitated during the summer months. In winter, the intense rains cause an increase in the river flow, producing a dilution of the contaminants and a slight increase in the pH. During spring and summer, the sulphate and metal concentration (except Fe) recover and once again increase. The Fe concentration pattern displays a low value during summer due to increased precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides. The arsenic concentration displays a different evolution, with maximum values in winter, and minimum in spring and summer as they are strongly adsorbed and/or coprecipitated by the ferric oxyhydroxides. Mn and sulphates are the most conservative species in the water. Relative to sulphate, Mn, Zn and Cd, copper displays greater values in winter and lower ones in summer, probably due to its coprecipitation with hydroxysulphates during the spring and summer months. Cd and Zn also appear to be affected by the same

  12. Heat-related illness in China, summer of 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shaohua; Huang, Cunrui; Bai, Li; Chu, Cordia; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat events have occurred more frequently in China in recent years, leading to serious impacts on human life and the health care system. To identify the characteristics of individuals with heat-related illnesses in China during the summer of 2013, we collected the data from the Heat-related Illness Surveillance System in Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). A total of 5758 cases were reported in the summer of 2013, mostly concentrated in urban areas around the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. We found a difference in age distribution of percentage of deaths from heat-related illness between males and females. Severe cases in males mostly occurred in the age group 45-74 years but in females mostly in the age group over 75. A distributed lag non-linear model had been used to identify population vulnerabilities in Ningbo and Chongqing. The results show that there was a clear positive relationship between maximum temperature and heat-related illness, and the heat effect was nonlinear and could last for 3 days. The elderly and males in the range of 45-64 years old might be the most vulnerable people of heat-related illness in China. We also highlighted some deficiencies of the surveillance system, such that the reported data were not accurate, comprehensive, or timely enough at this stage.

  13. Where, when and how much wind is available? A provincial-scale wind resource assessment for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Gang; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    China's wind installed capacity has grown at a remarkable rate, over 80% annually average growth since 2005, reaching 91.5 GW of capacity by end of 2013, accounting for over 27% of global capacity. This rapid growth has been the result of a domestic manufacturing base and favorable national policies. Further evolution will be greatly aided with a detailed wind resource assessment that incorporates spatial and temporal variability across China. We utilized 200 representative locations for which 10 years of hourly wind speed data exist to develop provincial capacity factors from 2001 to 2010, and to build analytic wind speed profiles. From these data and analysis we find that China's annual wind generation could reach 2000 TWh to 3500 TWh. Nationally this would correspond to an average capacity factor of 0.18. The diurnal and seasonal variation shows spring and winter has better wind resources than in the summer and fall. A highly interconnected and coordinated power system is needed to effectively exploit this large but variable resource. A full economic assessment of exploitable wind resources demands a larger, systems-level analysis of China's energy options, for which this work is a core requirement. - Highlights: • We assessed China's wind resources by utilizing 10 years of hourly wind speed data of 200 sites. • We built provincial scale wind speed profiles and develop provincial capacity factors for China. • We found that China's wind generation could reach 2000 TWh to 3500 TWh annually. • We observed similar temporal variation pattern of wind availability across China

  14. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  15. Summer 2017 Microfluidics Research Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcculloch, Quinn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-25

    Liquid-liquid Extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction, represents a large subset of chemistry where one or more solutes are transferred across an interface between two immiscible liquids. This type of chemistry is used in industrial scale processes to purify solvents, refine ore, process petroleum, treat wastewater, and much more. Although LLE has been successfully employed at the macroscale, where many liters/kgs of species are processed at large flow rates, LLE stands to benefit from lab-on-a-chip technology, where reactions take place quickly and efficiently at the microscale. A device, called a screen contactor, has been invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform solvent extraction at the microscale. This invention has been submitted to LANL’s Feynman Center for Innovation, and has been filed for provisional patent under U.S. Patent Application No. 62/483,107 1. The screen contactor consists of a housing that contains two different screen materials, flametreated stainless steel and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) thermoplastic, that are uniquely wetted by either an aqueous or an organic liquid phase, respectively. Liquids in this device flow longitudinally through the screens. The fine pore size of the screens (tens of microns) provide large capillary/adhesional forces while maintaining small hydraulic pressure drops. These physical characteristics are paramount to efficient microscale liquid phase separation. To demonstrate mass transfer using the screen contactor, a well-known chemical system 2 consisting of water and n-decane as solvents and trimethylamine (TEA) as a solute was selected. TEA is basic in water so its concentration can easily be quantified using a digital pH meter and an experimentally determined base dissociation constant. Characterization of this solvent system and its behavior in the screen contactor have been the focus of my research activities this summer. In the following sections, I have detailed

  16. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  17. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  18. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  19. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  20. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  1. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  2. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  3. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  4. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar...

  5. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  6. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  7. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  8. "Gaa-Noodin-Oke" (Alternative Energy/Wind Power): A Curriculum Implementation on the White Earth Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzey, Siddika Selcen; Nyachwaya, James; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    A wind energy focused curriculum for grades 4-8 was designed and implemented to promote the understanding of wind energy concepts with American Indian students. 57 students who participated in the 2009 summer program of the "Reach for the Sky" (RFTS) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) received the curriculum. The…

  9. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  10. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  11. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  12. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  13. The modulation of Tibetan Plateau heating on the multi-scale northernmost margin activity of East Asia summer monsoon in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chen; Chen, Haishan

    2018-02-01

    The northernmost margin of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) could well reflect wet/dry climate variability in the EASM marginal zone (northern China). The study shows that EASM occurs in northern China from Meiyu period to midsummer, and it is also the advancing period of the northern margin of EASM (NMEASM) before the 43rd pentad. NMEASM activity exhibits multi-scale variability, at cycles of 2-3-yr, 4-6-yr and 9-12-yr, which respond not only to EASM intensity but also to westerly circulation anomaly, exhibiting the mid-latitude Eurasian waves and the high-latitude Eurasian teleconnection (EU) patterns. The positive anomalies of Silk Road pattern and EU pattern in recent two decades contribute to the enhanced west-ridge and east-trough anomaly around 120°E over northern China, leading to divergence of moisture flux and north wind anomaly, which is helpful for southward western pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and southward NMEASM. Negative Eurasian pattern along subtropical Jet leads to anticyclone anomaly over south of the Yangtze River, deep trough and north wind anomaly along the west coast of the subtropical Pacific, contributing to southward WPSH and NMEASM at the cycle of 4-6-yr. Remote forcing sources of these anomalous Eurasian waves include North Europe, north of Caspian Sea, Central Asia, Tibetan Plateau and the west of Lake Baikal; the south of Lake Baikal is a local forcing region. The Tibetan Plateau heating and snow cover could modulate Eurasian wave pattern at multi-scale, which could be used as prediction reference of multi-scale NMEASM.

  14. Summer Students: getting professional at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The summer season at CERN is known for the traditional visit of Summer Students coming from Member and non-Member States. This time, a total of 176 future scientists are spending part of their summer with us, learning and working in the laboratory. Summer Students enjoying a lecture on particle physics by Ronald Kleiss. Now that summer has finally arrived, you'll have noticed some changes at CERN: longer queues at the bar, faces you don't recognise in the corridors, and a breath of fresh air, but where is it coming from? The answer is easy: the Summer Students are here! Aged between 20 and 27, this group of 176 future scientists has been selected from 600 candidates to spend their summer at the Laboratory. This year, there are 24 more 'Summies' than last following a recommendation in the 2000 5-yearly review to increase the number of students. The Summies mainly come from Member States, but this year there are also 11 Americans, two Mexicans, an Armenian, a Turk, a Pakistani and two South Africans. Judith N...

  15. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  16. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  17. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  18. Summer in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This colorful image of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Beaufort Sea was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on August 16, 2000, during Terra orbit 3532. The swirling patterns apparent on the Beaufort Sea are small ice floes driven by turbulent water patterns, or eddies, caused by the interactions of water masses of differing salinity and temperature. By this time of year, all of the seasonal ice which surrounds the north coast of Alaska in winter has broken up, although the perennial pack ice remains further north. The morphology of the perennial ice pack's edge varies in response to the prevailing wind. If the wind is blowing strongly toward the perennial pack (that is, to the north), the ice edge will be more compact. In this image the ice edge is diffuse, and the patterns reflected by the ice floes indicate fairly calm weather.The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (often abbreviated to ANWR) was established by President Eisenhower in 1960, and is the largest wildlife refuge in the United States. Animals of the Refuge include the 130,000-member Porcupine caribou herd, 180 species of birds from four continents, wolves, wolverine, polar and grizzly bears, muskoxen, foxes, and over 40 species of coastal and freshwater fish. Although most of ANWR was designated as wilderness in 1980, the area along the coastal plain was set aside so that the oil and gas reserves beneath the tundra could be studied. Drilling remains a topic of contention, and an energy bill allowing North Slope oil development to extend onto the coastal plain of the Refuge was approved by the US House of Representatives on August 2, 2001.The Refuge encompasses an impressive variety of arctic and subarctic ecosystems, including coastal lagoons, barrier islands, arctic tundra, and mountainous terrain. Of all these, the arctic tundra is the landscape judged most important for wildlife. From the coast inland to an average of 30-60 kilometers

  19. Place attachment and recreation demand on the west branch of the Farmington River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan W. Smith; Roger L. Moore

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of place attachment on recreation demand for theWest Branch of the Farmington River. Data were collected via on-site and optional mail-back questionnaires administered to river recreationists during the summer of 2001. A total of 247 respondents (51 percent response rate) returned complete questionnaires. Questions concerned respondents...

  20. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  2. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  3. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  4. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  5. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  6. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  7. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  8. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  9. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (letter)

  10. On summer stratification and tidal mixing in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Zhiyu

    2013-06-01

    On continental shelves, a front that separates the sea into well-mixed and stratified zones is usually formed in warm seasons due to spatial variations of tidal mixing. In this paper, using eight years of in situ hydrographic observations, satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration, and results of a tidal model, we investigate summer stratification in the Taiwan Strait and its dependence on tidal mixing, upwelling, and river diluted water plumes. In most regions of the strait the dominant role of tidal mixing in determining the thermohaline structure is confirmed by the correlation between the two; there are some regions, however, where thermohaline structure varies in different ways owing to significant influences of upwelling and river diluted water plumes. The well-mixed regions are mainly distributed on the Taiwan Bank and in the offshore regions off the Dongshan Island, Nanao Island, and Pingtan Island, while the northern and central Taiwan Strait and the region south of the Taiwan Bank are stratified. The critical Simpson-Hunter parameter for the region is estimated to be 1.78.

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  12. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost $1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

  13. Wind integration in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, W.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation described the role of the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for Alberta's interconnected electric system with particular reference to wind integration in Alberta. The challenges of wind integration were discussed along with the requirements for implementing the market and operational framework. The AESO is an independent system operator that directs the reliable operation of Alberta's power grid; develops and operates Alberta's real-time wholesale energy market to promote open competition; plans and develops the province's transmission system to ensure reliability; and provides transmission system access for both generation and load customers. Alberta has over 280 power generating station, with a total generating capacity of 11,742 MW, of which 443 is wind generated. Since 2004, the AESO has been working with industry on wind integration issues, such as operating limits, need for mitigation measures and market rules. In April 2006, the AESO implemented a temporary 900 MW reliability threshold to ensure reliability. In 2006, a Wind Forecasting Working Group was created in collaboration with industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association in an effort to integrate as much wind as is feasible without compromising the system reliability or the competitive operation of the market. The challenges facing wind integration include reliability issues; predictability of wind power; the need for dispatchable generation; transmission upgrades; and, defining a market and operational framework for the large wind potential in Alberta. It was noted that 1400 MW of installed wind energy capacity can be accommodated in Alberta with approved transmission upgrades. figs

  14. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  15. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  16. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  17. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    (Technical Report, Danish Technical press, 1970) and by Abild (Technical Report R-522 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1994). A short discussion of the wind storm on the 3rd of December 1999 is included. It is demonstrated how the data can be applied to non-standard situations where the roughness length......Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50 yr wind speed (10 min averages) under standard conditions, i.e., 10 m over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m, The sites are Skjern (15 yr......), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

  18. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  19. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  20. Northerly wind trends along the Portuguese marine coast since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Francisco; Relvas, Paulo; Cánovas, Fernando; Baptista, Vânia; Teodósio, Alexandra

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a marine coastal factor that is little understood but has a strong interaction with biological productivity. In this study, northerly wind trends in three regions of the Portuguese coast (Northwestern: NW, Southwestern: SW, and Southern: S) were analyzed. Two datasets with long-term (ICOADS: 1960-2010) and short-term data (Satellite: 1989-2010) were used to complement one another. The study revealed the northerly wind yearly data to be non-stationary and highly variable between years. Overall, the northerly wind intensity increased throughout the 1960s regardless of the area and dataset. Between 1960 and 2010, the northerly wind increased at a linear rate of 0.24, 0.09, and 0.15 m s-1 per decade in the NW, SW, and S coastal regions, respectively. The rate was higher in recent decades (1988-2009), with the wind intensity increasing by 0.4, 0.3, and 0.3 ms-1 per decade in the NW, SW, and S regions, respectively. Analyses of the sudden shifts showed significant increases in northerly wind intensities after 2003, 2004, and 1998 in the NW, SW, and S coast, respectively. Exceptions were found for autumn (September for short-term data), when a decrease in northerly winds was observed in recent decades, regardless of the area, and for summer, when no changes in wind trends were recorded in the NW and SW. The long-term data also showed a major increase in northerly winds in winter (January and February), which is the recruitment season for many small and medium-sized pelagic fish. The increase in the intensity of the northerly winds over the past two decades and the past half-century occurred at a higher rate than was estimated by the IPCC for the next century.

  1. FPI observations of nighttime mesospheric and thermospheric winds in China and their comparisons with HWM07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the nighttime horizontal neutral winds in the middle atmosphere (~ 87 and ~ 98 km and thermosphere (~ 250 km derived from a Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI, which was installed at Xinglong station (40.2° N, 117.4° E in central China. The wind data covered the period from April 2010 to July 2012. We studied the annual, semiannual and terannual variations of the midnight winds at ~ 87 km, ~ 98 km and ~ 250 km for the first time and compared them with Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07. Our results show the following: (1 at ~ 87 km, both the observed and model zonal winds have similar phases in the annual and semiannual variations. However, the HWM07 amplitudes are much larger. (2 At ~ 98 km, the model shows strong eastward wind in the summer solstice, resulting in a large annual variation, while the observed strongest component is semiannual. The observation and model midnight meridional winds agree well. Both are equatorward throughout the year and have small amplitudes in the annual and semiannual variations. (3 There are large discrepancies between the observed and HWM07 winds at ~ 250 km. This discrepancy is largely due to the strong semiannual zonal wind in the model and the phase difference in the annual variation of the meridional wind. The FPI annual variation coincides with the results from Arecibo, which has similar geomagnetic latitude as Xinglong station. In General, the consistency of FPI winds with model winds is better at ~ 87 and ~ 98 km than that at ~ 250 km. We also studied the seasonally and monthly averaged nighttime winds. The most salient features include the following: (1 the seasonally averaged zonal winds at ~ 87 and ~ 98 km typically have small variations throughout the night. (2 The model zonal and meridional nighttime wind variations are typically much larger than those of observations at ~ 87 km and ~ 98 km. (3 At ~ 250 km, model zonal wind compares well with the observation in the winter. For spring and

  2. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  3. A new low threshold bi-directional wind vane and its potential impact on unplanned atmospheric release prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) maintains and develops a comprehensive meteorological monitoring program which employs bi-directional wind vanes (bivanes) for the measurement of horizontal and vertical wind direction and turbulence. Wind data collected near and below instrument starting thresholds under stable nighttime conditions with these bivanes can result in artificially large standard deviations of horizontal wind direction (σA). In one hypothetical case, downwind concentrations could be underestimated by a factor of 40 by using artificially high σA data in a Gaussian dispersion model. In an effort to improve low wind speed measurements of wind direction, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been created to improve the dynamic performance of the Met One Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane

  4. 2015 Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School Research Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Yuxi [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Desai, Ravindra [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Hassan, Ehab [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kalmoni, Nadine [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Lin, Dong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Depascuale, Sebastian [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hughes, Randall Scott [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zhou, Hong [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-24

    The fifth Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School was held June 1st - July 24th, 2015, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With renewed support from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (IGPPS) and additional support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, we hosted a new class of five students from various U.S. and foreign research institutions. The summer school curriculum includes a series of structured lectures as well as mentored research and practicum opportunities. Lecture topics including general and specialized topics in the field of space weather were given by a number of researchers affiliated with LANL. Students were given the opportunity to engage in research projects through a mentored practicum experience. Each student works with one or more LANL-affiliated mentors to execute a collaborative research project, typically linked with a larger ongoing research effort at LANL and/or the student’s PhD thesis research. This model provides a valuable learning experience for the student while developing the opportunity for future collaboration. This report includes a summary of the research efforts fostered and facilitated by the Space Weather Summer School. These reports should be viewed as work-in-progress as the short session typically only offers sufficient time for preliminary results. At the close of the summer school session, students present a summary of their research efforts. Titles of the papers included in this report are as follows: Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of whistler wave generation, Hybrid simulations of the right-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in a sub-Alfvénic plasma flow, A statistical ensemble for solar wind measurements, Observations and models of substorm injection dispersion patterns, Heavy ion effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: hybrid study, Simulating plasmaspheric electron densities with a two

  5. 2015 Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School Research Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowee, Misa; Chen, Yuxi; Desai, Ravindra; Hassan, Ehab; Kalmoni, Nadine; Lin, Dong; Depascuale, Sebastian; Hughes, Randall Scott; Zhou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The fifth Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School was held June 1st - July 24th, 2015, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With renewed support from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (IGPPS) and additional support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, we hosted a new class of five students from various U.S. and foreign research institutions. The summer school curriculum includes a series of structured lectures as well as mentored research and practicum opportunities. Lecture topics including general and specialized topics in the field of space weather were given by a number of researchers affiliated with LANL. Students were given the opportunity to engage in research projects through a mentored practicum experience. Each student works with one or more LANL-affiliated mentors to execute a collaborative research project, typically linked with a larger ongoing research effort at LANL and/or the student's PhD thesis research. This model provides a valuable learning experience for the student while developing the opportunity for future collaboration. This report includes a summary of the research efforts fostered and facilitated by the Space Weather Summer School. These reports should be viewed as work-in-progress as the short session typically only offers sufficient time for preliminary results. At the close of the summer school session, students present a summary of their research efforts. Titles of the papers included in this report are as follows: Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of whistler wave generation, Hybrid simulations of the right-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in a sub-Alfv@@nic plasma flow, A statistical ensemble for solar wind measurements, Observations and models of substorm injection dispersion patterns, Heavy ion effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: hybrid study, Simulating plasmaspheric electron densities with a

  6. Visiting summer students enhance research skills

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Seven undergraduate students from universities across the nation and one from Virginia Tech are working side by side with Virginia Tech professors this summer on research projects related to sustainable management of resources.

  7. Summer võistleb jalgpalli MMil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Rocklaulja Indrek Raadik (Summer) on sooloprojektiga tuuril koos bändidega Traffic ja Mees, juuni lõpul aga koos ansamblitega esindamas Eestit Sotšis toimuval artistide esimesel maailmameistrivõistlusel jalgpallis

  8. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 11. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2018. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 11 November 2017 pp 1100-1100 ...

  9. Relationship between summer monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relationship between Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. Index (IODMI) and the ... 2013) in the cyclogenesis over north Indian Ocean ..... Indian summer monsoon; J. Climate 17 3141–3155. ... Murakami H, Wang B and Kitoh A 2011 Future change.

  10. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  11. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  12. Verification of high resolution simulation of precipitation and wind in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Isilda; Pereira, Mário; Moreira, Demerval; Carvalheiro, Luís; Bugalho, Lourdes; Corte-Real, João

    2017-04-01

    Demand of energy and freshwater continues to grow as the global population and demands increase. Precipitation feed the freshwater ecosystems which provides a wealth of goods and services for society and river flow to sustain native species and natural ecosystem functions. The adoption of the wind and hydro-electric power supplies will sustain energy demands/services without restricting the economic growth and accelerated policies scenarios. However, the international meteorological observation network is not sufficiently dense to directly support high resolution climatic research. In this sense, coupled global and regional atmospheric models constitute the most appropriate physical and numerical tool for weather forecasting and downscaling in high resolution grids with the capacity to solve problems resulting from the lack of observed data and measuring errors. Thus, this study aims to calibrate and validate of the WRF regional model from precipitation and wind fields simulation, in high spatial resolution grid cover in Portugal. The simulations were performed in two-way nesting with three grids of increasing resolution (60 km, 20 km and 5 km) and the model performance assessed for the summer and winter months (January and July), using input variables from two different reanalyses and forecasted databases (ERA-Interim and NCEP-FNL) and different forcing schemes. The verification procedure included: (i) the use of several statistics error estimators, correlation based measures and relative errors descriptors; and, (ii) an observed dataset composed by time series of hourly precipitation, wind speed and direction provided by the Portuguese meteorological institute for a comprehensive set of weather stations. Main results suggested the good ability of the WRF to: (i) reproduce the spatial patterns of the mean and total observed fields; (ii) with relatively small values of bias and other errors; and, (iii) and good temporal correlation. These findings are in good

  13. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Woithe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  14. Statistical downscaling of historical monthly mean winds over a coastal region of complex terrain. II. Predicting wind components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Derek van der [University of Victoria, Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Curry, Charles L. [Environment Canada University of Victoria, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Monahan, Adam H. [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    A regression-based downscaling technique was applied to monthly mean surface wind observations from stations throughout western Canada as well as from buoys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the period 1979-2006. A predictor set was developed from principal component analysis of the three wind components at 500 hPa and mean sea-level pressure taken from the NCEP Reanalysis II. Building on the results of a companion paper, Curry et al. (Clim Dyn 2011), the downscaling was applied to both wind speed and wind components, in an effort to evaluate the utility of each type of predictand. Cross-validated prediction skill varied strongly with season, with autumn and summer displaying the highest and lowest skill, respectively. In most cases wind components were predicted with better skill than wind speeds. The predictive ability of wind components was found to be strongly related to their orientation. Wind components with the best predictions were often oriented along topographically significant features such as constricted valleys, mountain ranges or ocean channels. This influence of directionality on predictive ability is most prominent during autumn and winter at inland sites with complex topography. Stations in regions with relatively flat terrain (where topographic steering is minimal) exhibit inter-station consistencies including region-wide seasonal shifts in the direction of the best predicted wind component. The conclusion that wind components can be skillfully predicted only over a limited range of directions at most stations limits the scope of statistically downscaled wind speed predictions. It seems likely that such limitations apply to other regions of complex terrain as well. (orig.)

  15. Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeleke, Manuel; Blohm, Torsten; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Yovel, Yossi; Voigt, Christian C.

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, many countries aim at countering global climate change by promoting renewable energy. Yet, recent studies highlight that so-called green energy, such as wind energy, may come at environmental costs, for example when wind turbines kill birds and bats. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we studied how an open-space foraging bat with high collision risk with wind turbines, the common noctule Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774), interacts with wind turbines. We compared actual flight trajectories to correlated random walks to identify habitat variables explaining the movements of bats. Both sexes preferred wetlands but used conventionally managed cropland less than expected based on availability. During midsummer, females traversed the land on relatively long flight paths and repeatedly came close to wind turbines. Their flight heights above ground suggested a high risk of colliding with wind turbines. In contrast, males recorded in early summer commuted straight between roosts and foraging areas and overall flew lower than the operating range of most turbine blades, suggesting a lower collision risk. Flight heights of bats suggest that during summer the risk of collision with wind turbines was high for most studied bats at the majority of currently installed wind turbines. For siting of wind parks, preferred bat habitats and commuting routes should be identified and avoided.

  16. Interannual and Interdecadal Variations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the Subtropical Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C.-P.; Zhang, Yongsheng; Li, Tim

    2000-01-01

    The interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Pacific SSTs is studied using rainfall data in the Yangtze River Valley and the NCEP reanalysis for 1951–96. The datasets are also partitioned into two periods, 1951–77 and 1978–96, to study the interdecadal variations of this relationship. A wet summer monsoon is preceded by a warm equatorial eastern Pacific in the previous winter and followed by a cold equatorial eastern Pacific in the following fa...

  17. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  18. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, K.

    2006-01-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs

  19. Wind profiler observations of a monsoon low-level jet over a tropical Indian station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. R. Kalapureddy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-year high-resolution wind observations of the wind profiler have been utilized to characterize the diurnal and seasonal features of the monsoon Low-Level Jet (LLJ over a tropical station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, with a focus on the diurnal variability of low-level winds. The Boreal summer monsoon winds show a conspicuously strong westerly LLJ with average wind speed exceeding 20 m s−1. The L-band wind profiler measurements have shown an advantage of better height and time resolutions over the conventional radiosonde method for diurnal wind measurements. An interesting diurnal oscillation of LLJ core has been observed. It is varying in the height range of 1.8±0.6 km with the maximum and minimum intensity noticed during the early morning and afternoon hours, respectively. The jet core (wind maxima height is observed to coincide with the inversion height. Strong wind shears are normally located beneath the LLJ core. The sole wind profiler observations are capable of identifying the monsoon phases, such as onset, break and active spells, etc. The mutual influence between the LLJ and the boundary layer has been discussed. One notices that the observed LLJ diurnal structures depend on the local convective activity, wind shears and turbulence activity associated with boundary layer winds. The day-to-day change in the LLJ structure depends on the latitudinal position of the LLJ core.

  20. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    2006-07-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  2. SUMMER CONFERENCES: Heavy on flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-15

    Afocus of attention at the major international high energy physics conferences this summer in Brussels and in Beijing was the latest batch of precision information from major experiments at electronpositron colliders - the four big detectors at CERN's LEP storage ring and the SLD experiment at the SLC linear collider at SLAC (Stanford). These experiments study the decay of the Z particle - the electrically neutral carrier of the weak nuclear force - produced when the colliding electron and positron beams are tuned to the Z resonance. This precision data is a stringent test of the six-quark Standard Model, and as the weight of evidence builds up, physicists look hard for any cracks in the theoretical foundations. In 1994, the LEP experiments almost doubled their accumulated score of Z particles (an integrated luminosity of 64.5 inverse picobarns in 1994 compared with 93.5 in the previous 4 years). In addition to the increased mass of data, improved precision came from better determinations of key parameters (beam energy, luminosity, electromagnetic coupling strength,....). SLD Z data has more than doubled over the past year. SLC also provides spin oriented (polarized) beams and the machine's polarization level has improved from 63 to 77%. The intercorrelation of the different parameters of the six-quark Standard Model was also boosted this year by the discovery of the sixth ('top') quark at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (April/May, page 1). In the electron-positron sector, although the LEP experiments provide the mass of the data, the SLC's polarized beams mean that the delicate asymmetries seen in SLD provide the most precise single measurement of the vital electroweak mixing parameter. Last year, it was difficult to reconcile these SLD asymmetry results from those from LEP, and some people were whispering about possible nonconformist physics effects, but with a year's additional data, the gap between the two sets of results has narrowed. To

  3. SUMMER CONFERENCES: Heavy on flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Afocus of attention at the major international high energy physics conferences this summer in Brussels and in Beijing was the latest batch of precision information from major experiments at electronpositron colliders - the four big detectors at CERN's LEP storage ring and the SLD experiment at the SLC linear collider at SLAC (Stanford). These experiments study the decay of the Z particle - the electrically neutral carrier of the weak nuclear force - produced when the colliding electron and positron beams are tuned to the Z resonance. This precision data is a stringent test of the six-quark Standard Model, and as the weight of evidence builds up, physicists look hard for any cracks in the theoretical foundations. In 1994, the LEP experiments almost doubled their accumulated score of Z particles (an integrated luminosity of 64.5 inverse picobarns in 1994 compared with 93.5 in the previous 4 years). In addition to the increased mass of data, improved precision came from better determinations of key parameters (beam energy, luminosity, electromagnetic coupling strength,....). SLD Z data has more than doubled over the past year. SLC also provides spin oriented (polarized) beams and the machine's polarization level has improved from 63 to 77%. The intercorrelation of the different parameters of the six-quark Standard Model was also boosted this year by the discovery of the sixth ('top') quark at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (April/May, page 1). In the electron-positron sector, although the LEP experiments provide the mass of the data, the SLC's polarized beams mean that the delicate asymmetries seen in SLD provide the most precise single measurement of the vital electroweak mixing parameter. Last year, it was difficult to reconcile these SLD asymmetry results from those from LEP, and some people were whispering about possible nonconformist physics effects, but with a year's additional data, the gap between the two sets

  4. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  5. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  6. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  7. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. The CO{sub 2} system in rivers of the Australian Victorian Alps: CO{sub 2} evasion in relation to system metabolism and rock weathering on multi-annual time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, Benjamin, E-mail: khagedor@hawaii.edu [School of Geosciences, Monash University, Melbourne Vic. 3800 (Australia); Cartwright, Ian [School of Geosciences, Monash University, Melbourne Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    The patterns of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) and aqueous CO{sub 2} in rivers and estuaries sampled during summer and winter in the Australian Victorian Alps were examined. Together with historical (1978-1990) geochemical data, this study provides, for the first time, a multi-annual coverage of the linkage between CO{sub 2} release via wetland evasion and CO{sub 2} consumption via combined carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering. {delta}{sup 13}C values imply that carbonate weathering contributes {approx}36% of the DIC in the rivers although carbonates comprise less than 5% of the study area. Baseflow/interflow flushing of respired C3 plant detritus accounts for {approx}50% and atmospheric precipitation accounts for {approx}14% of the DIC. The influence of in river respiration and photosynthesis on the DIC concentrations is negligible. River waters are supersaturated with CO{sub 2} and evade {approx}27.7 x 10{sup 6} mol/km{sup 2}/a to {approx}70.9 x 10{sup 6} mol/km{sup 2}/a CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere with the highest values in the low runoff rivers. This is slightly higher than the global average reflecting higher gas transfer velocities due to high wind speeds. Evaded CO{sub 2} is not balanced by CO{sub 2} consumption via combined carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering which implies that chemical weathering does not significantly neutralize respiration derived H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The results of this study have implications for global assessments of chemical weathering yields in river systems draining passive margin terrains as high respiration derived DIC concentrations are not directly connected to high carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering rates.

  9. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  11. Multidecadal increases in the Yukon River Basin of chemical fluxes as indicators of changing flowpaths, groundwater, and permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Ryan C; Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.; Koch, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, has experienced a warming climate over the last century that has altered air temperature, precipitation, and permafrost. We investigated a water chemistry database from 1982 to 2014 for the Yukon River and its major tributary, the Tanana River. Significant increases of Ca, Mg, and Na annual flux were found in both rivers. Additionally, SO4 and P annual flux increased in the Yukon River. No annual trends were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 2001 to 2014. In the Yukon River, Mg and SO4 flux increased throughout the year, while some of the most positive trends for Ca, Mg, Na, SO4, and P flux occurred during the fall and winter months. Both rivers exhibited positive monthly DOC flux trends for summer (Yukon River) and winter (Tanana River). These trends suggest increased active layer expansion, weathering, and sulfide oxidation due to permafrost degradation throughout the Yukon River Basin.

  12. New Zealand Summer of Code/Summer of Technology: an industry, student and tertiary engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Komisarczuk, Peter; Clegg, John; McDavitt, Ruth; Linton, Andy

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the Wellington Summer of Code was brought to life engaging ICT undergraduates with innovative Wellington employers, it has developed into a thriving talent pipeline engaging all levels of tertiary students and industry in the Wellington region. Summer of Code engages students during term time through industry led learning and a summer seminar and workshop series that are open to all. It has worked with the NZCS to integrate the Evening with Industry where undergraduates see young IT p...

  13. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  14. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  15. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  16. Effects of the Tunoe Knob offshore wind farm on birdlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette, M.; Kyed Larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the plans of the Danish government to expand offshore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with the Danish power companies, initiated a three-year study of the effects of the Tunoe Knob offshore wind farm on bird life. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential conflict between offshore wind farms and water birds. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering water birds which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. The wind farm was established at Tunoe Knob, a shoal in Aarhus Bugt, and consisted of ten 500 kW turbines erected in 3-5 m of water during the late summer of 1995. All studies were carried out during the winter period, and results are reported for eider Somateria mollissima and common scoter Melanitta nigra, which composed the great majority of the bird population. In the part of Tunoe knob where the wind farm was build, eider numbers decreased markedly over the study period. However, this decline was comparable to that observed on other parts of Tunoe Knob. Furthermore, detailed mapping showed a high degree of annual and within season variation in spatial distribution over the area, including occurrence in the immediate vicinity of the wind farm. These results suggest that the observed changes in eider numbers in the wind farm area were due to natural variation. (EG) 21 refs

  17. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  18. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  19. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  20. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....