WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind river middle

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  2. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2017-01-01

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  3. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2017-08-23

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  4. Development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar for measuring middle atmosphere winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, K.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Interpretation of most of the middle and upper atmospheric dynamical and chemical data relies on the climatological description of the wind field Rayleigh Doppler lidar is one instrument which monitors wind profiles continuously though continuity is limited to clear meteorological conditions in the middle atmosphere A Doppler wind lidar operating in incoherent mode gives excellent wind and temperature information at these altitudes with necessary spectral sensitivity It observes atmospheric winds by measuring the spectral shift of the scattered light due to the motions of atmospheric molecules with background winds and temperature by spectral broadening The presentation is about the design and development of Incoherent Doppler lidar to obtain wind information in the height regions of 30-65 km The paper analyses and describes various types of techniques that can be adopted viz Edge technique and Fringe Imaging technique The paper brings out the scientific objectives configuration simulations error sources and technical challenges involved in the development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar The presentation also gives a novel technique for calibrating the lidar

  5. Surface Wind Gust Statistics at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects meteorological data for many purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) including weather forecasting. This study focuses on wind gusts and also, to a lesser degree, turbulence intensities that occur in fair weather conditions near the surface over time periods from 1 hour to one week (168 hours)

  6. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  7. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons.

  8. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  9. Establishing the environmental flow regime for the Middle Zambezi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwelwa-Mutekenya-Mwelwa, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Zambezi, host to a rich biodiversity, is located in the central part of the Zambezi River Basin which covers eight Southern African Countries. The area is located downstream of three hydropower schemes. In the last decades, the floodplain riparian tree, the Faidherbia albida, vital for

  10. Establishing the Environmental Flow Regime for the Middle Zambezi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwelwa-Mutekenya, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Zambezi, host to a rich biodiversity, is located in the central part of the Zambezi River Basin which covers eight Southern African Countries. The area is located downstream of three hydropower schemes. In the last decades, the floodplain riparian tree, the Faidherbia albida, vital for

  11. Cold weather damages promising species in the Wind River Arboretum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Steele

    1954-01-01

    Before an introduced tree species is. recommended for wide-scale forest planting, its adaption to the local climate and soil should be carefully checked over a long period of years. This need has been clearly demonstrated at the Wind River Arboretum where many introduced species are being evaluated for possible use in plantations. The purpose of this note is to call...

  12. Phenomena and characteristics of barrier river reaches in the middle and lower Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xingying; Tang, Jinwu

    2017-06-01

    Alluvial river self-adjustment describes the mechanism whereby a river that was originally in an equilibrium state of sediment transport encounters some disturbance that destroys the balance and results in responses such as riverbed deformation. A systematic study of historical and recent aerial photographs and topographic maps in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) shows that river self-adjustment has the distinguishing feature of transferring from upstream to downstream, which may affect flood safety, waterway morphology, bank stability, and aquatic environmental safety over relatively long reaches downstream. As a result, it is necessary to take measures to control or block this transfer. Using the relationship of the occurrence time of channel adjustments between the upstream and downstream, 34 single-thread river reaches in the MLYR were classified into four types: corresponding, basically corresponding, basically not corresponding, not corresponding. The latter two types, because of their ability to prevent upstream channel adjustment from transferring downstream, are called barrier river reaches in this study. Statistics indicate that barrier river reaches are generally single thread and slightly curved, with a narrow and deep cross-sectional morphology, and without flow deflecting nodes in the upper and middle parts of reaches. Moreover, in the MLYR, barrier river reaches have a hydrogeometric coefficient of {}1.2‱, a silty clay content of the concave bank {>}{9.5}%, and a median diameter of the bed sediment {>}{0.158} mm. The barrier river reach mechanism lies in that can effectively centralise the planimetric position of the main stream from different upstream directions, meaning that no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing relatively stable inflow conditions for the lower reaches. Regarding river regulation, it is necessary to optimise the benefits of barrier river reaches; long river

  13. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  14. Wind River Watershed restoration: 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey-Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination-Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring-Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment-Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration-Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  15. On geo-basis of river regulation——A case study for the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    From the point of view that people have to obey the river’s geo-attributes in the river regulation, the definition and the meaning of the geo-attributes of a river are discussed. The geo-basis of the river regulation of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is expounded in five aspects, including the structural geomorphology environment of flood storage and discharge, the distribution characteristics of subsidence and the sedimentation areas of Dongting Basin, the history evolution of Jianghan Basin, the function of Jianghan Basin and Dongting Basin as the flood water detention areas of Jingjiang River reach in ancient time, and the geological characteristic of Jingjiang River reach. Based on the geo-attributes of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, some ideas about the middle reach regulation of the Yangtze River are put forward: to process the interchange between the lakes and diked marsh areas in Dongting Basin, to canal the new river route as the flood diversion channel of Jingjiang River reach with the paleo river, to recover the function of Jianghan Basin as flood detention area of the middle reaches. And we should take into consideration the geo-environment of the whole Yangtze River in the river regulation of middle reaches.

  16. Ecological setting of the Wind River old-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jerry F. Franklin; Ken Bible; Jeffrey Klopatek; Elizabeth Freeman; Sarah Greene; Geoffrey G. Parker

    2004-01-01

    The Wind River old-growth forest, in the southern Cascade Range of Washington State, is a cool (average annual temperature, 8.7°C), moist (average annual precipitation, 2223 mm), 500-year-old Douglas-fir-western hemlock forest of moderate to low productivity at 371-m elevation on a less than 10% slope. There is a seasonal snowpack (November-March), and rain-on-snow and...

  17. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.; Munz, Carrie S. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-04

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  18. Intercomparison of middle-atmospheric wind in observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rüfenacht

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind profile information throughout the entire upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (USLM is important for the understanding of atmospheric dynamics but became available only recently, thanks to developments in remote sensing techniques and modelling approaches. However, as wind measurements from these altitudes are rare, such products have generally not yet been validated with (other observations. This paper presents the first long-term intercomparison of wind observations in the USLM by co-located microwave radiometer and lidar instruments at Andenes, Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E. Good correspondence has been found at all altitudes for both horizontal wind components for nighttime as well as daylight conditions. Biases are mostly within the random errors and do not exceed 5–10 m s−1, which is less than 10 % of the typically encountered wind speeds. Moreover, comparisons of the observations with the major reanalyses and models covering this altitude range are shown, in particular with the recently released ERA5, ECMWF's first reanalysis to cover the whole USLM region. The agreement between models and observations is very good in general, but temporally limited occurrences of pronounced discrepancies (up to 40 m s−1 exist. In the article's Appendix the possibility of obtaining nighttime wind information about the mesopause region by means of microwave radiometry is investigated.

  19. Exclusion, Engagement and Identity Construction in a Socioeconomically Diverse Middle School Wind Band Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore the wind band classroom as a social context and examine its influence on middle-school students' identity constructions. The integration of sociologically based identity theory and social identity theory from social psychology suggested by Deaux and Martin as well as Stets and Burke proved…

  20. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... (BPA) has decided to offer Puget Sound Energy Inc., a Large Generator Interconnection Agreement for...

  1. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  2. Wind River Watershed Project; 1998 Annual Report; Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds

  3. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone bodies deposited in Eocene time by a 40-kilometer segment of the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River that exended westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel-sandstone bodies with a Granite Mountains source occur south of this segment of the paleo-Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district, but the channel-sandstone bodies between the Gas Hills district and the 40-kilometer segment of the paleo-Wind River may also be mineralized. This area includes the southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel-sandstone bodies derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the paleo-Wind River in Paleocene time flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River of Eocene time. The channel-sandstone bodies of the paleo-Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where they are underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene paleo-Wind River channel-sandstone bodies, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel-sandstone bodies and natural-gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits

  4. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

  5. 76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG11-115-000, EG11-116-000...

  6. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  7. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  8. 2008 Florida Division of Emergency Management Lidar: Middle Suwannee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR Survey for the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD), Florida. The LiDAR aerial acquisition was conducted in January of 2008, and the breaklines and...

  9. Recent floods in the Middle Ebro River, Spain: hydrometeorological aspects and floodplain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, S.; Espejo, F.; Ollero, A.; Sánchez-Fabre, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Ebro River has the largest Mediterranean basin in the Iberian Peninsula and the third one by surface among those of the Mediterranean Sea. The middle stretch of this river is especially interesting because it constitutes a very economically important axis of population in a semi-arid environment context. Flooding processes are common in the Middle Ebro River, but the combination among decrease of discharges, dam construction and expansion and reinforcement of defences created an unusually quiet period as regards flooding events during the last quarter of the previous century. Nevertheless, with the turn of the century it seems that the Middle Ebro River has entered into new dynamics, with bigger and more frequent floods, the appearance of which has changed its seasonal nature. The most relevant examples are those of February 2003 and March-April 2007. The present paper examines these recent trends and discusses their possible causes from the points of view of hydro-meteorology, flood management through the use of reservoirs, and floodplain management. The consequences of recent floods in the Middle Ebro River have reopened the debate about possible risk management measures.

  10. 2012 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Cory C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  11. InfraSound from wind turbines : observations from Castle River wind farm. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.; Hepburn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although infrasound has been discussed as a concern by groups opposed to wind farm facilities, there is very little information available about infrasound and wind turbines. This paper presented details of a project conducted by VisionQuest, the largest wind power producer in Canada. Three sensor types were used: precision sound analyzer, seismic geophones, and calibrated microphones to take measurements in low, medium and high winds. The project also measured infrasound when the wind farm was not operating. Acquisition geometry was presented, as well as details of apparent attenuations of wind noise. It was noted that high wind noise was a dominant factor and that there was little difference when the wind farm was not operational. It was suggested that turbines have no impact with high wind, since wind noise is not attenuated with distance. It was noted that increased geophone amplitudes indicate high wind coupled motion which is attenuated when the turbines are on. Results indicate that all frequencies showed attenuation with distance. Evidence showed that low frequency sound pressure levels were often lower when the turbines were switched on. Where turbines contributed to sound pressure levels, the magnitude of the contribution was below levels of concern to human health. Ambient sound pressure levels were much higher than contributions from wind turbines. It was concluded that wind itself generates infrasound. Wind turbines generate low levels of infrasound, detectable very close to facilities at low to medium wind speeds. Wind turbines may reduce ambient infrasound levels at high wind speeds by converting the energy from the wind into electricity. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Assessing Middle School and College Students' Conceptions About Wind, Fog, and Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, E.; Monteverdi, J. P.; Garcia, O.; Tanner, K. D.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorological content is presented in K-12 educational standards and in university general education courses, yet little research has been done to explore how students conceptualize weather phenomena. This investigation probes the understanding of students at three cognitive levels-6th grade earth science students, university non-meteorology majors, and meteorology major students-of three meteorological phenomena-wind, fog, and tornadoes. All students were enrolled in schools in San Francisco, CA. The meteorological content chosen for this project-wind, fog, and tornadoes-was deliberate. Wind is a fundamental process on our planet, and has the potential to cause great damage. Students have direct experience with wind on a daily basis. Fog is a dominant feature of San Francisco climatology, and a familiar phenomenon to students living in our region. Tornadoes are associated with devastating winds and represent a destructive weather phenomenon that students only experience indirectly through movies representations and other media outlets. The phases consisted of (a) a fifteen-question survey, (b) written essay assessments, and (c) videotaped interviews. Phase I, a weather survey, was given to the entire population (65 middle school students, 50 university non-meteorology majors, and 10 university meteorology majors) and consisted of 10-15 challenge statements. Challenge statements assert a common misconception or truism and ask the students to rank their level of agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). Phase II presented the students a subset of statements and questions, and they were given 5 minutes to explain why they chose their response. To quantify the resulting qualitative data, the written essay assessments were scored using a developed conceptual rubric by multiple observers, using inter-observer reliability to measure agreement in scoring. The results from this phase helped to structure the interview

  13. Physicochemical typology of water of a middle atlas river (Morocco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work studies the characteristics and physicochemical typology of Sidi Rachid River, known by its wealth of the Salmonidae fish: Salmo trutta macrostigma ... whose high levels indicate an organic pollution, during some times of the year, coming seemingly from the Ras Elma fish farm waste water, the water quality is ...

  14. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  15. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-2079-069--CA] Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Public Meetings a. Date and Time of Meetings: Tuesday, August 28, 2012, from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and...

  16. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, Helsinki, 00101 (Finland); Pauscher, L. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Ward, H.C. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Kotthaus, S. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.F., E-mail: j.f.barlow@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Gouvea, M. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lane, S.E. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Grimmond, C.S.B. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65-0.68 m s{sup -1}) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35-0.73 m s{sup -1}). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12-1.63 m s{sup -1}) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new lidar operating technique was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  17. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.; Pauscher, L.; Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Barlow, J.F.; Gouvea, M.; Lane, S.E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65–0.68 m s −1 ) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35–0.73 m s −1 ). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12–1.63 m s −1 ) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: ► An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. ► A new lidar operating technique was developed. ► Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  18. Preliminary synthesis and assessment of environmental flows in the middle Verde River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas; Brasher, Anne M. D.; Pearlstein, Susanna L.; Skow, Dena M.; Gungle, Bruce W.; Garner, Bradley D.

    2018-05-15

    A 3-year study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the available modeling tools for characterizing environmental flows in the middle Verde River watershed of central Arizona, describe riparian vegetation throughout the watershed, and estimate sediment mobilization in the river. Existing data on fish and macroinvertebrates were analyzed in relation to basin characteristics, flow regimes, and microhabitat, and a pilot study was conducted that sampled fish and macroinvertebrates and the microhabitats in which they were found. The sampling for the pilot study took place at five different locations in the middle Verde River watershed. This report presents the results of this 3-year study. The Northern Arizona Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was found to be capable of predicting long-term changes caused by alteration of regional recharge (such as may result from climate variability) and groundwater pumping in gaining, losing, and dry reaches of the major streams in the middle Verde River watershed. Over the period 1910 to 2006, the model simulated an increase in dry reaches, a small increase in reaches losing discharge to the groundwater aquifer, and a concurrent decrease in reaches gaining discharge from groundwater. Although evaluations of the suitability of using the NARGFM and Basin Characteristic Model to characterize various streamflow intervals showed that smallerscale basin monthly runoff could be estimated adequately at locations of interest, monthly stream-flow estimates were found unsatisfactory for determining environmental flows.Orthoimagery and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data were used to quantify stream and riparian vegetation properties related to biotic habitat. The relative abundance of riparian vegetation varied along the main channel of the Verde River. As would be expected, more upland plant species and fewer lowland species were found in the upper-middle section compared to the lower-middle section, and vice

  19. Flood risk control of dams and dykes in middle reach of Huaihe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-kun MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three stochastic mathematical models for calculation of the reservoir flood regulation process, river course flood release, and flood risk rate under flood control were established based on the theory of stochastic differential equations and features of flood control systems in the middle reach of the Huaihe River from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate, comprehensively considering uncertain factors of hydrology, hydraulics, and engineering control. They were used to calculate the flood risk rate with flood regulation of five key reservoirs, including the Meishan, Xianghongdian, Nianyushan, Mozitan, and Foziling reservoirs in the middle reach of the Huaihe River under different flood frequencies, the flood risk rate with river course flood release under design and check floods for the trunk of the Huaihe River in conjunction with relevant flood storage areas, and the flood risk rate with operation of the Linhuaigang Project under design and check floods. The calculated results show that (1 the five reservoirs can withstand design floods, but the Xianghongdian and Foziling reservoirs will suffer overtopping accidents under check floods; (2 considering the service of flood storage areas under the design flood conditions of the Huaihe River, the mean flood risk rate with flood regulation of dykes and dams from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate is about 0.2, and the trunk of the Huaihe River can generally withstand design floods; and (3 under a check flood with the flood return period of 1 000 years, the risk rate of overtopping accidents of the Linhuaigang Project is not larger than 0.15, indicating that it has a high flood regulation capacity. Through regulation and application of the flood control system of the Linhuigang Project, the Huaihe River Basin can withstand large floods, and the safety of the protected area can be ensured.

  20. MUREŞ RIVER MIDDLE COURSE RIVERBED DYNAMICS BETWEEN THE ARIEŞ AND STREI CONFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PANDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mureş River middle course riverbed dynamics between the Arieş and Strei confluences. The Mureş River is the most eloquent model regarding the alternation of characteristic river courses. In this alternation presents a special interest the course between Arieş and Strei, where due to the morphological and geological conditions we find lower course characteristics. The analysis of the river bed dynamics is carried out in two ways, vertically and horizontally. To evaluate the aggradation and degradation we used hydrometrical data found in the discharge measurements. The difference between the water gage height and the maximum depth indicate the evolution of the thalweg compared to the zero stage of the gage. The analysis of the horizontal dynamics is based on the cartographic method, in which we compare the topographic outlines of the river from three cartographic sources (1911, 1978 and 2005. The horizontal evolution was followed at first on the entire course of the river and then in three separate case studies. The case studies were chosen to illustrate different evolution types of meanders. The significant variations of different morfometrical parameters highlight the lower course character in the analyzed river sector.

  1. Statistical and Conceptual Model Testing Geomorphic Principles through Quantification in the Middle Rio Grande River, NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRG) traverses New Mexico from Cochiti to Elephant Butte reservoirs. Since the 1100s, cultivating and inhabiting the valley of this alluvial river has required various river training works. The mid-20th century saw a concerted effort to tame the river through channelization, Jetty Jacks, and dam construction. A challenge for river managers is to better understand the interactions between a river training works, dam construction, and the geomorphic adjustments of a desert river driven by spring snowmelt and summer thunderstorms carrying water and large sediment inputs from upstream and ephemeral tributaries. Due to its importance to the region, a vast wealth of data exists for conditions along the MRG. The investigation presented herein builds upon previous efforts by combining hydraulic model results, digitized planforms, and stream gage records in various statistical and conceptual models in order to test our understanding of this complex system. Spatially continuous variables were clipped by a set of river cross section data that is collected at decadal intervals since the early 1960s, creating a spatially homogenous database upon which various statistical testing was implemented. Conceptual models relate forcing variables and response variables to estimate river planform changes. The developed database, represents a unique opportunity to quantify and test geomorphic conceptual models in the unique characteristics of the MRG. The results of this investigation provides a spatially distributed characterization of planform variable changes, permitting managers to predict planform at a much higher resolution than previously available, and a better understanding of the relationship between flow regime and planform changes such as changes to longitudinal slope, sinuosity, and width. Lastly, data analysis and model interpretation led to the development of a new conceptual model for the impact of ephemeral tributaries in alluvial rivers.

  2. Terrestrial contributions to the aquatic food web in the middle Yangtze River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhu Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi, a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping, particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies.

  3. Terrestrial contributions to the aquatic food web in the middle Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhu; Gu, Binhe; Huang, Jianhui; Han, Xingguo; Lin, Guanghui; Zheng, Fawen; Li, Yuncong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish) at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi), a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua) and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping) of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping), particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies.

  4. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory H. Golet; David L. Brown; Melinda Carlson; Thomas Gardali; Adam Henderson; Karen D. Holl; Christine A. Howell; Marcel Holyoak; John W. Hunt; G. Mathias Kondolf; Eric W. Larsen; Ryan A. Luster; Charles McClain; Charles Nelson; Seth Paine

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to ch...

  5. 2014 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, L. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, C. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  6. Channel morphology and its impact on flood passage, the Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yafeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhongyuan; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Jinglu

    2007-03-01

    The Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze is about 8 km long, and characterized by a narrow river width of 650 m and local water depth of > 90 m in deep inner troughs, of which about 60 m is below the mean sea level. The troughs in the channel of such a large river are associated with regional tectonics and local lithology. The channel configuration plays a critical role in modifying the height and duration of river floods and erosion of the riverbed. The formation of the troughs in the bed of the Yangtze is considered to be controlled by sets of NW-SE-oriented neotectonic fault zones, in which some segments consist of highly folded thick Triassic limestone crossed by the Yangtze River. Several limestone hills, currently located next to the river channel, serve as nodes that create large vortices in the river, thereby accelerating downcutting on the riverbed composed of limestone highly susceptible to physical corrosion and chemical dissolution. Hydrological records indicate that the nodal hills and channel configuration at Tianjiazhen do not impact on normal flow discharges but discharges > 50,000 m 3s - 1 are slowed down for 2-3 days. Catastrophic floods are held up for even longer periods. These inevitably result in elevated flood stages upstream of prolonged duration, affecting large cities such as Wuhan and a very large number of people.

  7. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  8. Observations and Predictability of Gap Winds in the Salmon River Canyon of Central Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates gap winds in a steep, deep river canyon prone to wildland fire. The driving mechanisms and the potential for forecasting the gap winds are investigated. The onset and strength of the gap winds are found to be correlated to the formation of an along-gap pressure gradient linked to periodic development of a thermal trough in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Numerical simulations are performed using a reanalysis dataset to investigate the ability of numerical weather prediction (NWP to simulate the observed gap wind events, including the timing and flow characteristics within the canyon. The effects of model horizontal grid spacing and terrain representation are considered. The reanalysis simulations suggest that horizontal grid spacings used in operational NWP could be sufficient for simulating the gap flow events given the regional-scale depression in which the Salmon River Canyon is situated. The strength of the events, however, is under-predicted due, at least in part, to terrain smoothing in the model. Routine NWP, however, is found to have mixed results in terms of forecasting the gap wind events, primarily due to problems in simulating the regional sea level pressure system correctly.

  9. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  10. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish

  11. Paleogene Vertebrate Paleontology, Geology and Remote Sensing in the Wind River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, R. K.; Krishtalka, L.

    1985-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies were used to correlate different events in the geologic evolution of the northeastern part of the Wind River Basin and have suggested several conclusions. Laterally equivalent exposures of the Lysite member from Cedar Ridge to Bridger Creek show a gradation in lithology from interbedded boulder conglomerates and sandstones to interbedded lenticular sandstones and mudstones to interbedded carbonaceous shales, coals and tabular sandstones. This gradation suggests a shift from alluvial fan to braided stream to paludal or lacustrine sedimentary environments during the late early Eocene. The Lysite and Lost Cabin members of the Wind River Formation are in fault contact in the Bridger Creek area and may intertongue to the east along Cedar Ridge. Ways in which remote sensing could be used in these studies are discussed.

  12. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  13. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  14. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  15. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  16. Characteristics of radium isotopes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ni; Du Jinzhou; Duan Zonglian

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the distribution pattern of radium isotopes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River based on the cruise survey in Jan. 2008. The results showed that dissolved 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities varied stably around 1.17-2.37 Bq/m 3 and 1.47-3.28 Bq/m 3 in the middle reaches, while they increased in the lower reaches. Dissolved Ra activities were much higher in the Dongting and the Poyang Lakes. The particulate Ra activity was found to increase downstream. Additionally, the yearly flux of dissolved Ra from the river to the ocean was estimated based on the monthly measured Ra activity in the Xuliujing and the runoff. The estimated flux varied between 0.74 x 10 12 -1.96 x 10 12 Bq/y. The dissolved Ra activity was found largest in the Yangtze estuary, medium in the Yangtze River, and smallest in the East China Sea. It indicated the filter effect of the Yangtze estuary to the fate of terrestrial Ra. (authors)

  17. Runoff and Sediment Response to Cascade Hydropower Exploitation in the Middle and Lower Han River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of hydropower exploitation in China, changes in runoff and sediment transport have become a significant issue that cannot be neglected. In this study, the Han River was selected as a study case, where the runoff variation and changes in sediment load at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations were analyzed in different time periods. The results indicate that impact of cascade hydropower exploitation on runoff and sediment transport is significantly different even during the same time periods. After reservoir regulation, the decreasing of sediment load is faster than that of runoff. Strong positive correlation between runoff and sediment load exists during different time periods, while reservoir operation leads to different turning points at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations in the middle and lower Han River. As a key driving factor, runoff variation contributed to sediment transport with different impact index CR. The impact index CR before and after the first change point at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations is 43.35%, −3.68%, 11.17%, and 30.12%, respectively. This study helps us understand and evaluate the hydrological changes under cascade hydropower exploitation in the middle and lower Han River.

  18. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average

  19. Wind and turbulence measurements by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar (MUR: comparison of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Praskovsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure-function-based method (referred to as UCAR-STARS, a technique for estimating mean horizontal winds, variances of three turbulent velocity components and horizontal momentum flux was applied to the Middle and Upper atmosphere Radar (MUR operating in spaced antenna (SA profiling mode. The method is discussed and compared with the Holloway and Doviak (HAD correlation-function-based technique. Mean horizontal winds are estimated with the STARS and HAD techniques; the Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS method is used as a reference for evaluating the SA techniques. Reasonable agreement between SA and DBS techniques is found at heights from 5km to approximately 11km, where signal-to-noise ratio was rather high. The STARS and HAD produced variances of vertical turbulent velocity are found to be in fair agreement. They are affected by beam-broadening in a different way than the DBS-produced spectral width, and to a much lesser degree. Variances of horizontal turbulent velocity components and horizontal momentum flux are estimated with the STARS method, and strong anisotropy of turbulence is found. These characteristics cannot be estimated with correlation-function-based SA methods, which could make UCAR-STARS a useful alternative to traditional SA techniques.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Daphnia pulex in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Kun; Deng, Daogui; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Peng, Shuixiu; Xu, Xiaoxue

    2016-01-01

    Increased human activities and environmental changes may lead to genetic diversity variations of Cladocerans in water. Daphnia pulex are distributed throughout the world and often regarded as a model organism. The 16S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and 18S genes were used as molecular marks. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of D. pulex obtained from 10 water bodies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were studied. For 16S rDNA, COI gene, and 18S gene, the A+T content (65.4%, 58.4%, and 54.6%) was significantly higher than the G+C content (34.6%, 41.6% and 45.4%). This result was consistent with higher A and T contents among invertebrates. Based on the genetic distances of 16S rDNA and COI genes, the genetic differences of D. pulex from 10 water bodies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China was minimal (0%–0.8% for 16S rDNA and 0%–1.5% for COI gene). However, D. pulex evolved into two branches in the phylogenetic trees, which coincided with its geographical distribution. Compared with D. pulex from other countries, the average genetic distance of D. pulex obtained from 10 water bodies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River reached 9.1%–10.5%, thereby indicating that D. pulex may have evolved into different subspecies. PMID:27015539

  1. Genetic Diversity of Daphnia pulex in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Wang

    Full Text Available Increased human activities and environmental changes may lead to genetic diversity variations of Cladocerans in water. Daphnia pulex are distributed throughout the world and often regarded as a model organism. The 16S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, and 18S genes were used as molecular marks. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of D. pulex obtained from 10 water bodies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were studied. For 16S rDNA, COI gene, and 18S gene, the A+T content (65.4%, 58.4%, and 54.6% was significantly higher than the G+C content (34.6%, 41.6% and 45.4%. This result was consistent with higher A and T contents among invertebrates. Based on the genetic distances of 16S rDNA and COI genes, the genetic differences of D. pulex from 10 water bodies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China was minimal (0%-0.8% for 16S rDNA and 0%-1.5% for COI gene. However, D. pulex evolved into two branches in the phylogenetic trees, which coincided with its geographical distribution. Compared with D. pulex from other countries, the average genetic distance of D. pulex obtained from 10 water bodies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River reached 9.1%-10.5%, thereby indicating that D. pulex may have evolved into different subspecies.

  2. Coalbed methane potential of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde and Meeteetse formations, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Clark, A.C.; Barker, C.E.; Crysdale, B.L.; Higley, D.K.; Szmajter, R.J.; Finn, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The environments of deposition of the uppermost part of the Cody Shale and the Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations of Late Cretaceous age were studied on outcrop in the Shotgun Butte area in the north-central part of the Wind River Reservation. A shoreface sandstone occurs in the lower part of the Mesaverde Formation at all localities studied, and is directly overlain by a coaly interval. Repetitive coarsening-upward cycles of mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone occur in the 200 ft interval of the upper part of the Cody Shale below the shoreface sandstone. These Cody sandstones are typically hummocky cross stratified with symmetrical ripples near the top, indicating that they are largely storm surge deposits that were later reworked. Channel-form sandstones from 10 to 20 ft thick, with abundant locally derived clayey clasts, occur in a 75 ft thick interval below the shoreface at one locality. These unusual sandstones are largely confined to a narrow area of the outcrop and grade laterally into more typical storm surge deposits. They may be unusually large storm surge channels created when high-energy flow conditions were localized to a limited area of the shelf.The Mesaverde Formation above the shoreface sandstone is divided into a middle member and the Teapot Sandstone Member. The lower part of the middle member is everywhere coaly. Erosional-based sandstones in this coaly interval are highly variable in thickness and architecture. Thin, single channel sandstone bodies were deposited by moderate to high sinuosity streams, and thick, multistory channel sandstone bodies were deposited by rapidly switching fluvial channel systems that remained relatively stationary for extended periods of time. The architecture of the fluvial channel sandstones in the overlying noncoaly interval appears to be highly variable as well, with complex multistory sandstones occurring at different stratigraphic levels at different localities. This distribution may be explained by long term

  3. Human impacts on runoff regime of middle and lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Sang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 54-year (1950 to 2003 monthly runoff series from February, April, August, and November, as well as the annual runoff series, measured at both Huayuankou and Lijin hydrological stations were chosen as representative data, and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT was applied to analyze the impacts of human activities on the runoff regime of the middle and lower Yellow River. A point of change in 1970 was first determined, and the observed series before 1970 were considered natural runoff while those after 1970 were restored according to linear trends. Then, the CWT was applied to both the observed and restored runoff series to reveal their variations at multi-temporal scales, including the five temporal ranges of 1–4, 6–8, 9–12, 16–22, and 22–30 years, and the trend at the temporal scale of 54 years. These analysis results are compared and discussed in detail. In conclusion, because of the impacts of human activities, there have been significant changes in the runoff regime in the middle and lower Yellow River since 1970. The decaying tendency of annual runoff has become more pronounced, and the inner-annual distribution of runoff has changed, but human activities have had little impact on the periodic characteristics of runoff.

  4. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf

    2006-10-01

    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, subsistence economy across the Archaic-Woodland temporal boundary in the western Tennessee River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  5. [Terrain gradient effect of ecosystem service value in middle reach of Yangtze River, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suo Hua; Hu, Shou Geng; Qu, Shi Jin

    2018-03-01

    Using land use data in the year 1995, 2005 and 2014, this study estimated the ecosystem service value (ESV) in each county located in the middle reach of Yangtze River and analyzed its spatiotemporal variation features and terrain gradient effects based on "the equivalent value per unit area of ecosystem services in China". The results showed that ESV in the middle reach of Yangtze River was generally higher in mountainous area but lower in plain region, with an obvious terrain gradient effect. Specifically, the relationship of the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) and the ESV showed significant logarithm function at county scale with a high curve fitting degree of 0.53. The ESV increased from 400.35×10 4 yuan·km -2 to 554.57×10 4 yuan·km -2 with the increasing RDLS (grade 1-5) in 2014. During 1995-2004, the ecosystem service value variation changed from decreasing to stable with the increases of the RDLS. With a perspective of ecosystem service values, the value of food production and waste treatment service value decreased with the increase of the RDLS, while the others increased in general, such as the production of raw materials and gas regulation service value, because of the influences of dynamic land use structure in varied topography and distinct dominant ecosystem services from different land types.

  6. Availability of ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin, central and southern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sufficient amounts of water to supply single family homes are available from the bedrock aquifer nearly everywhere in the middle Merrimack River basin in central and southern New Hampshire. Relatively this and narrow, unconsolidated aquifers of sand or sand and gravel commonly capable of yielding more than 200 gallons per minute to properly located and constructed wells are found only in major stream valleys. The map provides a preliminary assessment of the availability of ground water in the basin, as determined by estimating the capability of the aquifers to store and transmit water. On the map, aquifers are rated as having high, medium, or low potential to yield water. Ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin is generally of good chemical quality. Most of it is clear and colorless, contains no suspended matter and practically no bacteria, water may be affected by land-use practices. Degradation of water quality may occur in unsewered residential and village areas, near solid-waste-disposal sites, agricultural land, and major highways. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Will river erosion below the Three Gorges Dam stop in the middle Yangtze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, X.; Yin, D.; Finlayson, B. L.; Wei, T.; Li, M.; Yuan, W.; Yang, S.; Dai, Z.; Gao, S.; Chen, Z.

    2017-11-01

    The environmental impact of the Three Gorges Dam has been a subject of vigorous academic, political and social debate since its inception. This includes the key issue of post-dam river channel erosion, which was predicted by the feasibility study to extend to the river mouth. In this paper we examine the geomorphic response of the channel of the middle Yangtze for 660 km downstream of the dam. Using data on channel characteristics, bed material and sediment transport, we show that in the decade following the dam closure, pre-dam seasonal erosion has been replaced by year-round erosion, a pattern most marked at the upstream end of the study area. The sediment carrying capacity of the river channel has been largely reduced below the dam. The locus of bed scour has moved progressively downstream, ceasing as the bed material became too coarse to be transported (e.g. D50: 0.29 mm pre-dam coarsened to 20 mm below the dam by 2008). About 400 km below the dam there is a reduction in channel slope that changes the sediment carrying capacity from 0.25 kg m-3 to only about 0.05 kg m-3, which is insufficient to move bed sediment. The new long-term hydro-morphological equilibrium that will be established in this section of the middle Yangtze will prevent the further incision downstream initiated by the Three Gorges Dam. The results suggest that the full extent of adverse environmental impact predicted by the pre-dam studies will not eventuate.

  8. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and

  9. Automated prediction of boundary layer winds and turbulence for the Savannah River Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilhousen, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective forecasts of many weather elements produced twice daily for about 230 US cities are made by applying the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique (Glahn and Lowry, 1972). This technique relates by a statistical method the output of numerical models interpolated to a location (predictors) to a corresponding sample of observed local weather at that location (predictand). This study describes the development and testing of MOS wind forecasts for an instrumented TV tower located near the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). If shown to be useful, these forecasts could serve as valuable guidance in case of a nuclear incident at the installation. This study introduces several new applications of the MOS technique. In addition to forecasts of wind speed and direction, forecasts of two turbulence parameters were developed and evaluated. These turbulence parameters were the standard deviations of both the azimuth and elevation of the wind. These quantities help to estimate the amount of plume and puff spread. Forecasts of all these elements were produced for several levels on the 335 m WJBF-TV tower. Tests were conducted to see if MOS forecasts of each element were capable of resolving differences between tower levels. MOS forecasts were compared to two other types of forecasts to determine their utility. Short range persistence forecasts served as one type of comparison since SRL uses the current observed winds in their diffusion models. Climatology forecasts served as the other comparison set

  10. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  11. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Golet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to characterize the status of terrestrial and floodplain resources (e.g., flora and fauna, channel dynamics (e.g., planform, geomorphology, and the flow regime. Indicators were also associated with specific goal statements of the CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program. A collective weight of evidence approach was used to assess restoration success. Our synthesis demonstrates good progress in the restoration of riparian habitats, birds and other wildlife, but not in restoration of streamflows and geomorphic processes. For example, from 1999 to 2007, there was a > 600% increase in forest patch core size, and a 43% increase in the area of the river bordered by natural habitat > 500 m wide. Species richness of landbirds and beetles increased at restoration sites, as did detections of bats. However, degraded post-Shasta Dam streamflow conditions continued. Relative to pre-dam conditions, the average number of years that pass between flows that are sufficient to mobilize the bed, and those that are of sufficient magnitude to inundate the floodplain, increased by over 100%. Trends in geomorphic processes were strongly negative, with increases in the amount of bank hardened with riprap, and decreases in the area of floodplain reworked. Overall the channel simplified, becoming less sinuous with reduced overall channel length. Our progress assessment presents a compelling case for what needs to be done to further advance the ecological restoration of the river. The most

  12. The 4-5 day mode oscillation in zonal winds of Indian middle atmosphere during MONEX-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R. S.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Indira, K.; Murty, B. V. R.

    1985-12-01

    In the early studies based on time series of balloon observations, the existence of 4 to 5 day period waves and 10 to 20 day wind fluctuations were found in the tropical lower stratosphere, and they are identified theoretically as the mixed Rossby-gravity wave and the Kelvin wave, respectively. On the basis of these studies, it was established that the vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) in the mean zonal wind through the mechanism of wave-zonal interaction. These studies are mainly concentrated over the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Similar prominent wave disturbances have been observed over the region east of the Indian Ocean during a quasi-biennial oscillation. Zonal winds in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (10 to 20) km of the middle atmosphere over the Indian subcontinent may bear association with the activity of summer monsoon (June-September). Monsoon Experiment (MONEX-79) has provided upper air observations at Balasore (21 deg. 30 min.N; 85 deg. 56 min.E), during the peak of monsoon months July and August. A unique opportunity has, therefore, been provided to study the normal oscillations present in the zonal winds of lower middle atmosphere over India, which may have implication on large scale wave dynamics. This aspect is examined in the present study.

  13. Response of small glaciers to climate change: runoff from glaciers of the Wind River range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, A. K.; Stamper, B.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff from glaciers affects downstream ecosystems by influencing the quantity, seasonality, and chemistry of the water. We describe the present state of glaciers in the Wind River range, Wyoming and consider how these glaciers will change in the future. Wind River glaciers have been losing mass in recent decades, as seen with geodetic techniques and by examining glacier morphology. Interestingly, the 2016/7 winter featured one of the largest snowfalls on record. Our primary focus is the Dinwoody Glacier ( 3 km^2, 3300-4000 m above sea level). We present data collected in mid-August 2017 including glacier ablation rates, snow line elevations, and streamflow. We compare measured glacier mass loss to streamflow at the glacier terminus and at a USGS stream gauge farther downstream. Using a hydrological model, we explore the fate of glacial runoff as it moves into downstream ecosystems and through ranchlands important to local people. The techniques used here can be applied to similar small-glacier systems in other parts of the world.

  14. Modeling Regional Soil Water Balance in Farmland of the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying components of soil water balance in farmland of the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin is essential for efficiently scheduling and allocating limited water resources for irrigation in this arid region. A soil water balance model based on empirical assumptions in the vadose zone of farmland was developed and simulation results were compared/validated with results by the numerical model HYDRUS-1D. Results showed a good coherence between the simulated results of the water balance models and the HYDRUS-1D model in soil water storage, evapotranspiration, deep percolation and groundwater recharge, which indicated that the water balance model was suitable for simulating soil water movement in the study area. Considering the spatial distribution of cropping patterns, groundwater depth and agricultural management, ArcGIS was applied for the pre-/post-processing of the water balance model to quantify the spatial distribution of components of soil water balance in the major cropland in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin. Then, distributions of components of soil water balance in the major cropland under different water-saving irrigation practices during the growing season were predicted and discussed. Simulation results demonstrated that evapotranspiration of the main crops would be more prominently influenced by irrigation quota under deep groundwater depth than that under shallow groundwater depth. Groundwater recharge would increase with the increase of irrigation quota and decrease with the increase of groundwater depth. In general, when groundwater depth reached 3 m, groundwater recharge from root zone was negligible for spring wheat. While when it reached 6 m, groundwater recharge was negligible for maize. Water-saving irrigation practices would help to reduce groundwater recharge with a slight decrease of crop water consumption.

  15. Water Availability in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; de Linage, C.; Swenson, S. C.; Rodell, M.

    2010-12-01

    As water security becomes more tenuous, conflicts and disputes over the appropriate management and allocation of transboundary water resources are sure to arise. In particular, the Middle East faces extreme scarcity as a result of both natural climate variations and the impacts of water management decisions and policies. A recent drought, which began in 2007, caused regional hardships as precious water resources dwindled and collaboration between nations failed to accommodate shared needs. In this work, the area surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates River Basin was selected as a case study to evaluate trends in fresh water availability. Because few complete datasets exist for precipitation, streamflow, evapotranspiration, groundwater or surface water in the area, remote sensing techniques, including GRACE and altimetry, as well as land-surface models were utilized to develop an understanding of the regional hydrology. These observations and model results were used to estimate trends in total water storage and its individual components - soil moisture, snow water equivalent, surface water and groundwater. GRACE data show a clear decrease in total water storage in the Middle East from January 2003 to December 2009, and indicate that the selected region experienced a total volume loss of 143 km3 of water. Supporting datasets suggest that approximately two-thirds of this was a loss of groundwater. These results highlight the impacts of drought conditions on groundwater consumption and of agricultural expansion on available water resources in the region. Furthermore, they raise important political issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring and datasets for the core components of the water budget.

  16. Variation of precipitation for the last 300 years over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Jingyun; HAO; Zhixin; GE; Quansheng

    2005-01-01

    The precipitation at 17 stations over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River is reconstructed during the period of 1736―1910, using the snow and rainfall records in the Qing Dynasty, together with the instrumental observation data of precipitation and farmland soil moisture content. The soil physics model related to rainfall infiltration and the surface water balance equation are taken as main reconstruction methodology. The field infiltration experiment by artificial rainfall is conducted to check the reliability. And the precipitation series over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and its 4 sub-regions are established, going back to 1736. Analysis of the time series indicates that the abrupt change of precipitation from high to low occurs around 1915 over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. During the three periods of 1791―1805, 1816―1830 and 1886―1895, the precipitation is markedly higher than the mean of the series. While both the periods of 1916―1945 and 1981―2000 are characterized by less precipitation. Three periodicities of 22―25a, 3.9a and 2.7a are shown in the precipitation fluctuation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Moreover, the periodical signal of 22―25a becomes weaker and weaker since the abrupt change of 1915 and disappears in the late 1940s, and then the periodical signal of 35―40a appears instead.

  17. Relating stream function and land cover in the Middle Pee Dee River Basin, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Jayakaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The study region comprised sixteen stream sites and associated contributing watersheds located in the Middle Pee Dee River Basin (MPDRB of South Carolina, USA. Study focus: The study was conducted between 2008 and 2010 to quantify how indices of streamflow varied with land cover characteristics analyzed at multiple spatial scales and fluvial geomorphic characteristics of sampled streams in the MPDRB. Study objectives were to relate three indices of streamflow that reflect recent temporal flow variability in a stream, with synoptic stream geomorphological measurements, and land cover type at specific spatial domains. New hydrological insights for the region: Modifications to the landscape, hydrologic regime, and alteration to channel morphology, are major threats to the functioning of riparian ecosystem functions but can rarely be linked to a single common stressor. Results from the study showed that in the MPDRB, wetland cover in the riparian corridor was an important factor, correlating significantly with stream flashiness, channel enlargement, and bed substrate character. It was also shown that a combination of stream geomorphological characteristics when combined with landscape variables at specific spatial scales were reasonable predictors of all three indices of streamflow. The study also highlights an innovative statistical methodology to relate land cover data to commonly measured metrics of streamflow and fluvial geomorphology. Keywords: Flashiness, Stream habitat, Flow indices, Land cover analysis, Wetlands, Coastal plain, Bed material, Partial least squares regression, Pee Dee River, South Carolina

  18. [Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in working areas of Yangtze River hydrologic agencies located in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xu; Suo-Xin, Huang; Zheng-Yuan, Zhao; Ben-Jiao, Hu; Jun, Fu; Si-Min, Dai; Li-Hong, Wen

    2016-10-13

    To understand the Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in the working areas of Yangtze River hydrologic agencies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for assessing the risk of schistosome infection of hydrological workers and establishing the control strategies. The suspicious environments with O. hupensis snails in the above working areas were selected as study areas, and the snail situation was surveyed by the system sampling method combined with the environmental sampling method. The survey data were collected and analyzed statistically. Totally 19 working areas from 17 hydrological agencies were selected as the investigation sites, among which, 10 working areas from 9 agencies were found with O. hupensis snail distribution. The constituent ratio of the areas with snails reached to 38.81% of the investigation areas, the occurrence rate of frames with snails was 3.08%, and the average density of living snails was 0.07 /0.1 m 2 . By comparison, the average density of living snails and occurrence rate of frames with snails in hydrological agencies under the jurisdiction of the Middle Reaches Administrative Bureau were the most serious among three administrative bureaus of the Yangtze River Water Resources Commission. There are various degrees of O. hupensis breeding in the working areas of hydrological agencies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the hydrological workers are facing with the risk of schistosome infection.

  19. Effect of seasonal flooding cycle on litterfall production in alluvial rainforest on the middle Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M; Giarrizzo, T; Jesus, A J S

    2015-08-01

    The assumption for this study was that litterfall in floodplain environments of the middle Xingu river follows a pattern of seasonal variation. According to this view, litterfall production (total and fractions) was estimated in four alluvial rainforest sites on the middle Xingu River over an annual cycle, and examined the effect of seasonal flooding cycle. The sites included two marginal flooded forests of insular lakes (Ilha Grande and Pimentel) and two flooded forests on the banks of the Xingu itself (Boa Esperança and Arroz Cru). Total litterfall correlated with rainfall and river levels, but whereas the leaf and fruit fractions followed this general pattern, the flower fraction presented an inverse pattern, peaking in the dry season. The litterfall patterns recorded in the present study were consistent with those recorded at other Amazonian sites, and in some other tropical ecosystems.

  20. Morphological adjustments in a meandering reach of the middle Yangtze River caused by severe human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meirong; Xia, Junqiang; Lu, Jinyou; Deng, Shanshan; Lin, Fenfen

    2017-05-01

    In the past 50 years, the Shishou reach in the middle Yangtze River underwent significant channel evolution owing to the implementation of an artificial cutoff, the construction of bank revetment works and the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Based on the measured hydrological data and topographic data, the processes of channel evolution in this reach were investigated mainly from the adjustments in planform and cross-sectional geometries. The variation in planform geometry obtained in this study indicates that (i) the artificial cutoff at Zhongzhouzi caused the river regime to adjust drastically, with the mean rate of thalweg migration at reach scale of 42.0 m/a over the period 1966-1975; (ii) then the effect of this artificial cutoff reduced gradually, with the mean migration rate decreasing to 40 m/a owing to the occurrence of high water levels in 1993-1998; and (iii) the average annual rate of thalweg migration decreased to 29.3 m/a because of the impacts of various bank protection engineering and the TGP operation during the period 2002-2015. However, remarkable thalweg migration processes still occurred in local regions after the TGP operation, which resulted in significant bankline migration in local reaches of Beimenkou, Shijiatai, and Tiaoxiankou. In addition, the adjustments of bankfull channel geometry were investigated at section and reach scales after the TGP operation. Calculated results show that lateral channel migration in this reach was restricted by various river regulation works and that channel evolution was mainly characterized by an increase in bankfull depth and cross-sectional area. Empirical relationships were developed between the reach-scale bankfull dimensions (depth and area), the bankfull widths at specified sections, and the previous 5-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with high correlation degrees between them being obtained.

  1. The influence of flood pulse on fish communities of floodplain canals in the Middle Solimões River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniere G. C. Sousa

    Full Text Available The functioning of large river systems with adjacent floodplains is strongly influenced by the flood pulse. This phenomenon is the main structuring force for the biota, including fish communities that use floodplain environments for spawning, feeding, nursery and refuge. In floodplains and in the entire basin, the volume of water controls internal flows. During rising water, the high discharge of the river acts as a natural barrier to the canals that connect floodplain lakes and the Solimões River, because the water flows from river to lake. During the dry period, there is a reduction of discharge and the water flow is reversed or stationary. These canals are environments with distinct ecological characteristics such as differentiated limnology and water level variation intensely affected by the hydrological cycle. Therefore, we surveyed the influence of the flood pulse on fish communities that inhabit two canals that connect floodplain lakes to the Middle Solimões River. Particularly, we evaluated the hypothesis that the Solimões River flow direction is not perfectly parallel to its banks, which creates peripheral flows that direct water from the rivers to the floodplain lake canals. Our analysis indicated that the seasonal pattern is stronger than the spatial. Beside this, we observed that the positions of the canals in relation to the main river flow somehow affect the fish assemblages. Finally, we conclude that the flood pulse is the main structuring force acting on these fish communities.

  2. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  3. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  4. Tree growth and soil relations at the 1925 Wind River spacing test in coast Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; Harry W. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    The 1925 Wind River spacing test is the earliest field trial seeking to determine the most appropriate spacing for planting Douglas-fir. Spacing treatments were not replicated, although individual spacings were subsampled by two to four tree-measurement plots. Previously, greater growth occurred at the wider spacings (10 and 12 ft) than at the closer spacings (4, 5, 6...

  5. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  6. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends

  7. Study of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Thermopolis Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the following data from the Thermopolis Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location map; eU symbol anomaly map; eU/eTh symbol anomaly map; eU/K symbol anomaly map; eTh symbol anomaly map; K symbol anomaly map; eU profile anomaly map; eU/eTh profile anomaly map; eU/K profile anomaly map; eTh profile anomaly map; K profile anomaly map; eTh/K profile anomaly map; preferred anomaly maps (4- and 7-point), combined 4- and 7-point preferred anomaly map; and stacked significance factor profiles

  8. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s-1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11 months of zonal wind measurements over Bern (46°57' N

  9. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rüfenacht

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s−1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found.

    WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance.

    In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11

  10. Sedimentary record and luminescence chronology of palaeoflood events along the Gold Gorge of the upper Hanjiang River, middle Yangtze River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Huang, Chun Chang; Zhou, Yali; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Fan, Longjiang; Mao, Peini

    2018-05-01

    Palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) along the river banks have important implications for the reconstruction of the past hydro-climatic events. Two palaeoflood SWD beds were identified in the Holocene loess-soil sequences on the cliff river banks along the Gold Gorge of the upper Hanjiang River by field investigation and laboratory analysis. They have recorded two palaeoflood events which were dated by optically stimulated luminescence to 3.2-2.8 ka and 2.1-1.8 ka, respectively. The reliability of the ages obtained for the two events are further confirmed by the presence of archaeological remains and good regional pedostratigraphic correlation. The peak discharges of two palaeoflood events at the studied sites were estimated to be 16,560-17,930 m3/s. A correlation with the palaeoflood events identified in the other reaches shows that great floods occurred frequently during the episodes of 3200-2800 and 2000-1700 a BP along the upper Hanjiang River valley during the last 4000 years. These phases of palaeoflood events in central China are well correlated with the climatic variability identified by δ18O record in the stalagmites from the middle Yangtze River Basin and show apparent global linkages. Palaeoflood studies in a watershed scale also imply that strengthened human activities during the Shang dynasty (BCE 1600-1100) and Han dynasty (BCE206-CE265) may have caused accelerated soil erosion along the upper Hanjiang River valley.

  11. Floodplain Vegetation Productivity and Carbon Cycle Dynamics of the Middle Fork Flathead River of Northwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakins, A. J.; Kimball, J. S.; Relyea, S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    River floodplains are vital natural features that store floodwaters, improve water quality, provide habitat, and create recreational opportunities. Recent studies have shown that strong interactions among flooding, channel and sediment movement, vegetation, and groundwater create a dynamic shifting habitat mosaic that promotes biodiversity and complex food webs. Multiple physical and environmental processes interact within these systems to influence forest productivity, including water availability, nutrient supply, soil texture, and disturbance history. This study is designed to quantify the role of groundwater depth and meteorology in determining spatial and temporal patterns of net primary productivity (NPP) within the Nyack floodplain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, Northwestern Montana. We examine three intensive field sites composed of mature, mixed deciduous and evergreen conifer forest with varying hydrologic and vegetative characteristics. We use a modified Biome-BGC ecosystem process model with field-collected data (LAI, increment growth cores, groundwater depth, vegetation sap-flow, and local meteorology) to describe the effects of floodplain groundwater dynamics on vegetation community structure, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Initial results indicate that conifers are more sensitive than deeper-rooted deciduous species to variability in groundwater depth and meteorological conditions. Forest productivity also shows a non-linear response to groundwater depth. Sites with intermediate groundwater depths (0.2-0.5m) allow vegetation to maintain connectivity to groundwater over longer periods during the growing season, are effectively uncoupled from atmospheric constraints on photosynthesis, and generally have greater productivity. Shallow groundwater sites (<0.2m) are less productive due to the indirect effects of reduced soil aerobic decomposition and reduced plant available nitrogen.

  12. Temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation within the batture lands of the middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Ryherd, Julia; Ruffner, Charles M.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2018-05-01

    Sediment deposition and storage are important functions of batture lands (the land between the channel's low-water elevation and the flood mitigation levee). However, sedimentation processes within these areas are not fully understood. In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns, rates, and volume of sedimentation within the batture lands along the middle Mississippi River (MMR; between the confluence of the Missouri and Ohio rivers) using three approaches: (1) comparison of historical to modern elevation data in order to estimate long-term (>100 yr) sedimentation rates; (2) estimation of medium- to short-term (sedimentation rates using dendrogeomorphological methods; and (3) geomorphic change detection (GCD) software to estimate short-term sedimentation rates ( 12 yr), spatial patterns of deposition, and volumes of geomorphic change within the batture lands. Comparison of long- to short-term sedimentation rates suggests up to a 300% increase in batture land sedimentation rates (from 6.2 to 25.4 mm yr-1) despite a substantial decrease in the MMR's suspended-sediment load (>70%) attributed largely to sediment trapping by dams during the second half of the twentieth century. The increase in MMR batture land sedimentation rates are attributed to at least two potential mechanisms: (1) the above average frequency and duration of low-magnitude floods (>2-yr and ≤5-yr flood) during the short-term assessment periods which allowed for more suspended sediment to be deposited within the batture lands; and (2) the construction of levees that substantially reduced the floodplain area ( 75%) available for storage of overbank deposits increasing the vertical accumulation and consequently the detectability of a given volume of sediment. The GCD estimated batture land sediment volumes were 9.0% of the suspended load at St. Louis. This substantial storage of sediment ( 8.5 Mt yr-1) along the MMR suggests batture lands are an important sink for suspended sediments.

  13. Anatomy of an interrupted irrigation season: Micro-drought at the Wind River Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. McNeeley

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex phenomenon manifested through interactions between biophysical and social factors. At the Wind River Indian Reservation (WRIR in west-central Wyoming, water shortages have become increasingly common since the turn of the 21st century. Here we discuss the 2015 water year as an exemplar year, which was characterized by wetter-than-normal conditions across the reservation and, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, remained drought-free throughout the year. Yet parts of the reservation experienced harmful water shortages, or “micro-drought” conditions, during the growing season in 2015. In this assessment of the 2015 water year at the WRIR we: (1 describe the hydroclimatic and social processes under way that contributed to the 2015 water year micro-drought in the Little Wind Basin; (2 compare water availability conditions within and between other basins at the WRIR to illustrate how micro-droughts can result from social and environmental features unique to local systems; and (3 describe how a collaborative project is supporting drought preparedness at the WRIR. We combine a social science assessment with an analysis of the hydroclimate to deconstruct how shortages manifest at the WRIR. We provide insights from this study to help guide drought assessments at local scales. Keywords: Drought, Climate vulnerability, Drought preparedness, Indigenous adaptation, Co-production

  14. [Relationships of wetland landscape fragmentation with climate change in middle reaches of Heihe River, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng-Hui; Zhao, Rui-Feng; Zhao, Hai-Li; Lu, Li-Peng; Xie, Zuo-Lun

    2013-06-01

    Based on the 1975-2010 multi-temporal remotely sensed TM and ETM images and meteorological data, in combining with wavelet analysis, trend surface simulation, and interpolation method, this paper analyzed the meteorological elements' spatial distribution and change characteristics in the middle reaches of Heihe River, and elucidated the process of wetland landscape fragmentation in the study area by using the landscape indices patch density (PD), mean patch size (MPS), and patch shape fragment index (FS). The relationships between the wetland landscape fragmentation and climate change were also approached through correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. In 1975-2010, the overall distribution patterns of precipitation and temperature in the study area were low precipitation in high temperature regions and high precipitation in low temperature regions, and the main characteristics of climate change were the conversion from dry to wet and from cold to warm. In the whole study period, the wetland landscape fragmentation was mainly manifested in the decrease of MPS, with a decrement of 48.95 hm2, and the increase of PD, with an increment of 0.006 ind x hm(-2).

  15. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming

    2016-03-01

    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation.

  16. Mammal diversity in the middle basin of the river Tambopata, Puno, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the mammalian diversity in the Tambopata River middle basin, one of the most important information gaps in Peru. Five sites were evaluated in Puno (San Fermín 850 m, Curva Alegre 950 m, Challohuma 1200 m, Yanahuaya 1600 m, and Yanacocha 1985 m. The trapping effort was 7072 trap-nights and 201 mistnet-nights. 76 species were recorded in the study area, including 16 species under some conservation’s category. Bats and rodents were the most diverse orders (67.5%. The diversity indices of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson for small mammals show a moderate and mild negative correlation with elevation, respectively. Meanwhile the altitude is negatively correlated with the relative abundance (RA of bats, and positively with the RA of non-volant mammals. The marsupials Marmosa (Micoureus demerarae, Marmosops bishopi and Marmosops impavidus; the rodent Neacomys musseri, and bats Platyrrhinus albericoi, P. masu, P. nigellus, Eumops auripendulus and Cormura brevirostris are first records for the department of Puno. Akodon baliolus and Oxymycterus juliacae are considered valid species. The species Sturnira lilium and Akodon baliolus were those with the highest RA. Our records, added to published and unpublished data, indicate that the Río Tambopata watershed is habitat of 141 species of mammals. Finally, we recommend the extension of the southern part of the buffer zone of the PNBS to include the montane forests of Yanacocha, to protect the unique middleelevation fauna of the Río Tambopata watershed.

  17. Spring Changeover of the Middle Atmosphere Circulation Compared with Rocket Wind Data up to 80 Km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzian, G.; Tarasenko, D. A.; Lauter, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    The middle atmosphere circulation is governed by two seasonal basic states in winter and summer, twice a year separated by relatively shortlived reversal periods. These seasonal basic states of circulation and the spring changeover period between them are investigated.

  18. Short-Term Optimal Operation of a Wind-PV-Hydro Complementary Installation: Yalong River, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively use clean renewable energy to improve the capacity of the power grid to absorb new energy and optimize the power grid structure has become one of China’s current issues. The Yalong River Wind-PV-Hydro complementary clean energy base was chosen as the research object from which to analyze the output complementarity principle and characteristics of wind farms, photovoltaic power plants, and hydropower stations. Then, an optimization scheduling model was established with the objective of minimizing the amount of abandoned wind and photovoltaic power and maximizing the stored energy in cascade hydropower stations. A Progress Optimality Algorithm (POA was used for the short-term optimal operation of Wind-PV-Hydro combinations. The results show that use of cascaded hydropower storage capacity can compensate for large-scale wind power and photovoltaic power, provide a relatively sustained and stable power supply for the grid. Wind-PV-Hydro complementary operation not only promotes wind power and photovoltaic power consumption but also improves the efficiency of using the original transmission channel of hydropower. This is of great significance to many developing countries in formatting a new green approach, realizing low-carbon power dispatch and trade and promoting regional economic development.

  19. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  20. Channelization and floodplain forests: impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Sammy L. King

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased...

  1. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

  2. Metamorphism and plutonism around the middle and south forks of the Feather River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Anna Martta

    1976-01-01

    The area around the Middle and South Forks of the Feather River provides information on metamorphic and igneous processes that bear on the origin of andesitic and granitic magmas in general and on the variation of their potassium content in particular. In the north, the area joins the Pulga and Bucks Lake quadrangles studied previously. Tectonically, this area is situated in the southern part of an arcuate segment of the Nevadan orogenic belt in the northwestern Sierra Nevada. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed calcalkaline island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite with interbedded tuff layers (the Franklin Canyon Formation), all probably correlative with Devonian rocks in the Klamath Mountains. Younger rocks form a sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks including some limestone (The Horseshoe Bend Formation), probably Permian in age. All the volcanic and sedimentary rocks were folded and recrystallized to the greenschist facies during the Nevadan (Jurassic) orogeny and were invaded by monzotonalitic magmas shortly thereafter. A second lineation and metamorphism to the epidote-amphibolite facies developed in a narrow zone around the plutons. In light of the concept of plate tectonics, it is suggested that the early (Devonian?) island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite (the Franklin Canyon Formation) were derived from the mantle above a Benioff zone by partial melting of peridotite in hydrous conditions. The water was probably derived from an oceanic plate descending to the mantle. Later (Permian?) magmas were mainly basaltic; some discontinuous layers of potassium-rich rhyolite indicate a change into anhydrous conditions and a deeper level of magma generation. The plutonic magmas that invaded the metamorphic rocks at the end of the Jurassic may contain material from the mantle, the subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the downfolded metamorphic rocks. The ratio of partial melts from these three sources may have changed with time

  3. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  4. Thinning shock and response to fertilizer less than expected in young Douglas-fir stand at Wind River Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington; John. Shumway

    2002-01-01

    Three thinning treatments (thinned to 3.7 by 3.7 m, thinned to 4.3 by 4.3 m, and an unthinned control treatment with nominal spacing averaging 2.6 by 2.6 m) were installed in a 10-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation growing on a low-quality site at the Wind River Experimental Forest in southwest Washington. Two...

  5. Variations of Runoff and Sediment Load in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China (1950-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Lachun; Zeng, Chunfen; Wang, Dong; Liu, Dengfeng; Wu, Xutong

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of monthly runoff series obtained in 1950-2013 and annual sediment load measured in 1956--2013 at five key hydrological stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, this study used the Mann-Kendall methods to identify trend and abrupt changes of runoff and sediment load in relation to human activities. The results were as follows: (1) The annual and flood season runoffs showed significant decreasing trends at Yichang station, and showed slight downward trends at Hankou and Datong stations, while the abrupt changes of dry season runoff at Yichang, Hankou and Datong stations occurred in about 2007 and the change points were followed by significant increasing trends. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam, which began to operate in 2003, influenced the variations of runoff in the mainstream of Yangtze River, but the effect weakened with the distance along the downstream direction from TGD. (2) Since the 1990s, annual sediment loads at Yichang, Hankou, and Datong stations have been decreasing significantly, and after 2002, the annual sediment load at Yichang dropped below that of Hankou and Datong. The dams and deforestation/forestation contributed to the significant decreasing trend of the sediment load. In addition, the Three Gorges Dam aggravated the downward trend and caused the erosion of the riverbed and riverbanks in the middle and lower reaches. (3) The runoff and sediment load flowing from Dongting Lake into the mainstream of the Yangtze River showed significant decreasing trends at Chenglingji station after 1970s, and in contrast, slight increase in the sediment flow from Poyang Lake to the mainstream of the Yangtze River at Hukou station were detected over the post-TGD period (2003-2013). The result of the study will be an important foundation for watershed sustainable development of the Yangtze River under the human activities.

  6. Variations of Runoff and Sediment Load in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China (1950-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Lachun; Zeng, Chunfen; Wang, Dong; Liu, Dengfeng; Wu, Xutong

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of monthly runoff series obtained in 1950–2013 and annual sediment load measured in 1956–-2013 at five key hydrological stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, this study used the Mann-Kendall methods to identify trend and abrupt changes of runoff and sediment load in relation to human activities. The results were as follows: (1) The annual and flood season runoffs showed significant decreasing trends at Yichang station, and showed slight downward trends at Hankou and Datong stations, while the abrupt changes of dry season runoff at Yichang, Hankou and Datong stations occurred in about 2007 and the change points were followed by significant increasing trends. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam, which began to operate in 2003, influenced the variations of runoff in the mainstream of Yangtze River, but the effect weakened with the distance along the downstream direction from TGD. (2) Since the 1990s, annual sediment loads at Yichang, Hankou, and Datong stations have been decreasing significantly, and after 2002, the annual sediment load at Yichang dropped below that of Hankou and Datong. The dams and deforestation/forestation contributed to the significant decreasing trend of the sediment load. In addition, the Three Gorges Dam aggravated the downward trend and caused the erosion of the riverbed and riverbanks in the middle and lower reaches. (3) The runoff and sediment load flowing from Dongting Lake into the mainstream of the Yangtze River showed significant decreasing trends at Chenglingji station after 1970s, and in contrast, slight increase in the sediment flow from Poyang Lake to the mainstream of the Yangtze River at Hukou station were detected over the post-TGD period (2003–2013). The result of the study will be an important foundation for watershed sustainable development of the Yangtze River under the human activities. PMID:27479591

  7. Variations of Runoff and Sediment Load in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China (1950-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available On the basis of monthly runoff series obtained in 1950-2013 and annual sediment load measured in 1956--2013 at five key hydrological stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, this study used the Mann-Kendall methods to identify trend and abrupt changes of runoff and sediment load in relation to human activities. The results were as follows: (1 The annual and flood season runoffs showed significant decreasing trends at Yichang station, and showed slight downward trends at Hankou and Datong stations, while the abrupt changes of dry season runoff at Yichang, Hankou and Datong stations occurred in about 2007 and the change points were followed by significant increasing trends. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam, which began to operate in 2003, influenced the variations of runoff in the mainstream of Yangtze River, but the effect weakened with the distance along the downstream direction from TGD. (2 Since the 1990s, annual sediment loads at Yichang, Hankou, and Datong stations have been decreasing significantly, and after 2002, the annual sediment load at Yichang dropped below that of Hankou and Datong. The dams and deforestation/forestation contributed to the significant decreasing trend of the sediment load. In addition, the Three Gorges Dam aggravated the downward trend and caused the erosion of the riverbed and riverbanks in the middle and lower reaches. (3 The runoff and sediment load flowing from Dongting Lake into the mainstream of the Yangtze River showed significant decreasing trends at Chenglingji station after 1970s, and in contrast, slight increase in the sediment flow from Poyang Lake to the mainstream of the Yangtze River at Hukou station were detected over the post-TGD period (2003-2013. The result of the study will be an important foundation for watershed sustainable development of the Yangtze River under the human activities.

  8. Statistical Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Middle Reaches area of the Yellow River During 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the hourly TBB and cloud images of FY-2E, meteorological observation data, and NCEP reanalysis data with 1°×1° spatial resolution from May to October during 2005-2014, the climatic characteristics of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River were analyzed, including mesoscale convective complex (MCC), persistent elongated convective systems (PECS), meso-βscale MCC (MβCCS) and Meso-βscale PECS (MβECS). The results are as follows: (1) MCS tended to occur over the middle and south of Gansu, the middle and south of Shanxi, the middle and north of Shaanxi, and the border of Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. MCS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River formed in May to October, and was easy to develop the mature in summer. MCC and MβECS were main MCS causing precipitation in summer. (2) The daily variation of MCS was obvious, and usually formed and matured in the afternoon and the evening to early morning of the next day. Most MCS generated fast and dissipated slowly, and were mainly move to the easterly and southeasterly, but the moving of round shape MCS was less than the elongated shape's. (3) The average TBB for the round shape MCS was lower than the elongated shape MCS. The development of MCC was most vigorous and strong, and it was the strongest in August, while that of MβECS wasn't obviously influenced by the seasonal change. The average eccentricity of the mature MCC and PECS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River was greater than that in USA, and the former was greater than in the lower reaches area of the Yellow River, while the latter was smaller. (4) The characteristics of rainfall caused by MCS were complex over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, and there were obvious regional difference. There was wider, stronger and longer precipitation when the multiple MCS merged. The rainfall in the center of cloud area was obviously greater than in other region of cloud area. The

  9. Prediction of Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Ning, L.; Liu, J.; Yan, M.; Sun, W.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Summer extreme precipitation (SEP) often causes severe landslide, debris flow and floods over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin(MLYRB), so skillful prediction of the SEP is critical to the future climate adaptions and mitigations. In this work, the characteristic region over the MLYRB (27°N-32°N,108°1-118°E) is defined by the spatial mode of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) of SEP over the China from 1961 to 2014. A physics-based empirical model (PEM) of SEP predictions is built with two preceding predictors with significant physical influences on the SEP over the MLYRB. The first predictor is the spring sea surface temperature (SST) over the Northern Indian Ocean (20°S-20°N,50°E-95°E), and the second predictor is the spring sea surface pressure (SLP) over the Aleutian Island (50°N-70°N,160°E-160°W). Analyses of physical mechanism show that when the spring SST over the Northern Indian Ocean is higher, the South Asian High (SAH) extends to the east and the western Pacific sub-tropical high (WPSH) extends to the west, therefore, the generated secondary circulation induces anomalous upward motions and more water vapor transportation to the MLYRB, resulting more SEP. Meanwhile, when the spring SLP over the Aleutian Island is lower, the also WPSH extends to the west, which leads to a negative omega anomaly centered the MLYRB and more water vapor transportation to the MLYRB, resulting in more SEP. The regression model is built using the data from a training period from 1961 to 1999 with correlation coefficient skill of 0.57 (p<0.01) for prediction of SEP in 1961-1999. The independent forecast of the PEM shows that it is skillful in SEP prediction with the correlation coefficient between observed SEP and model-simulated SEP over the validation period 2000-2014 is 0.51 (p<0.05). This finding shows that the preceding spring SST and SLP can provide useful information for prediction of SEP, and the methodology

  10. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sedimentary and hydrological studies of the Holocene palaeofloods in the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Ma, Yugai

    2015-01-01

    Holocene slackwater deposits along the river channels were used to study the magnitude and frequency of the palaeofloods that occurred prior to gauged and historical data sets all over the world. Palaeohydrological investigations along the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China, identified palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) at several sites along the cliffs bordering the river channel. The SWDs are intercalated within Holocene eolian loess-soil profiles and clastic slope deposits. The palaeoflood SWDs were differentiated from eolian loess and soil by the sedimentary criteria and analytical results including magnetic susceptibility and particle-size distribution, similar to the flood SWDs in 2012, which indicated that these well-sorted palaeoflood SWD beds were deposited from the suspended sediment load in floodwaters. They have recorded the extraordinary palaeoflood events which occurred between 3200 and 3000 a BP as dated by the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with pedostratigraphic correlations with the previously studied Holocene pedo-stratigraphy in the Yellow River drainage basin. Manning slope-area calculations estimate the peak discharged for these palaeoflood events to range from 43,290 to 49,830 m3/s. The drainage area of the study site is 489,900 km2. It is 2.0-2.5 times the largest gauged flood (21,000 m3/s) that has ever occurred since 1934. These events also occurred on Yellow River tributaries, including the Weihe, Jinghe and Qishuihe Rivers. These flood events are therefore considered to be a regional expression of known climatic events in the northern hemisphere and demonstrate Holocene climatic instability. This study provides important data in understanding the interactions between regional hydro-climatic systems and global change in semiarid and subhumid regions.

  12. Assessment of Hydrologic Alterations Caused by the Three Gorges Dam in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuzhi Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic regime plays a major role in structuring biotic diversity within river ecosystems by controlling key habitat conditions within the river channel and floodplain. Daily flow records from seven hydrological stations and the range of variability approach were utilized to investigate the variability and spatial pattern of the hydrologic alterations induced by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Results show that the impoundment of the TGD disturbed the hydrologic regime downstream and directly affected the streamflow variations. The rate of changes and the annual extreme conditions were more affected by the TGD, particularly the low-flow relevant parameters. The alterations in the hydrologic regime were mainly caused by the TGD storing water during early autumn and releasing water during winter and spring. The effects on spatial patterns decreased as the distance from the dam increased, which was mainly attributed to the inflows from large tributaries along the Yangtze River as well as the interaction with the two largest natural lakes (i.e., Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake. These hydrologic alterations not only break the natural balance of eco-flow regimes but also result in undesirable ecological effects, particularly in terms of habitat availability for the fish community.

  13. Long term effects of climate on human adaptation in the middle Gila River Valley, Arizona, America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, T.; Ertsen, M.W.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Hohokam, an irrigation-based society in the American South West, used the river valleys of the Salt and Gila Rivers between 500 and 1500 AD to grow their crops. Such irrigated crops are linking human agency, water sources and the general natural environment. In order to grow crops, water

  14. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  15. Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

  16. Metal and metalloid distribution in different environmental compartments of the middle Xingu River in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Regina Gomes; Faccin, Henrique; Molin, Thaís Ramos Dal; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Amado, Lílian Lund

    2017-12-15

    Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water. PERMANOVA showed that the metals behaved differently in the water throughout the monitored season and between sampling points. The sites with mining activity were the regions that were the most contaminated by metals. Samples of sediment (Ni>18mg/kg and Cr>37.30mg/kg) and soil (Pb>72mg/kg, Cr>75mg/kg and Ni>30mg/Kg) showed concentrations above the recommended by local legislation. Metal values in the muscle of both fish species were relatively low at all sampling points and in both monitored seasons. Concentrations in water, sediment, and soil showed that some points of the Xingu River, Fresco River and mining pits are contaminated by trace elements, mainly As, Hg, Cr, Pb, and Ni. This was the first study about trace elements in the Middle Xingu River, which leads us to conclude that rainfall and cassiterite mining activities strongly influence the mobilization of metals, especially in abiotic compartments. However, the fish analyzed did not exhibit relevant levels of contamination. This indicates low risk for human consumption. Additionally, results highlight the need to establish local criteria to define contamination limits for different metals while taking into account local geochemistry particularities and biome diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Urban Agglomeration and Prevention Suggestion of Waterlogging in Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Liu; Youjie, Jin; Jiaqi, Dai

    2018-03-01

    The variation trend of temperature and precipitation during flood season in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin in recent 50 years and change characteristics of rainfall in five typical flood prone cities are analysed. Aiming at waterlogging problems in the urban agglomeration of middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the comprehensive prevention and control suggestions are put forward. The results showed that: the temperature trend in the basin decreased and then increased, and the precipitation showed a downward-rising-downward trend, no mutation occurred; The incidence of heavy rainfall events in the five typical cities with daily rainfall more than 50mm showed an upward trend, and increased significantly after 2002. The intensity of precipitation increased gradually. Climate change makes urban agglomeration waterlogging disasters become increasingly prominent in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  18. Terrace system of the middle and lower Sázava River

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balatka, B.; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2006), s. 69-81 ISSN 1335-9541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fluvial terrace system * geomorphological evolution * Sázava River Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Post-glacial landform evolution in the middle Satluj River valley, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incision. Climatically, the event corresponds to the post-glacial strengthened Indian summer monsoon. (ISM). ... middle Satluj valley extreme events shape the land- scape besides ...... District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA), Kinnaur,.

  20. Assessment of bridge scour in the lower, middle, and upper Yangtze River estuary with riverbed sonar profiling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuwei; Xu, Y Jun; Cheng, Heqin; Wang, Bo; Lu, Xuejun

    2017-12-12

    Riverbed scour of bridge piers can cause rapid loss in foundation strength, leading to sudden bridge collapse. This study used multi-beam echo sounders (Seabat 7125) to map riverbed surrounding the foundations of four major bridges in the lower, middle, and upper reaches of the 700-km Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) during June 2015 and September 2016. The high-resolution data were utilized to analyze the morphology of the bridge scour and the deformation of the wide-area riverbed (i.e., 5-18 km long and 1.3-8.3 km wide). In addition, previous bathymetric measurements collected in 1998, 2009, and 2013 were used to determine riverbed erosion and deposition at the bridge reaches. Our study shows that the scour depth surrounding the bridge foundations progressed up to 4.4-19.0 m in the YRE. Over the past 5-15 years, the total channel erosion in some river reaches was up to 15-17 m, possessing a threat to the bridge safety in the YRE. Tide cycles seemed to have resulted in significant variation in the scour morphology in the lower and middle YRE. In the lower YRE, the riverbed morphology displayed one long erosional ditch on both sides of the bridge foundations and a long-strip siltation area distributed upstream and downstream of the bridge foundations; in the middle YRE, the riverbed morphology only showed erosional morphology surrounding the bridge foundations. Large dunes caused deep cuts and steeper contours in the bridge scour. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the high-resolution grid model formed by point cloud data of multi-beam echo sounders can clearly display the morphology of the bridge scour in terms of wide areas and that the sonar technique is a very useful tool in the assessment of bridge scours.

  1. Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy: preliminary results about aquifer recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the middle Brenta River plain there is a unconfined aquifer that represents an important groundwater resource in Veneto region. In this area the main groundwater recharge factor is related to the stream seepage: the water dispersion from the Brenta river is active with variable intensity from the foothill to the alignment Nove di Bassano - Cartigliano (Province of Vicenza. In order to mitigate the expected groundwater effects, due to future important waterworks withdrawals provided by the regional water resources management plans, an experimental project of Managed Aquifer Recharge has started, by means of the realization of some river transversal ramps. The construction of pilot works, partially completed, were preceded by a specific hydrogeological monitoring program, aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MAR actions in terms of comparison between pre-and post-operam conditions. Thanks to the development of a site-specific methodology, aimed to the quantification of the artificial infiltration rate, and after some years of monitoring controls of the hydrological and hydrogeological regimes, it is now possible to evaluate the extent and the rate of the recharge effects in groundwater due to ramps realization. The monitoring plan will be continued in the medium-long term. Some innovative approaches, based for example on the use of groundwater temperature measurements as recharge tracer, will help to validate the preliminary results.

  2. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  3. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  4. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  5. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  6. Changes in river channel pattern as a result of the construction, operation and decommissioning of watermills – the case of the middle reach of the River Liswarta near Krzepice, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Fajer Maria

    2018-01-01

    Changes in river channel pattern in the middle reach of the River Liswarta and in the lower reaches of its tributaries near Krzepice were analysed, and were related to the construction, operation and decommissioning of watermills. For this purpose, old maps which covered the period from the beginning of the 18th century until the 20th century were used alongside written historical sources. Maps from the first half of the 19th century provided valuable source material. Traces of old mill water...

  7. A Research Plan for Assessing the Power and Energy Capability of a River Network Under an Integrated Wind/Hydro-Electric Dispatchable Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, John Czeslaw

    The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.

  8. Fluvial River Regime in Disturbed River Systems: A Case Study of Evolution of the Middle Yangtze River in Post-TGD (Three Gorges Dam), China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Lu, J; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluvial river is a kind of open system that can interact with its outside environments and give response to disturbance from outside on the earth. It can adjust itself to the disturbances outside the system and reflects new characteristics in the process of reaching a new equilibrium. The TGD

  9. A 30000 yr record of erosion rates from cosmogenic 10Be in middle European river terraces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaller, M.; Blanckenburg, von F.; Veldkamp, A.; Tebbens, L.A.; Hovius, N.; Kubik, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Cosmogenic 10Be in river-borne quartz sand records a time-integrated erosion rate representative of an entire drainage basin. When sequestered in a terrace of known age, paleo-erosion rates may be recovered from the nuclide content of the terrace material. Paleo-erosion rates between 30 and 80

  10. Distribution and abundance of fish populations in the Middle Wabash River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teppen, T.C.; Gammon, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A field investigation was made of the distribution and abundance of fish within a 161-km portion of the Wabash River to determine effects of heated effluents as well as changes in water quality on ichthyofaunal communities within the river. Twenty-six sampling stations were electrofished, sequentially, four times in 1974 with extended sampling efforts made in the vicinity of two power-generating stations studied since 1967 and 1968. During August an overall rise in river temperature of 4 0 C was observed from upstream to downstream, with several chemical factors also showing slight increases. Although the majority of species populations were influenced either negatively or positively by the gradient of river conditions available to them, the only statistically significant parameters found in the analysis of community structure involved a lower diversity by weight below Terre Haute and a greater abundance of fish above the Cayuga generating station. Decreases occurred downstream in populations of redhorse (Moxostoma sp.), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), with increases downstream observed in flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), shortnose gar (Lepisosteus platostomus), longnose gar (E. osseus), and bowfin (Amia calva) populations. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were present in large numbers throughout the study area with a tremendous population increase evident in recent years. Although species associations were variable among the segments, overall community parameters remained relatively unaffected

  11. Distribution of C, N, P in aquatic plants of some lakes in the middle of Yangtze river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang; Wu Ying; Zhou Juzhen; Zhang Jing; Li Wei

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing three elements (C, N, P, 13 C) in the ten aquatic plants of nine lakes in the middle of Yangtze River, the concentrations of C, N and δ 13 C in leaves of aquatic macrophytes depend on the environment where they live in. The concentration of C and N in leaves of submerged macrophytes is significantly lower than that of leaves of floating and emergent macrophytes because of limitation of inorganic carbon; And at the same time, because δ 13 C of inorganic carbon in water is higher than that of CO 2 in air, δ 13 C of leaves of submerged macrophytes is higher than that of leaves of floating and emergent macrophytes. (authors)

  12. Influence of uranium and thorium in the natural radioactivity in shales from the middle Amazon river region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, A.L.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of using the fission track registration technique in the determination of the uranium and thorium content in shales from the middle Amazon river region is studied. The above technique permits, through the determination of the uranium concentration, to establish a correlation between the uranium content and the organic matter present in the shale. In establishing the ratio between the fission tracks due to 238 U and 235 U, the sample was contaminated with natural uranium and analized, so that no modifications on the analysis conditions might change or distort the results. The experimental results were satisfactory and they may contribute to the study of the industrial exploration of these energy sources as well as to the analysis of problems related to environmental control. (Author) [pt

  13. Flood Simulation based on ArcGIS in the Ungauged Area from Fugu to Wubao of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangyan; Yan, Yiqi; Jiang, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    The Qingliangsigou and Jialuhe in the middle Yellow River are selected as the typical tributaries, history flood data in 1980-2013 and Horton infiltration capacity curve are used to calculate the stable infiltration rate and establish the model of runoff yield and concentration, the parameters are calibrated and applied in the ungauged area from Fugu to Wubao. The study area is divided into 20 units based on ArcGIS, Muskingum method parameters in each unit are calibrated, and typical floods of ungauged area from Fugu to Wubao are simulated. The results show that the simulation effects are good: the average error of peak time is about -0.4h, the error of peak discharge is in the forecasting allowable range, and the deterministic coefficient is 0.66.

  14. [Ecological risk assessment of dam construction for terrestrial plant species in middle reach of Lancangjiang River, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Shi-Kui; Liu, Shi-Liang; Peng, Ming-Chun; Li, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Qing-He; Zhang, Zhao-Ling

    2012-08-01

    Taking the surrounding areas of Xiaowan Reservoir in the middle reach of Lancangjiang River as study area, and based on the vegetation investigation at three sites including electricity transmission area (site 1), electricity-transfer substation and roadsides to the substation (site 2), and emigration area (site 3) in 1997 (before dam construction), another investigation was conducted on the vegetation composition, plant coverage, and dominant species at the same sites in 2010 (after dam construction), aimed to evaluate the ecological risk of the dam construction for the terrestrial plant species in middle reach of Lancangjiang River. There was an obvious difference in the summed dominance ratio of dominant species at the three sites before and after the dam construction. According the types of species (dominant and non-dominant species) and the changes of plant dominance, the ecological risk (ER) for the plant species was categorized into 0 to IV, i.e., no or extremely low ecological risk (0), low ecological risk (I), medium ecological risk (II), high ecological risk (III), and extremely high ecological risk (IV). As affected by the dam construction, the majority of the species were at ER III, and a few species were at ER IV. The percentage of the plant species at ER III and ER IV at site 3 was higher than that at sites 1 and 2. The decrease or loss of native plants and the increase of alien or invasive plants were the major ecological risks caused by the dam construction. Effective protection strategies should be adopted to mitigate the ecological risk of the dam construction for the terrestrial plants at species level.

  15. Combined effects of multiple large-scale hydraulic engineering on water stages in the middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiao; Sun, Zhaohua; Li, Yitian; Yang, Yunping

    2017-12-01

    Investigation of water stages influenced by human projects provides better understanding of riverine geomorphological processes and river management. Based on hydrological data collected over 60 years, an extreme stage-extreme discharge analysis and a specific-gauge analysis were performed to research the individual and combined effects of multiple engineering projects on a long-term time series of water stages in the middle Yangtze River. Conclusions are as follows. (1) In accordance with the operation years of the Jingjiang cutoff (CF), the Gezhouba Dam (GD), and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the time series (1955-2012) was divided into periods of P1 (1955-1970), P2 (1971-1980), P3 (1981-2002), and P4 (2003 - 2012). Water stage changes during P1-P2, P2-P3, and P3-P4 are varied because of the differences in the types and scales of these projects. The stage decreased at Shashi and increased at Luoshan owing to the operation of the CF. Additionally, after the GD was constructed, the low-flow stage decreased in the upstream reach of Chenglingji and increased in its downstream reach, whereas the flood stage merely decreased at Yichang. Moreover, the TGD resulted in an overall decrease in low-flow stages and a limited increase in flood stages because of the differential adjustments of river geometry and resistance between the low-flow channel and flood channel. (2) Although differences existed in the scouring mechanisms between streamwise erosion associated with dams and headward erosion associated with cutoffs, particular bed textures in the gravel reach led to a similar adjustment that stage reduction at Shashi was the greatest of all stations, which caused the flow slope and sediment transport capacity to decrease in the sandy reach. (3) These engineering projects caused changes in average low-flow and flood stages that varied between Yichang (- 1.58 and - 0.08 m respectively), Shashi (- 3.54 and - 0.12 m), and Luoshan (1.15 and 0.97 m) from P1 to P4. However, less

  16. Runoff and sediment variation in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yao, Wenyi; Xiao, Peiqing; Sun, Weiying

    2018-02-01

    Massive water and soil conservation works (WSCW) have been conducted in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River since 1982. With the impending effects of climate change, it is necessary to reconsider the effects of WSCW on runoff and sediment variation at decadal and regional scales. Using long-term official and synthesized data, the WSCW impacts on reducing water and soil loss were studied in Sanchuanhe River watershed. Results showed that the sediment and runoff generated from this area showed a decreasing trend in the past 50 years. A great progress has been achieved in erosion control since the 1970s. After the 4 soil and water conservation harnessing stages during the period from 1970 to 2006, the sediment and runoff yield showed decreases with the extension of harnessing. The results revealed that human activities exerted the largest effects on the sediment reduction and explained 66.6% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. The contribution of rainfall variation to runoff reduction was as large as human activities. A great benefit have been obtained in water and soil loss control in this area.

  17. LAND-USE CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECT ON FLOODPLAIN AGGRADATION ALONG THE MIDDLE-TISZA RIVER, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÍMEA KISS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Land-use changes and their effect on overbank sediment accumulation were investigated on the floodplain of Middle-Tisza River. Military survey maps (1783, 1860, 1883 and 1890 and aerial photos (1950, 1965, 1980 and 2000 were used to evaluate land-use changes and to calculate the vegetational roughness of the area. To determinate the rate of overbank sedimentation sediment samples were collected from a pit, the grain-size, content of organic matter, heavy metal content (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd and pH were measured. Until 1950 meadows and pastures were typical on the floodplain, gallery-forest was along the river, the oxbow-lake and the artificial levee. Notable landuse changes were detected in the second half of the 20th century, as the aerial photo taken in 1965 shows extensive forestry in the area. These land-use changes affected the average vegetational roughness, as it has been doubled since the disappearance of grasslands. Land-use changes highly affect the aggradation, as the increased roughness decreases the flood velocity on the floodplain, causing accelerated aggradation. Using Pb marker horizons and grain-size changes the studied sediment profile was compared to dated profiles (Braun et al. 2003, thus, the sediment accumulation rate could be determined for the periods of 1858-1965 and 1965-2005. According to our measurements the accumulation rate was doubled since 1965, very likely in connection with the doubled vegetational roughness.

  18. Dependence of Wetland Vegetation on Hydrological Regime in a Large Floodplain Lake (Poyang Lake) in the Middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Tan, Z.; Xu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Exemplified in the Yangtze River floodplain lake, Poyang Lake, investigations were carried out to examine the dependence of vegetation on hydrological variables. The Lake is one of the few lakes that remain naturally connected to the Yangtze River. The Lake surface expanses to 4000 km2 in wet seasons, and reduces to less than 1000 km2 in dry seasons, creating some 3000 km2 vital wetland habitats for many animals. Remote sensing was used to obtain the spatial distribution of wetland vegetations. A lake hydrodynamic model using MIKE 21 was employed to determine the variability of wetland inundation. In-situ high time frequency observations of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater depth were also conducted in a typical wetland transect of 1 km long. Vegetations were sampled periodically to obtain species composition, diversity and biomass. Results showed that the spatial distribution of vegetation highly depended on the inundation duration and depth. Optimal hydrological variables existed for the typical vegetations in Poyang Lake wetland. Numerical simulations using HYDRUS-1D further demonstrated that both groundwater depth and soil moisture had significant effects on the growth of vegetation and the water demand in terms of transpiration, even in a wet climate zone such as middle Yangtze River. It was found that the optimal groundwater depths existed for both above- and belowground biomass. Simulation scenarios indicated that climate changes and human modification of hydrology would affect the water usage of vegetation and may cause a strategic adaptation of the vegetation to the stressed hydrological conditions. The study revealed new knowledge on the high dependence of wetland vegetation on both surface water regime and groundwater depths, in wet climate zone. Outcomes of this study may provide support for an integrated management of balancing water resources development and wetland sustainability maintenance in Poyang Lake, and other floodplain wetlands, with

  19. Development of CE-QUAL-W2 models for the Middle Fork Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Kim, Yoonhee; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic (CE-QUAL-W2) models of Hills Creek Lake (HCL), Lookout Point Lake (LOP), and Dexter Lake (DEX) on the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), and models of Green Peter Lake and Foster Lake on the South Santiam River systems in western Oregon were updated and recalibrated for a wide range of flow and meteorological conditions. These CE-QUAL-W2 models originally were developed by West Consultants, Inc., for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey included a reassessment of the models’ calibration in more recent years—2002, 2006, 2008, and 2011—categorized respectively as low, normal, high, and extremely high flow calendar years. These years incorporated current dam-operation practices and more available data than the time period used in the original calibration. Modeled water temperatures downstream of both HCL and LOP-DEX on the MFWR were within an average of 0.68 degree Celsius (°C) of measured values; modeled temperatures downstream of Foster Dam on the South Santiam River were within an average of 0.65°C of measured values. A new CE-QUAL-W2 model was developed and calibrated for the riverine MFWR reach between Hills Creek Dam and the head of LOP, allowing an evaluation of the flow and temperature conditions in the entire MFWR system from HCL to Dexter Dam. The complex bathymetry and long residence time of HCL, combined with the relatively deep location of the power and regulating outlet structures at Hills Creek Dam, led to a HCL model that was highly sensitive to several outlet and geometric parameters related to dam structures (STR TOP, STR BOT, STR WIDTH). Release temperatures from HCL were important and often persisted downstream as they were incorporated in the MFWR model and the LOP-DEX model (downstream of MFWR). The models tended to underpredict the measured temperature of water releases from Dexter Dam during the late-September-through-December drawdown period in 2002, and again (to a lesser extent) in

  20. SELF-CLEANING ABILITY OF THE MIDDLE AND LOWER COURSES OF THE UBERABA RIVER, UPGRH-GD8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio R. Salla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple and balanced use of water resources has become a difficult task, since the implementation and continuous improvement of management systems still fail to keep abreast of the constant changes occurring in the environment du e to human activities. Water planning and management on a river basin scale requires the use of computational tools that allow for joint modeling of water quantity and quali ty. This study involved an assessment of the self-cleaning ability of the middle and lower courses of the Uberaba River, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This river is extremely important because its waters supply a population of approximately 322 500 distributed among the municipalities of Uberaba, Veríssimo and Conceição das Alagoas. The water quality parameters of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate and total phosph orus were modeled for the peri od of October 2012 to September 2013, using the AQUATOOL system. The constants of bio chemical reactions were calibrated by the trial and error method. The sensitivity analysis of the initially calibrated constants K a , K d , KN oa and KN ai and of the quality parameters of the intermediate inputs did not reveal significant variations in wa ter quality. In the analysis of pollution scenarios, considering the critical flow Q 7,10 , it was found that organic nitrogen, ammonia and nitrate remained within the levels established by Minas Gerais (2008 and Brazil (2005. The concentration of dissolved oxygen would have to increase by 156% when compared with the value of the driest month only i n the intermediate input that comprises the entire urban area of the city of Ubera ba, whose urban streams receive domestic and industrial effluents. On the other hand, t he parameters BOD 5 and P total were the most problematic, with h igh values in almost all the intermediate inputs, except for the Jataí and Preguiça streams, whose subbasins have minor

  1. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  2. Litho stratigraphy of precambrian rocks in middle Xingu river basin -Altamira, Para state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.V. dos; Sousa Filho, E.E. dos; Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The basement rocks from the Xingu river is divided into five litho stratigraphic units. They are broadly characterized by domains of ortho and para gneisses, volcano-sedimentary sequences, migmatites and by syntectonic and latetectonic granitoids. In addition acid to intermediate volcanics (Iriri formation) and several sub-volcanic granitic plutons (Maloquinha suite) also occur within the investigated area, as well as basic intrusions and minor arenous sediments covers, slightly metamorphosed. Geochronological studies carried out on the basement rocks and on the volcanics demonstrates an geologic evolution restricted to the trans Amazonian cycle (2.1 - 1.9 Ga). Sr isotopic evolution (high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios) suggest that strong reworking of crustal material occurred at this time, in association with the tectonic evolution of the Maroni-Itacaiunas mobile belt related to the lower proterozoic, which borders the northern and northerneast part of the Archean central Amazonian province. (author)

  3. Modeling water quality in the middle segment of the Luyano River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel Rojas, Lino; Alberro Macias, Nancy; Rodriguez GonzalesZahilys; Herrero, Maydel; Borroto Portela, Jorge; Rodrigues Garcez, Anel; Dominguez Catases, Judith; Griffith Martinez, Jose; Derivet Zarzabal, Milagros; Flores Juan, Pedro; Cuesta Borges, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    The methodology for the modelling of three parameters that characterize the quality of water: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen and ammonium in a stretch of Luyano river using the software RIOSep v.2.0. The procedure combined the use of radiotracer techniques for estimating the hydrodynamic parameters of the current with physicochemical techniques for the determination of its basic parameters. The lifting of the hydrodynamic parameters in the current was conducted with the use of 99mTc as a radiotracer. Simultaneously with flow determination, water was sampled at five stations in the main channel and two tributaries, in order to determine the physicochemical parameters of interest. The result was a model that describes accurately the Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen behaviour (more than 90%), and showed good result for ammonium, so it adequately characterizes the processes of purification and oxygen balance in the water. (Author)

  4. Wind forcing controls on river plume spreading on a tropical continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarya, A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf is located close to the Equator in the Indonesian Archipelago, hosting a complex of coral reefs along its oceanic edge. The Berau coral reefs have a very high biodiversity, but the area is under serious risk due to river-derived nutrients and sediments. The region is

  5. Development of a channel classification to evaluate potential for cottonwood restoration, lower segments of the Middle Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Huhmann, Brittany L.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents development of a spatially explicit river and flood-plain classification to evaluate potential for cottonwood restoration along the Sharpe and Fort Randall segments of the Middle Missouri River. This project involved evaluating existing topographic, water-surface elevation, and soils data to determine if they were sufficient to create a classification similar to the Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) developed by Jacobson and others (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5256) and developing a geomorphically based classification to apply to evaluating restoration potential.Existing topographic, water-surface elevation, and soils data for the Middle Missouri River were not sufficient to replicate the LCPI. The 1/3-arc-second National Elevation Dataset delineated most of the topographic complexity and produced cumulative frequency distributions similar to a high-resolution 5-meter topographic dataset developed for the Lower Missouri River. However, lack of bathymetry in the National Elevation Dataset produces a potentially critical bias in evaluation of frequently flooded surfaces close to the river. High-resolution soils data alone were insufficient to replace the information content of the LCPI. In test reaches in the Lower Missouri River, soil drainage classes from the Soil Survey Geographic Database database correctly classified 0.8–98.9 percent of the flood-plain area at or below the 5-year return interval flood stage depending on state of channel incision; on average for river miles 423–811, soil drainage class correctly classified only 30.2 percent of the flood-plain area at or below the 5-year return interval flood stage. Lack of congruence between soil characteristics and present-day hydrology results from relatively rapid incision and aggradation of segments of the Missouri River resulting from impoundments and engineering. The most sparsely available data in the Middle Missouri River were water

  6. USING GIS IN ASSESSING THE TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN MIDDLE AND UPPER BASIN OF THE RIVER BEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOREDANA COPĂCEAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of inhabitants and their distribution in a given area varies within very large limits of tolerance, both in time and space, regardless of geographic region considered. The natural and anthropogenic frame of the area studied in this paper, namely the upper and middle basin of the river Bega, was described on the basis of existing scientific literature, supplemented by produce maps to work with, such as digital elevation model generated with using Global Mapper software, model used to delimitate the analyzed area; the map of communal territories included in the investigated area was prepared by extracting them from the administrative-territorial map of Timis county, overall population density map and the map of population density developments, compiled from data of population censuses in each communal area, obtained by processing using GIS software. The purpose of this study is to highlight trends in the evolution of the population and to identify areas at risk of depopulation, which means, on the one hand knowledge of the number of inhabitants and for variations in this indicator, on the other hand density analysis population synthetic indicator used to highlight differences in the land surfaces occupied by humans. The upper and middle basin of the river Bega is characterized by a variety of natural and socio-economic conditions, resulting in major differences in the evolution of the number of inhabitants and their spatial distribution. In the period considered (1880 - 2011, the most populous census occurred in 1910, since then a definitely downward trend in this indicator can be observed, until the current period, in some cases "losses " were very large (village Bara, Balinţ, Ohaba Lungă, etc. The downward trend in the number of inhabitants has direct implications on the overall density of the population, over time, this indicator registered a continued reduction in most cases and time periods considered. Estimates on future

  7. Determination of flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine River using 3HHO as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1994-01-01

    Flow times, flow velocities and parameters describing the longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine river under natural conditions were determined by use of intermittent emissions of tritated wastewater from nuclear power plants during normal operation situated on the Upper Rhine. In cases of accidental releases of radioactive materials, these data would be the basis of prognoses by which the dispersion behaviour of contaminated sections along the course of river Rhine can be described and radiological consequences within the socalled critical impact areas estimated. (orig.) [de

  8. The avifauna of the middle Apaporis River, Vaupes and Amazonas Departments, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles F, Gary

    2010-01-01

    During three weeks in March-April 2009, I made a rapid evaluation of the avifauna of the eastern sector of the Yaigoje-Apaporis Indigenous Reserve, around various communities along the rio Apaporis, an area lacking in previous ornithological studies. I recorded a total of 225 species of birds in 58 families and collected 65 specimens representing 52 species. These included 21 first records for the middle Apaporis region, seven of which also represented significant range extensions; records for 12 species helped fill large gaps in their known distributions and for one species I obtained the first evidence for breeding in Colombia, where previously known only as an austral migrant. For the avifauna in general, the period of the annual molt was ending and the breeding season was just beginning during the expedition. Most of the species recorded are widely distributed en the Amazon basin, but many subspecies show Guianan affinities. This avifauna surely includes at least 400 species, which amply justifies its protection and further study.

  9. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  10. [Process of land use transition and its impact on regional ecological quality in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu Hong; Zhao, Rui Feng; Zhang, Li Hua; Li, Hong Wei

    2017-12-01

    Land use transition is one of the main drivers of regional ecosystem change in arid area, which directly affects human well-being. Based on the satellite images of 1987, 2001 and 2016, the change detection assessment model and ecological response model were used to analyze the process of land use transition and response of ecological quality during 1987-2016 in the ecologically fragile middle reaches of the Heihe River. The results showed that the land use change was significant during 1987-2016 and the total change increased significantly, as well as the continuous increase of the cultivated land and construction land. There was a strong tendency of transform from grassland to cultivated land, while the tendency of transforming unused land to other land classes was not strong under a random process of gain or loss. During 1987-2016, the ecological quality of the study area displayed a decreasing trend as a whole and the ecological land decreased by 2.8%. The land use transition with the greatest impact on the ecological environment degradation was the transition of the grassland to the cultivated land and unused land. Therefore, in order to promote the sustainable use of regional land resources and to improve the regional ecological quality, it is necessary to allocate the proportion of production land and ecological land according to the regional water resources.

  11. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana C. de, E-mail: lcamargo@ufscar.br [Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Botero, Wander G. [Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Felipe A. [Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Sargentini Junior, Ezio [National Amazon Research Institute (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos [Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  12. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciana C. de; Botero, Wander G.; Santos, Felipe A.; Sargentini Junior, Ezio; Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos

    2012-01-01

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  13. Simultaneous observations of SAO and QBO in winds, temperature and ozone in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8.5 N, 77 E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Swain, Debadatta; John, Sherine Rachel; Ramkumar, Geetha [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Space Physics Laboratory, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2011-11-15

    Owing to the importance of middle atmosphere, recently, a Middle Atmospheric Dynamics (MIDAS) program was carried out during the period 2002-2007 at Thumba (8.5 N, 77 E). The measurements under this program, involving regular radiosonde/rocket flights as well as atmospheric radars, provided long period observations of winds and temperature in the middle atmospheric region from which waves and oscillations as well as their forcing mechanisms particularly in the low-latitude middle atmosphere could be analyzed. However, a detailed analysis of the forcing mechanisms remains incomplete due to the lack of important measurements like ozone which is a significant contributor to atmospheric dynamics. Presently, profiles of ozone are available from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broad Emission Radiometry) satellite globally from about 15 to 100 km, over multiple years since 2002. In this regard, a comprehensive study has been carried out on ozone and its variability at Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and Semiannual Oscillation (SAO) scales using TIMED/SABER ozone observations during the MIDAS campaign period. Before using the TIMED/SABER ozone measurements, an inter-comparison has been carried out with in situ measurements of ozone obtained under the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) campaign for the year 2007 at few stations. The inter-comparison showed very good agreement between SABER and ozonesonde derived ozone profiles. After validating the SABER observations, ozone profiles are used extensively to study the QBO and SAO along with temperature and winds in the 20-100 km height region. It is known that the SAO in mesosphere and stratosphere are in opposite phases, but the present study for the first time reports the aspect of opposite phases in the mesosphere itself. Thus, the present work attempts to study the long-period oscillations in stratosphere and mesosphere in ozone

  14. Model Wind Turbine Design in a Project-Based Middle School Engineering Curriculum Built on State Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Steven D.; Miley, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that project-based active learning is a key part of engineering education at the middle school level. One project from a comprehensive middle school engineering curriculum developed by the authors is described to show how active learning and state frameworks can coexist. The theoretical basis for learning and assessment in a…

  15. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Curimatidae (Pisces, Characiformes) from the middle Paraná River (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassesco, M S; Pastori, M C; Roncati, H A; Fenocchio, A S

    2004-06-30

    Almost all species of the Curimatidae family have a stable karyotype, with a diploid number of 54 metacentric (M) and submetacentric (SM) chromosomes, and one sole nucleolus organizer pair. This family has considerable specific diversity in Argentinean fluvial basins; however, no cytogenetic data are available. Eight species from the Paraná River (Argentina): Cyphocharax voga, C. spilotus, C. platanus, Steindachnerina brevipinna, S. conspersa, Curimatella dorsalis, Psectrogaster curviventris, and Potamorhina squamoralevis were analyzed cytogenetically. Chromosome preparations were obtained from direct samples and through cell culture, and they were processed for conventional, C- and nucleolar organizer region-banding. Six of the species exhibited the standard family karyotype, with 2n = 54 M-SM and fundamental number of chromosomes (FN) = 108, as well as variations in the chromosome formula, and in heterochromatic and nucleolar organizer regions. Though nucleolar organizer regions were located on only one chromosome pair, they varied in both carrier chromosomes and pairs involved. On the other hand, C. platanus showed a complement of 2n = 58 M-SM and subtelocentric with FN = 116, and P. squamoralevis presented 2n = 102, with some M-SM and a large number of acrocentric chromosomes. Even though the karyotype macrostructure appears to be conserved, the speciation process within the family has been accompanied by micro-structural rearrangements, as evidenced by pattern diversity in the heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions. Some changes in chromosome macrostructure have also occurred in this group, primarily in C. platanus and P. squamoralevis, in which there have been centric dissociations and inversions.

  16. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  17. Land Use/Cover Change in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin over 2000-2011 and Its Implications for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoli; Lu, Ling; Li, Xin; Wang, Jianhua; Guo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is a typical arid inland river basin in northwestern China. From the 1960s to the 1990s, the downstream flow in the HRB declined as a result of large, artificial changes in the distribution of water and land and a lack of effective water resource management. Consequently, the ecosystems of the lower reaches of the basin substantially deteriorated. To restore these degraded ecosystems, the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) was initiated by the Chinese government in 2000. The project led to agricultural and ecological changes in the middle reaches of the basin. In this study, we present three datasets of land use/cover in the middle reaches of the HRB derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ images in 2000, 2007 and 2011. We used these data to investigate changes in land use/cover between 2000 and 2011 and the implications for sustainable water resource management. The results show that the most significant land use/cover change in the middle reaches of the HRB was the continuous expansion of farmland for economic interests. From 2000 to 2011, the farmland area increased by 12.01%. The farmland expansion increased the water resource stress; thus, groundwater was over-extracted and the ecosystem was degraded in particular areas. Both consequences are negative and potentially threaten the sustainability of the middle reaches of the HRB and the entire river basin. Local governments should therefore improve the management of water resources, particularly groundwater management, and should strictly control farmland reclamation. Then, water resources could be ecologically and socioeconomically sustained, and the balance between upstream and downstream water demands could be ensured. The results of this study can also serve as a reference for the sustainable management of water resources in other arid inland river basins. PMID:26115484

  18. Does Habitat Restoration Increase Coexistence of Native Stream Fishes with Introduced Brown Trout: A Case Study on the Middle Provo River, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Belk; Eric J. Billman; Craig Ellsworth; Brock R. McMillan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of altered or degraded habitats is often a key component in the conservation plan of native aquatic species, but introduced species may influence the response of the native community to restoration. Recent habitat restoration of the middle section of the Provo River in central Utah, USA, provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of habitat restoration on the native fish community in a system with an introduced, dominant predator—brown trout (Salmo trutta). To determine the ch...

  19. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  20. Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    potentially be inundated during high-flow events. Sampling began in 2009 and was completed in 2010. A total of 74 geochemical samples were collected from fluvial deposits at reference sites, and 473 samples were collected from potentially contaminated sites. Sediment samples collected were analyzed for 23 metals, including arsenic and mercury. Sequential replicate, split duplicate, and field quality-control samples were analyzed for quality assurance of data-collection methods. The metal concentrations in sediment samples and location information are presented in this report in electronic format (Microsoft Excel), along with non-parametric summary statistics of those data. Cross-sectional topography is graphed with arsenic and mercury concentrations on transects at the potentially contaminated sites. The mean arsenic concentration in reference sediment samples was 8 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), compared to 250, 650, and 76 mg/kg for potentially contaminated sediment samples at the surface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, the subsurface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, and the surface of the lower Cheyenne River site, respectively. The mean mercury concentration in reference sediment samples was 16 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg), compared to 130, 370, and 71 μg/kg for potentially contaminated sediment samples at the surface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, the subsurface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, and the surface of the lower Cheyenne River site, respectively.

  1. Morphological variation of freshwater crabs Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae among localities from the middle Paraná River basin during different hydrological periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Torres

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Measures of hydrologic connectivity have been used extensively to describe spatial connections in riverine landscapes. Hydrologic fluctuations constitute an important macrofactor that regulates other environmental variables and can explain the distribution and abundance of organisms. We analysed morphological variations among individuals of two freshwater crab species, Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus, from localities of the middle Paraná River basin during two phases of the local hydrological regime. Specimens were sampled at sites (localities of Paraná River, Saladillo Stream, Salado River and Coronda River when water levels were falling and rising. The conductivity, pH, temperature and geographical coordinates were recorded at each site. The dorsal cephalothorax of each crab was represented using 16 landmarks for Z. collastinensis and 14 landmarks for T. borellianus. The Canonical Variate Analyses showed differences in shape (for both species among the crabs collected from the Paraná and Salado Rivers during the two hydrologic phases. We did not find a general distribution pattern for shape among the crab localities. During falling water, the shapes of Z. collastinensis were not related to latitude-longitude gradient (i.e., showing greater overlap in shape, while during rising water the shapes were ordered along a distributional gradient according to geographical location. Contrary, shapes of T. borellianus were related to latitude-longitude during falling water and were not related to distributional gradient during rising water. The cephalothorax shape showed, in general, no statistically significant covariations with environmental variables for either species. These results show that each freshwater crab species, from different localities of the middle Paraná River, remain connected; however, these connections change throughout the hydrologic regime of the floodplain system. This study was useful for delineating

  2. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-06-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  3. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  4. Drought change in the middle reach of the Yellow River since the late Ming Dynasty and their correlation with runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    Because of the reported decreasing trends in precipitation and streamflow in north-central China (Starting point of Ancient Silk Road), it is essential to understand long-term in water resource availability in this area. Thus, this research presents a new February-August PDSI reconstruction spanning CE 1615-2013 for the southern edge of the Gobi Desert under a highly variable arid and semi-arid climate in northern China. In addition to this new PDSI reconstruction, some previously published annual precipitation/PDSI reconstructions from the neighbouring regions were also used to infer the large-scale hydro-climatic signal of the middle reach of the Yellow River. Spatial correlation analyses with gridded precipitation data showed that the tree-ring records were indeed able to capture much of the regional interannual hydro-climatic signal variability. Using principal component analyses on the reconstructions and documentary records, many large-scale dry and flood events were found during the period AD 1615-2006. Many of these dry events have had profound impacts on the people of the study area over the past several centuries. Temporal correlations among the reconstruction and climatic indices, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, demonstrate that water availability is influenced by tropical and high-latitude forcings in the Pacific rim. Continued work in this direction should enable us to understand better the hydrological change under global warming and the past climate variability of the silk road over long temporal and large spatial scales.

  5. Water temperature effects from simulated changes to dam operations and structures in the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.

    2017-05-31

    Green Peter and Foster Dams on the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon, have altered the annual downstream water temperature profile (cycle). Operation of the dams has resulted in cooler summer releases and warmer autumn releases relative to pre-dam conditions, and that alteration can hinder recovery of various life stages of threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss). Lake level management and the use of multiple outlets from varying depths at the dams can enable the maintenance of a temperature regime more closely resembling that in which the fish evolved by releasing warm surface water during summer and cooler, deeper water in the autumn. At Green Peter and Foster Dams, the outlet configuration is such that temperature control is often limited by hydropower production at the dams. Previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 water temperature models of Green Peter and Foster Lakes were used to simulate the downstream thermal effects from hypothetical structures and modified operations at the dams. Scenarios with no minimum power production requirements allowed some releases through shallower and deeper outlets (summer and autumn) to achieve better temperature control throughout the year and less year-to-year variability in autumn release temperatures. Scenarios including a hypothetical outlet floating 1 meter below the lake surface resulted in greater ability to release warm water during summer compared to existing structures. Later in Autumn (October 15–December 31), a limited amount of temperature control was realized downstream from Foster Dam by scenarios limited to operational changes with existing structures, resulting in 15-day averages within 1.0 degree Celsius of current operations.

  6. Intensification of hydrological drought due to human activity in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Qiu, Jiaming; Bai, Peng; Liang, Kang; Li, Xianghu

    2018-10-01

    Hydrological extremes are changing under the impacts of environmental change, i.e., climate variation and human activity, which can substantially influence ecosystems and the living environment of humans in affected region. This study investigates the impacts of environmental change on hydrological drought in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China based on hydrological modelling. Change points for streamflow into two major lakes and a reservoir in the study area were detected in the late 1980s using the Mann-Kendall test. Streamflow simulation by a water balance model was performed, and the resulting Kling-Gupta efficiency value was >0.90. Hydrological drought events were identified based on the simulated streamflow under different scenarios. The results show that the hydrological drought occurrence was increased by precipitation, whereas the drought peak value was increased by potential evapotranspiration. The impacts of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration on drought severity and duration varied in the study area. However, hydrological drought was intensified by the influence of human activity, which increased the severity, duration and peak value of droughts. The dominant factor for hydrological drought severity is precipitation, followed by potential evapotranspiration and human activity. The impacts of climate variation and human activity on drought severity are larger than on drought duration. In addition, environmental change is shown to have an "accumulation effect" on hydrological drought, demonstrating that the indirect impacts of environmental change on hydrological drought are much larger than the direct impacts on streamflow. This study improves our understanding of the responses of hydrological extremes to environmental change, which is useful for the management of water resources and the prediction of hydrological disasters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Wind Filtering and Unbalanced Flow Generation in Middle Atmosphere Gravity Wave Activity at Chatanika Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. Triplett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological control of gravity wave activity through filtering by winds and generation by spontaneous adjustment of unbalanced flows is investigated. This investigation is based on a new analysis of Rayleigh LiDAR measurements of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere-lower mesosphere (USLM,40–50kmon 152 nights at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR, Chatanika, Alaska (65◦ N, 147◦ W, over 13 years between 1998 and 2014. The LiDAR measurements resolve inertia-gravity waves with observed periods between 1 h and 4 h and vertical wavelengths between 2 km and 10 km. The meteorological conditions are defined by reanalysis data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA. The gravity wave activity shows large night-to-night variability, but a clear annual cycle with a maximum in winter,and systematic interannual variability associated with stratospheric sudden warming events. The USLM gravity wave activity is correlated with the MERRA winds and is controlled by the winds in the lower stratosphere through filtering by critical layer filtering. The USLM gravity wave activity is also correlated with MERRA unbalanced flow as characterized by the residual of the nonlinear balance equation. This correlation with unbalanced flow only appears when the wind conditions are taken into account, indicating that wind filtering is the primary control of the gravity wave activity.

  8. Assessment of chevron dikes for the enhancement of physical-aquatic habitat within the Middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Khanal, Anish; Pinter, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    Blunt-nosed chevron dikes, a new invention now being widely constructed on the Middle Mississippi River (MMR), have been justified as a tool for enhancing physical-aquatic habitat. Chevron dikes were initially designed to concentrate flow, induce channel scour, and thus facilitate river navigation. More recently, these structures have been justified, in part, for promoting habitat heterogeneity. The ability of chevrons to create and diversify physical-aquatic habitat, however, has not been empirically evaluated. To assess the ability of chevrons to create and diversify physical-aquatic habitat, we compiled hydrologic and geospatial data for three channel reference conditions along a 2.0 km (∼140 ha) reach of the MMR where three chevrons were constructed in late 2007. We used the hydrologic and hydraulic data to construct detailed 2-D hydrodynamic models for three reference condition: historic (circa 1890), pre-chevron, and post-chevron channel conditions. These models documented changes in depths and flow dynamics for a wide range of in-channel discharges. Depth-velocity habitat classes were used to assess change in physical-aquatic habitat patches and spatial statistical tools in order to evaluate the reach-scale habitat patch diversity. Comparisons of pre- and post-chevron conditions revealed increases in deep to very deep (>3.0 m) areas of slow moving (3.0 m], low velocity [<0.6 m/s]). Chevron construction also created some (0.8-3.8 ha) shallow-water habitat (0-1.5 m depth with a 0-0.6 m/s velocity) for flows ⩽2.0 × MAF and contributed to an 8-35% increase in physical-aquatic-habitat diversity compared to pre-chevron channel conditions. However, modeling of the historic reference condition (less engineered channel, circa 1890) revealed that the historical physical-aquatic-habitat mosaic consisted of a wider and shallower channel with: 45-390% more shallow-water habitat (2.4-11.0 ha) and 22-83% more physical-aquatic-habitat diversity, but little over

  9. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  10. Inferring Groundwater Age in an Alluvial Aquifer from Tracer Concentrations in the Stream - Little Wind River, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, D.; Gardner, W. P.; Naftz, D. L.; Solder, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    We use environmental tracers: CFC's, SF6, and 222Rn measured in stream water to determine volume and mean age of groundwater discharging to the Little Wind River, near Riverton, Wyoming. Samples of 222Rn were collected every 200 m along a 2 km reach, surrounding a known groundwater discharge zone. Nearby groundwater wells, in-stream piezometers and seepage meters were sampled for 222Rn, CFC's and SF6. Tracer concentrations measured in groundwater and in-stream piezometers were used to estimate the mean age of the subsurface system. High resolution 222Rn samples were used to determine the location and volume of groundwater inflow using a model of instream transport that includes radioactive decay and gas exchange with the atmosphere. The age of groundwater entering the stream was then estimated from in-stream measured CFC and SF6 concentrations using a new coupled stream transport and lumped-parameter groundwater age model. Ages derived from in-stream measurements were then compared to the age of subsurface water measured in piezometers, seepage meters, and groundwater wells. We then asses the ability of groundwater age inferred from in-stream samples to provide constraint on the age of the subsurface discharge to the stream. The ability to asses groundwater age from in-stream samples can provide a convenient method to constrain the regional distribution of groundwater circulation rates when groundwater sampling is challenging or wells are not in place.

  11. Sea ice and wind variability during the Holocene in East Antarctica: Insight on middle high latitude coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, D.; Crosta, X.; Barbera, L.; Masse, G.; Renssen, H.; Ther, O.; Giraudeau, J.

    2010-01-01

    Micropaleontological and biomarker data from two high-accumulation marine sites from the Coastal and Continental Shelf Zone (CCSZ) off East Antarctica (Adélie Land at ∼140°E and eastern Prydz Bay at ∼77°E) are used to reconstruct Holocene changes in sea ice and wind stress at the basin-wide scale.

  12. The Spatial-temperal Distribution of Phosphorus Species and the Main Factors Influencing on Phosphorus Transportation in Middle Reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, X.; An, R.; Li, R.; Huang, W.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of the current study are to investigate the spatial, temperal variation of phisphorus (P) fraction in middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River of China. Samples were collected in April (dry season), August (wet season), and Octber (normal season) along with the middle reaches from Lazi site to Nuxia sitewhich which is about 1000km long. Sequential extraction were applied to determine the forms of phosphorus in suspended particles and to assess the potential bioavailability of particulate P. The results indicated that the distribution of suspended particle size inflenced not only the total phosphorus concentration, but also the proportions of different forms of phosphorus. The exchangeable phosphorus (Ex-P), Fe-bound-P, Ca-bound-P were the most aboundant forms and the highest proportions of total P. The total P concentrations were closely relative to the concentration of suspended particles. According to the characteristics of suspended particles in the Yarlung Zangbo River, the relationship between the suspended particles size and species of phosphorus was established though statistical analysis. The Ex-P increased with the decreasing of suspended particulate size. The content of bioavailable particulate phosphorus varied greatly with the proportions of particulate size. In genral, the higher the proportion of smaller particle size, the higher the content of bioavailable phosphorus. The main factors which affect the phosphorus transportation in Yarlung Zangbo River had also been discussed.

  13. REPTILE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE MIDDLE GURGUÉIA AND COMPARISON WITH INVENTORIES IN THE EASTERN PARNAÍBA RIVER BASIN, STATE OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÁUDIA RENATA MADELLA-AURICCHIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reptile diversity of the Middle Gurguéia River Basin in southern Piauí, Brazil, is little known. The rapid expansion of agriculture in the region is converting the Cerrado and Caatinga into large farming areas, which threatens biodiversity and hastens its loss. In this study, 68 specimens of reptiles from a university collection were examined, comprising 29 species: ten lizards, one amphisbaenian, 15 snakes, two turtles and one crocodilian. They were collected from five locations in the Middle Gurguéia Basin, a region not previously evaluated for reptiles. The most abundant species is a member of Tropidurus. Comparison with eight other areas in the eastern Parnaíba Basin indicated that the diversity of reptiles in the Middle Gurguéia is similar to that in other Caatinga-Cerrado ecotone areas. The reptile assemblage in the eastern Parnaíba Basin comprises 100 species of reptiles: 39 lizards, five amphisbaenians, 50 snakes, four chelonians and two crocodilians. This study expanded the known distributions of some reptiles and recorded the first occurrence of Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1837 for Piauí. A cluster analysis showed that the reptile composition concords with the habitat where species were found, i.e. Cerrado, Caatinga or ecotone. Studies that associate habitat structure with each species are essential to propose efficient strategies for reptile management and conservation for the entire Parnaíba River Basin, mostly in areas that are not yet protected.

  14. The impact of river-lake flow and sediment exchange on sediment scouring and siltation in middle and lower Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Zuo, L. Q.

    2017-12-01

    The operation of TGR (Three Gorges Reservoir) caused river erosion and water level decline at downstream, which affects the water and sediment exchange of river-lake (Yangtze River - Dongting lake & Poyang lake). However, the change of river-lake relationship plays a significant role in the flow and sediment process of Yangtze River. In this study, flow diversion ratios of the three outlets, Chenglingji station, Hukou station are used as indexes of river-lake exchange to study the response of river erosion to flow diversion ratios. The results show that:(1) the sediment erosion in each reach from Yichang to Datong has linear correlation with the flow diversion ratio of the three outlets; (2) the sediment erosion above Chenglingji has negative linear correlation with the flow diversion ratio of Chenglingji station. While the sediment erosion below Chenglingji station has non-linear correlation with the flow diversion ratio variation of Chenglingji station; (3) the reach above Hankou station will not be affected by the flow diversion ratio of Hukou station. On one hand, if the flow diversion ratio is less than 10%, the correlation between sediment erosion and flow diversion ratio of Hukou station will be positive in Hankou to Hukou reach, but will be negative in Hukou to Datong reach. On the other hand, if the flow diversion ratio is more than 10%, the correlation will reverse.

  15. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  16. Spatiotemporal Changes in Rural Settlement Land and Rural Population in the Middle Basin of the Heihe River, China

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    Manjiang Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the spatiotemporal expansion of rural settlement land and the variation of rural population is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. Based on the integration of Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images and demographic data, using mathematical models, landscape indexes, and a decoupling model, the spatiotemporal changes of the rural settlement land area and its decoupling relationship with the rural registered population were analyzed for the middle basin of the Heihe River in China. During the period 1986–2014, the following changes occurred: (1 The study area experienced increases of 124.94%, 55.16%, and 1.56% in rural settlement land area, number of patches, and rural registered population, respectively; (2 Edge-expansion, dispersion, and urban encroachment were the dominant patterns of dynamic changes in the studied rural settlement land. Among these, edge-expansion was the most prevalent development pattern; it contributed more than half of the total increase in the number of patches and the total area growth; (3 The annual growth rate of the rural registered population increased from 0.7% in 1986–2002 to −0.5% in 2002–2014. By that time the rural settlement land area had undergone a gentle increase from 3.4% to 3.6%. Generally, the rural registered population and rural settlement land has experienced a shift from weakly decoupled in 1986–2009 to strongly decoupled in 2009–2014; (4 From 1986 to 2014, rural urbanization and modernization were the main causes that led to the decline in the rural registered population; however, economic growth promoted the expansion of rural settlement land during this same period. We believe that with the rapid development of urbanization, the decoupling relationship between the rural settlement land area and the reduction in the rural registered population cannot be completely reversed in the short term. It is recommended that

  17. Dynamical relationship between wind speed magnitude and meridional temperature contrast: Application to an interannual oscillation in Venusian middle atmosphere GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    We derive simple dynamical relationships between wind speed magnitude and meridional temperature contrast. The relationship explains scatter plot distributions of time series of three variables (maximum zonal wind speed UMAX, meridional wind speed VMAX, and equator-pole temperature contrast dTMAX), which are obtained from a Venus general circulation model with equatorial Kelvin-wave forcing. Along with VMAX and dTMAX, UMAX likely increases with the phase velocity and amplitude of a forced wave. In the scatter diagram of UMAX versus dTMAX, points are plotted along a linear equation obtained from a thermal-wind relationship in the cloud layer. In the scatter diagram of VMAX versus UMAX, the apparent slope is somewhat steep in the high UMAX regime, compared with the low UMAX regime. The scatter plot distributions are qualitatively consistent with a quadratic equation obtained from a diagnostic equation of the stream function above the cloud top. The plotted points in the scatter diagrams form a linear cluster for weak wave forcing, whereas they form a small cluster for strong wave forcing. An interannual oscillation of the general circulation forming the linear cluster in the scatter diagram is apparent in the experiment of weak 5.5-day wave forcing. Although a pair of equatorial Kelvin and high-latitude Rossby waves with a same period (Kelvin-Rossby wave) produces equatorward heat and momentum fluxes in the region below 60 km, the equatorial wave does not contribute to the long-period oscillation. The interannual fluctuation of the high-latitude jet core leading to the time variation of UMAX is produced by growth and decay of a polar mixed Rossby-gravity wave with a 14-day period.

  18. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  19. Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to receive river floods during the study period (1994-1996. A gradual reduction in richness and abundance was observed in all lagoons. Migratory fish species had the highest probability to become extinct in the two lagoons that remained with large water volume. Species tolerant to low levels of dissolved oxygen had the lowest probability of local extinction in the lagoon showing an abrupt reduction in water volume. Similar changes to those observed in the current study are likely to occur in the floodplains if dams would be constructed in this segment of the river. Adequate water releases from Três Marias reservoir, located upstream, should be considered as a management tool for producing episodic flooding on the marginal lagoons of the region.

  20. Dynamic Ecological Risk Assessment and Management of Land Use in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Based on Landscape Patterns and Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land use profoundly changes the terrestrial ecosystem and landscape patterns, and these changes reveal the extent and scope of the ecological influence of land use on the terrestrial ecosystem. The study area selected for this research was the middle reaches of the Heihe River. Based on land use data (1986, 2000, and 2014, we proposed an ecological risk index of land use by combining a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragility index. An exponential model was selected to perform kriging interpolation, as well as spatial autocorrelations and semivariance analyses which could reveal the spatial aggregation patterns. The results indicated that the ecological risk of the middle reaches of the Heihe River was generally high, and higher in the northwest. The high values of the ecological risk index (ERI tended to decrease, and the low ERI values tended to increase. Positive spatial autocorrelations and a prominent scale-dependence were observed among the ERI values. The main hot areas with High-High local autocorrelations were located in the north, and the cold areas with low-low local autocorrelations were primarily located in the middle corridor plain and Qilian Mountains. From 1986 to 2014, low and relatively low ecological risk areas decreased while relatively high risk areas expanded. A middle level of ecological risk was observed in Ganzhou and Minle counties. Shandan County presented a serious polarization, with high ecological risk areas observed in the north and low ecological risk areas observed in the southern Shandan horse farm. In order to lower the eco-risk and achieve the sustainability of land use, these results suggest policies to strictly control the oasis expansion and the occupation of farmland for urbanization. Some inefficient farmland should transform into grassland in appropriate cases.

  1. Fates of dissolved and particulate materials from the Mississippi river immediately after discharge into the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA, during a period of low wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, M. J.; Bianchi, T.; McKee, B.; Powell, R.

    2008-07-01

    In June 2003, we conducted a two-part field exercise to examine biogeochemical characteristics of water in the lower Mississippi river during the 4 days prior to discharge and in the Mississippi river plume over 2 days after discharge. Here we describe the fates of materials immediately after their discharge through Southwest Pass of the Mississippi delta into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Changes in surface water properties immediately after discharge were much larger and more rapid than changes prior to discharge. Total suspended matter (TSM) declined, probably due to sinking, dissolved macronutrients were rapidly diminished by mixing and biological uptake, and phytoplankton populations increased dramatically, and then declined. This decline appeared to begin at salinities of approximately 10 and was nearly complete by 15. A large increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurred over approximately the same salinity range. Weak winds (releasing large amounts of DOC. Macronutrients from the river were utilized by the river phytoplankton community in the extensive freshwater lens. This contrasted with the more typical situation in which river nutrients stimulate a marine phytoplankton bloom at salinities in the mid-20s. We concluded that the direct effects of dissolved and particulate bio-reactive materials discharged by the Mississippi river were spatially restricted at this time to low-salinity water, at least as surface phenomena. After being transported through the lower river essentially unaltered, these materials were biogeochemically processed within days and tens of km. More generally, the mixing rate of plume water with receiving oceanic water has profound effects on the food web structure and biogeochemical cycling in the plume.

  2. Dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load in the Huangfuchuan Basin of the Middle Yellow River, China: historical records and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, E.; Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow River is well known for its high sediment load and serious water shortage. The long-term averaged sediment load is about 1.6´103 million tons per year, resulting in aggrading and perched lower reaches. In recent years, however, dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load have been observed. The annual sediment load has been less than 150 million tons in the last ten years. Extrapolation of this trend into the future would motivate substantial change in the management strategies of the Lower Yellow River. To understand the possible trend and its coevolving drivers, we performed a case study of the Huangfuchuang River, which is a tributary to the Middle Yellow River, with a drainage area of 3246 km2 and an annual precipitation of 365 mm. Statistical analysis of historical data from 1960s to 2015 showed a significantly decreasing trend in runoff and sediment load since 1984. As potential drivers, the precipitation does not show an obvious change in annual amount, while the vegetation cover and the number of check dams have been increased gradually as a result of the national Grain for Green project. A simulation with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) reproduced the historical evolution processes, and showed that human activities dominated the reduction in runoff and sediment load, with a contribution of around 80%. We then projected the runoff and sediment load for the next 50 years (2016-2066), considering typical scenarios of climate change and accounting for vegetation cover development subject to climate conditions and storage capacity loss of check dams due to sediment deposition. The differences between the projected trend and the historical record were analyzed, so as to highlight the coevolving processes of climate, vegetation, and check dam retention on a time scale of decades. Keywords: Huangfuchuan River Basin, sediment load, vegetation cover, check dams, annual precipitation, SWAT.

  3. Investigation of geology and hydrology of the upper and middle Verde River watershed of central Arizona: a project of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Betsy; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Parker, John T.C.; Hoffmann, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The upper and middle Verde River watershed in west-central Arizona is an area rich in natural beauty and cultural history and is an increasingly popular destination for tourists, recreationists, and permanent residents seeking its temperate climate. The diverse terrain of the region includes broad desert valleys, upland plains, forested mountain ranges, narrow canyons, and riparian areas along perennial stream reaches. The area is predominantly in Yavapai County, which in 1999 was the fastest-growing rural county in the United States (Woods and Poole Economics, Inc., 1999); by 2050, the population is projected to more than double. Such growth will increase demands on water resources. The domestic, industrial, and recreational interests of the population will need to be balanced against protection of riparian, woodland, and other natural areas and their associated wildlife and aquatic habitats. Sound management decisions will be required that are based on an understanding of the interactions between local and regional aquifers, surface-water bodies, and recharge and discharge areas. This understanding must include the influence of climate, geology, topography, and cultural development on those components of the hydrologic system. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR), initiated a regional investigation of the hydrogeology of the upper and middle Verde River watershed. The project is part of the Rural Watershed Initiative (RWI), a program established by the State of Arizona and managed by the ADWR that addresses water supply issues in rural areas while encouraging participation from stakeholder groups in affected communities. The USGS is performing similar RWI investigations on the Colorado Plateau to the north and in the Mogollon Highlands to the east of the Verde River study area (Parker and Flynn, 2000). The objectives of the RWI investigations are to develop: (1) a single database

  4. Seasonal and spatial variations in rare earth elements and yttrium of dissolved load in the middle, lower reaches and estuary of the Minjiang River, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuxu; Gao, Aiguo; Lin, Jianjie; Jian, Xing; Yang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yanpo; Hou, Yuting; Gong, Songbai

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of elucidating the spatial and seasonal behaviors of rare earth elements (REEs), we investigated the dissolved REE concentrations of surface water collected during four seasons from middle, lower reaches and estuary of the Minjiang River, southeastern China. The results display that the REE abundances in Minjiang River, ranging from 3.3-785.9 ng/L, were higher than those of many of the major global rivers. The total REE concentrations (ΣREE) were seasonally variable, averaging in 5 937.30, 863.79, 825.65 and 1 065.75 ng/L during second highest flow (SHF), normal flow (NF), low flow (LF) and high flow (HF) season, respectively. The R (L/M) and R (H/M) ratios reveal the spatial and temporal variations of REE patterns, and particularly vary apparently in the maximum turbidity zone and estuary. REE patterns of dissolved loads are characterized by progressing weaker LREEs-enrichment and stronger HREEs-enrichment downstream from middle reaches to estuary during all four seasons. Comparing with NF and LF seasons, in which REE patterns are relatively flat, samples of SHF season have more LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns that close to parent rocks, while samples of HF season are more LREEs-depleted and HREE-enriched. REE fractionations from the middle to lower reaches are stronger in the SHF and HF seasons than those in NF and LF seasons. Generally, spatial and seasonal variations in REE abundance and pattern are presumably due to several factors, such as chemical weathering, mixture with rainfall and groundwater, estuarine mixing, runoff, biological production and mountain river characters, such as strong hydrodynamic forces and steep slopes. The highest Gd/Gd* always occurs at north ports during all four seasons, where most of the large hospitals are located. This suggests Gd anomalies are depended on the density of modern medical facilities. Y/Ho ratios fluctuate and positively correlate to salinity in estuary, probably because of the geochemical

  5. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  6. Is irrigation water price an effective leverage for water management? An empirical study in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Qian

    Serious water scarcity, low water-use efficiency, and over-exploitation of underground water have hindered socio-economic development and led to environmental degradation in the Heihe River basin, northwestern China. Price leveraging is an important tool in water demand management, and it is considered to be effective in promoting water conservation and improving water use efficiency on the premise that water demand is elastic. In the present study, we examine whether price is an effective and applicable instrument for restraining the increasing demand for agricultural irrigation water in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin and how will it affect farmers' decisions on irrigation and crop structure. Specifically, the price elasticity of agricultural water demand was estimated based on the irrigation water demand function. The results show that the agricultural irrigation water price is statistically significant, but its elasticity is very low under current low water price. Price leverage cannot play a significant role in the context of the current pricing regime and farmers' response to price increase is intrinsically weak. To create incentives for conserving water and improving irrigation efficiency, price mechanism should be accompanied with clearly defined and legally enforceable water rights, restricted water quota measures, and reform of water authorities and water-user associations. Furthermore, increases of surface irrigation water price may lead to the over-withdrawal of groundwater, consequently, effective groundwater licensing and levying must take place to limit the total volume of groundwater withdrawal. In all, improving irrigation efficiency through better management and the adoption of water-saving technologies is the ultimate way to deal with the challenges facing irrigated agriculture in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin.

  7. Geophysical anomalies associated with Imjin River Belt (IRB) in the middle Korean Peninsula revealed by geomagnetic depth sounding and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Choi, H.; Noh, M.; Im, C.

    2012-12-01

    Imjin River Belt (IRB), located in the middle of the Korean Peninsula, has been one of long-standing geological issues because it is a very important tectonic link to understand a tectonic evolution of north-eastern Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Although the IRB has been considered as an extension of collision belt between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB), there is little geophysical observation or study on this issue. In recent, we compiled a new induction arrow map for the Korean Peninsula, on the basis of long-period magneto-telluric (MT) data and the geomagnetic depth sounding data performed since the late 1990's. This newly compiled map has finer spatial resolution expecially in the middle area of the peninsula, which helps us to present the geophysical evidence that the IRB is the continuation or extension of the collision belt to the peninsula. The overall pattern of induction arrows in the peninsula appears to indicate a northwest-southeast direction, which is well-known 'sea effect' by the surrounding seas. However, the results of observations in the middle of the peninsula distinctly show an anomalous pattern around the IRB, which can not be explained only by the surrounding seas. This anomalous pattern may be attributed to enhanced conductivity associated with tectonic events that Imjin River Belt has experienced. The 3-D electromagnetic modeling results, considering both surrounding seas and enhanced conductivity of the IRB, explain well the anomalous observations around the IRB. Furthermore, recent seismological study demonstrates that focal mechanism around the IRB is mainly normal faulting event, which may be interpreted as the reactivation of paleo structures that are related to the post collisional lithospheric delamination. All the geophysical evidences convince us that the IRB is an extension of the collision belt between the NCB and SCB to the peninsula.

  8. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively

  9. Temporal-Spatial Evolution Analysis of Lake Size-Distribution in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin Using Landsat Imagery Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Four natural lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River—Dongting Lake, Poyang Lake, Chaohu Lake and Taihu Lake—play a key role in the climate, environment, and ecology of this area. Upstream of these lakes, the Three Gorges Dam Project has been storing water for 12 years. Future monitoring and management of rivers and lakes can certainly benefit from research on the patterns of variation of natural lakes downstream of the Three Gorges Project. This research applies Landsat TM/ETM data to evaluate water area changes in the four lakes from 2002 to 2013. The water area is estimated using AWEI (Automated Water Extraction Index from satellite images. The average areas decreased respectively 452, 11, and 5 km2 (29.6%, 1.4% and 0.2% from 2002 to 2013 for Dongting, Chaohu, and Taihu Lakes. Meanwhile, it increased 300 km2 (11.0% for Poyang Lake. Precipitation and changes in river inflow may account for the fluctuation in the surface area to a large degree, especially between 2009 and 2013. The present study was undertaken to characterize the evolution of lakes and to explore the potential driving force of variation in order to assist the management of dams upstream in the river basin.

  10. Size variation in early human mandibles and molars from Klasies River, South Africa: comparison with other middle and late Pleistocene assemblages and with modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Lockwood, Charles A; Scott, Jeremiah E; Grine, Frederick E

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies of the Middle Stone Age human remains from Klasies River have concluded that they exhibited more sexual dimorphism than extant populations, but these claims have not been assessed statistically. We evaluate these claims by comparing size variation in the best-represented elements at the site, namely the mandibular corpora and M(2)s, to that in samples from three recent human populations using resampling methods. We also examine size variation in these same elements from seven additional middle and late Pleistocene sites: Skhūl, Dolní Vestonice, Sima de los Huesos, Arago, Krapina, Shanidar, and Vindija. Our results demonstrate that size variation in the Klasies assemblage was greater than in recent humans, consistent with arguments that the Klasies people were more dimorphic than living humans. Variation in the Skhūl, Dolní Vestonice, and Sima de los Huesos mandibular samples is also higher than in the recent human samples, indicating that the Klasies sample was not unusual among middle and late Pleistocene hominins. In contrast, the Neandertal samples (Krapina, Shanidar, and Vindija) do not evince relatively high mandibular and molar variation, which may indicate that the level of dimorphism in Neandertals was similar to that observed in extant humans. These results suggest that the reduced levels of dimorphism in Neandertals and living humans may have developed independently, though larger fossil samples are needed to test this hypothesis.

  11. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  12. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  13. Temporal and Spatial Pattern of Changes of Extreme Precipitation in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin (YRB) during 1960 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Wu, S.; Wen, J.; Xu, M.; Tan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Yangtze River is the longest river in China, with its river basin covering an area of 1.8 million sq km, encompassing about one fifth of China's total territory, one third of the nation's total population, and one quarter of its total arable land. Flooding resulted from extreme precipitation has always been a major problem for the middle and lower part of the YRB, particularly during the monsoon season of eastern China from May to August. Meanwhile, the relatively dense population and large cities in this region make the floods more deadly and costly. In this study we aim to establish the temporal and spatial patterns of changes in extreme precipitation in the middle and lower YRB using daily precipitation data from 71 stations in the area from 1960 to 2012. It is hoped that this study will provide useful information for better flood control. In this study, we defined and examined three major indices. Extreme precipitation frequency is defined as number of days per year with precipitation exceeding the 95th percentile for the base period of 1961 - 1990. Extreme precipitation amount is defined as the total amount of precipitation from these days. Extreme precipitation intensity is defined as the amount divided by frequency. We used non-parametric Thiel-Sen method to estimate the rate of change at each station, and Mann-Kendall test for the significance of the trend. Using Thiessen polygons, we also calculated the area-weighted mean of station trends to get the total trend for the entire study area. Abrupt changes in the time series was detected by using Mann-Kendall test and the Moving-t test methods. Our results show that there is an increasing trend of for the frequency, amount, and intensity of extreme precipitation in the study region. Of the three indicators, the extreme precipitation amount increased most, and its abrupt change point happened in1987. Between the period before and after 1987, the mean annual amount, intensity and frequency of extreme

  14. Model study of the influence of solar wind parameters on electric currents and fields in middle atmosphere at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, P.; Velinov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The electric currents and fields in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere are a result mainly of tropospheric electrical generators (thunderstorms and electrified clouds) which principally determine their global distributions and magnitudes. There are, however, additional sources, e.g. the solar wind (SW), whose contribution to these currents and fields is realized by SW-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This last causes creation of large trans-polar electric potential difference VPC in each polar cap of ∼ 30–140 kV and of horizontal scale ∼ 3000 km which is realized through field-aligned currents (FAC) and is controlled by SW parameters. The potential difference VPC forces formation of closure currents in the dynamo-region. Our study by simulation shows that much smaller currents penetrate into the lower atmospheric regions and influence characteristics of the global atmospheric electrical circuit (GEC). Also, the downward mapping of the horizontal electric fields due to the potential difference VPC leads to creation of very small, but non-negligible vertical electric fields at sea level. They have been demonstrated experimentally as significant (up to few tens of per cent) SW-controlled modifications of the GEC electric characteristics at the ground, at polar latitudes. Our model, based on simulation of Maxwell’s equations in the region 0–160 km under steady-state conditions show that similar but relatively much larger SW-dominated modifications of GEC characteristics take place in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere at polar and high latitudes

  15. Mid-Holocene palaeoflood events recorded at the Zhongqiao Neolithic cultural site in the Jianghan Plain, middle Yangtze River Valley, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhu, Cheng; Ma, Chunmei; Li, Feng; Meng, Huaping; Liu, Hui; Li, Linying; Wang, Xiaocui; Sun, Wei; Song, Yougui

    2017-10-01

    Palaeo-hydrological and archaeological investigations were carried out in the Jianghan Plain in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Based on a comparative analysis of modern flood sediments and multidisciplinary approaches such as AMS14C and archaeological dating, zircon micromorphology, grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and geochemistry, we identified palaeoflood sediments preserved at the Zhongqiao archaeological site. The results indicate that three palaeoflood events (i.e. 4800-4597, 4479-4367, and 4168-3850 cal. yr BP) occurred at the Zhongqiao Site. Comparisons of palaeoflood deposit layers at a number of Neolithic cultural sites show that two extraordinary palaeoflood events occurred in the Jianghan Plain during approximately 4900-4600 cal. yr BP (i.e.mid-late Qujialing cultural period) and 4100-3800 cal. yr BP (i.e. from late Shijiahe cultural period to the Xia Dynasty). Further analysis of the environmental context suggests that these flooding events might have been connected with great climate variability during approximately 5000-4500 cal. yr BP and at ca. 4000 cal. yr BP. These two palaeoflood events were closely related to the expansion of the Jianghan lakes driven by the climatic change, which in turn influenced the rise and fall of the Neolithic cultures in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Other evidence also suggests that the intensified discrepancy between social development and environmental change processes (especially the hydrological process) during the late Shijiahe cultural period might be the key factor causing the collapse of the Shijiahe Culture. The extraordinary floods related to the climatic anomaly at ca. 4000 cal. yr BP and political conflicts from internal or other cultural areas all accelerated the collapse of the Shijiahe Culture.

  16. New data on the chronology of the Vale do Forno sedimentary sequence (Lower Tejo River terrace staircase) and its relevance as a fluvial archive of the Middle Pleistocene in western Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, Pedro; Martins, Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The Vale do Forno archaeological sites (Alpiarça, central Portugal) document the earliest human occupation in the Lower Tejo River, well established in geomorphological and environmental terms, within the Middle Pleistocene. In a staircase of six fluvial terraces, the Palaeolithic sites were found...

  17. CHANGES IN THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE MIDDLE FEN SOILS IN THE ODRA RIVER VALLEY IN THE REGION OF BRZEG DOLNY IN THE VEGETATION PERIODS 2004–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Pływaczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In soils, where the water table is deeply located and has a minor impact on the moisture content of the surface layer, we are dealing with the precipitation-and-water type of water management. If underground water level is close to the surface, the top stratum of the soil, apart from precipitation, is additionally fed by water absorption from underground waters. Then we are dealing with ground-and-water type of management. We consider such types of water management of soil in the area of the left-bank valley of the Odra river, above and below the dam in Brzeg Dolny. The dominant soil types here are middle fen soils, based on middle clay and heavy clay as well as loam, which, in conditions of either excess or deficiency of moisture, are difficult to cultivate. The work compares water management of two soil profiles in vegetation periods between 2004 and 2009. The formation of underground waters, meteorological conditions and the course of the water reserves in the strata 0–50 cm and 0–100 cm were estimated with various supplying conditions of the active stratum of the soil. The volume of the supply with percolated water from underground water of the layer 50–100 cm on approximately 75–90 mm was also estimated. This value was mainly dependent on the depth of the retention of the water table of the soil profile above the level in Brzeg Dolny.

  18. Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and

  19. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  20. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, D.; (NOEMAIL), A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  1. Assessing the impacts of dams and levees on the hydrologic record of the Middle and Lower Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W.F.; Ickes, Brian; Ryherd, Julia K.; Guida, Ross J.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of dams and levees on the long-term (>130 years) discharge record was assessed along a ~1200 km segment of the Mississippi River between St. Louis, Missouri, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. To aid in our evaluation of dam impacts, we used data from the U.S. National Inventory of Dams to calculate the rate of reservoir expansion at five long-term hydrologic monitoring stations along the study segment. We divided the hydrologic record at each station into three periods: (1) a pre-rapid reservoir expansion period; (2) a rapid reservoir expansion period; and (3) a post-rapid reservoir expansion period. We then used three approaches to assess changes in the hydrologic record at each station. Indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) and flow duration hydrographs were used to quantify changes in flow conditions between the pre- and post-rapid reservoir expansion periods. Auto-regressive interrupted time series analysis (ARITS) was used to assess trends in maximum annual discharge, mean annual discharge, minimum annual discharge, and standard deviation of daily discharges within a given water year. A one-dimensional HEC-RAS hydraulic model was used to assess the impact of levees on flood flows. Our results revealed that minimum annual discharges and low-flow IHA parameters showed the most significant changes. Additionally, increasing trends in minimum annual discharge during the rapid reservoir expansion period were found at three out of the five hydrologic monitoring stations. These IHA and ARITS results support previous findings consistent with the observation that reservoirs generally have the greatest impacts on low-flow conditions. River segment scale hydraulic modeling revealed levees can modestly increase peak flood discharges, while basin-scale hydrologic modeling assessments by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers showed that tributary reservoirs reduced peak discharges by a similar magnitude (2 to 30%). This finding suggests that the effects of dams and

  2. Diurnal Evolution and Annual Variability of Boundary Layer Height in the Columbia River Gorge through the `Eye' of Wind Profiling Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; Djalalova, I.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kenyon, J.; Olson, J. B.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a DoE- and NOAA-sponsored program whose goal is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts in complex terrain. WFIP2 consists of an 18-month (October 2015 - March 2017) field campaign held in the Columbia River basin, in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. As part of WFIP2 a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation has been deployed, including, among several others, a network of eight 915-MHz wind profiling radars (WPRs) equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs), and many surface meteorological stations. The diurnal evolution and annual variability of boundary layer height in the area of WFIP2 will be investigated through the `eye' of WPRs, employing state-of-the-art automated algorithms, based on fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence. The results will be used to evaluate possible errors in NWP models in this area of complex terrain.

  3. Primary successions of vegetation on technogenic sand patches in oil and gas producing districts of the middle Ob' river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilova, I I

    1977-11-01

    Intensive economic exploitation of the natural resources of the oil-and-gas producing districts of the central Ob' basin has led to increased exposure of sandy patches over the landscape. These sandy areas are becoming a common site. Technogenic factors involved include, for example, construction projects, oil-drilling and the like. Exposure is accelerated by wind and water erosion. Efforts are underway to reintroduce verdure in the region, and a study has been underway of the features of the ecotope and the stages of natural overgrowth of the area of reclamation. This overgrowth is proceeding well. Vegetation is of the syngenetic succession type, involving four successive stages and formation of associations of a zonal character. Seventy-four species of yeast, 2 species of fungi, 2 of lichens, 19 of Bryophyton and 106 of vascular spore- and covered-seed plants of the area have been recorded, and are tabulated. Recultivation will require due attention to existing conditions. 14 references.

  4. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  5. On the Permic Toponymic Substrate in Mari El and in the Middle Course of the Vyatka River (In the Light of the Ethnic Interpretation of Archaeological Cultures. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Smirnov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the substrate (pre-Mari and pre-Russian toponymy of the Emanayevskaya and Kocharghinskaya archaeological cultures area of the late 1st — early 2nd millennium AD (in the middle course of the Vyatka River and the territory of the Mari El Republic in order to verify the hypothesis about the colonization of the areas in question by the ancient Permic (ancient Udmurt people. Until now for substantiation of the location of the Udmurt urheimat in the studied region some researchers introduced isolated toponymic facts, which were only compared in terms of formal assonance without taking into account the data of the Finno-Ugric historical phonetics and lexicology. The author tries to apply systematic approaches in order to identify linguistic affinities of the substrate toponymy in the middle course of the Vyatka River and the territory of the Mari El Republic. The methods of these approaches were developed and successfully applied by A. K. Matveyev while studying the substrate toponymy of the Russian North. They are based on the searching and isolating of repeating differential elements among toponymic formants, toponymic stems and ethnotoponyms, as well as on the careful consideration of comparative linguistic data and linguistic mapping which are considered to be important parts of such kind of research. The author suggests that a considerable number of substrate toponyms of the region can be explained with reference to the Volga Finnic linguistic data, and that, therefore, those place names represent the traces of an extinct language (or a group of dialects related both to the ancient Volga Finnic languages and the Proto-Permic language and probably holding an intermediate position between them. The first part of the article contains the analysis of the toponymic formants, as well as of the facts confirming the presence of a Northern Finniс toponymic stratum in the northern part of the studied region, it also marks out the

  6. Occurrences, sources and risk assessment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), one class of hydrophobic and toxic compounds, are easily adsorbed into sediments and then pose potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. However, few researches on short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in sediments have been performed. In order to comprehensively investigate the spatial distributions, sources, and ecological risks of CPs, sediments collected from the middle reaches of the Yellow River were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 11.6 to 9.76 × 10 3  ng/g dry weight (dw) and from 8.33 to 168 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant correlation was found between total organic carbon (TOC) and CP concentrations (P > 0.05). The spatial distributions showed that contamination levels of CPs were relevant to human activities. In addition, two types of sediment samples were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and results indicated the predominant congener groups were C 10 Cl 6-7 for SCCPs and C 14 Cl 7-8 for MCCPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that SCCPs and MCCPs in the sediments may have different sources, and SCCPs are likely to come from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Moreover, complex environmental processes, including long-range transportation via the atmosphere and/or river, deposition and degradation of CPs, resulted in increased abundances of short chain and low chlorinated congeners in sediment samples compared with commercial mixtures, and different homolog patterns among samples. The significant negative correlation between SCCP concentrations and MCCP/SCCP ratios could be related to long-range transport of CPs. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that CPs at current levels posed no significant ecological risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ANTHROPOGENIC EUTROPHICATION IN THE RESERVOIR CASCADE OF THE MIDDLE PART OF KURA RIVER AS A RESULT OF WATER POLLUTION WITHIN GEORGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Environmental effects of long-term fixed-pressure on ecosystem of the middle course of stability Kur in within Georgia it was noted by us 50 years ago in the first of the 4 reservoirs - Mingachevir, created in 1956. In 1959-1960. We noted the rapid development of phyto-bacterial, in the waters mouth of the rr. Kura Alazan (Ganikh and Iora (Gabyrry and later (after 9-11 years, in the area of the water. In the same time, anthropogenic eutrophication in the Shamkir reservoir which established upstream, occurred in the first years of the filling.Methods. To find out the reasons, causing intense phytoplankton, increasing the biological oxygen demand of water have been used methods determining the concentration of nutrient, the floristic composition of the dominant forms of phytoplankton, the value of its primary products, the degree of oxygen consumption in the form of the daily BOD.Results. Many years of research have shown, in all the reservoirs 4 causes of anthropogenic eutrophication are biostok of Kura River and increasing concentrations of allochthonous organic matter, which are the source of the waste water of cities and towns, industries located in the catchment area in Georgia.Conclusions. A result of receipt the river water, nutrients wore the stationary character, easily mineralized allochthonous origin of organic matter reservoir contributes to the generation of phyto-bacterial. This, adequately strengthened oxygen consumption of water microbiota, arise processes of hypoxia, which in coastal, relatively quiet areas leads to sustainable anaerobios.

  8. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego County, southern California—2017 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2018-04-20

    We surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2017. Surveys were conducted from April 13 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 16 to July 28 (SWFL). We found 146 LBVI territories, at least 107 of which were occupied by pairs. Five additional transient LBVIs were detected. LBVIs used five different habitat types in the survey area: mixed willow, willow-cottonwood, willow-sycamore, riparian scrub, and upland scrub. Forty-four percent of the LBVIs occurred in habitat characterized as mixed willow and 89 percent of the LBVI territories occurred in areas with greater than 50 percent native plant cover. Of 16 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 8 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2017. Four other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2017. Three LBVIs with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River and one LBVI with a single gold federal band indicating that it was banded as a nestling on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (MCBCP) could not be recaptured for identification. One banded LBVI emigrated from the middle San Luis Rey River to the lower San Luis Rey River in 2017.One resident SWFL territory and one transient Willow Flycatcher of unknown subspecies (WIFL) were observed in the survey area in 2017. The resident SWFL territory, which was comprised of mixed willow habitat (5–50 percent native plant cover), was occupied by a single male from May 22 to June 21, 2017. No evidence of pairing or nesting activity was observed. The SWFL male was banded with a full color-combination indicating that he was originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2014 and successfully bred in the survey area in 2016

  9. Simulation of river plume behaviors in a tropical region: Case study of the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojie; Guo, Xinyu; Morimoto, Akihiko; Buranapratheprat, Anukul

    2018-02-01

    River plumes are a general phenomenon in coastal regions. Most previous studies focus on river plumes in middle and high latitudes with few studies examining those in low latitude regions. Here, we apply a numerical model to the Upper Gulf of Thailand (UGoT) to examine a river plume in low latitudes. Consistent with observational data, the modeled plume has seasonal variation dependent on monsoon conditions. During southwesterly monsoons, the plume extends northeastward to the head of the gulf; during northeasterly monsoons, it extends southwestward to the mouth of the gulf. To examine the effects of latitude, wind and river discharge on the river plume, we designed several numerical experiments. Using a middle latitude for the UGoT, the bulge close to the river mouth becomes smaller, the downstream current flows closer to the coast, and the salinity in the northern UGoT becomes lower. The reduction in the size of the bulge is consistent with the relationship between the offshore distance of a bulge and the Coriolis parameter. Momentum balance of the coastal current is maintained by advection, the Coriolis force, pressure gradient and internal stresses in both low and middle latitudes, with the Coriolis force and pressure gradient enlarged in the middle latitude. The larger pressure gradient in the middle latitude is induced by more offshore freshwater flowing with the coastal current, which induces lower salinity. The influence of wind on the river plume not only has the advection effects of changing the surface current direction and increasing the surface current speed, but also decreases the current speed due to enhanced vertical mixing. Changes in river discharge influence stratification in the UGoT but have little effect on the behavior of the river plume.

  10. [Radionuclides in siberian Thymallus from radiation-contaminated area in the middle stream of the Yenisei River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2012-01-01

    Concentration of artificial radionuclides in bodies of arctic grayling from the radioactively contaminated zone of the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine of Rosatom was investigated in 2007-2010. Gamma-spectrometric analysis revealed artificial radionuclides in all the organs and tissues of fish. The isotope composition was the most diverse (60Co, 65Zn, 85Sr, 99Mo, 106Ru, 137Cs, 144Ce) in internal organs of grayling. The activity of radionuclides increased in internal organs including liver and kidney and in the content of digestive tract of grayling during winter and spring, which coincided with the change in the feeding spectrum of grayling. The trophic transfer factor of radionuclides from zoobenthos (Philolimnogammarus spp.) to whole bodies and muscles of grayling was over 1 (1.8-2.4) only for natural radionuclide 40K. The trophic transfer of artificial radionuclides (60Co, 65Zn, 137Cs) to muscles and bodies of grayling was one-two orders of magnitude less effective.

  11. Sponge fossils of Middle Dnieper River Upper Eocenian deposits (geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki»

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    Stephanska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time sponge spicules of the Paleogene on the geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki» were studied. Using artificial classification M.M. Ivanik (2003 45 taxa spicules were found in rocks. Morphological types spicules were defined. In the complexes following megascleres of «soft» Demospongiae are dominant: pro-, plagio-, ortho-, dicho-, anatriaenes, caltrops, smooth and echinated oxeas, subtylostyls, strongyls, ophioxeas. Diaenes, monenes, caltrops with reduced beam (olimtriaenes, are less common. Microscleres are numerous: sterrasters, sphaerasters, oxysphaerasters, oxyasters. Fragments of dyctional gratings without lychnisks and free spicules of hexactinellid sponges are frequent (pentactines, hexactines. Megascleres of lithistid sponges (phyllotriaenes, tetracrepid desmas, triders, megaclones, dicranoclones are relatively few. The palaeocenosis structure that existed in the Obukhov Sea on this area, it was found by morphological analysis of sponges spicules. In the Obukhov time following sponges dominated here: «soft» sponges with unrelated skeleton that belonged to the class Demospongiae (orders Poecilosclerida, Astrophorida and families Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae, Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Tethyidae, Crellidae and hexactinellids of class Hexactinellida (orders Hexactinosida and Lyssacinosida. А few sponges spicules (belonged to the subclass Lithistida, families Corallistidae, Theonellidae, Phymaraphiniidae, Chenendoporidae, Pleromidae and lack lithistid skeletal gratings fragments in the studied complexes may indicate a desmas transfer from neighboring, a shallow Obukhov stations, which were confined to the nearby slope of the Ukrainian Shield. On the base of sponge spicules studying the Late Eocene (Obukhov age of surrounding deposits is proved. spongе spicula, Upper Eocene, Obuchovian Suite, Middle Dnieper region.

  12. Monitoring the ecology and environment using remote sensing in the Jinta area/Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Anxin; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Xianzhang

    2003-07-01

    A major monitoring area, a part of the middle reaches of Heihe basin, was selected. The Landsat TM data in summer of 1990 and 2000 were used with interpretation on the computer screen, classification and setting up environmental investigation database (1:100000) combined with DEM, land cover/land use, land type data and etc., according to the environmental classification system. Then towards to the main problems of environment, the spatial statistical analysis and dynamic comparisons were carried out using the database. The dynamic monitoring results of 1999 and 2000 show that the changing percentage with the area of 6 ground objects are as follows: land use and agriculture land use increased by 34.17% and 19.47% respectively, wet land and water-body also increased by 6.29% and 8.03% respectively; unused land increased by 1.73% and the biggest change is natural/semi-natural vegetation area, decreased by 42.78%, the main results above meat with the requirements of precise and practical conditions by the precise exam and spot check. With the combinations of using TM remote sensing data and rich un-remote sensing data, the investigations of ecology and environment and the dynamic monitoring would be carried out efficiently in the arid area. It is a dangerous signal of large area desertification if the area of natural/semi-natural vegetation is reduced continuously and obviously.

  13. Hybrid optimal design of the eco-hydrological wireless sensor network in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Li, Xin; Jin, Rui; Ge, Yong; Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jianghao

    2014-10-14

    The eco-hydrological wireless sensor network (EHWSN) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in China is designed to capture the spatial and temporal variability and to estimate the ground truth for validating the remote sensing productions. However, there is no available prior information about a target variable. To meet both requirements, a hybrid model-based sampling method without any spatial autocorrelation assumptions is developed to optimize the distribution of EHWSN nodes based on geostatistics. This hybrid model incorporates two sub-criteria: one for the variogram modeling to represent the variability, another for improving the spatial prediction to evaluate remote sensing productions. The reasonability of the optimized EHWSN is validated from representativeness, the variogram modeling and the spatial accuracy through using 15 types of simulation fields generated with the unconditional geostatistical stochastic simulation. The sampling design shows good representativeness; variograms estimated by samples have less than 3% mean error relative to true variograms. Then, fields at multiple scales are predicted. As the scale increases, estimated fields have higher similarities to simulation fields at block sizes exceeding 240 m. The validations prove that this hybrid sampling method is effective for both objectives when we do not know the characteristics of an optimized variables.

  14. Characteristics of organic phosphorus fractions in different trophic sediments of lakes from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River region and Southwestern Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Runyu; Wu Fengchang; Liu Congqiang; Fu Pingqing; Li Wen; Wang Liying; Liao Haiqing; Guo Jianyang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of organic phosphorus (P o ) fractions in sediments of six lakes from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River region and Southwestern China Plateau, China were investigated using a soil P o fractionation scheme, and the relationships between P o , inorganic phosphorus (P i ) and pollution status were also discussed. The results show that the rank order of P o fractions was: residual P o > HCl-P o > fulvic acid-P > humic acid-P > NaHCO 3 -P o , with their average relative proportion 8.7:4.6:3.2:2.1:1.0. P o fractions, especially nonlabile P o , were significantly correlated with organic matter, P o and NaOH-P i . Different distribution patterns of P fractions were observed in those two different regions. P o fractions in the heavily polluted sediments were higher than those in moderately and no polluted sediments, it is suggested that P o should be paid more attention in the lake eutrophication investigation. - Organic phosphorus fractions in sediments from 6 different trophic Chinese lakes were characterized using an improved fractionation scheme

  15. Genetic Improvements in Rice Yield and Concomitant Increases in Radiation- and Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in Middle Reaches of Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanglong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The yield potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) has experienced two significant growth periods that coincide with the introduction of semi-dwarfism and the utilization of heterosis. In present study, we determined the annual increase in the grain yield of rice varieties grown from 1936 to 2005 in Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and examined the contributions of RUE (radiation-use efficiency, the conversion efficiency of pre-anthesis intercepted global radiation to biomass) and NUE (nitrogen-use efficiency, the ratio of grain yield to aboveground N accumulation) to these improvements. An examination of the 70-year period showed that the annual gains of 61.9 and 75.3 kg ha−1 in 2013 and 2014, respectively, corresponded to an annual increase of 1.18 and 1.16% in grain yields, respectively. The improvements in grain yield resulted from increases in the harvest index and biomass, and the sink size (spikelets per panicle) was significantly enlarged because of breeding for larger panicles. Improvements were observed in RUE and NUE through advancements in breeding. Moreover, both RUE and NUE were significantly correlated with the grain yield. Thus, our study suggests that genetic improvements in rice grain yield are associated with increased RUE and NUE. PMID:26876641

  16. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use Change on Surface Climate in Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, 1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use/land cover change (LUCC is one of the fundamental causes of global environmental change. In recent years, understanding the regional climate impact of LUCC has become a hot-discussed topic worldwide. Some studies have explored LUCC impact on regional climate in specific cities, provinces, or farming areas. However, the quick-urbanized areas, which are highly influenced by human activities, have the most severe land-use changes in developing countries, and their climatic impact cannot be ignored. This study aims to identify the impact of land-use change coupled with urbanization on regional temperature and precipitation in the metropolitan areas of middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China by means of spatial analysis and numeric methods. Based on the exploration of land-use change and climate change during 1988–2008, the impact of land-use transition from non-built-up area to built-up area on temperature and precipitation was analyzed. The results indicated that the land-use conversion has affected the regional temperature with an increasing effect in the study area, while the influence on precipitation was not so significant. The results can provide useful information for spatial planning policies in consideration of regional climate change.

  17. A 150-year record of recent changes in human activity and eutrophication of Lake Wushan from the middle reach of the Yangze River, China

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    Xiangdong YANG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine baseline conditions (pre-impact and recent changes to lakes on the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China, a lake sediment core was extracted from Lake Wushan covering the last ca 150 years. Detailed chemical, biological (subfossil chironomids, and physical analyses of the lake sediments were undertaken. The data showed consistent trends of increased productivity since the early 1920s, notably significant changes in the chironomid fauna which were associated with changes in the sedimentological and stable isotope proxies. More typically eutrophic chironomid taxa first appeared around this time that had not been present in the lake since at least the 1860s. Further increases in productivity occurred around the 1950s which coincided with the local decline and extirpation of some chironomid taxa, particularly macrophyte associated taxa, which had been present in the lake since at least the late 19th Century. A chironomid-inferred water total phosphorus (CI-TP reconstruction produced accurate levels of water TP compared with contemporary measurements (207.4 μg L-1 TP, and suggested that levels for the late 19th Century were relatively low (50-60 μg L-1 TP. These reconstructions illustrate the baseline levels that existed pre-impact and provide potential targets for restoration, but they also show the magnitude of human impact in this region, which has increased the nutrient content of Lake Wushan fourfold within the last ca 100 years.

  18. Sedimentary geochemical record of human-induced environmental changes in Huanggaihu Lake in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China

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    Shuchun Yao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and heavy metals were determined along with stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13Corg and δ15N in an 86 cm sediment core from Huanggaihu Lake, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. These geochemical and isotopic records provide a continuous history of lake productivity and the trophic state of Huanggaihu Lake over the past 150 years. Before the 1960s, organic matter, nutrients and heavy metal contents were low, revealing the low trophic state and pollution inputs at Huanggaihu Lake. High sediment mass accumulation rates and low clay content suggested increased catchment erosion related to human activities such as railway construction and forest clearing during the 1910s-1940s in the catchment area. Since the 1960s, TOC, TN and δ15N have increased along with decreased δ13Corg, indicating an increase in the primary productivity of Huanggaihu Lake. After the year 2000, the TOC, TN and TP decreased or remained stable, and the δ13Corg and δ15N dropped slightly, indicating minor improvement in the lake’s water quality.

  19. Understory plant diversity in mixed and pure plantations of jatropha curcas vs. native vegetation in the lower-middle reaches of the lancang-meikong river watershed, china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, G.L.; Ma, H.C.; Tang, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    22 plots at the Xiaoheijiang base, located in the lower-middle reaches of the Lancang-Meikong River in China, were investigated to analyze the understory biodiversity of Jatropha curcas plantations. Two kinds of mixed modes of J. curcas (mixed plantation with Macadamia integrifolia and mixed plantation with shrub species) and a pure plantation of J. curcas were planted, while the native vegetation served as a control. The plots were distributed along the gradients of forest management, succession and elevation by CCA analysis. Species richness was not significantly different for the different types of plantation, but the evenness of species could be affected, especially for the total community and the understory by planting J. curcas. The diversity and evenness indices of species were affected for the mixed plantation with different proportions of M. integrifolia, especially for the shrub layer, the Shannon diversity index and Pilou evenness index showed significant differences. And for the different mixed shrub species, only the Shannon diversity index and Pilou evenness index were significantly different. Finally, from the perspective of biological diversity, J.curcas plantation with shrub species would be a recommended planting model for ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley area, while J. curcas plantation with M. integrifolia would be an effective planting model to balance crop yield and food security. (author)

  20. A statistical forecast model using the time-scale decomposition technique to predict rainfall during flood period over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijia; Zhong, Zhong; Zhu, Yimin; Ha, Yao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a statistical forecast model using the time-scale decomposition method is established to do the seasonal prediction of the rainfall during flood period (FPR) over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley (MLYRV). This method decomposites the rainfall over the MLYRV into three time-scale components, namely, the interannual component with the period less than 8 years, the interdecadal component with the period from 8 to 30 years, and the interdecadal component with the period larger than 30 years. Then, the predictors are selected for the three time-scale components of FPR through the correlation analysis. At last, a statistical forecast model is established using the multiple linear regression technique to predict the three time-scale components of the FPR, respectively. The results show that this forecast model can capture the interannual and interdecadal variation of FPR. The hindcast of FPR during 14 years from 2001 to 2014 shows that the FPR can be predicted successfully in 11 out of the 14 years. This forecast model performs better than the model using traditional scheme without time-scale decomposition. Therefore, the statistical forecast model using the time-scale decomposition technique has good skills and application value in the operational prediction of FPR over the MLYRV.

  1. Middle-Holocene sea-level fluctuations interrupted the developing Hemudu culture in the lower Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Keyang; Lu, Houyuan; Zheng, Yunfei; Zhang, Jianping; Xu, Deke; Huan, Xiujia; Wang, Jiehua; Lei, Shao

    2018-05-01

    The eastern coastal zone of China is densely populated and widely recognized as a center of rice domestication, which has undergone dramatic sea-level fluctuation during the Holocene epoch. Hemudu culture is distributed mainly in the eastern coastal area and was once presumed as a mature agricultural economy based on rice, making it an ideal case for examining the remarkable human-environment interaction in the Lower Yangtze River. Though numerous studies have been conducted on the cultural evolution, ecological environment, and rice domestication of Hemudu culture, the impact of sea-level fluctuation on human settlement and food production remains controversial. In this study, we report high-resolution pollen, phytolith, and diatom records, and accurately measured elevation from the Yushan site, which is the closest site of Hemudu culture to the modern coastline. Based on the data gathered, we suggest that the Hemudu culture and subsequent Liangzhu culture developed in the context of regression and were interrupted by two transgressions that occurred during 6300-5600 BP and 5000-4500 BP. The regional ecological environment of the Yushan site alternated between intertidal mudflat and freshwater wetlands induced by sea-level fluctuations in the mid-late Holocene. Though rice was cultivated in the wetland as early as 6700 BP, this cultivation was subsequently discontinued due to the transgression; thus, full domestication of rice did not occur until 5600 BP in this region. Comprehensive analysis of multiple proxies in this study promote the understanding of the relationship between environmental evolution, cultural interruption, and rice domestication.

  2. Nitrogen concentrations and loads for the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam, Connecticut, computed with the use of autosampling and continuous measurements of water quality for water years 2009 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.; Martin, Joseph W.; Morrison, Jonathan

    2018-03-20

    The daily and annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite and total nitrogen for the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam, Connecticut, were determined for water years 2009 to 2014. The analysis was done with a combination of methods, which included a predefined rating curve method for nitrate plus nitrite and total nitrogen for water years 2009 to 2011 and a custom rating curve method that included sensor measurements of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen concentration and turbidity along with mean daily flow to determine total nitrogen loads for water years 2011 to 2014. Instantaneous concentrations of total nitrogen were estimated through the use of a regression model based on sensor measurements at 15-minute intervals of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen and turbidity for water years 2011 to 2014.Annual total nitrogen loads at the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam ranged from 12,900 to 19,200 metric tons, of which about 42 to 49 percent was in the form of nitrate plus nitrite. The mean 95-percent prediction intervals on daily total nitrogen load estimates were smaller from the custom model, which used sensor data, than those calculated by the predefined model.Annual total nitrogen load estimates at the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam were compared with the upstream load estimates at the Connecticut River at Thompsonville, Conn. Annual gains in total nitrogen loads between the two stations ranged from 3,430 to 6,660 metric tons. These increases between the two stations were attributed to the effects of increased urbanization and to combined annual discharges of 1,540 to 2,090 metric tons of nitrogen from 24 wastewater treatment facilities in the drainage area between the two stations. The contribution of total nitrogen from wastewater discharge between the two stations had declined substantially before the beginning of this study and accounted for from 31 to 52 percent of the gain in nitrogen load between the Thompsonville and Middle Haddam sites.

  3. On the Permic Toponymic Substrate in Mari El and in the Middle Course of the Vyatka River (In the Light of the Ethnic Interpretation of Archaeological Cultures. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Smirnov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the paper continues the analysis of the substrate (pre-Mari and pre-Russian toponymy of the Emanayevskaya and Kochеrghinskaya archaeological cultures area of the late 1st — early 2nd millennium AD (in the middle course of the Vyatka River and the territory of the Mari El Republic in order to verify the hypothesis about the colonization of the areas in question by the ancient Permic (ancient Udmurt people. In this part the author analyzes toponymic stems using the method of ethnic modelling of substrate toponymy based on the method of semantic modelling developed by A. K. Matveyev. The method applied in this paper consists in the isolation of typical differential stems used in the toponymy of the modern Permic languages and their comparison with the substrate toponymy of the studied area. This analysis confirms the suggestion made in the first part of the paper about the non-Permic origin of the majority of substrate place names of the Vyatka River and the territory of Mari El as well as of the Emanayevskaya and Kocherghinskaya archaeological cultures of the 2nd half of the 1st millennium AD. The mapping of the results of “Permic” ethnic modelling confirms the presence of a wide lacuna characterized by the absence of typically Permic differential stems in the area of the main remains of the Emanayevskaya and Kochеrghinskaya archaeological cultures. On the contrary, the major portion of the substrate place names on this territory have more affinity with the Volga-Fennic and, partly, with the Sami and Balto-Fennic languages. The author suggests that the population of the Emanayevskaya culture spoke an unknown extinct Finno-Permic language, being a Volga-Fennic one or a transitive language combining Volga-Fennic and Permic features, or a group of such dialects or languages. The article focuses on some phonetic characteristics of this language (group of languages as reflected in the toponymy.

  4. Combining genetic, isotopic, and field data to better describe the influence of dams and diversions on Burbot Movement in the Wind River Drainage, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley-Underwood, Zachary; Mandeville, Elizabeth G.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Deromedi, J. W.; Johnson, Kevin; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Dams and water diversions fragment habitat, entrain fish, and alter fish movement. Many Burbot Lota lota populations are declining, with dams and water diversions thought to be a major threat. We used multiple methods to identify Burbot movement patterns and assess entrainment into an irrigation system in the Wind River, Wyoming. We assessed seasonal movement of Burbot with a mark–recapture (PIT tagging) study, natal origins of entrained fish with otolith microchemistry, and historic movement with genotyping by sequencing. We found limited evidence of entrainment in irrigation waters across all approaches. The mark–recapture study indicated that out‐migration from potential source populations could be influenced by flow regime but was generally low. Otolith and genomic results suggested the presence of a self‐sustaining population within the irrigation network. We conclude that emigration from natural tributary populations is not the current source of the majority of Burbot found in irrigation waters. Instead, reservoir and irrigation canal construction has created novel habitat in which Burbot have established a population. Using a multi‐scale approach increased our inferential abilities and mechanistic understanding of movement patterns between natural and managed systems.

  5. Comparison of Toxicity of Sediments from Rivers with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load (Middle Volga Region, Russia Based on Elutriate and Whole Sediment Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Stepanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of chemical characteristics and toxicity testing of whole sediment and elutri-ate have been performed with 35 samples taken during the monitoring of rivers in the Middle Volga region (Tatarstan, Russia in 2013. The locations analyzed are sites associated with agriculture, forestry, and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil production. The toxicity tests include: (1 Chlorella vulgaris (algal elutriate test, (2 Paramecium caudatum (ciliate elutriate test, (3 Daphnia magna (cladoceran whole sediment toxicity test, and (4 Heterocypris incongruens (ostracod whole sediment toxicity test. The concentrations of metals in 43% of sediment samples have been found to exceed probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. However, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and organochlorine pesticides have turned out to be below SQGs in most sites. The correlation analysis has shown metal toxicity to daphnid reproduction and ostracod growth (R2 = 0.34–0.64 and ammonia (R2 = 0.49–0.54. A higher percentage of samples have shown toxicity in the whole sediment tests (86% compared to the elutriate tests (54%. A total of 91% of samples have demonstrated toxicity for at least one species. Toxicity has been most frequently observed for daphnid reproduction (83% of samples and ostracod growth (56% of samples compared to daphnid (23% survival, ostracod (11% survival, and ciliate reproduction (54% or algal growth (54%. The most polluted sediments have been registered in the area of oil production. The comparison of toxicity of the samples from different types of areas has indicated that 100% of samples from the oil production area, 94% of samples from the agricultural area, and 50% of samples from the forest area were toxic to at least one test organism.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 35, (ANDOVT00110035) on State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110035 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 4.65-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the left bank and small trees and brush on the right bank upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 57 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 31.4 mm (0.103 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 28, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. There are cut-banks upstream and downstream of the bridge and an island in the channel upstream. The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-ft concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (CHESVT00110046) on Vermont State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESVT00110046 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain and New England Upland sections of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 28.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested on the upstream left and downstream right overbanks. The upstream right and downstream left overbanks are pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.013 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 70.7 mm (0.232 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 12, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 118-ft-long, two-lane steel stringer type bridge consisting of a 114-foot steel plate deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 109 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 41 (ANDOVT00110041) on State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110041 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 12.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass on the upstream right overbank while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream left overbank and downstream right overbank are brushland. The downstream left overbank is forested. In the study area, the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.018 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 71 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 85.0 mm (0.279 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to a cut-bank present on the upstream right bank and a wide channel bar with vegetation in the upstream reach. The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 46-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a concrete 44-foot tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of

  9. Examination of Direct Discharge Measurement Data and Historic Daily Data for Selected Gages on the Middle Mississippi River, 1861-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An examination of data from two continuous stage and discharge streamgages and one continuous stage-only gage on the Middle Mississippi River was made to determine stage-discharge relation changes through time and to investigate cause-and-effect mechanisms through evaluation of hydraulic geometry, channel elevation and water-surface elevation data. Data from discrete, direct measurements at the streamgages at St. Louis, Missouri, and Chester, Illinois, during the period of operation by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1933 to 2008 were examined for changes with time. Daily stage values from the streamgages at St. Louis (1861-2008) and Chester (1891-2008) and the stage-only gage at Cape Girardeau, Missouri (1896-2008), throughout the historic period of record also were examined for changes with time. Stage and discharge from measurements and stage-discharge relations at the streamgages at St. Louis and Chester indicate that stage for a given discharge has changed with time at both locations. An apparent increase in stage for a given discharge at increased flows (greater than flood stage) likely is caused by the raising of levees on the flood plains, and a decrease in stage for a given discharge at low flows (less than one-half flood stage) likely is caused by a combination of dikes in the channel that deepen the channel thalweg at the end of the dikes, and reduced sediment flux into the Middle Mississippi River. Since the 1960s at St. Louis, Missouri, the stage-discharge relations indicated no change or a decrease in stage for a given discharge for all discharges, whereas at Chester, Illinois, the stage-discharge relations indicate increasing stage for a given discharge above bankfull because of sediment infilling of the overflow channel. Top width and average velocity from measurements at a given discharge for the streamgage at St. Louis, Missouri, were relatively constant through time, with the only substantial change in top width resulting from the change in

  10. Field Comparisons of the Elwha Bedload Sampler and an Acoustic Gravel-transport Sensor: Middle Fork of the Piedra River, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J.; Ryan, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    Ten simultaneous bedload measurements were made with an Elhwa sampler and an acoustic-gravel-transport sensor (GTS) on the Middle Fork of the Piedra River in southwestern Colorado near the end of the spring freshet in water year 2001. The purpose was to compare bedload samples with acoustic measurements acquired under field conditions. Upstream of the measurement site, the river drains 86 km2 of andesite, ash flows, tuffs, and breccias in the San Juan Mountains, contributing a relatively high sediment load to the river system. The channel transitions from step-pools at high elevations to a plane bed with a slope of 0.018 in the study reach. Channel width, mean depth and bank-full velocity at the site are: 13.6 m, 0.52, and 1.5 m s-1. The D50 of the riverbed surface is 0.08 m which is 6 to 40 times larger than the D50s of the bedload samples. D16 and D84 of the bed = 0.02 and 0.21 m respectively. Water discharges from 7.3 to 9.3 m3 s-1 transported about 0.01 kg of gravel m-1 s-1 in the channel. Transport of coarse gravel (8-64 mm) ranged from 0.00063 to 0.024 kg m-1 s-1. The Elwha sampler is a portable, pressure-differential trap with a 0.2 m wide by 0.1 m high opening. The acoustic sensor is a 0.025-m wide by 0.1 m high strip of PVDF piezoelectric film connected to a signal processor and bonded to an aluminum pressure plate. When the plate is struck by stones, the GTS produces signal peaks with areas that are accurate measures of stone momentum. The GTS was calibrated with steels balls dropped on the pressure plate in still water to develop a curve of ball momentum as a function of peak areas. Based on these calibrations, the standard error of the GTS momentum estimates is 0.0017 kg m s-1. Five transects with 30 verticals, each occupied for 60 s, were completed with the sampler and GTS separated by < 1 m. Five additional verticals were occupied for about 1800 s each with the instruments separated by < 0.5 m. The trapped material was sieved and weighed and the water

  11. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  12. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant

  13. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Yujun [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang Zhifeng, E-mail: zfyang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Shanghong [Renewable Energy School, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: > Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. > Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. > Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. > Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  14. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yujun; Yang Zhifeng; Zhang Shanghong

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: → Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. → Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. → Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. → Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  15. A systematic approach of bottom-up assessment methodology for an optimal design of hybrid solar/wind energy resources – Case study at middle east region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifaei, Pouya; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Jacome, Gabriel; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing DaSOSaCa flowchart as a novel hybrid solar/wind assessment approach. • Calculating four key parameters to generate synthetic wind hourly data for Iran. • Proposing technical and economic hybrid solar/wind GIS maps of Iran. • Revising renewable energies management plans of Iran by macroeconomic evaluation. - Abstract: In the current study, an algorithm-based data processing, sizing, optimization, sensitivity analysis and clustering approach (DaSOSaCa) is proposed as an efficient simultaneous solar/wind assessment methodology. Accordingly, data processing is performed to obtain reliable high quality meteorological data among various datasets, which are used for hybrid photovoltaic/wind turbine/storage/converter system optimal design for consequent sites in a large region. The optimal hybrid systems are consequently simulated to meet hourly power demand in various sites. The solar/wind fraction and net present cost of the systems are then used as the technical and economic clustering variables, respectively. The clustering results are finally used as input to obtain novel hybrid solar/wind GIS maps. Iran is selected as the case study to validate the proposed methodology and detail its applicability. Ten minute annual global horizontal radiation, wind speed, and temperature data are analyzed, and the optimal, robust hybrid systems are simulated for various sites in order to classify the country. The generated GIS maps show that Iran can be efficiently clustered into four technical and five economic clusters under optimal conditions. The clustering results prove that Iran is mainly a solar country with approximately 74% solar power fraction under optimum conditions. A macroeconomic evaluation using DaSOSaCa also reveals that the nominal discount rate is recommended to be greater than 20% considering the current economic situation for the renewable energy sector in Iran. An environmental analysis results show that an average 106.68 tonCO 2

  16. 3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub

    2002-11-18

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  17. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausel, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  18. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego, southern California—2016 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-09-29

    Executive SummaryWe surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2016. Surveys were done from March 30 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 18 to July 30 (SWFL). We found 142 LBVI territories, at least 106 of which were occupied by pairs. Six additional transient LBVIs were detected. Of 20 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 9 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2016, although we were unable to determine the exact color combination of 1 female LBVI. Seven other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2016. Four vireos with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River could not be recaptured for identification.Three SFWL territories were observed in the survey area in 2016. Two territories were occupied by pairs and one by a male of unknown breeding status. Both pairs attempted to nest at least once, and both pairs were successful, fledging three young each. Nesting began in early June and continued into July. Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs were not observed in either nest. An additional 12 transient Willow Flycatchers of unknown subspecies were detected in 2016.Two of the five resident SWFLs were originally banded as nestlings on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. One male and one female were banded as nestlings on Camp Pendleton in 2009 and 2011, respectively. One natal male of unknown breeding status, originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2015, was recaptured and given a unique color combination in 2016. This male was later detected on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

  19. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  20. Aeolian sedimentation in the middle buntsandstein in the eifel north-south depression zone: Summary of the variability of sedimentary processes in a buntsandstein erg as a base for evaluation of the mutual relationships between aeolian sand seas and fluvial river systems in the mid-european buntsandstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The spectrum of aeolian depositional subenvironments in the upper Middle Buntsandstein Karlstal-Schichten sequence in the Eifel North-South-zone at the western margin of the Mid-European Triassic Basin comprises trains of larger and higher narrowly-spaced dunes in sand seas, isolated smaller and lower widely-spaced dunes in floodplains and interdune playas, dry interdune sheet sands, damp interdune adhesive sandflats, wet interdune playa lakes, rainfall runoff watercourses and ephemeral channels cutting through the dune belt, and deflation gravel lag veneers. Distinction of aeolian and fluvial sediments within the succession of closely intertonguing wind- and water-laid deposits is possible by independent analysis of the conventional criteria and the more modern stratification styles. Thick cross-bedded aeolian sand sequences originate as barchanoid-type dunes which accumulate and migrate in the regime of narrow to wide unimodal southeasterly to southwesterly trade winds in low northern palaeolatitude in summer when the intertropical convergence zone is shifted to the north. The predominantly transverse-ridge dunes accrete mainly by grainfall and subcritical climbing of wind ripples, subordinately also by grainflow interfingering with grainfall. Horizontal-laminated aeolian sands form as sand sheets in dry interdune playas by subcritical migration of wind ripple trains, rarely also by plane bed accretion. Thin cross-bedded dune sands or horizontal-laminated aeolian sands capping fluvial cyclothems originate by deflation of emerged alluvial bar sands during low-water stages and subsequent accumulation of the winnowed sand as widely-spaced dunelets or chains of wind ripples in desiccated parts of the adjoining floodplain. The aeolian sand layers at the base of lacustrine cyclothems record migration of isolated little dunes across the dry playa floor at the beginning of a wetting-upwards cyclothem, with the sand deriving from deflation of fluvial incursions or

  1. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter

  2. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Humanity inherited the true sense of proportion, synergy, and harmony from the natural environment. ..... In Ukraine, the middle and lower sections of the Dnipro have a drainage ... The following large cities are located in the Dnipro basin: in Russia, .... In Kherson Oblast and in river basins of some small rivers it is as high as ...

  3. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS-derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant end toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  4. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  5. Decision support for the management of water resources at Sub-middle of the São Francisco river basin in Brazil using integrated hydro-economic modeling and scenarios for land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M. G. A.; Souza da Silva, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models can measure the economic effects of different operating rules, environmental restrictions, ecosystems services, technical constraints and institutional constraints. Furthermore, water allocation can be improved by considering economical criteria's. Likewise, climate and land use change can be analyzed to provide resilience. We developed and applied a hydro-economic optimization model to determine the optimal water allocation of main users in the Lower-middle São Francisco River Basin in Northeast (NE) Brazil. The model uses demand curves for the irrigation projects, small farmers and human supply, rather than fixed requirements for water resources. This study analyzed various constraints and operating alternatives for the installed hydropower dams in economic terms. A seven-year period (2000-2006) with water scarcity in the past has been selected to analyze the water availability and the associated optimal economic water allocation. The used constraints are technical, socioeconomic and environmental. The economically impacts of scenarios like prioritizing human consumption, impacts of the implementation of the São Francisco river transposition, human supply without high distribution losses, environmental hydrographs, forced reservoir level control, forced reduced reservoir capacity, alteration of lower flow restriction were analyzed. The results in this period show that scarcity costs related ecosystem service and environmental constraints are significant, and have major impacts (increase of scarcity cost) for consumptive users like irrigation projects. In addition, institutional constraints such as prioritizing human supply, minimum release limits downstream of the reservoirs and the implementation of the transposition project impact the costs and benefits of the two main economic sectors (irrigation and power generation) in the region of the Lower-middle of the São Francisco river basin. Scarcity costs for irrigation users generally

  6. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  7. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  8. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom...... of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple...

  9. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  10. Middle Pleistocene infill of Hinkley Valley by Mojave River sediment and associated lake sediment: Depositional architecture and deformation by strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Haddon, Elizabeth; Langenheim, Victoria; Cyr, Andrew J.; Wan, Elmira; Walkup, Laura; Starratt, Scott W.

    2018-01-01

    Hinkley Valley in the Mojave Desert, near Barstow about 140 km northeast of Los Angeles and midway between Victorville Valley and the Lake Manix basin, contains a thick sedimentary sequence delivered by the Mojave River. Our study of sediment cores drilled in the valley indicates that Hinkley Valley was probably a closed playa basin with stream inflow from four directions prior to Mojave River inflow. The Mojave River deposited thick and laterally extensive clastic wedges originating from the southern valley that rapidly filled much of Hinkley Valley. Sedimentary facies representing braided stream, wetland, delta, and lacustrine depositional environments all are found in the basin fill; in some places, the sequence is greater than 74 m (245 ft) thick. The sediment is dated in part by the presence of the ~631 ka Lava Creek B ash bed low in the section, and thus represents sediment deposition after Victorville basin was overtopped by sediment and before the Manix basin began to be filled. Evidently, upstream Victorville basin filled with sediment by about 650 ka, causing the ancestral Mojave River to spill to the Harper and Hinkley basins, and later to Manix basin.Initial river sediment overran wetland deposits in many places in southern Hinkley Valley, indicating a rapidly encroaching river system. These sediments were succeeded by a widespread lake (“blue” clay) that includes the Lava Creek B ash bed. Above the lake sediment lies a thick section of interlayered stream sediment, delta and nearshore lake sediment, mudflat and/or playa sediment, and minor lake sediment. This stratigraphic architecture is found throughout the valley, and positions of lake sediment layers indicate a successive northward progression in the closed basin. A thin overlapping sequence at the north end of the valley contains evidence for a younger late Pleistocene lake episode. This late lake episode, and bracketing braided stream deposits of the Mojave River, indicate that the river

  11. Cultural Resources Investigations for Libby Reservoir, Lincoln County, Northwest, Montana. Volume 1. Environment, Archaeology, and Land Use Patterns in the Middle Kootenai River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Childrens grow fat upon, mothers like, and physicians recommend Castoria. It regulates the bowels, cures wind colic , allays feverishness and destroys worms...from a smooth lightweight drinking glass (with a raised, irregular shaped, point design in cream color on the exterior surface), and a thick, flat

  12. Microhabitat use by fishes in the middle course of the River Gambia in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal: a unique example of an undisturbed West African assemblage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 7 (2008), s. 1815-1824 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish-habitat association * resource partitioning * Soudanian River Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.246, year: 2008

  13. Application of Mat Traps to Determine the Present Speed of Accumulation of Alluvium at the Ryazan Area in the Middle Reaches of the Oka River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtsov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the processes of channel sedimentation in riverbeds of lowland rivers has important fundamental and practical importance. In the economic development of river valleys a lot of attention is paid to the dynamics of the major reliefforming processes within the floodplain. A typical example showing the pattern of forming landforms and type of floodplain processes is deposition and redeposition of riverine sediment. In the future sedimentation of alluvium in areas of riverine floodplain makes the growth rate of natural levees, islands and shoals. For the average flow of the Oka river the pace of modern dynamics of accumulation of alluvium in the riverine areas is clarified. For the first time in this area the method of mat traps is applied. Rubber and coconut fiber were selected as the main materials for the traps. Specific features of the application methods and the difficulties encountered in its application were defined. The authors obtained the data about thickness of the layer of sediment accumulation of river flood of 2015, the results of particle size analysis of alluvial material with traps. The main patterns of distribution of fractions of alluvium and the pace of accumulation of various forms of riverine floodplain accumulation were identified. Tested methodology has proven its effectiveness and was found promising for use in the future in this region.

  14. Effects of middle-term land reclamation on nickel soil-water interaction: a case study from reclaimed salt marshes of Po River Delta, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Reclaimed salt marshes are fragile environments where water salinization and accumulation of heavy metals can easily occur. This type of environment constitutes a large part of the Po River Delta (Italy), where intensive agricultural activities take place. Given the higher Ni background of Po River Delta soils and its water-soluble nature, the main aim of this contribution is to understand if reclamation can influence the Ni behavior over time. In this study, we investigated the geochemical features of 40 soils sampled in two different localities from the Po River Delta with different reclamation ages. Samples of salt marsh soils reclaimed in 1964 were taken from Valle del Mezzano while soils reclaimed in 1872 were taken nearby Codigoro town. Batch solubility tests and consecutive determination of Ni in pore-water were compared to bulk physicochemical compositions of soils. Bulk Ni content of the studied soils is naturally high, since these soils originated from Po River sediments derived from the erosion of ultramafic rocks. Moreover, it seems that Ni concentration increases during soil evolution, being probably related to the degradation of serpentine. Instead, the water-soluble Ni measured in the leaching tests is greater in soils recently reclaimed compared to the oldest soils. Soil properties of two soil profiles from a reclaimed wetland area were examined to determine soil evolution over one century. Following reclamation, pedogenic processes of the superficial horizons resulted in organic matter mineralization, pH buffer, and a decrease of Ni water solubility from recently to evolved reclaimed soil.

  15. Precipitation cycles in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River (1736-2000)%1736-2000年黄河中下游地区降水变化的周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝志新; 郑景云; 葛全胜

    2008-01-01

    Based on the long-term precipitation series with annual time resolution in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and its four sub-regions during 1736-2000 reconstructed from the rainfall and snowfall archives of the Qing Dynasty, the precipitation cycles are analyzed by wavelet analysis and the possible climate forcings, which drive the precipitation changes, are explored. The results show that: the precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River has inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillations like 2-4a,quasi-22a and 70-80a. The 2-4a cycle is linked with EI Ni(n)o events, and the precipitation is lower than normal year in the occurrence of the EI Ni(n)o year or the next year; for the quasi-22a and the 70-80a cycles, Wolf Sun Spot Numbers and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) coincide with the two cycle signals. However, on a 70-80a time scale, the coincidence between solar activity and precipitation is identified before 1830, and strong (weak) solar activity is generally correlated to the dry (wet) periods; after 1830, the solar activity changes to 80-100a quasi-century long oscillation, and the adjusting action to the precipitation is becoming weaker and weaker; the coincidence between PDO and precipitation is shown in the whole time series. Moreover, in recent 100 years, PDO is becoming a pace-maker of the precipitation on the 70-80a time scale.

  16. Emission Inventory Development and Application Based On an Atmospheric Emission Source Priority Control Classification Technology Method, a Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Cheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was the first time to be developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. The emission inventory was proved to be acceptable owing to the atmospheric modeling verification. A classification technology method for atmospheric pollution source priority control was the first time to be introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale. MICAPS (Meteorological Information comprehensive Analysis and Processing System) was applied for the regional meteorological condition and sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-center Urban Agglomerations contributed biggest on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In addition, the cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study provide a valuable preference for policy makers to develop effective air pollution control strategies.

  17. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  18. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.

    1992-02-01

    Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects

  19. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  20. [Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction on aquatic species in middle reaches of Lancang River, Southwest China based on ESHIPPO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ming-Chun; Dong, Shi-Kui; Liu, Shi-Liang; Li, Jin-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2013-02-01

    An investigation was conducted on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish at 8 sampling sections in the Manwan Reservoir before and after the construction of Xiaowan Hydropower Dam. The modified ESHIPPO model was applied to study the changes of the featured aquatic species, including endangered species, endemic specie, peis resource species, and native fish, aimed to make an ecological risk assessment of the dam construction on the aquatic species. The dam construction had definite ecological risk on the aquatic species, especially the endemic fish, in Langcang River, due to the changes of hydrological conditions. The endemic species including Bangia atropurpurea, Lemanea sinica, Prasiola sp., Attheyella yunnanensis, and Neutrodiaptomus mariadvigae were at high ecological risk, and thus, besides monitoring, protection measures were needed to be taken to lower the possibility of the species extinction. The widely distributed species of phytoplankton and zooplankton were at medium ecological risk, and protection measures besides monitoring should be prepared. Twelve kinds of native fish, including Barbodes huangchuchieni, Sinilabeo laticeps, Racoma lantsangensis, Racoma lissolabiatus, Paracobitis anguillioides, Schistura latifasciata, Botia nigrolineata, Vanmanenia striata, Homaloptera yunnanensis, Platytropius longianlis, Glyptothorax zanaensis, and Pseudecheneis immaculate, were at high ecological risk, and protection measures needed to be developed to prevent the possibility of the species loss and extinction.

  1. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  2. Extensive investigation of the sap flow of maize plants in an oasis farmland in the middle reach of the Heihe River, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liwen; He, Zhibin; Zhao, Wenzhi; Yang, Qiyue

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the sap flow characteristics of maize plants is critical for improving irrigation water-use efficiency, especially for regions facing water resource shortages. In this study, sap flow rates, related soil-physics and plant-growth parameters, and meteorological factors, were simultaneously monitored in a maize field in two consecutive years, 2011 and 2012, and the sap flow rates of the maize plants were extensively analyzed based on the monitored data. Seasonal and daily variational characteristics were identified at different growth stages and under different weather conditions, respectively. The analyses on the relationships between sap flow rate and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), as well as several plant-growth parameters, indicate that the irrigation schedule can exert an influence on sap flow, and can consequently affect crop yield. The ranking of the main meteorological factors affecting the sap flow rate was: net radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > wind speed. For a quick estimation of sap flow rates, an empirical formula based on the two top influencing factors was put forward and verified to be reliable. The sap flow rate appeared to show little response to irrigation when the water content was relatively high, implying that some of the irrigation in recent years may have been wasted. These results may help to reveal the bio-physical processes of maize plants related to plant transpiration, which could be beneficial for establishing an efficient irrigation management system in this region and also for providing a reference for other maize-planting regions.

  3. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, Julita

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  4. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okupny Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene. In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni. The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  5. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement, September 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-09-01

    BPA has been asked by PPM Energy, Inc. to interconnect 300 megawatts (MW) of electricity generated from the proposed Klondike III Wind Project to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. Orion Energy LLC has also asked BPA to interconnect 400 MW of electricity from its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, located north and east of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project. (Portland General Electric recently bought the rights to develop the proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm from Orion Energy, LLC.) Both wind projects received Site Certificates from the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council on June 30, 2006. To interconnect these projects, BPA would need to build and operate a 230-kV double-circuit transmission line about 12 miles long, expand one substation and build one new substation. The wind projects would require wind turbines, substation(s), access roads, and other facilities. Two routes for the transmission line are being considered. Both begin at PPM's Klondike Schoolhouse Substation then travel north (Proposed Action) or north and westerly (Middle Alternative) to a new BPA 230-kV substation next to BPA's existing John Day 500-kV Substation. BPA is also considering a No Action Alternative in which BPA would not build the transmission line and would not interconnect the wind projects. The proposed BPA and wind projects would be located on private land, mainly used for agriculture. If BPA decides to interconnect the wind projects, construction of the BPA transmission line and substation(s) could commence as early as the winter of 2006-07. Both wind projects would operate for much of each year for at least 20 years. The proposed projects would generally create no or low impacts. Wildlife resources and local visual resources are the only resources to receive an impact rating other than ''none'' or ''low''. The low to moderate impacts to wildlife are from the expected bird and bat mortality and the cumulative

  6. The Three Gorges Dam: Does the Flooding Time Determine the Distribution of Schistosome-Transmitting Snails in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosomiasis is one of the most devastating tropical diseases in the world. Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and its growth and development are sensitive to environmental factors. The Three Gorges Dam has substantially altered the water level in the Yangtze River. This study focused on the impact of the flooding time on the occurrence of Oncomelania snails in Hunan Province, China. Methods: The data regarding Oncomelania snails were collected from the Schistosomiasis Atlas of the People’s Republic of China. Air temperature, hours of daylight and relative humidity from 1995 to 2002 were collected from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. The data for rainfall and days inundated with water were collected from the Hunan flood control information system and hydrological stations in Hunan Province. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the impact of these factors on the presence or absence of snails. Results: The number of days inundated with water in the areas with snails ranged from 56 to 212 days. However, 82 percent of the areas without snails were inundated with water less than 60 days. The lowest air temperature in a year in the areas without snails ranges from −2.88 °C to −2.10 °C, and the range was from −2.88 °C to −2.34 °C for areas with snails. Annual rainfall in the areas with snails ranged from 989 to 1565 mm, and the range was from 1230 mm to 1647 mm for the areas without snails. The results from the generalized additive model showed that the number of days inundated with water, lowest air temperature in a year, annual rainfall, days of daily rainfall greater than 0.1 mm, and hours of daylight were the factors that significantly affect the occurrence of snails in Hunan Province, China. Conclusions: The number of days inundated with water may be a key factor determining the geographical distribution of Oncomelania snails in Hunan Province

  7. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  8. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  9. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  10. The cultural analysis in the environmental impact studies. Jepirachi wind pilot project and connecting road between the Aburra valley and Cauca River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Aura Luz; Carmona, Sergio Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This article is synthesis of the investigation to choose I in environment title of Master and Development of the National University of Host Colombia Medellin, on the speech, the social images and representations that emerge in the Studies from environmental Impact -EIA- from the cultural systems from communities affected by the implantation and operation. From two macro projects, that are part of the Plans of national Development, regional and local in Colombia: one, the Project Pilot of Generation of Aeolian Energy Jepirachi, in Colombian the Guajira discharge that affects indigenous communities of several establishments Wayuu in the sector of Average Moon. The other, the project of Road Connection between Valleys of the Aburra River - and the Cauca River, which it affects communities that inhabit an axis of rural transition - urban, whose cultural composition is diverse in its origin, mobility and interactions. It was left from two hypotheses: one, is that the analysis made in the cultural dimension of the EIA, is insufficient lo identify, lo evaluate and to handle the impacts on the cultural systems; second, front lo the treatment of the cultural systems is the existence of fundamental differences. There is cultural systems in Colombia which status is recognized greater and category than to others. The analysis of the speech allowed to obtain a diagnosis on semantic the rhetorical structure and - formal and textual cohesion, coherence, correlations and associations in the EIA and to identify the social images and representations that emerge on the populations taken part by the projects. Finally conclusions. That consider they leave to the debate on the cultural analyses that have been made in the EIA ,their emptiness and limitations and the different courses open that can take futures works from investigation

  11. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-09-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22-21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12-9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  12. Multispectral processing of ERTS-A (LANDSAT) data for uranium exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: a visible region ratio to enhance surface alteration associated with roll-type uraium deposits. Final report, June 1974--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, B.C.; Pillars, W.W.

    1975-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to document possible detection capabilities of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data for use in exploration for uranium roll-type deposits. Spectral reflectivity, mineralogy, iron content, and color paramenters were measured for twenty natural surface samples collected from a semiarid region. The relationships of these properties to LANDSAT response-weighted reflectances and to reflectance ratios are discussed. It was found that the single ratio technique of multispectral processing is likely to be sensitive enough to separate hematitic stain, but not limonitic. A combination of the LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ and R/sub 7,6/ ratios, and a processing technique sensitive to vegetative cover is recommended for detecting areas of limonitic stain. Digital level slicing of LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ over the Wind River Basin, after geometric correction, resulted in adequate enhancement of Triassic redbeds and lighter red materials, but not for limonitic areas. No recommendations for prospects in the area were made. Information pertaining to techniques of evaluating laboratory reflectance spectra for remote sensing applications, ratio processing, and planimetric correction of LANDSAT data is presented qualitatively

  13. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores

  14. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: Neozanthopsis americana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Carpilioidea) from the Middle Eocene Cane River Formation of Louisiana, USA, and associated teleost otoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, C.E.; Feldmann, R.M.; Stringer, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    A large collection of Neozanthopsis americana (Rathbun, 1928) from the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) Cane River Formation in Louisiana, USA, represents the first opportunity to describe the species in detail. Detailed analysis of associated teleost otoliths and other vertebrate remains documents a

  15. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  16. Wind system documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  17. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  18. Geo morphological setting and main technological features of new Middle and Upper Pleistocene sites in the Lower Manzanares River Valley (Madrid, Spain); Contexto geomorfologico y principales rasgos tecnologicos de nuevos yacimientos del Pleistoceno Medio y Superior en el Valle Inferior del Manzanares (Madrid, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P. G.; Lopez Recio, M.; Cuartero, F.; Baena, J.; Tapias, F.; Manzano, I.; Martin, D.; Morin, J.; Roquero, E.

    2012-11-01

    The archaeological works developed during the years 1996 in the site of Tafesa, 2005 in the 12 de Octubre Metro Station site and 2006 in the confluence of the Butarque Stream (Villaverde-Barrio de Butarque site) located south of the Madrid City (Spain), have provided new lithic assemblages. These assemblages have been stratigraphic ally contextualized in the Pleistocene deposits of the Lower Manzanares river valley within the so-called Manzanares Complex Terrace (TCMZ). This fluvial terrace constitutes an anomalous thickened (20-15m) deposit at {+-}22-16m above the present river thalweg mainly developed along the right (southern) valley margin. This fluvial level has been traditionally considered of middle Pleistocene age on the basis of the acheulian lithics and faunal assemblages typically located within its lower stratigraphic layers. Certainly, the Tafesa is a fluvial terrace site at {+-}22 m with acheulian industry and middle Pleistocene faunal remains at its lower sedimentary sequence. However, the upper sedimentary levels of this same terrace in the 12 de Octubre y Villaverde-Butarque sites throw lithic assemblages of the lower and upper Paleolithic belonging to upper Pleistocene, as suggested by the available set of TL and OSL dates for the zone. The analyses developed in this study indicate that the development of this thickened fluvial terrace started during the end of the middle Pleistocene, but also comprise the whole Oxygen Isotopic Stage OIS 5 during the upper Pleistocene. (Author) 95 refs.

  19. Analysis on the Extreme Heat Wave over China around Yangtze River Region in the Summer of 2013 and Its Main Contributing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2013, a rare extreme heat wave occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Based on high resolution reanalysis data from ECMWF, comprehensive analyses on the associated atmospheric circulation and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA were provided. The stable and strong West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH was the direct cause for the heat wave. The WPSH had four westward extensions, which brought about four hot spells in southern China. The South Asia High (SAH at 150 hPa was more eastward and more northward than normal. The strong Hadley circulation in the central and western Pacific and the anomalous easterlies at 500 hPa and 250 hPa in the middle and high latitudes were favorable for more hot days (HDs. The total HDs in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River had close relationships with the zonal wind anomalies in the middle and high latitudes, the SSTA in the Indian Ocean and Pacific, and the dry soil conditions of the Yangtze River Valley in spring and summer. The anomalies of the tropical, subtropical, and polar circulation and the underlying surfaces could be responsible for this extreme heat wave.

  20. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... 1979. (24) Veguita, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1979. (25) Wind Mesa, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1967. (c...

  1. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimate and alpine glacier fluctuations recorded by high-resolution grain-size data from an alpine lake sediment core, Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Davis, P.; Machalett, Björn; Gosse, John

    2013-04-01

    Varved lake sediments, which provide ideal high-resolution climate proxies, are not commonly available in many geographic areas over long time scales. This paper utilizes high-resolution grain-size analyses (n = 1040) from a 520-cm long sediment core from Lower Titcomb Lake (LTL), which lies just outside the type Titcomb Basin (TTB) moraines in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. The TTB moraines lie between Lower Titcomb Lake and Upper Titcomb Lake (UTL), about 3 km beyond, and 200 m lower than the modern glacier margin and Gannett Peak (Little Ice Age) moraines in the basin. Based on cosmogenic exposure dating, the TTB moraines are believed to be Younger Dryas (YD) age (Gosse et al., 1995) and lie in a geomorphic position similar to several other outer cirque moraines throughout the western American Cordillera. Until recently, many of these outer cirque moraines were believed to be Neoglacial age. The sediment core discussed here is one of five obtained from the two Titcomb Lakes, but is by the far the longest with the oldest sediment depositional record. Two AMS radiocarbon ages from the 445- and 455-cm core depths (about 2% loss on ignition, LOI) suggest that the lake basin may have been ice-free as early as 16.1 or even 16.8 cal 14C kyr, consistent with 10Be and 26Al exposure ages from boulders and bedrock surfaces outside the TTB moraines. The 257-cm depth in the core marks an abrupt transition from inorganic, sticky gray silt below (rock flour production between the 257 and 466 cm core depths appear to be roughly correlative with the YD-Alleröd-Bölling-Meiendorf-Heinrich 1 climate events recognized in other terrestrial records and Northern Atlantic Ocean marine cores, but provide much higher resolution than most of those records from a climate-sensitive alpine region in North America.

  2. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  3. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  4. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE AVIFAUNA FROM THE SITE NATURE 2000 ROSPA0062 – “THE RESERVOIRS ON THE ARGEŞ RIVER” - THE WINTERING QUARTERS FROM THE MIDDLE BASIN OF THE ARGEŞ RIVER. THE HIEMAL SEASON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we present the results of our ecological research on the avifauna of some reservoirs (a site of the Nature 2000 Network from the middle basin of the Argeş River, during the hiemal season in the period 2003 – 2010. The hibernal/hiemal season is the poorest in species of the six seasons (118 species belonging to 14 orders, 32 families and 68 genera, of which 49 species are dependent on wetlands, but the richest in the number of individuals (448,064. We also perform an analysis of the avifauna according to ecological indices (IR, constancy, dominancy, the Dzuba index of ecological significance, etc.. The Anseriformes were overdominant. It is the only season in which the order Passeriformes is complementary. Great agglomerations of Anseriformes are constantly present during the hiemal season; the specific composition and the number of individuals of the different species vary continuously on each of the reservoirs in relation to the weather conditions, the accessibility of food, etc. The highest number of Anseriformes species was observed on the Budeasa Reservoir (19 species and the lowest on the Bascov Reservoir (12 species. The correlation between temperature and the total number of individuals of the bird species is negative. As the temperature increases, the number of individuals decreases and vice versa. The most important wintering quarter is, during our research, the Goleşti Reservoir, with impressive concentrations of waterbirds. Mention should be made of five characteristic species (eudominant and dominant present in the area of the reservoirs in the hiemal season: Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Fulica atra, Aythya fuligula and Larus ridibundus. The high number of subrecedent species (102 emphasizes the great fluctuation of bird species in the area as a result of the fact that these reservoirs are on the course of some European migration routes and ensure favourable conditions (halting, sheltering and feeding

  5. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  6. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  7. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  8. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Global wind energy outlook 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The global market for wind power has been expanding faster than any other source of renewable energy. From just 4,800 MW in 1995 the world total has multiplied more than twelve-fold to reach over 59,000 MW at the end of 2005. The international market is expected to have an annual turnover in 2006 of more than euro 13 billion, with an estimated 150,000 people employed around the world. The success of the industry has attracted investors from the mainstream finance and traditional energy sectors. In a number of countries the proportion of electricity generated by wind power is now challenging conventional fuels. The Global Wind Energy Outlook 2006 reports that over a third of the world's electricity - crucially including that required by industry - can realistically be supplied by wind energy by the middle of the century. The report provides an industry blueprint that explains how wind power could supply 34% of the world's electricity by 2050. Most importantly, it concludes that if wind turbine capacity implemented on this scale it would save 113 billion tonnes of CO2 from entering the atmosphere by 2050. This places wind power as one of the world's most important energy sources for the 21st century. The 'Global Wind Energy Outlook 2006' runs three different scenarios for wind power - a Reference scenario based on figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA); a Moderate version which assumes that current targets for renewable energy are successful; and an advanced version assuming that all policy options in favour of renewables have been adopted. These are then set against two scenarios for global energy demand. Under the Reference scenario, growth in demand is again based on IEA projections; under the High Energy Efficiency version, a range of energy efficiency measures result in a substantial reduction in demand

  10. Soldiers and Civilians in Contemporary Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the co-called Arab Spring has spread promising winds across the Middle East and the Northern Afria (MENA) region over the past decade, several countries in the region have nevertheless been caught up in devastating and destructive intra-state conflicts. A prevailing trend...

  11. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    maximum 200 words ) Momentum transfer from wind forcing into the ocean is complicated by the presence of surface waves. Wind momentum and energy are...1,520 m from the mouth of the river to the deployment site ). Map created in Google Earth, October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/earth/. 33...Doppler processing electronics for each transducer uses 14 bit analog to digital converter to digitize the 1.2 MHz acoustic frequency from the four

  12. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers, David; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in October and November (0.95±0.24) than in August (0.73±0.22). Collectively, our results are the first to describe the diets of SMB, WAL, and CHC over a large spatial area in

  13. 77 FR 63725 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Old River, Orwood, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... BNSF Middle River drawbridge as an alternative path for navigation. DATES: The temporary deviation... Operation Regulation; Old River, Orwood CA'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 58491). The temporary deviation... Operation Regulations; Old River, Orwood, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of a...

  14. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  15. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  16. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  17. Global wind energy outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of the global potential of wind power up to 2050. This potential could play a key part in achieving a decline in emissions by 2020, which the IPCC indicates is necessary to avoid the worst consequences of climate change. By 2020, wind power could save as much as 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 every year, which would add up to over 10 billion tonnes in this timeframe. The report also explains how wind energy can provide up to 30% of the word's electricity by the middle of the century. More importantly, wind power could save as much as 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 every year by 2020. GWEO 2008 explores three different scenarios for wind power: a Reference scenario based on figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA); a Moderate version which assumes that current targets for renewable energy are successful; and an Advanced Scenario which assumes that all policy options in favour of renewables have been adopted. These are then set against two demand projections for global energy demand. Wind energy has already become a mainstream power generation source in many regions around the world, and it is being deployed in over 70 countries. In addition to environmental benefits, wind energy also provides a sustainable answer to increasing concerns about security of energy supply and volatile fossil fuel prices. Moreover, wind energy is becoming a substantial factor in economic development, providing more than 350,000 'green collar' jobs today both in direct and indirect employment. By 2020, this figure is projected to increase to over 2 million

  18. PATRONES DE CONSUMO FINAL DE CÉRVIDOS EN EL PARANÁ MEDIO: EL CASO DEL SITIO CERRO AGUARÁ / Cervids final consumption patterns in middle Paraná River: the case of Cerro Aguará archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mucciolo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cérvidos fueron amplia y regularmente explotados por los cazadores-recolectores que habitaron la macroregión del Paraná-Plata durante el Holoceno tardío. En la cuenca media del Paraná, sin embargo, muy pocos estudios han enfocado sobre las estrategias empleadas para su obtención, procesamiento y consumo. Teniendo en cuenta esto, el objetivo de este trabajo es explorar dichos aspectos a partir del análisis de los conjuntos de cérvidos provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cerro Aguará, localizado en el departamento General Obligado (provincia de Santa Fe. La perspectiva seleccionada propone al consumo como factor preponderante en la configuración del registro zooarqueológico dentro del continuum de actividades que componen la explotación faunística. Desde esta perspectiva, y tomando en consideración que las carcasas de los cérvidos proveen distintos tipos de recursos alimenticios con diferentes costos de extracción (carne, médula y grasa ósea, se evalúan diferentes indicadores para establecer si existió diferente intensidad en su procesamiento. Los resultados indican que las dos especies de cérvidos identificadas en el sitio, Blastocerus dichotomus y Ozotoceros bezoarticus, ocuparon un rol preponderante en la dieta, aunque las carcasas del primero fueron empleadas más intensivamente probablemente en correlación con su mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes internos, tales como la médula y posiblemente la grasa ósea.  Abstract  Cervids were wide and regularly exploited by several Late Holocene hunter-gatherers inhabiting Paraná Plata macroregion. In the middle Paraná river, however, few research has been made on strategies involving their procurement, processing and consumption. The purpose of this article is to explore those aspects from the analysis of cervid assemblages of Cerro Aguará archaeological site (General Obligado, Santa Fe province. The selected perspective proposes final consumption as one of the most

  19. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity

  20. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  1. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  2. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  3. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  4. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  5. Torque- and Speed Control of a Pitch Regulated Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasila, Mika

    2003-07-01

    Variable speed operated wind turbines has the potential to reduce fatigue loads, compared to fixed speed wind turbines. With pitch controllable rotor blades limitation of the power at high wind speeds is obtained. The thesis describes different controlling aspects concerning wind turbines and how these together can be used to optimize the system's performance. Torque control is used in order to achieve reduction on the mechanical loads on the drive-train for low wind speeds and limitation of power output for high wind speeds. In the high wind speed interval torque control is effective in order to limit the output power if a sufficiently fast pitch actuator is used. In the middle wind speed interval filter utilization can be used to give a reference signal to the controller in order to reduce speed and torque variations.

  6. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  7. Effects of flow alteration on Apple-ring Acacia (Faidherbia albida) stands, Middle Zambezi floodplains, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gope, E.T.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.; Irvine, K.; Beevers, L.; Hes, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The impounding of the Zambezi River by Kariba dam has regulated the river discharge of the Middle Zambezi river. This has been implicated in the failure of regeneration of Faidherbia albida in the downstream flood plain. This study aimed (1) to assess the effect of the altered flow regime of the

  8. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  9. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  10. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  11. Systems Engineering 2010 Workshop | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    0 Workshop Systems Engineering 2010 Workshop The 1st NREL Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop of the system engineering model. In the middle of the model is optimization, metric tracking &M model, capital cost model, and balance of station. Systems engineering represents a holistic

  12. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  13. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  14. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  15. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  16. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  17. Offshore and onshore wind turbine wake meandering studied in an ABL wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Buckingham, Sophia; Glabeke, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    Scaled wind turbine models have been installed in the VKI L1-B atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at offshore and onshore conditions. Time-resolved measurements were carried out with three component hot wire anemometry and stereo-PIV in the middle vertical plane of the wake up to eleven turbine...... diameter downstream. The results show an earlier wake recovery for the onshore case. The effect of inflow conditions and the wind turbine’s working conditions on wake meandering was investigated. Wake meandering was detected by hot wire anemometry through a low frequency peak in the turbulent power...

  18. Time still to restore the polluted Piracicaba river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, P.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Falotico, M.H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decades the acceleration of the industrialization and urbanization processes together with the intensive agricultural practices have resulted in an impact on the Piracicaba river basin, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The source rivers drain from an area of low population density, absence of heavy industries, non-significant agriculture, native forest and reforestation, the opposite is found in the middle part of the basin. Samples of riverbed sediments were collected along the basin for chemical analysis. Results showed that the source rivers still preserve their natural characteristics, while the Atibaia river in the middle part shows signs of pollution from the agricultural activity, industrial effluents and urban sewage. (author)

  19. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  20. Occurrence of Kellicottia bostoniensis (Rousselet, 1908 and Mesocyclops ogunnus Onabamiro, 1957 in lakes of the Middle River Doce, MG, Brazil Ocorrência de Kellicottia bostoniensis (Rousselet, 1908 e Mesocyclops ogunnus Onabamiro, 1957 em lagos do Médio Rio Doce, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Soares Peixoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the two exotic zooplankton species (Kellicottia bostoniensis and Mesocyclops ogunnus in lakes of the Middle River Doce is discussed in the present work. K. bostoniensis was registered in Lakes Jacaré, Carioca and Águas Claras while M. ogunnus was restricted to the littoral zone of Lake Dom Helvécio. These zooplankton species may have been introduced in these environments by human action. Despite the low densities registered for both species, the monitoring of the invasion process is necessary to evaluate possible impacts on the zooplankton community structure in the lakes of Middle River Doce.A presença de duas espécies zooplanctônicas exóticas (Kellicottia bostoniensis e Mesocyclops ogunnus em lagos do Médio Rio Doce é discutida no presente trabalho. K. bostoniensis foi registrada nas lagoas Jacaré, Carioca e Águas Claras, enquanto M. ogunnus esteve restrita a região litorânea do Lago Dom Helvécio. Estas espécies zooplanctônicas podem ter sido introduzidas nestes ambientes pela ação antrópica. Apesar das baixas densidades observadas para as duas espécies, o monitoramento do processo de invasão é necessário para avaliar os possíveis impactos sobre a estruturação da comunidade zooplanctônica nos lagos do Médio Rio Doce.

  1. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation

  2. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  3. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  4. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  5. Qualitative-quantitative characteristic of bird community of middle course alluvium of the Vah River (Piestany - Nove Mesto); Kvalitativno-kvantitativna charakteristika ornitocenoz aluvia stredneho toku Vahu (Piestany - Nove Mesto nad Vahom)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra ekologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Topercer, J. [Botanicka zahrada Univerzity Komenskeho v Bratislave, pracovisko Blatnica, 03815 Blatnica pri Martine (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The research focuses on the analysis of structure and dynamics of bird communities in two transects on the Vah river alluvium between cities Piestany and Nove Mesto nad Vahom. The research is aimed on the analysis of species composition, distribution and multitude of aquatic and wetland birds, on the analysis of their seasonal dynamics, inter-annual variability in species composition, diversity and others indicators of birds in these transects. The secondary aim is to find out the main types of disturbances, their intensity, antropogenous effects and others chosen environment variables in these transects of Vah river alluvium. We will utilize statistical analyses from these environmental variables and explain their impact on bird communities of this area. From these findings suitable management measures for the conservation or improvement of conservation status of target species will be derived. (authors)

  6. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  7. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  8. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  9. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  10. Conjunction of 2D and 3D modified flow solvers for simulating spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Sabbagh-Yazdi, Saeed-Reza

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study is the simulation of flow dynamics in the deep parts of the Caspian Sea, in which the southern and middle deep regions are surrounded by considerable areas of shallow zones. To simulate spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in deep waters, a conjunctive numerical model consisting of a 2D depth average model and a 3D pseudo compressible model is proposed. The 2D model is applied to determine time dependent free surface oscillations as well as the surface velocity patterns and is conjunct to the 3D flow solver for computing three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields which coverage to steady state for the top boundary condition. The modified 2D and 3D sets of equations are conjunct considering interface shear stresses. Both sets of 2D and 3D equations are solved on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes using the Galerkin Finite Volume Method. The conjunctive model is utilized to investigate the deep currents affected by wind, Coriolis forces and the river inflow conditions of the Caspian Sea. In this study, the simulation of flow field due to major winds as well as transient winds in the Caspian Sea during a period of 6 hours in the winter season has been conducted and the numerical results for water surface level are then compared to the 2D numerical results.

  11. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  12. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  13. Nesting ecology and nest success of the Blue Grosbeak along two rivers in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth; Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    From 1997 through 2008, we studied the nesting habits and nest success of the Blue Grosbeak (Passerina cerulean) along the middle Gila River (1997-2001) and the middle Rio Grande (2000-2008) in New Mexico. A riparian forest of cottonwoods grows along both rivers. but the forest along the Rio Grande is a much more intensively managed ecosystem, with an understory...

  14. Geochronology of detrital muscovite and zircon constrains the sediment provenance changes in the Yangtze River during the late Cenozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Xilin; Li, Chang'an; Kuiper, K.F.; Wang, Jietao; Tian, Y; Vermeesch, Pieter; Zhang, Zengjie; Zhao, Juxing; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    The geometry and evolution of rivers originating from the Tibetan plateau are influenced by topography and climate change during the India-Asia collision. The Yangtze River is the longest among these rivers and formed due to capturing many rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau by the middle Yangtze.

  15. Wind's share in global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The question of how great of a contribution wind power can really make to the world's energy needs is discussed. Emphasis up until recently has been mainly on improving wind turbine technology and siting practices as it is these that will provide an answer. The International Energy Agency predicts that world energy demand will increase by 30-50% by 2010. More countries than ever are either using wind power now or are preparing for its use. Wind power continues to improve its price competitiveness. There is enough wind to cover our energy needs many times over, according to some reports twice the world's electricity supply could be met by utilizing just 5-10% of areas identified as having average wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater - ignoring population centers, forests and specially protected areas. But a major limiting factor to utilizing the available wind resource is the established grid systems, which can only base 20% of supply on wind power. It is concluded that wind can contribute significantly to the world's energy needs in the next century and beyond. If wind, which has taken giant leaps in improving its competitiveness over the past 20 hears, can be a major energy contributor by early next century, other renewables such as solar and biomass might also evolve to become major contributors too. If so, renewables, including hydro, could conceivably cover 50% of our energy needs by the middle of the next century. Much will depend on decision-makers at the centers of power. For Europe and certain other areas of the world, policies governing cross-border trade of electricity as well as the framework for environmental protection related to energy production will determine the final outcome

  16. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  18. Morphology of the Zambezi River plume in the Sofala Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, hydrographic data collected in the vicinity of the Zambezi River plume between 2004-2007 is discussed alongside historical data to infer the plume morphology. The sampling plan called for 73 CTD stations that were interspersed with sampling of shrimp recruitment. Satellite-derived wind speed and river ...

  19. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  20. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  1. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional anemometer cup technology. • During storms, mean Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) increases with height above water; • Sufficient wind resources exist over Lake Michigan to generate 7,684 kWh of power using a 850 kW rated turbine at elevations between 90 - 125 meters, a height lower than originally anticipated for optimum power generation; • Based on initial assessments, wind characteristics are not significantly different at distant (thirty-two mile) offshore locations as compared to near-shore (six mile) locations; • Significant cost savings can be achieved in generation wind energy at lower turbine heights and locating closer to shore. • Siting must be sufficiently distant from shore to minimize visual impact and to address public sentiment about offshore wind development; • Project results show that birds and bats do frequent the middle of Lake Michigan, bats more so than birds; • Based on the wind resource assessment and depths of Lake Michigan encountered during the project, future turbine placement will most likely need to incorporate floating or anchored technology; • The most appropriate siting of offshore wind energy locations will enable direct routing of transmission cables to existing generating and transmission facilities located along the Michigan shoreline; • Wind turbine noise propagation from a wind energy generating facility at a five mile offshore location will not be audible at the shoreline over normal background sound levels.

  2. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics

  3. Observed precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment from 1951 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUBuda; JIANGTong; SHIYafeng; StefanBECKER; MracoGEMMER

    2004-01-01

    The monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment have been detected through analysis of 51 meteorological stations' data between 1950-2002 provided by National Meteorological Administration. Results reveal that: 1) Summer precipitation in the Yangtze river catchment shows significant increasing tendency. The Poyanghu lake basin, Dongtinghu lake basin and Taihu lake basin in the middle and lower reaches are the places showing significant positive trends. Summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches experienced an abrupt change in the year 1992; 2) The monthly precipitation in months just adjoining to summer shows decreasing tendency in the Yangtze river catchment. The upper and middle reaches in Jialingjiang river basin and Hanshui river basin are the places showing significant negative trends; 3) Extreme precipitation events show an increasing tendency in most places, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river catchment.

  4. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  5. Classification of Tropical River Using Chemometrics Technique: Case Study in Pahang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    River classification is very important to know the river characteristic in study areas, where this database can help to understand the behaviour of the river. This article discusses about river classification using Chemometrics techniques in mainstream of Pahang River. Based on river survey, GIS and Remote Sensing database, the chemometric analysis techniques have been used to identify the cluster on the Pahang River using Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA). Calibration and validation process using Discriminant Analysis (DA) has been used to confirm the HACA result. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study to see the strong coefficient where the Pahang River has been classed. The results indicated the main of Pahang River has been classed to three main clusters as upstream, middle stream and downstream. Base on DA analysis, the calibration and validation model shows 100 % convinced. While the PCA indicates there are three variables that have a significant correlation, domination slope with R"2 0.796, L/D ratio with R"2 -0868 and sinuosity with R"2 0.557. Map of the river classification with moving class also was produced. Where the green colour considered in valley erosion zone, yellow in a low terrace of land near the channels and red colour class in flood plain and valley deposition zone. From this result, the basic information can be produced to understand the characteristics of the main Pahang River. This result is important to local authorities to make decisions according to the cluster or guidelines for future study in Pahang River, Malaysia specifically and for Tropical River generally. The research findings are important to local authorities by providing basic data as a guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River, and Tropical River in general. (author)

  6. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  7. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  8. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  9. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  10. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  11. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  12. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  13. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  14. On wake modeling, wind-farm gradients, and AEP predictions at the Anholt wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peña

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate wake effects at the Anholt offshore wind farm in Denmark, which is a farm experiencing strong horizontal wind-speed gradients because of its size and proximity to land. Mesoscale model simulations are used to study the horizontal wind-speed gradients over the wind farm. From analysis of the mesoscale simulations and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA, we show that for westerly flow in particular, there is a clear horizontal wind-speed gradient over the wind farm. We also use the mesoscale simulations to derive the undisturbed inflow conditions that are coupled with three commonly used wake models: two engineering approaches (the Park and G. C. Larsen models and a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach (Fuga. The effect of the horizontal wind-speed gradient on annual energy production estimates is not found to be critical compared to estimates from both the average undisturbed wind climate of all turbines' positions and the undisturbed wind climate of a position in the middle of the wind farm. However, annual energy production estimates can largely differ when using wind climates at positions that are strongly influenced by the horizontal wind-speed gradient. When looking at westerly flow wake cases, where the impact of the horizontal wind-speed gradient on the power of the undisturbed turbines is largest, the wake models agree with the SCADA fairly well; when looking at a southerly flow case, where the wake losses are highest, the wake models tend to underestimate the wake loss. With the mesoscale-wake model setup, we are also able to estimate the capacity factor of the wind farm rather well when compared to that derived from the SCADA. Finally, we estimate the uncertainty of the wake models by bootstrapping the SCADA. The models tend to underestimate the wake losses (the median relative model error is 8.75 % and the engineering wake models are as uncertain as Fuga. These results are specific for

  15. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  16. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  18. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  19. Empirical models of wind conditions on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake is a large (230 square kilometers), shallow (mean depth 2.8 meters at full pool) lake in southern Oregon. Lake circulation patterns are driven largely by wind, and the resulting currents affect the water quality and ecology of the lake. To support hydrodynamic modeling of the lake and statistical investigations of the relation between wind and lake water-quality measurements, the U.S. Geological Survey has monitored wind conditions along the lakeshore and at floating raft sites in the middle of the lake since 2005. In order to make the existing wind archive more useful, this report summarizes the development of empirical wind models that serve two purposes: (1) to fill short (on the order of hours or days) wind data gaps at raft sites in the middle of the lake, and (2) to reconstruct, on a daily basis, over periods of months to years, historical wind conditions at U.S. Geological Survey sites prior to 2005. Empirical wind models based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multivariate-Adaptive Regressive Splines (MARS) algorithms were compared. ANNs were better suited to simulating the 10-minute wind data that are the dependent variables of the gap-filling models, but the simpler MARS algorithm may be adequate to accurately simulate the daily wind data that are the dependent variables of the historical wind models. To further test the accuracy of the gap-filling models, the resulting simulated winds were used to force the hydrodynamic model of the lake, and the resulting simulated currents were compared to measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler. The error statistics indicated that the simulation of currents was degraded as compared to when the model was forced with observed winds, but probably is adequate for short gaps in the data of a few days or less. Transport seems to be less affected by the use of the simulated winds in place of observed winds. The simulated tracer concentration was similar between model results when

  20. Scaling forecast models for wind turbulence and wind turbine power intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Medina, Olmo; Schmitt, Francois G.; Calif, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    The intermittency of the wind turbine power remains an important issue for the massive development of this renewable energy. The energy peaks injected in the electric grid produce difficulties in the energy distribution management. Hence, a correct forecast of the wind power in the short and middle term is needed due to the high unpredictability of the intermittency phenomenon. We consider a statistical approach through the analysis and characterization of stochastic fluctuations. The theoretical framework is the multifractal modelisation of wind velocity fluctuations. Here, we consider three wind turbine data where two possess a direct drive technology. Those turbines are producing energy in real exploitation conditions and allow to test our forecast models of power production at a different time horizons. Two forecast models were developed based on two physical principles observed in the wind and the power time series: the scaling properties on the one hand and the intermittency in the wind power increments on the other. The first tool is related to the intermittency through a multifractal lognormal fit of the power fluctuations. The second tool is based on an analogy of the power scaling properties with a fractional brownian motion. Indeed, an inner long-term memory is found in both time series. Both models show encouraging results since a correct tendency of the signal is respected over different time scales. Those tools are first steps to a search of efficient forecasting approaches for grid adaptation facing the wind energy fluctuations.

  1. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  2. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  3. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  4. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  5. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  6. HACIA EL COMPORTAMIENTO HUMANO MODERNO. NUEVAS APORTACIONES AL PALEOLÍTICO MEDIO FINAL EN EL VALLE DEL RÍO ARLANZA (HORTIGÜELA, BURGOS, ESPAÑA (Understanding modern human behavior. New contributions from the later Middle Paleolithic in the Arlanza river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Navazo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el valle medio del Arlanza (Hortigüela, Burgos se conocen dos asentamientos musterienses ya clásicos en la bibliografía: Millán y La Ermita. En este trabajo se incorporan estudios que permiten un mejor y actualizado conocimiento de los mismos en base al análisis de uno de los niveles de Millán, la caracterización geoquímica de los afloramientos de sílex de la zona, y del material arqueológico, para conocer las fuentes de aprovisionamiento; y los sistemas de explotación y configuración de ambas cavidades. El estudio derivado del valle medio del Arlanza, a partir de sus características tecnológicas y cronología (Paleolítico medio final, da pie para abordar un interesante debate abierto sobre el surgimiento del comportamiento humano moderno, reflexionando sobre si las características que han servido para definir dicha conducta son exclusivas del Homo sapiens o si, por el contrario, esos procesos de cambio ya estaban presentes al final del Paleolítico medio. ENGLISH: In the middle valley of the Arlanza river (Hortigüela, Burgos, two classic Mousterian sites, Millán and La Ermita, have been documented. This paper enhances and updates the previously known information about these sites. The study includes the analysis of one of the Millán levels, geochemical characterization of the flint outcrops in the zone and artifacts found in the archaeological record, with a view to ascertaining lithic material sources, and the exploitation systems characterizing both sites. The chronological position of these late Middle Paleolithic settlements facilitates a discussion about whether the characteristics that have served to define modern human behavior are exclusive to Homo sapiens or if, on the contrary, the markers of change were already present at the end of the Middle Paleolithic.

  7. The Effect of Wind Forcing on Modeling Coastal Circulation at a Marine Renewable Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Inaccurate wind data can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In this research, a high-resolution wind model was coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of wind forcing on model accuracy. Two wind-forcing conditions were investigated: (1 using wind data measured onshore on the NUI Galway campus (NUIG and (2 using offshore wind data provided by a high resolution wind model (HR. A scenario with no wind forcing (NW was also assessed. The onshore wind data varied with time but the speed and direction were applied across the full model domain. The modeled offshore wind fields varied with both time and space. The effect of wind forcing on modeled hydrodynamics was assessed via comparison of modeled surface currents with surface current measurements obtained from a High-Frequency (HF radar Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar (CODAR observation system. Results indicated that winds were most significant in simulating the north-south surface velocity component. The model using high resolution temporally- and spatially-varying wind data achieved better agreement with the CODAR surface currents than the model using the onshore wind measurements and the model without any wind forcing.

  8. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  9. CRECIMIENTO Y POTENCIAL REPRODUCTIVO DE LA BORA ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms ( PONTEDER I ACEA E EN ALGUNAS LAGUNAS DE LA PLANICIE DE INUNDACIÓN DEL TRAMO MEDIO, RÍO ORINOCO, VENEZUELA I GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF WATER HYACINTH ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. SOLMS (PONTEDERIACEAE IN SOME LAGOONS AT FLOODPLAIN OF THE MIDDLE ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Rodríguez R.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes grows naturally in some floodplains of the middle Orinoco River. Its widespread distribution and biomass is causing a great impact in the towns near these lentic ecosystems. The vegetative growth, floral biology and fecundity of E. crassipes were determined in the Castillero, Teja and Tejita lagoons near Caicara del Orinoco, from January to July 2005, during the dry season. Plants were placed at initial density of five rosettes in floating baskets in the floodplains and the number of daughter plants (g. m -2 and dry biomass m-2 were determined at fifteen, thirty, sixty and ninety days after seeding. The number of plants with and without flowers or fructified were counted in areas of the lagoons with the highest flowering intensity. The spatial distribution of stamens in relation to the stigma were observed in order to determine the presence of heterostyly. The number of water hyacinth plants and weight can double in an average of 20 and 24 days, respectively. The fastest growth rate (rossettes m -2 was found in January and February while the major growth rate in dry weight m-2 was recorded in February-May. It is frequent to find inflorescences in the dry season and occasionally in the wet season. From the kinds of heterostityly only plants with mesostyle flowers were found . The reproduction of water hyacinth is mainly vegetative and seeds are scarcely found in the capsules

  10. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  11. Technology Roadmaps: China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The report shows how China, already the world's largest wind market, could reach 1 000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from its global roadmap series.

  12. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  13. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  14. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  15. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  16. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  17. Descarte de peixes na pesca comercial em Tefé, médio Solimões, Amazônia Central = Discarded catches from commercial fisheries in the middle Solimões river, Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandick da Silva Batista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descartes são comuns na pesca comercial, sendo avaliados para apoiar o manejo da pesca na região. Por meio de acompanhamentos diários das pescarias da frota comercial de Tefé, foi descrito o descarte de pescado no médio Solimões. Utilizando análises de correlação e covariância, foram avaliados fatores que determinam o descarte com três modalidades distintas de pesca. Os pescadores selecionaram o pescado no momento da captura por espécie e tamanho. As espécies de pescados mais descartados foram jaraquis, tucunarés e branquinhas, porém os mais freqüentes, no descarte, foram espécies dos Siluriformes. Os apetrechos de pesca analisados apresentaram diferenças nas características de seu descarte. O descarte foi menor na enchente-cheia (5-17% da captura, conforme apetrecho que durante a vazante-seca (20-62%, conforme apetrecho. Discards are common in commercial fishery, and are evaluated in order to support fisheries management in the region. Fish discards in themiddle Solimões River were described through daily monitoring of fishing activities by the commercial fleet of the town of Tefé. By making use of analyses of correlation and covariance, determinant factors for discards in three different types of fisheries wereevaluated. The crew selected the fish at the moment of capture, by species and size. Among the most discarded fish species were jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp., tucunarés Cichla spp. and branquinhas Curimatidae; however, the most frequently discarded were Siluriform species. The fishing gear analyzed featured differences in their discarding characteristics. Discard was lower during the flood period (5-17% of catches, depending on gear than during the dry season (20-62% of catches, depending on gear.

  18. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  19. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  20. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  1. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  2. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  3. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  4. Modeling large offshore wind farms under different atmospheric stability regimes with the Park wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Here, we evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide ran...

  5. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  6. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  7. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  8. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  9. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  10. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  11. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  12. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  13. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  14. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar...

  15. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  16. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  17. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  19. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  20. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  2. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  3. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    When king salmon enter the Yukon River on their spawning migration in mid June, over 25% of the population are infected with Ichthyophonus. The percent of infected fish remains relatively constant until the fish pass river mile 1,319 at Dawson, Y.T., then it drops to 13% when they reach river mile 1,745 at Whitehorse, Y.T. When the sexes are examined separately, slightly more females are infected than males (29% vs 22%). The percent of fish exhibiting clinical signs (diseased) is 2-3% when they enter the river, but increases to over 20% at river mile 715 near Tanana, AK. Disease prevalence within the population remains constant at >20% until fish pass Dawson, then the percent of diseased fish drops to <9% at Whitehorse. When the sexes are examined separately, male disease prevalence is highest at Tanana (22.6%) then gradually drops to just 12.9% at Whitehorse. Females however, continue to show an increase in disease prevalence peaking at river mile 1,081 near Circle, AK, at 36.4%, then dropping to just 5.3% at Whitehorse. Data on infection and disease collected from kings at Nenana on the Tanana River more closely resembles that seen at Whitehorse than the lower and middle Yukon River.

  4. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    As a wind turbine generates power, induced velocities, lower than the freestream velocity, will be present upstream of the turbine due to perturbation of the flow by the rotor. In this study, the upstream induction zone of a 225kW horizontal axis Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Danish...... Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... the induction zone. The time-averaged mean wind speeds at different locations in the upstream induction zone are measured by scanning a horizontal plane at hub height and a vertical plane centered at the middle of the rotor extending roughly 1.5 rotor diameters (D) upstream of the rotor. Turbulence statistics...

  5. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  6. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  7. Middle Rockies Ecoregion: Chapter 5 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Rockies Ecoregion—characterized by steep, high-elevation mountain ranges and intermountain valleys—is a disjunct ecoregion composed of three distinct geographic areas: the Greater Yellowstone area in northwest Wyoming, southwest Montana, and eastern Idaho; the Bighorn Mountains in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana; and the Black Hills in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion covers approximately 90,160 km2 (34,881 mi2), and its three distinct geographic sections are bordered by several other ecoregions (fig. 1). The Yellowstone section abuts the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies and the Northern Rockies Ecoregions to the north, the Snake River Basin and the Central Basin and Range Ecoregions to the west, and the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion to the south and east. The Bighorn Mountains section lies between the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion to the west and the Northwestern Great Plains Ecoregion to the east, and it abuts the Montana Valleys and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion to the north. The Black Hills section is entirely surrounded by the Northwestern Great Plains Ecoregion. The Continental Divide crosses the ecoregion from the southeast along the Wind River Range, through Yellowstone National Park, and west along the Montana-Idaho border. On both sides of the divide, topographic relief causes local climate variability, particularly the effects of aspect, exposure to prevailing wind, thermal inversions, and rain-shadow effects, that are reflected in the wide variety of flora and fauna within the ecoregion (Ricketts and others, 1999).

  8. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method was employed in this study. The results show that: (1 mean annual air temperature significantly increased at all 15 meteorological stations, while the mean annual ET0 decreased at most of sites; (2 the evaporation paradox did exist in the HRB, while the evaporation paradox was not continuous in space and time; and (3 relative humidity was the most sensitive meteorological factor with regard to the temporal variation of ET0 in the HRB, followed by wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. Air temperature and solar radiation contributed most to the temporal variation of ET0 in the upper reaches; solar radiation and wind speed were the determining factors for the temporal variation of ET0 in the middle-lower reaches.

  9. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  10. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  11. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  12. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  13. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  14. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  15. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  16. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  17. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  18. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost $1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

  19. Wind integration in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, W.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation described the role of the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for Alberta's interconnected electric system with particular reference to wind integration in Alberta. The challenges of wind integration were discussed along with the requirements for implementing the market and operational framework. The AESO is an independent system operator that directs the reliable operation of Alberta's power grid; develops and operates Alberta's real-time wholesale energy market to promote open competition; plans and develops the province's transmission system to ensure reliability; and provides transmission system access for both generation and load customers. Alberta has over 280 power generating station, with a total generating capacity of 11,742 MW, of which 443 is wind generated. Since 2004, the AESO has been working with industry on wind integration issues, such as operating limits, need for mitigation measures and market rules. In April 2006, the AESO implemented a temporary 900 MW reliability threshold to ensure reliability. In 2006, a Wind Forecasting Working Group was created in collaboration with industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association in an effort to integrate as much wind as is feasible without compromising the system reliability or the competitive operation of the market. The challenges facing wind integration include reliability issues; predictability of wind power; the need for dispatchable generation; transmission upgrades; and, defining a market and operational framework for the large wind potential in Alberta. It was noted that 1400 MW of installed wind energy capacity can be accommodated in Alberta with approved transmission upgrades. figs

  20. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  1. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  2. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  3. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    (Technical Report, Danish Technical press, 1970) and by Abild (Technical Report R-522 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1994). A short discussion of the wind storm on the 3rd of December 1999 is included. It is demonstrated how the data can be applied to non-standard situations where the roughness length......Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50 yr wind speed (10 min averages) under standard conditions, i.e., 10 m over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m, The sites are Skjern (15 yr......), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

  4. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  5. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  6. A new low threshold bi-directional wind vane and its potential impact on unplanned atmospheric release prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) maintains and develops a comprehensive meteorological monitoring program which employs bi-directional wind vanes (bivanes) for the measurement of horizontal and vertical wind direction and turbulence. Wind data collected near and below instrument starting thresholds under stable nighttime conditions with these bivanes can result in artificially large standard deviations of horizontal wind direction (σA). In one hypothetical case, downwind concentrations could be underestimated by a factor of 40 by using artificially high σA data in a Gaussian dispersion model. In an effort to improve low wind speed measurements of wind direction, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been created to improve the dynamic performance of the Met One Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane

  7. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-12-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  8. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  9. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  10. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  11. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  12. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  13. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  14. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  16. Adrenarche and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C

    2011-09-01

    Middle childhood, the period from 6 to 12 years of age, is defined socially by increasing autonomy and emotional regulation, somatically by the development of anatomical structures for subsistence, and endocrinologically by adrenarche, the adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here I suggest that DHEA plays a key role in the coordinated development of the brain and body beginning with middle childhood, via energetic allocation. I argue that with adrenarche, increasing levels of circulating DHEA act to down-regulate the release of glucose into circulation and hence limit the supply of glucose which is needed by the brain for synaptogenesis. Furthermore, I suggest the antioxidant properties of DHEA may be important in maintaining synaptic plasticity throughout middle childhood within slow-developing areas of the cortex, including the insula, thamalus, and anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, DHEA may play a role in the development of body odor as a reliable social signal of behavioral changes associated with middle childhood.

  17. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  18. Middle-State Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  19. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  20. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  1. Descarte de peixes na pesca comercial em Tefé, médio Solimões, Amazônia Central - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1471 Discarded catches from commercial fisheries in the middle Solimões river, Central Amazon region - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuerles Bessa Barbosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descartes são comuns na pesca comercial, sendo avaliados para apoiar o manejo da pesca na região. Por meio de acompanhamentos diários das pescarias da frota comercial de Tefé, foi descrito o descarte de pescado no médio Solimões. Utilizando análises de correlação e covariância, foram avaliados fatores que determinam o descarte com três modalidades distintas de pesca. Os pescadores selecionaram o pescado no momento da captura por espécie e tamanho. As espécies de pescados mais descartados foram jaraquis, tucunarés e branquinhas, porém os mais freqüentes, no descarte, foram espécies dos Siluriformes. Os apetrechos de pesca analisados apresentaram diferenças nas características de seu descarte. O descarte foi menor na enchente-cheia (5-17% da captura, conforme apetrecho que durante a vazante-seca (20-62%, conforme apetrechoDiscards are common in commercial fishery, and are evaluated in order to support fisheries management in the region. Fish discards in the middle Solimões River were described through daily monitoring of fishing activities by the commercial fleet of the town of Tefé. By making use of analyses of correlation and covariance, determinant factors for discards in three different types of fisheries were evaluated. The crew selected the fish at the moment of capture, by species and size. Among the most discarded fish species were silver prochilodus, peacock bass, and curimata inormata; however, the most frequently discarded were Siluriform species. The fishing gear analyzed featured differences in their discarding characteristics. Discard was lower during the flood period (5-17% of catches, depending on gear than during the dry season (20-62% of catches, depending on gear

  2. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil Spatio-temporal analysis of vegetation cover and land use in the middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyla Poliana Miranda Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram alterações em todas as classes durante os últimos 20 anos, com a diminuição de 22,89% da vegetação nativa, relacionada com o aumento de 58,42% da pastagem e 490,26% de monocultura de cana-de-açúcar. Foi verificado o conflito de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas de mata ciliar, fato que pode influenciar negativamente na conservação da interbacia e, consequentemente, do pantanal mato-grossense.This study analyzed spatial and temporal land use changes in the Middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil using Landsat images from 1991, 2001 and 2011. Images were geo-referenced, classified and processed using Spring software, and thematic classes were edited and quantified using ArcGis software. Seven map classes were identified, and native vegetation, pasture and sugarcane were the most significant ones. The results showed changes in all classes during the past 20 years, primarily a 22.89% decrease of native vegetation, a 58.42% increase in pasture and 490.26% increase of sugarcane monoculture. We verified land use conflicts, mostly in riparian areas, which may negatively influence Interbasin and, consequently, Pantanal conservation in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  3. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  4. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  5. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  6. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  7. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  8. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  9. Medicine Bow wind project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L. L.

    1982-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

  10. Wind farm economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy are changing rapidly, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. Although the United Kingdom has regions of high wind speed, these are often in difficult terrain and construction costs are often higher than elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, wind energy costs are converging with those of the conventional thermal sources. At present, bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, which means that energy prices are higher. Ways of overcoming this problem are explored. It is important, also, to examine the value of wind energy. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than energy from centralized plant, since it is fed into the low-voltage distribution network. (Author)

  11. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  12. Economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.; Kumar, H.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional economic analysis of wind energy often ignores the fact that it is not an energy source available on tap, but is intermittent. The analysis at times is discriminatory in the sense that the costs of transmission and distribution are added to the central grid alternative but the costs of the locational constraints of wind energy siting are not quantified. This paper evaluates wind energy after correcting for these two factors. The results are not encouraging

  13. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide wind power increased by 12.4% in 2013 to reach 318.6 GW but the world market globally decreased by losing 10 GW: only 35.6 GW have been installed in 2013 which is even less than was installed in 2009. This activity contraction is mainly due to the collapse of the American market, American authorities having been late to decide to maintain federal incentives. The European wind power market also contracted in 2013 because of the lack of trust of the investors in the new energy policies of the European governments. In the rest of the world wind energy has kept on growing particularly in China and Canada. At the end of 2013 the cumulated wind power reached 117,73 GW in Europe. About 1.5 MW out of 10 MW of wind power installed in Europe in 2013 come from off-shore wind farms, United-Kingdom and Denmark being the most important players by totalling more than 70% of the off-shore wind power installed at the end of 2013. Various charts and tables give the figures of the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 in different parts of the world: Europe, North America and Asia, the time evolution of the worldwide wind power since 1995, the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 for the different countries of Europe and the ratio between the cumulated wind power and the country population. A table lists the main manufacturers of wind turbines and gives their turnover and number of employees at the end of 2013

  14. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  15. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  16. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN) po......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  17. Documented changes in annual runoff and attribution since the 1950s within selected rivers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lü-Liu Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To enable local water resource management and maintenance of ecosystem integrity and to protect and mitigate against flood and drought, it is necessary to determine changes in long-term series of streamflow and to distinguish the roles that climate change and human disturbance play in these changes. A review of previous research on the detection and attribution of observed changes in annual runoff in China shows a decrease in annual runoff since the 1950s in northern China in areas such as the Songhuajiang River water resources zone, the Liaohe River water resources zone, the Haihe River water resources zone, the Yellow River water resources zone, and the Huaihe River water resources Zone. Furthermore, abrupt changes in annual runoff occurred mostly in the 1970s and 1980s in all the above zones, except for some of the sub-basins in the middle Yellow River where abrupt change occurred in the 1990s. Changes in annual runoff are found to be mainly caused by climate change in the western Songhuajiang River basin, the upper mainstream of the Yangtze River, and the western Pearl River basin, which shows that studies on the impact of climate change on future water resources under different climate change scenarios are required to enable planning and management by agencies in these river basins. However, changes in annual runoff were found to be mainly caused by human activities in most of the catchments in northern China (such as the southern Songhuajiang River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, the lower reach and some of the catchments within the middle Yellow River basin and in middle-eastern China, such as the Huaihe River and lower mainstream of the Yangtze River. This suggests that current hydro-climatic data can continue to be used in water-use planning and that policymakers need to focus on water resource management and protection.

  18. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  19. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  20. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  2. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  3. Winds of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.; Short, L.

    1998-01-01

    The British countryside is oversubscribed with multiple and often irreconcilable demands. The siting of wind turbines is but one facet of this situation. While the problems of these demands are widely recognised, there is little understanding or agreement on how to resolve them. The 1996 Future Landscape: New Partnerships was an attempt to address this challenge. The use of wind energy as a case study initiated a partnership between contemporary artists and the wind energy industry. It became clear that artists have an important role to play in creating new ways of seeing that will establish wind turbines as new icons for a sustainable future. (Author)

  4. Wind farm radar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  5. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  6. Wind on the moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1992-01-01

    A local town councillor describes the setting up of a wind farm in the south Pennines which plans to sell electricity to the local electricity suppliers. The Coal Clough wind farm will generate sufficient electricity to meet the average demand of 7,500 households and will be managed by a consortium known as Wind Resources Limited linking the construction company and the utilities aiming to buy the electricity produced. While wind power offers many environmental advantages over other means of power generation, local opposition was strong on the basis of the noise produced and clearly visible structures in an area designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. (UK)

  7. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  8. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  9. Wind energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.; Tammelin, B.; Hyvoenen, R.

    1997-01-01

    The recording, analyzing and publishing of statistics of wind energy production has been reorganized in cooperation of VTT Energy, Finnish Meteorological (FMI Energy) and Finnish Wind Energy Association (STY) and supported by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). VTT Energy has developed a database that contains both monthly data and information on the wind turbines, sites and operators involved. The monthly production figures together with component failure statistics are collected from the operators by VTT Energy, who produces the final wind energy statistics to be published in Tuulensilmae and reported to energy statistics in Finland and abroad (Statistics Finland, Eurostat, IEA). To be able to verify the annual and monthly wind energy potential with average wind energy climate a production index in adopted. The index gives the expected wind energy production at various areas in Finland calculated using real wind speed observations, air density and a power curve for a typical 500 kW-wind turbine. FMI Energy has produced the average figures for four weather stations using the data from 1985-1996, and produces the monthly figures. (orig.)

  10. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  11. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  12. Conducting research in the middle of the ocean. Platforms FINO 1-3 supply planning data for utilising offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Seas; Forschen mitten im Meer. Plattformen FINO 1-3 liefern Planungsdaten fuer die Offshore-Windenergienutzung in Nord- und Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In the future, a large part of Germany's electricity requirement is intended to come from offshore wind farms in order to utilise the favourable wind conditions there. This represents unknown territory in both technical and ecological terms, and is taking place in sensitive biotopes. Three largely remote-controlled research platforms have therefore been constructed in the North and Baltic Seas (FINO). In particular it is being investigated into how the wind actually behaves above the sea and how much electricity can be generated. The data will be incorporated into the planning, design and certification of future farms. (orig.)

  13. The dynamics of İzmir Bay under the effects of wind and thermohaline forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, Erdem; Eronat, Canan

    2018-04-01

    The dominant circulation pattern of İzmir Bay on the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey is studied taking into consideration the influence of wind and thermohaline forces. İzmir Bay is discussed by subdividing the bay into outer, middle and inner areas. Wind is the most important driving force in the İzmir coastal area. There are also thermohaline forces due to the existence of water types of different physical properties in the bay. In contrast to the two-layer stratification during summer, a homogeneous water column exists in winter. The free surface version of the Princeton model (Killworth's 3-D general circulation model) is applied, with the input data obtained through the measurements made by the research vessel K. Piri Reis. As a result of the simulations with artificial wind, the strong consistent wind generates circulation patterns independent of the seasonal stratification in the bay. Wind-driven circulation causes cyclonic or anticyclonic movements in the middle bay where the distinct İzmir Bay Water (IBW) forms. Cyclonic movement takes place under the influence of southerly and westerly winds. On the other hand, northerly and easterly winds cause an anticyclonic movement in the middle bay. The outer and inner bay also have the wind-driven recirculation patterns expected.

  14. A Preliminary Assessment of Sources of Nitrate in Springwaters, Suwannee River Basin, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Brian G; Hornsby, H. D

    1998-01-01

    ... contamination in the middle Suwannee River region. In July and August 1997, water samples were collected and analyzed from six springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon...

  15. The social connectivity of urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Pinto, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    By social connectivity we refer to the communication and movement of people, goods, ideas, and culture along and across rivers, recognizing longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity, much as has been described for other rivers for hydrology and ecology. We focus on rivers as they pass through cities, and the relationships between these rivers and city dwellers. Historically, the most important longitudinal connectivity function of rivers was their role as major transport routes and the simplification of formerly complex, irregular banks and beds, into straight, uniform shipping channels has resulted in a loss of lateral and vertical connectivity, notably the quotidian uses such as fishing, washing clothes, water supply, swimming and other recreation. The scale of the river itself, and its scale in comparison to the scale of the city, largely determine the river's social function and the degree to which it influences city form. River width affects the perception of 'closeness' of the other bank, ease of bridging the river, influence of the river on the city's street pattern, and type of waterfront uses that occur. Up to 15 m wide, people can converse, whereas across rivers 50 to 200 m wide, people are not recognizable but still clearly visible, instilling the banks with a 'lively' atmosphere. At widths over 200 m, people blur, yet moving vehicles and trees branches shaking in wind may still provide some dynamic elements to an otherwise static landscape composed of building facades. In exceptionally wide rivers, the city on the opposite bank is little more than a skyline, which often becomes a signature and symbol of regional identity. In contemplating how people use rivers, we can define a range of human activities in relation to height above the water (i.e., instream to banktop), a vertical dimension of human connectivity with rivers. Many uses occur on the top of the bank, such as quiet contemplation, walking, or cycling along a riverside trail, while

  16. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  17. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  18. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  19. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  20. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L x rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  1. Statement on Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-15

    Wind power will grow in importance in future electricity supply. In the next few decades it will to some degree replace fossil power but it will, at the same time also depend on fossil-b beyond, when wind power is expected to have a substantial share of the electricity market, CO{sub 2} emission-free electricity plants that are well suited for balancing the wind intermittency will be required. Predictions of the future penetration of wind power into the electricity market are critically dependent on a number of policy measures and will be especially influenced by climate driven energy policies. Very large investments will also be necessary as is shown by the lEA's Blue Map Scenario which includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity by 2050 at a cost of USD 700 billion. This implies an average 8% increase of wind electricity per year energy system, i.e. an energy system so large that it affects the entire world. The Energy Committee's scenario for electricity production in the year 2050 includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity out of a total of 45,000 TWh. Wind electricity thus has a within presently reached penetration of wind energy in a single country and within the calculated future projections of its penetration. Future large continental and intercontinental power grids may enable higher penetrations of wind energy since contributions of wind power from a larger area will tend to reduce its intermittency. Also, large-scale storage systems (thermal storage as is intermittent power systems. These alternatives have been discussed from a technical point of view [3] but for the required large-scale systems, further studies on the social, environmental and economical implications are needed

  2. Wind energy - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena-especially the wind situation-when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31 m s -1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were likely caused by microburst straight-line wind and/or embedded small vortices, rather than tornadoes.

  4. Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Sediment Regime in a Semi-Arid Region: Case Study of the Wuqi Catchment in the Upper Beiluo River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Maroulis, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. With recent land use and land cover change, the

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of aeolian sediment input to the tributaries (the Ten Kongduis) of the upper Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Shi, Changxing

    2018-02-01

    The Ten Kongduis of the upper Yellow River, located in Inner Mongolia, northern China, is an area with active wind-water coupled erosion and hence one of the main sediment sources of the Yellow River. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of spatial and temporal variations of aeolian sediment input to the river channel. For this purpose, three segments of sand dune-covered banks of the Maobula and the Xiliugou kongduis were investigated three times from November 2014 to November 2015 using a 3-D laser scanner, and the displacement of banks of desert reaches of three kongduis was derived from interpreting remote sensing images taking in the years from 2005 to 2015. The data of the surveyed sand dunes reveal that the middle kongduis were fed by aeolian sand through the sand dunes moving towards the river channels. The amount of aeolian sediment input was estimated to be about 14.94 × 104 t/yr in the Maobula Kongdui and about 5.76 × 104 t/yr in the Xiliugou Kongdui during the period from November 2014 to November 2015. According to the interpretation results of remote sensing images, the amount of aeolian sediment input to the Maobula Kongdui was about 15.74 × 104 t in 2011 and 18.2 × 104 t in 2012. In the Xiliugou Kongdui, it was in the range of 9.52 × 104 - 9.99 × 104 t in 2012 and in the springs of 2013 and 2015. In the Hantaichuan Kongdui, it was 7.04 × 104 t in 2012, 7.53 × 104 t in the spring of 2013, and 8.52 × 104 t in the spring of 2015. Owing to the changes in wind and rainfall, both interseasonal and interannual sediment storage and release mechanisms exist in the processes of aeolian sand being delivered into the kongduis. However, all of the aeolian sediment input to the Ten Kongduis should be delivered downstream by the river flows during a long term.

  6. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  7. Two years of wind-lidar measurements at an Italian Mediterranean Coastal Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullí, D.; Avolio, E.; Calidonna, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurements of vertical profiles of wind speed and direction are needed for testing models and methodologies of use for wind energy assessment. In particular, modelling complex terrain such as coastal areas is challenging due to the coastal discontinuity that is not accurately resolved...... in mesoscale numerical model. Here, we present a unique database from a coastal site in South Italy (middle of the Mediterranean area) where vertical profiles of wind speed and direction have been collected during a two-year period from a wind-lidar ZEPHIR-300® at a coastal-suburban area. We show an overview...

  8. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  9. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  10. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  11. Status of Wind Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    With the development of wind turbine technology, wind power will become more controllable and grid‐friendly. It is desirable to make wind farms operate as conventional power plants. Wind turbine generators (WTGs) were mainly used in rural and remote areas for wind power generation. WTG‐based wind...... energy conversion systems (WECS) can be divided into the four main types (type 1‐4). Due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of the wind, the integration of wind power into the grid has brought challenges in several different areas, including power quality, system reliability, stability......, and planning. The impact of each is largely dependent on the level of wind power penetration in the grid. In many countries, relatively high levels of wind power penetration have been achieved. This chapter shows the estimated wind power penetration in leading wind markets....

  12. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  13. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  14. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  15. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  16. The difficult wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed

  17. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  18. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  19. Fixture for winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  20. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs