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Sample records for wind river indian

  1. Anatomy of an interrupted irrigation season: Micro-drought at the Wind River Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. McNeeley

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex phenomenon manifested through interactions between biophysical and social factors. At the Wind River Indian Reservation (WRIR in west-central Wyoming, water shortages have become increasingly common since the turn of the 21st century. Here we discuss the 2015 water year as an exemplar year, which was characterized by wetter-than-normal conditions across the reservation and, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, remained drought-free throughout the year. Yet parts of the reservation experienced harmful water shortages, or “micro-drought” conditions, during the growing season in 2015. In this assessment of the 2015 water year at the WRIR we: (1 describe the hydroclimatic and social processes under way that contributed to the 2015 water year micro-drought in the Little Wind Basin; (2 compare water availability conditions within and between other basins at the WRIR to illustrate how micro-droughts can result from social and environmental features unique to local systems; and (3 describe how a collaborative project is supporting drought preparedness at the WRIR. We combine a social science assessment with an analysis of the hydroclimate to deconstruct how shortages manifest at the WRIR. We provide insights from this study to help guide drought assessments at local scales. Keywords: Drought, Climate vulnerability, Drought preparedness, Indigenous adaptation, Co-production

  2. Indian Wind Energy Outlook 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shruti; Kharul, Rajendra; Sawyer, Steve; Patel, Narendra; Pullen, Angelika; Gorate, Devanand; Raghu, V.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a valuable tool for members of the wind industry and policy makers alike to learn about the market opportunities and the legal and regulatory framework in India. In addition, it gives us insights into the challenges going forward and offers suggestions for overcoming remaining hurdles for wind power development. According to the outlook 65.2 GW of wind power could be installed in Indian by 2020, up from 13.1 GW at the end of 2010. This would attract around USD 10.4bn of annual investment to the sector, and create 170,000 'green collar' jobs in manufacturing, project development, installation, operation, maintenance, consulting etc. At the same time, it would save 174 tons of CO2 every year. By 2030, the installed capacity could reach as much as 160.7 GW. In order to fully exploit the indigenous energy source at its doorstep, the Indian government needs to address several challenges and barriers that are holding back development. This includes a national renewable energy law, incentives for repowering, and rapid up-scaling of grid infrastructure to transport increasing amounts of wind power to the demand centres. It highlights the key role wind power could play in fueling India's growing energy demand, by delivering substantial amounts of clean energy.

  3. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  4. Inputs from Indian rivers to the ocean: A synthesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; SenGupta, R.

    ). Fluxes of chemical substances to the Indian Ocean from these rivers are computed to a first approximation. The major ion contents are inversely proportional to the river runoff especially for the rivers entering the Arabian Sea. On an average Indian...

  5. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds. B N Goswami1 and E N Rajagopal2. 1Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 2National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Department of ...

  6. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  7. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Antonio C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robichaud, Robi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  8. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  9. Indian offshore wind energy policy - lessons from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S.; Dhingra, T. [Univ. of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Indian Economy is growing at 8% for the past few years and is expected to continue this momentum into the foreseeable future. To sustain this growth, power sector needs to build additional generation capacity at an unprecedented pace. However, continued dependence on fossil fuels (especially Coal and Oil) to power the growth of electricity generation capacity, is hardly sustainable in the long run. The reasons are well known - Environmental concerns, depleting fossil fuel resources, excessive dependency on Oil imports - that it hardly merits repetition. Renewable Energy source forms a miniscule portion (25 GW, {approx} 12%) of India's overall Energy consumption today (202 GW). The share of wind energy (17 GW) is 67% of the total renewable energy basket. But the contribution from offshore wind farms is non-existent, as all the wind energy generated in India is only through onshore Wind farms. India needs a policy framework to encourage the development of offshore wind farms. Several European countries, most notably the UK, Germany and Denmark, have effective offshore wind energy policies that have helped them to accelerate the growth of their offshore wind energy sector. This paper does an exhaustive study to identify the building blocks of a successful offshore wind energy policy initiative adopted by selected European countries, which can be leveraged by India to articulate its own offshore wind energy policy. This paper also suggests a model to predict the log-odds of growth of offshore wind energy sector in India. (Author)

  10. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  11. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    : tsnarayana@vsnl.net MEETING REPORT Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon activity* In a popular article on ?Interlinking ri v ers: Is it the solution?? ( The Hindu , 26 August 2005), V. Rajamani brought ou t a poss i ble...

  12. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  13. Wind River Watershed restoration: 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey-Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination-Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring-Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment-Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration-Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  14. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... would be generated from their proposed Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Garfield...

  15. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.; Munz, Carrie S. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-04

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  16. 33 CFR 110.73a - Indian River at Sebastian, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River at Sebastian, Fla. 110.73a Section 110.73a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73a Indian River at Sebastian, Fla. Beginning at a point on the shoreline at latitude...

  17. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  18. The traditional symbolism of the Sun Dance Lodge among the Wind River Shoshoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the North American Indian religious ceremonies no one is as spectacular and as well-known as the Sun Dance of the Plains Indians. The information collected on the subject since the turn of the century is quite extensive. However, while there is a mass of materials on the outer features of the Dance, on behavioural and ritual aspects, there is very little information on its religious aspects, in particular the meaning of the ritual.The following account is an attempt to view the religious symbolism of the Wind River Shoshoni Sun Dance lodge in a "meaningful" perspective. Attention is paid not only to the ideology of the Dance as such but also and foremost to the concrete elements of the Sun Dance structure which together throw further light on this ideology. A particular place in the analysis will be devoted to a new scholarly interpretation according to which the Shoshoni Sun Dance serves as a revitalization cult.

  19. Non-native fishes of the central Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Reaver, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the status of non-native fishes in the central Indian River Lagoon (from Cape Canaveral to Grant-Valkaria, east of I-95) through literature review and field surveys. Historical records exist for 17 taxa (15 species, one hybrid, one species complex). We found historical records for one additional species, and collected one species in our field survey that had never been recorded in the region before (and which we eradicated). Thus, we evaluate 19 total taxa herein. Of these, we documented range expansion of four salt-tolerant cichlid species, extirpation of six species that were previously recorded from the area and eradication of three species. There was no noticeable change in geographic range for one widespread species and the records for one species are doubtful and may be erroneous. Currently, there is not enough information to evaluate geographic ranges for four species although at least one of those is established.

  20. Comparative studies on trace metal geochemistry in Indian and Chinese rivers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; Zhang, J.

    The trace metal geochemistry in Indian and Chinese rivers in the Asian region was studied to understand its variation on a global scale in terms of climate, geological conditions and anthropogenic impact. The average particulate trace metal...

  1. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix, Arizona...

  2. 40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 49.22 Section 49.22 Protection of Environment... Authority § 49.22 Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian... River Project at the Tri-Cities landfill, which are fueled by collected landfill gas. Secondary...

  3. Monthly mean wind stress along the coast of the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Monthly-mean wind stress and its longshore and offshore components have been computed using the bulk aerodynamic method for each of a string of 36 two-degree-latitude by two-degree-longitude squares along the coast of the north Indian Ocean...

  4. Recent studies on wind seas and swells in the Indian Ocean: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.; Samiksha, S.V.; Aboobacker, V.M.

    , decrease in swell period and a common propagation direction (northwest) for wind seas and swells Also the swells generated at 40 degrees S, propagate in the north Indian Ocean, and enter in the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea During fair weather season...

  5. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  6. Wind River Watershed Project; 1998 Annual Report; Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds

  7. Employment of satellite snowcover observations for improving seasonal runoff estimates. [Indus River and Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Low resolution meteorological satellite and high resolution earth resources satellite data were used to map snowcovered area over the upper Indus River and the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, respectively. For the Indus River, early Spring snowcovered area was extracted and related to April through June streamflow from 1967-1971 using a regression equation. Composited results from two years of data over seven Wind River Mountain watersheds indicated that LANDSAT-1 snowcover observations, separated on the basis of watershed elevation, could also be related to runoff in significant regression equations. It appears that earth resources satellite data will be useful in assisting in the prediction of seasonal streamflow for various water resources applications, nonhazardous collection of snow data from restricted-access areas, and in hydrologic modeling of snowmelt runoff.

  8. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  9. Spectral analysis of wind field in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rashmi, R.; Samiksha, S.V.; Polnikov, V.; Pogarskii, F.; Sudheesh, K.; Vethamony, P.

    inhomogeneity in the analysed wind fields Spectral analysis of the time series (extracted at the centre of each zone) was performed using the auto-regression analysis based on the Yule-Walker equations Frequency spectra show distinct annual variations at all...

  10. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.P.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    over the 30°S−30°N, 30°E−110°E domain, with a coastline determined from the 200-m isobath. The model is forced by intraseasonal (20−150-day filtered) daily QuikSCAT wind-stresses (available from http://cersat/ifremer.fr/data/) from August, 1999... to October, 2009. Several studies indicate that this wind-stress product yields a realistic intraseasonal oceanic response in the equatorial Indian Ocean [e.g., Sengupta et al., 2007; Nagura and McPhaden, 2012]. We show results obtained using 5 baroclinic...

  11. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  12. InfraSound from wind turbines : observations from Castle River wind farm. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.; Hepburn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although infrasound has been discussed as a concern by groups opposed to wind farm facilities, there is very little information available about infrasound and wind turbines. This paper presented details of a project conducted by VisionQuest, the largest wind power producer in Canada. Three sensor types were used: precision sound analyzer, seismic geophones, and calibrated microphones to take measurements in low, medium and high winds. The project also measured infrasound when the wind farm was not operating. Acquisition geometry was presented, as well as details of apparent attenuations of wind noise. It was noted that high wind noise was a dominant factor and that there was little difference when the wind farm was not operational. It was suggested that turbines have no impact with high wind, since wind noise is not attenuated with distance. It was noted that increased geophone amplitudes indicate high wind coupled motion which is attenuated when the turbines are on. Results indicate that all frequencies showed attenuation with distance. Evidence showed that low frequency sound pressure levels were often lower when the turbines were switched on. Where turbines contributed to sound pressure levels, the magnitude of the contribution was below levels of concern to human health. Ambient sound pressure levels were much higher than contributions from wind turbines. It was concluded that wind itself generates infrasound. Wind turbines generate low levels of infrasound, detectable very close to facilities at low to medium wind speeds. Wind turbines may reduce ambient infrasound levels at high wind speeds by converting the energy from the wind into electricity. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  14. 75 FR 3460 - Indian River Power Supply, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Indian River Power Supply, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment January 13, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's ...

  15. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article... Code, Article 2, Liquor by Ordinance No. 10-03 on December 13, 2010. This notice is published in...

  16. Ecological types of the eastern slope of the Wind River Range, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron F. Wells; Janis L. Boettinger; Kent E. Houston; David W. Roberts

    2015-01-01

    This guide presents a classification of the Ecological Types of the eastern slope of the Wind River Range (WRR) on the Shoshone National Forest in west-central Wyoming. Ecological Types integrate vegetation and environmental characteristics, including climate, geology, landform, and soils, into a comprehensive ecosystem classification. The three objectives are: (1)...

  17. Aquatic vegetation were photographed from aircraft from Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts (NODC Accession 0000411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were taken of the aquatic vegetation of Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts. Photographs were scanned and...

  18. Intraseasonal Variability of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Observed from Sea Surface Height, Wind, and Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2007-01-01

    The forcing of the equatorial Indian Ocean by the highly periodic monsoon wind cycle creates many interesting intraseasonal variabilities. The frequency spectrum of the wind stress observations from the European Remote Sensing Satellite scatterometers reveals peaks at the seasonal cycle and its higher harmonics at 180, 120, 90, and 75 days. The observations of sea surface height (SSH) from the Jason and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeters are analyzed to study the ocean's response. The focus of the study is on the intraseasonal periods shorter than the annual period. The semiannual SSH variability is characterized by a basin mode involving Rossby waves and Kelvin waves traveling back and forth in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10(deg)S and 10(deg)N. However, the interference of these waves with each other masks the appearance of individual Kelvin and Rossby waves, leading to a nodal point (amphidrome) of phase propagation on the equator at the center of the basin. The characteristics of the mode correspond to a resonance of the basin according to theoretical models. The theory also calls for similar modes at 90 and 60 days.

  19. The effects of wind and rainfall on suspended sediment concentration related to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinfeng; Tang Danling; Li Zizhen; Zhang Fengpan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of rainfall and wind speed on the dynamics of suspended sediment concentration (SSC), during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, were analyzed using spatial statistical models. The results showed a positive effect of wind speed on SSC, and inconsistent effects (positive and negative) of rainfall on SSC. The effects of wind speed and rainfall on SSC weakened immediately around the tsunami, indicating tsunami-caused floods and earthquake-induced shaking may have suddenly disturbed the ocean-atmosphere interaction processes, and thus weakened the effects of wind speed and rainfall on SSC. Wind speed and rainfall increased markedly, and reached their maximum values immediately after the tsunami week. Rainfall at this particular week exceeded twice the average for the same period over the previous 4 years. The tsunami-affected air-sea interactions may have increased both wind speed and rainfall immediately after the tsunami week, which directly lead to the variations in SSC.

  20. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  1. Observations and Predictability of Gap Winds in the Salmon River Canyon of Central Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates gap winds in a steep, deep river canyon prone to wildland fire. The driving mechanisms and the potential for forecasting the gap winds are investigated. The onset and strength of the gap winds are found to be correlated to the formation of an along-gap pressure gradient linked to periodic development of a thermal trough in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Numerical simulations are performed using a reanalysis dataset to investigate the ability of numerical weather prediction (NWP to simulate the observed gap wind events, including the timing and flow characteristics within the canyon. The effects of model horizontal grid spacing and terrain representation are considered. The reanalysis simulations suggest that horizontal grid spacings used in operational NWP could be sufficient for simulating the gap flow events given the regional-scale depression in which the Salmon River Canyon is situated. The strength of the events, however, is under-predicted due, at least in part, to terrain smoothing in the model. Routine NWP, however, is found to have mixed results in terms of forecasting the gap wind events, primarily due to problems in simulating the regional sea level pressure system correctly.

  2. Effects of flow releases on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Adirondack Mountains of Northern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of flow releases (daily during spring and four times weekly during summer) from a small impoundment on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the lower Indian River and upper Hudson River of northern New York were assessed during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Community indices, feeding guilds, dominant species and Bray—Curtis similarities at three sites on the Indian River, below a regulated impoundment, were compared with those at four control sites on the Cedar River, below a run-of-the-river impoundment of comparable size. The same indices at four less-likely affected sites on the Hudson River, below the mouth of the Indian River, were compared with those at an upstream control site on the Hudson River. Results show that the function and apparent health of macroinvertebrate communities were generally unaffected by atypical flow regimes and/or altered water quality at study reaches downstream from both dams in the Indian, Cedar and Hudson Rivers. The lentic nature of releases from both impoundments, however, produced significant changes in the structure of assemblages at Indian and Cedar River sites immediately downstream from both dams, moderate effects at two Indian River sites 2.4 and 4.0 km downstream from its dam, little or no effect at three Cedar River sites 7.2-34.2 km downstream from its dam, and no effect at any Hudson River site. Bray—Curtis similarities indicate that assemblages did not differ significantly among sites within similar impact categories. The paucity of scrapers at all Indian River sites, and the predominance of filter-feeding Simulium gouldingi and Pisidium compressum immediately below Abanakee dam, show that only minor differences in dominant species and trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities occurred at affected sites in the Indian River compared to the Cedar River. Thus, flow releases had only a small, localized effect on macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River.

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  4. The 'Ahakhav Native Plant Nursery on the Colorado River Indian Reservation: Growing trees and shrubs for southwest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Kleffner

    2002-01-01

    The Colorado River Indian Reservation is located in southwestern Arizona on the California/Arizona border. On the reservation is the 'Ahakhav Tribal Preserve, located on the banks of the Lower Colorado River. On the preserve is the 'Ahakhav Native Plant Nursery, specializing in plants used for southwest riparian restoration. The nursery primarily grows native...

  5. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  6. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  7. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  8. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

  9. The Neocortex of Indian River Dolphins (Genus Platanista): Comparative, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Julian P; Hof, Patrick R; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the morphology of four primary neocortical projection areas (somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, visual) qualitatively and quantitatively in the Indian river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica, P. gangetica minor) with histological and stereological methods. For comparison, we included brains of other toothed whale species. Design-based stereology was applied to the primary neocortical areas (M1, S1, A1, V1) of the Indian river dolphins and compared to those of the bottlenose dolphin with respect to layers III and V. These neocortical fields were identified using existing electrophysiological and morphological data from marine dolphins as to their topography and histological structure, including the characteristics of the neuron populations concerned. In contrast to other toothed whales, the visual area (V1) of the 'blind' river dolphins seems to be rather small. M1 is displaced laterally and the auditory area (A1) is larger than in marine species with respect to total brain size. The layering is similar in the cortices of all the toothed whale brains investigated; a layer IV could not be identified. Cell density in layer III is always higher than in layer V. The maximal neuron density in P. gangetica gangetica is found in layer III of A1, followed by layers III in V1, S1, and M1. The cell density in layer V is at a similar level in all primary areas. There are, however, some differences in neuron density between the two subspecies of Indian river dolphins. Taken as a whole, it appears that the neocortex of platanistids exhibits a considerable expansion of the auditory field. Even more than other toothed whales, they seem to depend on their biosonar abilities for navigation, hunting, and communication in their riverine habitat. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Wintertime Local Wind Dynamics from Scanning Doppler Lidar and Air Quality in the Arve River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Sabatier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air quality issues are frequent in urbanized valleys, particularly in wintertime when a temperature inversion forms and the air within the valley is stably stratified over several days. In addition to pollutant sources, local winds can have a significant impact on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of pollutant concentrations. They can be very complex and difficult to represent in numerical weather prediction models, particularly under stable conditions. Better knowledge of these local winds from observations is also a prerequisite to improving air quality prediction capability. This paper analyses local winds during the Passy-2015 field experiment that took place in a section of the Arve river valley, near Chamonix–Mont-Blanc. This location is one of the worst places in France regarding air quality. The wind analysis, which is mainly based on scanning Doppler lidar data sampling a persistent temperature inversion episode, reveals features consistent with the higher pollutant concentrations observed in this section of the valley as well as their spatial heterogeneities. In particular, an elevated down-valley jet is observed at night in the northern half of the valley, which, combined with a weak daytime up-valley wind, leads to very poor ventilation of the lowest layers. A northeast–southwest gradient in ventilation is observed on a daily-average, and is consistent with the PM10 heterogeneities observed within the valley.

  11. Spatio-temporal trends of rainfall across Indian river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Deepak Singh; Chatterjee, Chandranath; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2018-04-01

    Daily gridded high-resolution rainfall data of India Meteorological Department at 0.25° spatial resolution (1901-2015) was analyzed to detect the trend in seasonal, annual, and maximum cumulative rainfall for 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. The present study was carried out for 85 river basins of India during 1901-2015 and pre- and post-urbanization era, i.e., 1901-1970 and 1971-2015, respectively. Mann-Kendall ( α = 0.05) and Theil-Sen's tests were employed for detecting the trend and percentage of change over the period of time, respectively. Daily extreme rainfall events, above 95 and 99 percentile threshold, were also analyzed to detect any trend in their magnitude and number of occurrences. The upward trend was found for the majority of the sub-basins for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-day maximum cumulative rainfall during the post-urbanization era. The magnitude of extreme threshold events is also found to be increasing in the majority of the river basins during the post-urbanization era. A 30-year moving window analysis further revealed a widespread upward trend in a number of extreme threshold rainfall events possibly due to urbanization and climatic factors. Overall trends studied against intra-basin trend across Ganga basin reveal the mixed pattern of trends due to inherent spatial heterogeneity of rainfall, therefore, highlighting the importance of scale for such studies.

  12. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Lévy, Marina; Smith, Shafer

    2018-01-01

    The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from -50 to +50 %) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years), the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades). Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100-200 m) of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there. The increased

  13. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from −50 to +50 % on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus (NPZD ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years, the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades. Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100–200 m of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there

  14. Wind River watershed restoration, annual report November 2009 to October 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P.J.; Jezorek, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey’s Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period November 2009 through October 2010 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 46102. Long term research in the Wind River has focused on assessments of steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss populations, interactions with introduced populations of spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and influences of habitat variables and habitat restoration on fish productivity. During the period covered by this report, we collected water temperature data to characterize variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Trout Creek watershed, and assisted Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) with smolt trapping and tagging of smolt and parr steelhead with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We also continued to maintain and test efficacy of a passive integrated transponder tag interrogation system (PTIS) in Trout Creek for assessing the adult steelhead runsize. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in October 2009 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  15. Wind River water restoration, Annual report November 2008 to October 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P.J.; Jezorek, I.G.; Munz, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey’s Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period November 2008 through October 2009 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 41038. Long term research in the Wind River has focused on assessments of steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss populations, interactions with introduced populations of spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and influences of habitat variables on fish productivity. During this period, we collected water temperature data to characterize variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Trout Creek watershed, and assisted Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife with smolt trapping and tagging of smolt and parr steelhead with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We also continued to maintain and test efficacy of a passive integrated transponder tag interrogation system (PTIS) in Trout Creek for assessing the adult steelhead runsize. We continued to maintain and download PTIS setups in the fish ladder at Hemlock Dam. These PTISs contributed information on movement and rearing of steelhead parr and smolts. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in October 2009 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  16. Automated prediction of boundary layer winds and turbulence for the Savannah River Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilhousen, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective forecasts of many weather elements produced twice daily for about 230 US cities are made by applying the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique (Glahn and Lowry, 1972). This technique relates by a statistical method the output of numerical models interpolated to a location (predictors) to a corresponding sample of observed local weather at that location (predictand). This study describes the development and testing of MOS wind forecasts for an instrumented TV tower located near the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). If shown to be useful, these forecasts could serve as valuable guidance in case of a nuclear incident at the installation. This study introduces several new applications of the MOS technique. In addition to forecasts of wind speed and direction, forecasts of two turbulence parameters were developed and evaluated. These turbulence parameters were the standard deviations of both the azimuth and elevation of the wind. These quantities help to estimate the amount of plume and puff spread. Forecasts of all these elements were produced for several levels on the 335 m WJBF-TV tower. Tests were conducted to see if MOS forecasts of each element were capable of resolving differences between tower levels. MOS forecasts were compared to two other types of forecasts to determine their utility. Short range persistence forecasts served as one type of comparison since SRL uses the current observed winds in their diffusion models. Climatology forecasts served as the other comparison set

  17. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and

  18. Hyperspectral signatures and WorldView-3 imagery of Indian River Lagoon and Banana River Estuarine water and bottom types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Oney, Taylor S.; Rotkiske, Tyler; Aziz, Samin; Morrisette, Charles; Callahan, Kelby; Mcallister, Devin

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral signatures and imagery collected during the spring and summer of 2017 and 2016 are presented. Ground sampling distances (GSD) and pixel sizes were sampled from just over a meter to less than 4.0 mm. A pushbroom hyperspectral imager was used to calculate bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) signatures. Hyperspectral signatures of different water types and bottom habitats such as submerged seagrasses, drift algae and algal bloom waters were scanned using a high spectral and digital resolution solid state spectrograph. WorldView-3 satellite imagery with minimal water wave sun glint effects was used to demonstrate the ability to detect bottom features using a derivative reflectance spectroscopy approach with the 1.3 m GSD multispectral satellite channels centered at the solar induced fluorescence band. The hyperspectral remote sensing data collected from the Banana River and Indian River Lagoon watersheds represents previously unknown signatures to be used in satellite and airborne remote sensing of water in turbid waters along the US Atlantic Ocean coastal region and the Florida littoral zone.

  19. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-03-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  20. Wave modelling for the North Indian Ocean using MSMR analysed winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Rupali, S.P.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; Saran, A.K.; Basu, S.K.; Kumar, R.; Sarkar, A.

    NCMRWF (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast) winds assimilated with MSMR (Multi-channel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) winds are used as input to MIKE21 Offshore Spectral Wave model (OSW) which takes into account wind induced wave...

  1. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface waters in the Wind River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, B.R.; Hembree, C.H.; Rainwater, F.H.

    1956-01-01

    This report gives results of an investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey of chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Wind River Basin, Wyo. The sedimentation study was begun in 1946 to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams in the basin; the probable sources of the sediment; the effect of large irrigation projects on sediment yield, particularly along Fivemile Creek; and the probable specific weight of the sediment when initially deposited in a reservoir. The study of the chemical quality of the water was begun in 1945 to obtain information on the sources, nature, and amounts of dissolved material that is transported by streams and on the suitability of the waters for different uses. Phases of geology and hydrology pertinent to the sedimentation and chemical quality were studied. Results of the investigation through September 30, 1952, and some special studies that were made during the 1953 and 1954 water years are reported. The rocks in the Wind River Basin are granite, schist, and gneiss of Precambrian age and a thick series of sedimentary strata that range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age are confined to the mountains, rocks of Mesozoic age crop out along the flank of the Wind River and Owl Creek Mountains and in denuded anticlines in the floor of the basin, and rocks of Tertiary age cover the greater part of the floor of the basin. Deposits of debris from glaciers are in the mountains, and remnants of gravel-capped terraces of Pleistocene age are on the floor of the basin. The lateral extent and depth of alluvial deposits of Recent age along all the streams are highly variable. The climate of the floor of the basin is arid. The foothills probably receive a greater amount of intense rainfall than the areas at lower altitudes. Most precipitation in the Wind River Mountains falls as snow. The foothill sections, in general, are transitional zones between the cold, humid

  2. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  3. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends

  4. Study of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Thermopolis Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the following data from the Thermopolis Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location map; eU symbol anomaly map; eU/eTh symbol anomaly map; eU/K symbol anomaly map; eTh symbol anomaly map; K symbol anomaly map; eU profile anomaly map; eU/eTh profile anomaly map; eU/K profile anomaly map; eTh profile anomaly map; K profile anomaly map; eTh/K profile anomaly map; preferred anomaly maps (4- and 7-point), combined 4- and 7-point preferred anomaly map; and stacked significance factor profiles

  5. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Quality data in Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, M.; Ye, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon, is part of the longest barrier island complex in the United States, is a region of particular concern to the environmental scientist because of the rapid rate of human development throughout the region and the geographical position in between the colder temperate zone and warmer sub-tropical zone. Thus, the surface water quality analysis in this region always brings the newer information. In this present study, multivariate statistical procedures were applied to analyze the spatial and temporal water quality in the Indian River Lagoon over the period 1998-2013. Twelve parameters have been analyzed on twelve key water monitoring stations in and beside the lagoon on monthly datasets (total of 27,648 observations). The dataset was treated using cluster analysis (CA), principle component analysis (PCA) and non-parametric trend analysis. The CA was used to cluster twelve monitoring stations into four groups, with stations on the similar surrounding characteristics being in the same group. The PCA was then applied to the similar groups to find the important water quality parameters. The principal components (PCs), PC1 to PC5 was considered based on the explained cumulative variances 75% to 85% in each cluster groups. Nutrient species (phosphorus and nitrogen), salinity, specific conductivity and erosion factors (TSS, Turbidity) were major variables involved in the construction of the PCs. Statistical significant positive or negative trends and the abrupt trend shift were detected applying Mann-Kendall trend test and Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK), for each individual stations for the important water quality parameters. Land use land cover change pattern, local anthropogenic activities and extreme climate such as drought might be associated with these trends. This study presents the multivariate statistical assessment in order to get better information about the quality of surface water. Thus, effective pollution control/management of the surface

  6. Wind profiler observations of a monsoon low-level jet over a tropical Indian station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. R. Kalapureddy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-year high-resolution wind observations of the wind profiler have been utilized to characterize the diurnal and seasonal features of the monsoon Low-Level Jet (LLJ over a tropical station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, with a focus on the diurnal variability of low-level winds. The Boreal summer monsoon winds show a conspicuously strong westerly LLJ with average wind speed exceeding 20 m s−1. The L-band wind profiler measurements have shown an advantage of better height and time resolutions over the conventional radiosonde method for diurnal wind measurements. An interesting diurnal oscillation of LLJ core has been observed. It is varying in the height range of 1.8±0.6 km with the maximum and minimum intensity noticed during the early morning and afternoon hours, respectively. The jet core (wind maxima height is observed to coincide with the inversion height. Strong wind shears are normally located beneath the LLJ core. The sole wind profiler observations are capable of identifying the monsoon phases, such as onset, break and active spells, etc. The mutual influence between the LLJ and the boundary layer has been discussed. One notices that the observed LLJ diurnal structures depend on the local convective activity, wind shears and turbulence activity associated with boundary layer winds. The day-to-day change in the LLJ structure depends on the latitudinal position of the LLJ core.

  7. Quality and Impact of Indian Doppler Weather Radar Wind Profiles: A Diagnostic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, A.; Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    In the tropics, efficient weather forecasts require high-quality vertical profiles of winds to overcome improper coupling of mass and wind fields and balance relationships in the region. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) operates the network of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) in microwave frequencies (S-band or C-band) at various locations in India. The National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) receives the volume velocity processing (VVP) wind profiles from all DWRs through the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) network in near real time. The radar VVP wind is a mean horizontal wind derived at different heights from radial velocities suitable for numerical weather prediction applications. Three numerical experiments, CNTL (without VVP winds), 3DVAR and HYBRID with the assimilation of VVP winds by means of 3-dimensional variational (3dvar) and hybrid data assimilation systems were conducted using the NCMRWF Global Forecast System (NGFS) model. This study had two objectives: (1) quality assessment of VVP winds and (2) investigation of the impact of VVP wind profiles on NGFS model forecast. The quality of VVP wind profiles was assessed against the NGFS model background and radiosonde wind profiles. The absolute values of zonal and meridional wind observation minus background (O-B) increased with the pressure for all DWRs. All radars exhibited the accepted (rejected) ratio as a decreasing (increasing) function of pressure. The resemblance between the zonal and meridional O-B statistics for 3DVAR and HYBRID experiments is apparently remarkable. The accepted VVP winds and radiosonde winds in both experiments (3DVAR and HYBRID) were consistent. The correlation coefficient ( R) was higher at Patna (Patiala) for zonal (meridional) winds in the 3DVAR experiment and at Patna (Jaipur) in the HYBRID experiment. At Chennai, the R value was lower in both the experiments for both wind components. However, because of the assimilation of VVP winds by

  8. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  9. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  10. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    With the aim of retrieving, validating and mapping ocean surface winds and waves in the north Indian Ocean, GEOSAT altimeter data for the period November 1986 to October 1987 and available sea truth data for the above period were processed in SAC...

  11. Precipitation variability and response to the changing Indian summer monsoon in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Y. F.; Singh, V. P.; Gong, T.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the last four decades in the Yarlung Tsangpo River (YTR) basin, China, and the impact thereon of the changing Indian summer monsoon at inter-annual and decadal temporal scales. Results reflect the spatial variability in the seasonal distribution of precipitation in the YTR basin. From downstream to upstream, the rainy season is delayed and becomes shorter, and the ratio of rainy season precipitation to annual precipitation increases, but the absolute amounts of both the rainy season precipitation and annual precipitation decrease. All the precipitation series have similar scaling characteristics, reflecting similar climatic condition in the basin. However, the effect of the Indian summer monsoon strengthens from downstream to upstream, and on this basis the YTR basin is roughly divided into three regions: east, mid and west. The decadal variations of precipitation in the three regions are similar. Overall, the annual precipitation has been exhibiting a downward trend since 1998, which is mainly caused by the decrease in the rainy season precipitation. Both the occurrence times and magnitudes of precipitation extremes have been exhibiting a downward trend over the last four decades, which bodes well for the water disaster control in the basin. The Indian summer monsoon index (ISMI), as an intensity indicator for the Indian summer monsoon, shows a positive relationship with the summer precipitation in the YTR basin. Periodic variability of the Indian summer monsoon determines the inter-annual fluctuations of precipitation in the YTR basin. Especially, the weakening effect of the Indian monsoonhas caused an obvious decrease in rainy season precipitation after 1998. If the Indian summer monsoon keeps the present weakening effect, precipitation decrease and water shortage would become more severe in the YTR basin. Effective adaptation strategies should therefore be developed proactively and

  12. The use of stellite scatterometer winds to drive a primitive equation model of the Indian Ocean: The impact of bandlike sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Bernard; Capella, Jorge; O'Brien, James J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the bandlike sampling of spaceborne scatterometers on the ability of scatterometer winds to successfully force the mean flow and seasonal cycle of an ocean model in the context of equatorial and tropical dynamics. The equatorial ocean is simulated with a four-layer, primitive equation, reduced gravity model of the Indian Ocean. The variable wind stress used in this study is derived from one year (1988) of 6-hour analyses of the 10-m wind vector over the Indian Ocean performed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). It is applied as a forcing at every grid point of the model to drive a reference circulation. Scatterometer winds are simulated from ECMWF winds, using the nominal configurations and orbital parameters of the European Remote Sensing 1 (ERS-1) and NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) missions. The model is forced in real time under swaths with the raw scatterometer winds of ERS-1 and NSCAT, with a persistence condition (i.e., the wind is kept constsnt until the next passage of the satellite provides a new value). The circulation obtained for each of the scatterometer experiments is compared with the reference circulation. The seasonal circulation of the Indian Ocean with NSCAT winds is very similar to the reference. The perturbations introduced by the bandlike sampling and the persistance condition have an impact similar to that of a small uncorrelated noise added to the reference forcing. The persistence condition for ERS-1 does not give results which are as good as those obtained for NSCAT.

  13. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Indian River Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Stolen

    Full Text Available Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%. Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations.

  14. Use of wind pumps in Indian farms: A point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation is aimed at critically reviewing the experiences under several organized efforts to harness wind energy for water lifting for irrigation use in India. This is viewed with the overall objective that wind energy devices should be seen operating in good numbers in farms in a reliable and cost-effective manner. The focus is on irrigation in farms using pumped water, which could generate a fairly large demand for wind pumps. The quantity of pumped water required for irrigation is at least one order of magnitude higher compared to its demand from domestic and industrial uses in urban areas. With respect to the hardware India has a broad experience that goes back to the mid-fifties, when the first classic multi-blades were imported. The tests and experiments, beginning in the early sixties, include a.o. imported classic multi-blades, modified locally produced multi-blades, modern wind pumps without gearbox (12PU500), sail windmills and rotary pumps. A 1983 study showed that in certain regions in India irrigation with wind pumps can be economically more viable than other renewable and conventional alternatives. The conclusions of this study still have to be confirmed by field studies. Although the government shows great interest in the exploitation of the wind energy potential, one of the main problems seems how to get the government interested in the most viable wind energy applications. 1 ill., 1 tab

  15. Empirical Study Of Wind Energy Potential In Calabar Cross River State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uquetan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper focuses on wind energy potentials in Calabar a coastal city. The wind speed data were collected from Margaret Ekpo International Airport Calabar NIMET. The Objective of this study is to examine whether the wind energy in Calabar can generate sufficient energy to supplement electricity generation for the Calabar region. The primary data obtained is monthly mean in the form of wind speed for a period of 5year 2008 - 2012. These was used to estimate the available wind energy potential in calabar. The results show that the annual wind is 1.3 ms indicating Calabar as a low wind speed region. The wind power density value of 3.11Wm2 indicates that Calabar wind can only be used for small stand-alone wind power systems such as battery charging and for powering street light and water pumps fig 1 2 3 amp 4. The weibull probability distribution scale parameters k are higher in values and variability than the shape parameter c for the monthly distribution. Calabar wind cannot be used to generate electricity because the wind speed data at 10m height doesnt exceed 2.5ms due to the standard cut in speed.

  16. Prediction of tropical cyclone over North Indian Ocean using WRF model: sensitivity to scatterometer winds, ATOVS and ATMS radiances

    KAUST Repository

    Dodla, Venkata B.

    2016-05-03

    Tropical cyclone prediction, in terms of intensification and movement, is important for disaster management and mitigation. Hitherto, research studies were focused on this issue that lead to improvement in numerical models, initial data with data assimilation, physical parameterizations and application of ensemble prediction. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the state-of-art model for cyclone prediction. In the present study, prediction of tropical cyclone (Phailin, 2013) that formed in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) with and without data assimilation using WRF model has been made to assess impacts of data assimilation. WRF model was designed to have nested two domains of 15 and 5 km resolutions. In the present study, numerical experiments are made without and with the assimilation of scatterometer winds, and radiances from ATOVS and ATMS. The model performance was assessed in respect to the movement and intensification of cyclone. ATOVS data assimilation experiment had produced the best prediction with least errors less than 100 km up to 60 hours and producing pre-deepening and deepening periods accurately. The Control and SCAT wind assimilation experiments have shown good track but the errors were 150-200 km and gradual deepening from the beginning itself instead of sudden deepening.

  17. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  18. Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

  19. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  20. Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Ilka C.; Whigham, D.F.; McKee, K.L.; Lovelock, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

  1. Modulation of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Plume by the Indian Ocean Dipole and Eddies Inferred From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Lee, T.; Gierach, M. M.; Chaitanya, A. V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal receives large amounts of freshwater from the Ganga-Brahmaputra (GB) river during the summer monsoon. The resulting upper-ocean freshening influences seasonal rainfall, cyclones, and biological productivity. Sparse in situ observations and previous modeling studies suggest that the East India Coastal Current (EICC) transports these freshwaters southward after the monsoon as an approximately 200 km wide, 2,000 km long "river in the sea" along the East Indian coast. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite provides unprecedented views of this peculiar feature from intraseasonal to interannual timescales. SMAP SSS has a 0.83 correlation and 0.49 rms-difference to 0-5 m in situ measurements. SMAP and in stu data both indicate a SSS standard deviation of ˜0.7 to 1 away from the coast, that rises to 2 pss within 100 km of the coast, providing a very favorable signal-to-noise ratio in coastal areas. SMAP also captures the strong northern BoB, postmonsoon cross-shore SSS contrasts (˜10 pss) measured along ship transects. SMAP data are also consistent with previous modeling results that suggested a modulation of the EICC/GB plume southward extent by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Remote forcing associated with the negative Indian Ocean Dipole in the fall of 2016 indeed caused a stronger EICC and "river in the sea" that extended by approximately 800 km further south than that in 2015 (positive IOD year). The combination of SMAP and altimeter data shows eddies stirring the freshwater plume away from the coast.Plain Language SummaryThe Bay of Bengal receives large quantity of freshwater from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river during the monsoon. The resulting low-salinity sea surface has strong implications for the regional climate and living marine resources. In situ observations are too sparse to provide salinity maps in this basin, even every 3 months. In contrast, the SMAP satellite provides maps at 40 km resolution

  2. The system of wind-driven seasonal coastal currents around the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    implies that to understand the current at any location along the coast of India, one has to take into account wind-driving over the whole basin. The framework above applies to both seasonal currents as well as currents with periods ranging from...

  3. Recent studies on wind seas and swells in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.; Samiksha, S.V.; Aboobacker, V.M.

    Winds and waves measured at a few locations along the west coast of India were analysed to study the wave characteristics in the deep as well as near shore regions during different seasons. The potential generation of swells observed in the Arabian...

  4. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  5. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  6. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  7. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  8. Tidal wind oscillations in the tropical lower atmosphere as observed by Indian MST Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Sasi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal tidal components in horizontal winds measured by MST radar in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over a tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E are presented for the autumn equinox, winter, vernal equinox and summer seasons. For this purpose radar data obtained over many diurnal cycles from September 1995 to August 1996 are used. The results obtained show that although the seasonal variation of the diurnal tidal amplitudes in zonal and meridional winds is not strong, vertical phase propagation characteristics show significant seasonal variation. An attempt is made to simulate the diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases in the lower atmosphere over Gadanki using classical tidal theory by incorporating diurnal heat sources, namely, solar radiation absorption by water vapour, planetary boundary layer (PBL heat flux, latent heat release in deep convective clouds and short wave solar radiation absorption by clouds. A comparison of the simulated amplitudes and phases with the observed ones shows that agreement between the two is quite good for the equinox seasons, especially the vertical structure of the phases of the meridional wind components.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology; waves and tides

  9. Tidal wind oscillations in the tropical lower atmosphere as observed by Indian MST Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Sasi

    Full Text Available Diurnal tidal components in horizontal winds measured by MST radar in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over a tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E are presented for the autumn equinox, winter, vernal equinox and summer seasons. For this purpose radar data obtained over many diurnal cycles from September 1995 to August 1996 are used. The results obtained show that although the seasonal variation of the diurnal tidal amplitudes in zonal and meridional winds is not strong, vertical phase propagation characteristics show significant seasonal variation. An attempt is made to simulate the diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases in the lower atmosphere over Gadanki using classical tidal theory by incorporating diurnal heat sources, namely, solar radiation absorption by water vapour, planetary boundary layer (PBL heat flux, latent heat release in deep convective clouds and short wave solar radiation absorption by clouds. A comparison of the simulated amplitudes and phases with the observed ones shows that agreement between the two is quite good for the equinox seasons, especially the vertical structure of the phases of the meridional wind components.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology; waves and tides

  10. Export of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal rivers during discharge period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Prasad, M.H.K.; Rao, D; Viswanadham, R.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    monsoonal rivers of peninsular India during three weeks in late July to mid-August, the middle of the principal runoff period of the southwest monsoon of 2011. Twelve researchers in four groups, equipped with car and portable laboratory equipment, sampled...

  11. Importance of wind and river discharge in influencing nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton production in summer in the central Strait of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, K.D.; Goldblatt, R.H.; Harrison, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    A cruise was conducted during August 6-14, 1991 to investigate the dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton production in the central Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, during a period when strong stratification resulted in nitrogen-limited primary productivity. High resolution vertical...... that summer phytoplankton productivity in the central Strait of Georgia is fueled by a supply of nutrients from the nitracline through vertical mixing induced by the interaction of winds, river discharge and tidal cycles. Of these 3 factors, winds are the most variable and therefore a summer with frequent...... profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were taken daily along a transect. A wind event occurred on August 7 and a rapid increase in the Fraser River discharge took place from August 8 to 14. The wind event mixed the water column and nutrients increased...

  12. A Research Plan for Assessing the Power and Energy Capability of a River Network Under an Integrated Wind/Hydro-Electric Dispatchable Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, John Czeslaw

    The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.

  13. Comparison of wind data from QuikSCAT and buoys in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satheesan, K.; Sarkar, A.; Parekh, A.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Kuroda, Y.

    stream_size 24759 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_J_Remote_Sens_28_2375p.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_J_Remote_Sens_28_2375p.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1... help a wide variety of studies of oceanic processes and improve weather forecast via data assimilation in the operational models (Goswami and Rajagopal, 2003). The idea of remote sensing of ocean surface winds was based on the hypothesis...

  14. Role of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in shaping the natural variability in the flow of Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Mohamed S.; Wang, Guiling; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2014-08-01

    A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is shaped by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we investigate a similar role for the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperature (SST) in shaping the inter-annual variability of the Nile River flow. Using observations of global SST distribution and river flow in addition to atmospheric general circulation model sensitivity experiments, we show that North and Middle IO SSTs play a significant intermediate role in the teleconnection between ENSO and the Nile flow. Applying partial coherency analyses, we demonstrate that the connection between North and Middle IO SSTs and Nile flow is strongly coupled to ENSO. During El Niño events, SST in the North and Middle IO increases in response to the warming in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean and forces a Gill-type circulation with enhanced westerly low-level flow over East Africa and the Western IO. This anomalous low-level flow enhances the low-level flux of air and moisture away from the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin resulting in reduction of rainfall and river flow. SSTs in the South IO also play a significant role in shaping the variability of the Nile flow that is independent from ENSO. A warming over the South IO, generates a cyclonic flow in the boundary layer, which reduces the cross-equatorial meridional transport of air and moisture towards the UBN basin, favoring a reduction in rainfall and river flow. This independence between the roles of ENSO and South IO SSTs allows for development of new combined indices of SSTs to explain the inter-annual variability of the Nile flow. The proposed teleconnections have important implications regarding mechanisms that shape the regional impacts of climate change over the Nile basin.

  15. Iron and nutrient content of wind-erodible sediment in the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, A. P.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Thomas, D. S. G.

    2017-08-01

    Research concerning the global distribution of aeolian dust sources has principally focussed on salt/clay pan and desiccated lacustrine emission areas. In southern Africa such sources are identified as Etosha Pan in northern Namibia and Makgadikgadi Pans in northern Botswana. Dust emitting from ephemeral river valleys, however, has been largely overlooked. Rivers are known nutrient transport pathways and the flooding regimes of ephemeral river valleys frequently replenish stores of fine sediment which, on drying, can become susceptible to aeolian erosion. Such airborne sediment may be nutrient rich and thus be significant for the fertilisation of marine waters once deposited. This study investigates the dust source sediments from three ephemeral river valleys in Namibia in terms of their particle size distribution and their concentrations of bioavailable N, P and Fe. We compare the nutrient content of these sediments from the ephemeral river valleys to those collected from Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans and consider their relative ocean fertilising potential. Our results show that the ephemeral river valleys contain fine grained sediment similar in physical character to Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans yet they have up to 43 times greater concentrations of bioavailable iron and enriched N and P macronutrients that are each important for ocean fertilisation. The known dust-emitting river valleys of Namibia may therefore be contributing a greater fertilisation role in the adjacent marine system than previously considered, and not-yet investigated. Given this finding a re-assessment of the potential role of ephemeral river valleys in providing nutrient-rich sediment into the aeolian and marine systems in other dryland areas is necessary.

  16. CONTAMINATION STATUS OF CADMIUM IN DIFFERENT BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC COMPONENTS AROUND THE BIDHYADHARI RIVER OF INDIAN SUNDARBAN DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of total Cadmium (Cd in different biotic and abiotic substrates including human in and around the Bidyadhari river of Sundarban delta. Bidyadhari river presently serves as a sewage and excess rainwater outlet from Kolkata metropolitan and adjacent area, which ultimately empties at the Bay of Bengal. The study reveals that the Cd content in surface water of the river and ponds as well as ground water was generally high up to 0.294 µg/ml and 0.205 µg/ml respectively during most of the seasons, which was above the maximum permissible level for drinking water as per various national and international standards like Indian Standard Specification, European Union, WHO, USEPA etc. Though, range of Cd in sediment of the river and ponds was 0.025 to 0.281µg/g and 0.018 to 0.317µg/g respectively but that was considerably higher in grasses up to 0.324µg/g. Backyard hen demonstrated considerably high levels of Cd in their egg up to 0.247µg/g in albumen and 0.272 µg/g in yolk. Goat and cattle demonstrated Cd content in meat up to 0.295µg/g and milk up to 0.295µg/ml respectively which crosses the permissible levels recommended by different international standards. High Cd content in human hairs up to 1.11µg/g indicated considerably bioaccumulation of the metal in local inhabitants resides in the northern part of Sundarban mangrove eco-region. This whole observation may be considered as base line study to know the present status of Cd contamination and bioaccumulation in flora and fauna including humans in Sundarban mangrove eco-region to prepare mitigation planning against this carcinogen from the biota immediately.

  17. The Use of MTM-SVD Technique to Explore the Joint Spatiotemporal Modes of Wind and Sea Surface Variability in the North Indian Ocean during 1993–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned Rojsiraphisal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface height (SSH and sea surface temperature (SST in the North Indian Ocean are affected predominantly by the seasonally reversing monsoons and in turn feed back on monsoon variability. In this study, a set of data generated from a data-assimilative ocean model is used to examine coherent spatiotemporal modes of variability of winds and surface parameters using a frequency domain technique, Multiple Taper Method with Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD. The analysis shows significant variability at annual and semiannual frequencies in these fields individually and jointly. The joint variability of winds and SSH is significant at interannual (2-3 years timescale related to the ENSO mode—with a “/dipole/” like spatial pattern. Joint variability with SST showed similar but somewhat weaker behavior. Winds appear to be the driver of variability in both SSH and SST at these frequency bands. This offers prospects for long-lead projections of the North Indian Ocean climate.

  18. Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2014-01-01

    A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

  19. Population dynamics and reproductive biology of Barilius bendelisis (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from river Gaula of Central Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Dube, Kiran; Tiwari, Virendra K

    2016-09-01

    The Indian hill trout cyprinid, Barilius bendelisis is a member of family Cyprinidae that dwells in shallow, cold, and clear water. In this study, growth parameters and reproductive biology of Indian hill trout, Barilius bendelisis from river Gaula, Central Himalaya region, India, were studied. The length-frequency data were grouped sex wise and were analyzed to determine the growth and mortality parameters using the computer software programme, FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tool (FISAT II). Altogether, 501 individuals were collected from river Gaula (November 2013-October 2014) and were preserved in formalin for further analysis. The results showed that the female outnumbered the male population. The minimum GSI of females was observed in the month of October (4.93 ± 0.26) and for males in the month of June and July (0.093 ± 0.12), whereas, the maximum value was in the month of April for both females (13.47 ± 0.52) and males (1.21 ± 0.12). Fluctuation in GSI values had a bimodal pattern showing two peaks during March-May and August-September in both the sexes, indicating the common spawning period of fish. The slope of regression showed the negative allometric growth for both males and females (b= 2.65 for male and b= 2.5 for female). A significant relationship between length and weight was observed in the present study (p < 0.05). The ELEFAN-I estimated L∞ and K of the von Bertalanffy growth factor for males (17.33 cm and 0.310 per year), females (17.33 cm and 0.3 per year) and pooled sexes (17.33 cm and 0.240 per year). The results indicated that Barilius bendelisis is a small sized fish having negative allometric growth that spawns twice a year. Thus, the present study on biological traits represents the baseline information for effective production, conservation and restoration planning.

  20. A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 3, Part 1: Ichthyological Survey of Lagoonal Waters. [Indian River lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, F. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ichthyological species in the Indian River lagoonal system likely to be affected by NASA's aerospace activities at the Kennedy Space Center were surveyed. The importance of the fish found to inhabit the waters in the area is analyzed.

  1. Benthic Habitat Mapping - Indian River Lagoon, Florida Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Data 1996 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Office for Coastal Management's Coastal Change Analysis Program, in cooperation with the St. Johns River and South Florida Water Management Districts, used...

  2. Benthic Habitat Mapping - Indian River Lagoon, Florida Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Data 1996 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Office for Coastal Management's Coastal Change Analysis Program, in cooperation with the St. Johns River and South Florida Water Management Districts, used...

  3. Benthic Habitat Mapping - Indian River Lagoon, Florida Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Data 1996 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Office for Coastal Management's Coastal Change Analysis Program, in cooperation with the St. Johns River and South Florida Water Management Districts, used...

  4. Fluvial Export Variability Of Limiting Nutrient Fluxes To The Indian Ocean From Kelani, Kalu and Gin Rivers Of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghage, P. N.; Silva, A. N.; Vlahos, P.

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic `reactive' nutrients hold the highest importance in understanding the role of limiting nutrients in the ocean since they facilitate marine biological productivity and carbon sequestration that would eventually pave the way to regulate the biogeochemical climate feedbacks. Significant inorganic fractions are expected to be exported episodically to the ocean from fluvial fluxes though this is poorly understood. Thus, no considerable amounts of published work regarding the fluxes from Sri Lankan freshwater streams have ever been recorded. A study was carried out to quantify the contribution of Kelani, Kalu and Gin Rivers, three major rivers in the wet zone of Sri Lanka, in exporting major limiting nutrient fluxes to the Indian Ocean; to understand the significance of their variability patterns with rainfall and understand differences in their inputs. The study was conducted during the summer monsoonal period from late August to early November at two-three week intervals where water samples were collected for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, silica, sulfate and iron analysis by Colorimetric Spectroscopy. Discharge and rainfall data were retrieved from the Department of Irrigation and Department of Meteorology, Sri Lanka respectively. According to Two Way ANOVA, none of the individual fluxes showed significant differences (p>0.1) both in their temporal and spatial variability suggesting that studied rivers respond similarly in fluvial transportation owing to the similar rainfall intensities observed during the study period in the wet zone. Linear Regression Analysis indicates that only PO43- (p<0.01), SO42- (p<0.01) and NO2-(p<0.01 for Kelani and Kalu; 0.0.1Key words; nutrients, fluvial, fluxes, Redfield ratios

  5. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  6. Differential Rate of Deforestation in Two Adjoining Indian River Basins: Does Resource Availability Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P.; Behera, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation is one of the key factors of global climate change by altering the surface albedo reduces the evapotranspiration and surface roughness leads to warming in tropical regions. River basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanisation, industrialisation etc. We generated LULC maps at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 in two major river basins of India using Landsat data employing on-screen visual image interpretation technique. In Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB), 30.64% forest cover in 1985 was reduced to 30.13% in 2005, wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) this change was 63.44% to 62.32% during 1985 to 2005. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was more than two times higher in BRB than MRB. Scrub land in few zones acted as an intermediate class for mixed forest conversion to cropland land in both the basins. Analysing the drivers, in deforestation we observed the proximity zones around habitat and socio-economic drivers contributed higher compared to topographic, edaphic and climate. Using Dyna-CLUE modelling approach, we have predicted the LULC for 2025. For validation, comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained > 97% modeling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 captured the similar trend of deforestation around 0.52% in MRB and 1.18% in BRB during 2005 to 2025. Acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate. On the basis of driver analysis, we believe that availability of more forest resources in Brahmaputra River basin provided extra liberty for higher

  7. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  8. Trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry for the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1850-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2005-01-01

    Historical trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry of the Wolf River were examined for a 6-mile reach that flows through the southern part of the Menominee Indian Reservation and the northern part of Shawano County, Wis. Trends were examined in the context of effects from dams, climate, and land-cover change. Annual flood peaks and mean monthly flow for the Wolf River were examined for 1907-96 and compared to mean annual and mean monthly precipitation. Analysis of trends in sedimentation (from before about 1850 through 1999) involved collection of cores and elevation data along nine valley transects spanning the Wolf River channel, flood plain, and backwater and impounded areas; radioisotope analyses of impounded sediment cores; and analysis of General Land Office Survey Notes (1853-91). Trends in sediment chemistry were examined by analyzing samples from an impoundment core for minor and trace elements. Annual flood peaks for the Wolf River decreased during 1907-49 but increased during 1950-96, most likely reflecting general changes in upper-atmospheric circulation patterns from more zonal before 1950 to more meridional after 1950. The decrease in flood peaks during 1907-49 may also, in part, be due to forest regrowth. Mean monthly streamflow during 1912-96 increased for the months of February and March but decreased for June and July, suggesting that spring snowmelt occurs earlier in the season than it did in the past. Decreases in early summer flows may be a reflection earlier spring snowmelt and large rainstorms in early spring rather than early summer. These trends also may reflect upper-atmospheric circulation patterns. The Balsam Row Dam impoundment contains up to 10 feet of organic-rich silty clay and has lost much of its storage capacity. Fine sediment has accumulated for 1.8 miles upstream from the Balsam Row Dam. Historical average linear and mass sedimentation rates in the Balsam Row impoundment were 0.09 feet per year and 1

  9. The changing hydro-ecological dynamics of rivers and deltas of the Western Indian Ocean: Anthropogenic and environmental drivers, local adaptation and policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvail, Stéphanie; Hamerlynck, Olivier; Paron, Paolo; Hervé, Dominique; Nyingi, Wanja D.; Leone, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The rivers flowing into the Western Indian Ocean have steep headwater gradients and carry high sediment loads. In combination with strong tides and seasonal rainfall, these rivers create dynamic deltas with biodiversity-rich and productive ecosystems that, through flooding, have sustained indigenous use systems for centuries. However, river catchments are rapidly changing due to deforestation. Hydropower dams also increasingly alter flood characteristics, reduce sediment supply and contribute to coastal erosion. These impacts are compounded by climate change. Altogether, these changes affect the livelihoods of the delta users. Here, based on prior works that we and others have conducted in the region, we analyse the drivers of these hydro-ecological changes. We then provide recommendations for improved dam design and operations to sustain the underlying delta-building processes, the ecosystem values and the needs of the users.

  10. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  11. 78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of an Agreement to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian...

  12. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  13. Salinity measurements collected by fishermen reveal a ``River in the Sea`` flowing along the eastern coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Durand, F.; KranthiKumar, C.; Amritash, S.; Suneel, V.; Papa, F.; Ravichandran, M.

    Being the only tropical ocean bounded by a continent to the north, the Indian Ocean is home to the most powerful monsoon system on Earth. Monsoonal rains and winds induce huge river discharges and strong coastal currents in the northern Bay...

  14. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  15. Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988--1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigua, G.C.; Steward, J.S.; Tweedale, W.A.

    2000-02-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system that extends from Ponce DeLeon inlet to Jupiter inlet is comprised of three interconnected estuarine lagoons: The Mosquito Lagoon (ML), the Banana River Lagoon (BRL), and the Indian River Lagoon. The declines in both the aerial coverage and species diversity of seagrass communities within the IRL system are believed to be due in part to continued degradation of water quality. Large inflows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)-laden storm-water from urban areas an agricultural land have been correlated with higher chlorophyll a production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon, N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeidahl nitrogen (TN) was higher in the north and lower in the south. The reverse pattern was observed for total P (TP), i.e., lowest in the north and highest at the south ends of the IRL. This increased P concentration in the SIRL appears to have a significantly large effect on chlorophyll a production compared with the other segments, as indicated by stepwise regression statistics. This relationship can be expressed as follows: South IRL [chlorophyll a] = {minus}8.52 + 162.41 [orthophosphate] + 7.86 [total nitrogen] + 0.38 [turbidity]; R{sup 2} = 0.98**.

  16. Impact of river discharge on the coastal water pH and pCO2 levels during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Paul, Y.S.; Vani, D.G.; Murty, V.S.N.

    due to variations in river discharge and phases of IOD may significantly modify the coastal ecosystem that requires careful evaluation.   2    Introduction The fossil fuels burning, cement manufacturing and land-use changes are some... Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS). The ASCAT ocean surface winds are a 10 meter neutral stability wind, and these winds are processed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental Satellite, Data...

  17. The ocean-atmosphere response to wind-induced thermocline changes in the tropical South Western Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manola, Iris; Selten, F. M.; De Ruijter, W. P M; Hazeleger, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the Indian Ocean basin the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are most sensitive to changes in the oceanic depth of the thermocline in the region of the Seychelles Dome. Observational studies have suggested that the strong SST variations in this region influence the atmospheric evolution around the

  18. Untreated urban waste contaminates Indian river sediments with resistance genes to last resort antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Pal, Chandan; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-11-01

    Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India. Using shotgun metagenomics, we found a wide array (n = 175) of horizontally transferable antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including carbapenemases such as NDM, VIM, KPC, OXA-48 and IMP types. The relative abundance of total ARGs was 30-fold higher in river sediments within the city compared to upstream sites. Forty four ARGs, including the tet(X) gene conferring resistance to tigecycline, OXA-58 and GES type carbapenemases, were significantly more abundant in city sediments, while two ARGs were more common at upstream sites. The recently identified mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was detected only in one of the upstream samples, but not in city samples. In addition to ARGs, higher abundances of various mobile genetic elements were found in city samples, including integron-associated integrases and ISCR transposases, as well as some biocide/metal resistance genes. Virulence toxin genes as well as bacterial genera comprising many pathogens were more abundant here; the genus Acinetobacter, which is often associated with multidrug resistance and nosocomial infections, comprised up to 29% of the 16S rRNA reads, which to our best knowledge is unmatched in any other deeply sequenced metagenome. There was a strong correlation between the abundance of Acinetobacter and the OXA-58 carbapenemase gene. Our study shows that uncontrolled discharge of untreated urban

  19. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and its associated health hazard indices of a South Indian river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, N.; Mullainathan, S.; Mehra, R.; Chaparro, Marcos A.E.; Chaparro, Mauro A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was measured for sediment samples collected from thirty-three different locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin by using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides were found to vary from location to location, and their mean values are 19.6, 82.87 and 19.44 % higher than the worldwide mean values of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The value of 232 Th was found to be higher than that of 226 Ra in 82 % of the samples collected for this study. The calculated values of indoor gamma dose rate (D IN ) ranged between 89.55 and 194.24 nGy h -1 , and the overall mean value is 63.2 % higher than the recommended safe and criterion limit by UNSCEAR. The internal and external hazard indices (H in and H ex ), the representative gamma index and alpha index (I gamma and I alpha ), the annual gonad dose equivalent (AGDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate statistical analyses were also carried out to determine the relation between the natural radionuclides and various radiological parameters. (authors)

  20. Reconnaissance of water resources of the Upper Klickitat River Basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1975-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water and surface water are available in Washington County. Major sources of ground water are the Gosport Sand and Lisbon Formation undifferentiated, the Miocene Series undifferentiated, and alluvium and low terrace deposits. The Miocene, the most productive source of ground water, will yield 0.5 to 1.0 mgd (million gallons per day) per well and is a potential source of larger supplies in most of the county. The quantity of potable water available is governed largely by geologic structures. Average flows of the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers in the southeast corner of the county are 18,200 and 39,400 mgd. Average runoff originating in the county is about 1,100 mgd or 1 mgd per square mile. Water in aquifers tapped by wells generally contains less than 500 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids. The water generally is soft to moderately hard. Water in streams is soft to moderately hard and low in dissolved solids. Estimated water use in 1966 was 43.5 mgd of which 10.9 mgd was ground water and 32.6 mgd was surface water. Lava flows underlie the entire basin, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits overlie the lavas in the Camas Prairie-Glenwood area and in small areas elsewhere. A spring supplies water to much of the Camas Prairie-Glenwood area through a public system, so not many wells are used now. About 56 million gallons (110 acre-feet) of ground water was used in 1974. The unconsolidated deposits yield from 1 to 500 gallons per minute of water to wells, and the basalt can yield more than 100 gallons per minute and possibly several thousand gallons per minute to deep wells. Ground-water recharge and discharge on the reservation is estimated to average 550,000 acre-feet per year.

  1. Diagnosing Land Water Storage Variations in Major Indian River Basins using GRACE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Aarti; Syed, Tajdarul H.

    2015-10-01

    Scarcity of freshwater is one of the most critical resource issue the world is facing today. Due to its finite nature, renewable freshwater reserves are under relentless pressure due to population growth, economic development and rapid industrialization. Assessment of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), as an unified measure of freshwater reserve, is vital to understand hydrologic and climatic processes controlling its availability. In this study, TWS variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are analyzed in conjuction with multi-platform hydrologic observations for the period of 2003-2012. Here, the primary objective is to quantify and attribute the observed short-term variability of TWS and groundwater storage in the largest river basins of India (Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi). Alongside commendable agreement between TWS variations obtained from GRACE and water balance computation, results highlight some of the important deficiencies between the two. While monthly changes in TWS are highly correlated with precipitation, monthly TWS anomalies reveal a 1-2 month lag in their concurrence. Analysis of groundwater storage estimates demonstrate significant decline in the Ganga basin (- 1.28 ± 0.20 mm/month) but practically no change in the Mahanadi basin. On the contrary, groundwater storage in Godavari and Krishna basins reveal notable increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.21 mm/month and 0.97 ± 0.21 mm/month respectively. Subsequently, in order to assess the influence of quasi-periodic, planetary scale, variations in the Earth's climate system, groundwater storage anomalies are evaluated with reference to ENSO variability. Results manifest that in all the basins, with the exception of Ganga, groundwater storage is dominantly influenced by ENSO, with large decrease (increase) during El Niño (La Niña) events. In the Ganga basin, groundwater storage variations refer to possible amalgamation of human intervention and natural climate

  2. The implantation process of oral health services in indian communities of the rivers Tiquié and Uaupés – special indian sanitary district for the Alto Rio Negro – Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Chaves NUNES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reconstitutes the implantation process of oral health services in Indian communities of the rivers Tiquié and Uaupés – Special Indian Sanitary District for the Alto Rio Negro – Amazons. In the political, administrative, anthropological and socioeconomic context, it aims at identifying its contribution to the organization of basic attention in oral health and its reflexes in the assistance provided. The reality in the realm of contracts 439/99 and 2349/00 is established as a recut, celebrated between Fundação Nacional de Saúde and the Associação Saúde Sem Limites in the period of 2000 – 2001 which object is the organization of health services in the Tiquié and Uaupés rivers area, in the implantation process context at the Rio Negro’s Special Indian Sanitary District. It reveals the strategical dimension of establishing, in the field of organization and operation of the services, the guiding principles of Unique Health System. It points out, as fundamental in the oral health basic attention, the local planning, with emphasis in a greater visualization of life reality of the local population. Its daily practice reflects the restrictions regarding the political, technical and administrative sectors in order to define projects propose intervention mechanisms, allocate and manage the existing resources and the potential ones including human resources. It is necessary that the managers assume the challenges of power, work and knowledge relations between the population and the professionals and among different groups of these segments.

  3. Stratigraphic cross sections of the Niobrara interval of the Cody Shale and associated rocks in the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-02-07

    The Wind River Basin in Wyoming is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny. The basin is nearly 200 miles long, 70 miles wide, and encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek uplift, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east, the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west.Many important conventional oil and gas fields producing from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary have been discovered in this basin. In addition, an extensive unconventional overpressured basin-centered gas accumulation has been identified in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the deeper parts of the basin. It has long been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales, including the Cody Shale, are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation, there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks.The two stratigraphic cross sections presented in this report were constructed as part of a project carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize and evaluate the undiscovered continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources of the Niobrara interval of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the Wind River Basin in central Wyoming. The primary purpose of the cross sections is to show the stratigraphic relationship of the Niobrara equivalent strata and associated rocks in the lower part of the Cody Shale in the Wind River Basin. These two cross sections were constructed using borehole geophysical logs from 37 wells drilled for oil and gas exploration and production, and one surface section along East Sheep Creek

  4. Water and Gender in Recreating Family Life with Maa Ganga: The Confluence of Nature and Culture in a North Indian River Pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrien Notermans

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the meaning of water and gender in the North Indian pilgrimage to the sacred river Ganges. It joins the recent criticism in anthropology concerning the nature/culture divide and aims to transcend that divide by focusing on water, not apart from but as part of social life. Assuming that water’s sociality is gendered, the authors look at how both the river water—itself as a landscape material—and the pilgrims’ engagements with that water are gendered. Starting from the central question: How do men’s and women’s ritual engagements with the sacred female river water (mutually construct social life? The article investigates men’s and women’s ritual use of water at different sites. It focuses on more than the central pilgrimage shrine and links the sacred river site to people’s homes to know how the moving river water, collected by pilgrims at the shrine, is used in water rituals back home. Trying to counterbalance the male and scriptural bias which is prominent in the literature on Ganges’ pilgrimage sites, the pilgrimage is studied from the perspective of lived religion that takes people’s embodied practices and sensory experiences of nature into account as well as people’s everyday life. By showing how men’s and women’s rituals differ and complement each other, it argues that men’s rituals at the pilgrimage site and women’s rituals at home serve the recreation of the family in a paired way. The argument is built on longitudinal and multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork at the Ganges river shrine in Haridwar (Uttarakhand and pilgrims’ residence in Udaipur (Rajasthan.

  5. Mercury concentrations of fish in Southern Indian Lake and Issett Lake, Manitoba 1975-88: The effect of lake impoundment and Churchill River diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, N.E.; Bodaly, R.A.; Fudge, R.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Southern Indian and Issett Lakes in northern Manitoba were flooded in 1976 as part of Manitoba Hydro's Churchill River diversion project. Fish were collected from 1975 to 1988 from five regional sites on the lakes to examine the effects of impoundment and river diversion on muscle mercury concentrations. Raw data for individual fish caught in 1987 and 1988 are presented, along with means and analyses calculated over the entire 1975-1988 study period. Mercury concentrations in whitefish, pike, and walleye increased significantly after impoundment. Whitefish mercury levels peaked in 1978 and have since declined to near pre-flooding levels. Northern pike and walleye mercury levels were much higher than for whitefish. Pike mercury concentrations showed no indication of declining after 12 years of impoundment, but walleye mercury levels at 2 of the 5 Southern Indian Lake sites declined from maximum recorded levels. Significant variability in fish mercury concentrations was noted both from year to year and among the sites. It is suggested that site-to-site variations are due to varying conditions in the reservoir which stimulate mercury methylation. Since there appears to be an ongoing long-term source of mercury and organic material from the eroding shorelines, pike and walleye mercury concentrations are expected to remain high for many years. 25 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  6. A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

  7. Cleat development in coals of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation, Pilot Butte area, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Clark, A.C.; Szmajter, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The cleat system developed in low-rank (mean viltrinite reflectance of 0.43 to 0.5 percent) coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation was studied in outcrop and in coreholes drilled for coalbed methane evaluation near Pilot Butte in the central part of the Wind River Reservation. Cleats are the principal permeability pathway for fluids in coal beds. As a result, coalbed gas cannot be economically produced without significant cleat development. Two drillholes about 800 ft (244 m) apart encountered Mesaverde coal beds at depths ranging from 307 to 818 ft (93.6 to 249.3 m). One of the coal beds penetrated while drilling, the lowest coal in the Mesaverde coaly interval, is well exposed about a mile south of the two drillholes and the cleat development in this coal bed on outcrop was compared with that of the same coal in the drillholes.The 3 in (7.62 cm) diameter core is less than ideal for this study because cleat spacing in low-rank coals such as these typically averages greater than 7.62 cm. Nonetheless, face cleats at spacing of from 0.25 to 2.5 cm was observed in many of the coal beds. Cleats were less well-developed in other coal beds and no cleats were observed in a few beds. As expected, butt cleats were somewhat less well-developed than the face cleats. Attempts to relate cleat spacing to gas content, bed thickness, and ash content were not successful. A 3.0 m by 1.8 m area of the upper surface of the coal bed exposed a mile south of the drillsites was cleaned off and studied in detail. Cleat development in this limited study area varied from well-developed face and butt cleats in some places to few or no cleats in others. Face cleats trended roughly perpendicular to the fold axis of the nearby Pilot Butte anticline. Cleats did not penetrate a 2.5 cm thick carbonaceous shale bed about 20 cm above the base of the coal bed indicating that thin carbonaceous shale beds will act a permeability barriers. Two types of face cleats were observed on outcrop

  8. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, D.; (NOEMAIL), A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  9. Asthma triggers on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota: the Breathing Relief Education and Tribal Health Empowerment (BREATHE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.

  10. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  11. Diurnal Evolution and Annual Variability of Boundary Layer Height in the Columbia River Gorge through the `Eye' of Wind Profiling Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; Djalalova, I.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kenyon, J.; Olson, J. B.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a DoE- and NOAA-sponsored program whose goal is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts in complex terrain. WFIP2 consists of an 18-month (October 2015 - March 2017) field campaign held in the Columbia River basin, in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. As part of WFIP2 a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation has been deployed, including, among several others, a network of eight 915-MHz wind profiling radars (WPRs) equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs), and many surface meteorological stations. The diurnal evolution and annual variability of boundary layer height in the area of WFIP2 will be investigated through the `eye' of WPRs, employing state-of-the-art automated algorithms, based on fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence. The results will be used to evaluate possible errors in NWP models in this area of complex terrain.

  12. Geosat altimeter derived sea surface wind speeds and significant wave heights for the north Indian Ocean and their comparison with in situ data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Almeida, A.M.; Santanam, K.; Rao, L.V.G.; Sarkar, A.; Kumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.

    coded maps, showing the distribution of mean monthly values of wind and wave parameters over 2.5 degrees square grids. Altimeter derived wind and wave parameters are compared with (1) winds and waves obtained through ships of opportunity and documented...

  13. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds · B N Goswami E N Rajagopal · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian ...

  15. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  16. The Pilagá of the Argentine Chaco through an exoticizing and ethnographic lens: The Swedish documentary film Following Indian trails by the Pilcomayo River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gustavsson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore how traveling relates to image production and how transcultural filmic representations both uphold and are sustained by a “coloniality of seeing.” We pay special attention to the historical conditions of film making in an expedition context and the expectations associated with early film in Sweden. We discuss this through the study of the documentary film Following Indian Trails by the Pilcomayo River, which was recorded during a Swedish expedition to the Argentine Chaco in 1920 and later released in Stockholm in 1950 during a private screening organized by the Swedish Chaco Travellers Association. We argue that the film presents an account inspired by classic ethnography which rescues and puts into circulation images of indigenous people from the “impenetrable” and “savage” Chaco. The ethnographic emphasis in the narrative seems to have shifted with time as it was probably only partly present during the shooting of the footage. In the narrative mode of “monstration,” when bodies meet machines “in the field,” native performances are presented as an “unstaged” and realist spectacle. Later in the 1950 macro-“narration,” encompassing the final cutting and editing of the original footage, fragments of spectacle are systematized into an ethnographic description of primitive life.

  17. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-20

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  18. Physical, chemical and biological controls of nutrient fluxes from fine-grained, organic-rich sediments in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A. L.; Trefry, J. H.; Trocine, R. P.; Fox, S. L.; Yan, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Releases and biogeochemical controls of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus from fine-grained, organic-rich sediments in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, were determined using (1) interstitial water chemistry, (2) laboratory incubations and experiments, and (3) in situ chambers. Fluxes of nitrogen, essentially all as ammonium ions, and phosphorus, essentially all as orthophosphate ions, averaged 2000 ± 1000 and 130 ± 90 µmol/m2/day, respectively. This internal recycling of ammonium and phosphate from fine-grained, organic-rich sediments that comprise at least 10% of the sediments throughout the northern lagoon total 300 metric tons/yr and 50 metric tons/yr, respectively, and were greater than external inputs to this system. Ammonium fluxes varied spatially in response to physical and chemical differences in sediment composition. Seasonal and experimental changes in temperature resulted in a >50% differences in fluxes of ammonium and phosphate. High fluxes of dissolved sulfide supported dense mats of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria that provided stability to an otherwise unconsolidated fluff layer; this negative feedback loop reduced the net flux of nitrogen and phosphorus into the overlying water.

  19. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  20. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  1. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  2. Flow-sediment-oyster interaction around degraded, restored, and reference oyster reefs in Florida's Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, V.; Kibler, K. M.; Spiering, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes flow patterns and sediment distributions around three oyster reefs in a bar-built estuarine lagoon. We studied a degraded reef, a recently restored reef, and a reference condition reef with a healthy live oyster community. The restored reef had been regraded and restored with oyster shell mats to aid in recruitment of oyster spat, with the goal of reestablishing a healthy oyster community. Despite the fact that flow-biota-sediment interaction constitutes a blossoming research field, actual field data are sparse and current knowledge emanates from flume studies and numerical modeling. Moreover, the hydraulic effect of restored oyster reefs has not been thoroughly investigated and it is not clear if the flow field and sediment erosion/deposition are similar or diverge from natural reefs. Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were collected on reefs using a Nortek Vectrino Profiler and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (Nortek Aquadopp). The former measured a 2 - 3 cm velocity profile above the oyster bed, while the latter quantified incoming velocities across the flow profile approximately 10 m from the edge of the reef. Flow measurements were conducted during rising tides and are coupled with simultaneous wind speed and direction data. In addition, 20 cm deep sediment cores were retrieved on and off the investigated reefs. Sediment grain size distributions were determined after individual cores were processed for loss on ignition. Incoming flow velocities were as high as 10 cm/s, relatively higher than those recorded close to reefs. Mean and turbulent flow velocities close to the reefs, varied among the investigated sites, despite the similar wind flow conditions offshore. For instance, the measurements at the degraded reef showed decreased wave attenuation and augmented flow velocities compared to the other sites. Boat wakes exhibited a very distinct signal in the flow velocity time-series and significantly increased the approaching

  3. 3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub

    2002-11-18

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  4. A seasonal study on the role of h'F/meridional winds in influencing the development of ESF irregularities over Indian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sreeba; Sripathi, S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present the seasonal variation of nighttime thermospheric meridional winds over Hyderabad as derived using dual ionosonde observations located at Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.7°E, Dip Lat = 0.3°N), an equatorial station and Hyderabad (17.38°N, 78.45°E, Dip Lat = 12°N), a low latitude station, respectively, over the period of April-December 2013 using h'F data as discussed in (Sreekumar and Sripathi, 2016). The calculated winds has been compared with HWM14 wind model. The results show that trends of the derived winds from the ionosonde h'F data matches well with model wind near to midnight hours in all the seasons. However, some dissimilarities were observed during early night hours. Especially, the poleward winds during early night hours for different seasons were not well reproduced by the model. Later, the study is extended to understand the role of meridional winds in causing the variability of ESF occurrence vis a vis h'F. The histogram analysis of h'F vs wind values just before ESF onset reveals that the most probable combination of wind and h'F on the ESF days are centered around 350 km and 50 m/s. Additionally, we also performed Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA) based on longer and shorter duration ESF events. The analysis reveals the distinct differences in the longer and shorter duration ESF events of Summer and Autumn equinox where the values of h'F as well as meridional winds where such that a steep change in reduction of poleward winds prior to ESF onset supported the longer duration ESF events in both seasons. However, this steep reduction is not so significant for the shorter duration ESF events indicating that meridional winds could play a crucial role in extending the spread F durations in longer duration events. The observations clearly demonstrate the reduction of poleward wind velocities during vernal equinox as compared to Autumn equinox, where larger poleward winds were present around ESF onset times. These observations are

  5. Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley Cochran

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

  6. Role of neutral wind and storm time electric fields inferred from the storm time ionization distribution at low latitudes: in-situ measurements by Indian satellite SROSS-C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Subrahmanyam

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the study of the effects of solar weather events on the ionization redistribution and irregularity generation. The observed changes at low and equatorial latitudes are rather complex and are noted to be a function of location, the time of the storm onset and its intensity, and various other characteristics of the geomagnetic storms triggered by solar weather events. At these latitudes, the effects of geomagnetic storms are basically due to (a direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric fields to low latitudes, (b development of disturbance dynamo, (c changes in atmospheric neutral winds at ionospheric level and (d changes in neutral composition triggered by the storm time atmospheric heating.

    In the present study an attempt is made to further understand some of the observed storm time effects in terms of storm time changes in zonal electric fields and meridional neutral winds. For this purpose, observations made by the Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA payload on board the Indian satellite SROSS-C2 are examined for four prominent geomagnetic storm events that occurred during the high solar activity period of 1997-2000. Available simultaneous observations, from the GPS satellite network, are also used. The daytime passes of SROSS-C2 have been selected to examine the redistribution of ionization in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region. In general, EIA is observed to be weakened 12-24 h after the main phase onset (MPO of the storm. The storm time behaviour inferred by SROSS-C2 and the GPS satellite network during the geomagnetic storm of 13 November 1998, for which simultaneous observations are available, is found to be consistent. Storm time changes in the delay of received GPS signals are noted to be ~1-3 m, which is a significant component of the total delay observed on a quiet day.

    An attempt is made to identify and

  7. An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. Three different wind fields, namely the ECMWF analyzed winds, the ECMWF blended winds, and the NCEP blended winds have been used to drive the model. The wave model ...

  8. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS-derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant end toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... 2003 pp 61-77. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds ... Skills of different mesoscale models over Indian region during monsoon season: Forecast errors · Someshwar Das ... pp 247-258. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India.

  10. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 110 Issue 1 March 2001 pp 77-86. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite observed winds over the Indian Ocean using complex EOF analysis ... Altimeter data assimilation in the tropical Indian Ocean using water property conserving scheme · Bhasha M Mankad Rashmi Sharma Sujit Basu ...

  11. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  12. Variability of wind stress and currents at selected locations over the north Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.V.

    -77 and MONEX-79. In general, the surface wind stress and near surface current fields are strong during a good monsoon year (1977) as compared to those in a bad monsoon year (1979) under similar synoptic conditions together with the prevalence of high...

  13. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time ...

  14. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  15. Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Wind-Pump Storage Feasibility Study Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn A. LaRoche; Tracey LeBeau; Innovation Investments, LLC

    2007-04-20

    The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe organized pursuant to the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (“Indian Reorganization Act”). The Lower Brule Sioux Indian Reservation lies along the west bank of Lake Francis Case and Lake Sharpe, which were created by the Fort Randall and Big Bend dams of the Missouri River pursuant to the Pick Sloan Act. The grid accessible at the Big Bend Dam facility operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is less than one mile of the wind farm contemplated by the Tribe in this response. The low-head hydroelectric turbines further being studied would be placed below the dam and would be turned by the water released from the dam itself. The riverbed at this place is within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. The low-head turbines in the tailrace would be evaluated to determine if enough renewable energy could be developed to pump water to a reservoir 500 feet above the river.

  16. 25 CFR 309.12 - What are examples of basketry that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of basketry that are Indian products... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.12 What are examples of basketry that are Indian products? (a...) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: double weave river cane baskets, yucca winnowing trays...

  17. Harnessing wind power with sustained policy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, L. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Economics, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The ''Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)'' has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, a combination of domestic policy support for wind power and the rise of Suzlon (a leading global wind turbine manufacturer) have led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. (Author)

  18. Power quality and integration of wind farms in weak grids in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Vikkelsø, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a joint Danish and Indian project "Power Quality and Integration of Wind Farms in Weak Grids". The power quality issues have been studied and analysed with the Indian conditions as a case. On the basis of meetings with Danishwind turbine industry, Indian electricity...... boards, nodal agencies, wind turbine industry and authorities, the critical power quality as-pects in India have been identified. Measurements on selected wind farms and wind turbines have quantified the powerquality, and analyses of power quality issues, especially reactive power compensation, have been...... performed. Based on measurements and analyses, preliminary recommendations for grid integration of wind turbines in weak grids have been formulated....

  19. A sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in the northeast Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; George, M.D.; Jayakumar, D.A.

    Intensive observations in the northeast Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) during the pre-southwest and northeast monsoon seasons 1991 reveal that freshwater discharge from rivers of the Indian subcontinent exerts the dominant control over total carbon...

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time ...

  1. Hydroclimatic variability in East Asia: A case study in the Yangtze river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Fok, H. S.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Klaus, J.; Mamet, S.

    2017-12-01

    New regional patterns of droughts and flooding are emerging at south and east Asia river basins, but the causal climatic mechanisms underlying these new hydrological extreme events are yet unknown. The Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures affect hydrological conditions in Asia at different spatiotemporal scales. During the negative phase of the Southern Oscillation, anticyclone systems occur more frequently and modulate precipitation patterns near the southeast coast of China. Monsoons related to the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) locations have been used to explain regional droughts and flooding. Moreover, sea surface temperatures affect wind anomalies and thermocline adjustments across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here we propose using a major catchment in China, the Yangtze river basin, to understand regional modes of climate variability influencing local hydrological dynamics in Asia. By decomposing the variance of precipitation and hydrological time series, we are able to quantify the relative contributions of the Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures to the Yangtze river discharges. Our results suggest that the Southern Oscillation has a relatively weak effect on discharges, whereas the Indian and western North Pacific monsoons are important for the upstream and downstream Yangtze river, respectively. Furthermore, rising Pacific sea surface temperatures may be related to more intensive precipitation at the downstream basin. Based on the hydroclimatic relationships identified here, we discuss future scenarios of changing environmental conditions in the region.

  2. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    Wind patterns in the equatorial Pacific and Indian oceans are the factors that regulate the chlorophyll pigment distributions in the equatorial region of these oceans. Trade winds and coastline of the Pacific basin supports wave-guide dynamics...

  3. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  4. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING AND AFTER THE DECEMBER-2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI NEAR THE VELLAR RIVER AND THE M.G.R. ISLAND AREA OF THE CENTRAL TAMIL NADU COAST, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Singarasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reviews geomorphic changes and sediment characteristics in the Vellar river and the M.G.R. island in the Cuddalore District, of Tamilnadu, India, caused by the 26th December, 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The island has an area of about 12,000 m2 and it is separated from the mainland by a channel. It is bounded to the east by the Vellar River and to the north and south by the Muzhukkuthurai lagoon. A vegetated coastal dune with a length of about 1.5 km protected the island. Tsunami waves ranging in height from 4 to 6 meters breached the dunes, caused erosion and carried debris of destroyed coastal buildings westward to more than 50 m inland. The tsunami run up was up to 1.3 m. Very fine sand with a thickness of one meter filled the Muzhukkuthurai lagoon in the west. Heavy erosion resulted in a steep beach gradient. Sediments transported from the SE and the SSE direction resulted in greater accretion along the intertidal region. The sediment layer exhibited trampled and load structures, indicating deposition by the flooding and receding motion of the water, moving at high velocity. The sediments ranged from fine to medium in size and were well sorted.

  5. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  6. Challenges and prospects for wind energy to attain 20% grid penetration by 2020 in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Natarajan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    production, are discussed in relation to India and the Indian 20% goal. Wind assessment studies that have been carried out presently and those required in the near future are elaborated. Numerical wind atlas simulations based on existing wind resource data in India are delineated. The Government policies......-scale integration of wind power. In the article, we discuss the trends in the development of wind energy and the factors which we consider decisive for the development of wind power in India. Experiences and policies from Europe and Denmark, where wind power already today contributes 20% to the total electricity......With wind energy being the most realistic large-scale renewable energy source in the near future, we examine the target for wind energy penetration in India for 2020. Achieving the target set by the Indian Wind Power Association of 20% wind power grid penetration by 2020 will act as a lighthouse...

  7. Wind fields of storms from surface isobars for wave hindcasting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Santanam, K.

    Marine operations of various types are critically linked to mean and extreme wave statistics. In the Indian seas extreme wave conditions are caused by cyclones and steady strong monsoon winds. Wave data from cyclone areas are not directly available...

  8. Network wind power over the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, E W; Baker, R W; Barber, D A; Peterson, B

    1978-09-01

    Since 1975 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been sponsoring wind power research at Oregon State University. A feasibility study that initially concentrated on the wind power potential in the Columbia River Gorge has expanded to the BPA service area which covers Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana and northern Nevada. Previous BPA reports have documented the progress of this research.

  9. Oceansat-2 and RAMA buoy winds: A comparison

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Throughflow (Gordon 2001) and exports heat to the Atlantic via the Aguhlas Current System (de. Ruijter et al. 1999). The monsoon circulation, because of the seasonal heating and cooling of the land, sets the wind reversal and intense rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Since the northern limit of the Indian Ocean is ...

  10. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  11. Variability of mixed layer depth in the northern Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.

    Influences of wind stress (tau) and wind stress curl (Grad Gamma) on the short term variability of the mixed layer depth at different locations in the northern Indian Ocean during different phases of summer monsoon activity were examined...

  12. Swell Propagation over Indian Ocean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra A. Bhowmick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Swells are the ocean surface gravity waves that have propagated out of their generating fetch to the distant coasts without significant attenuation. Therefore they contain a clear signature of the nature and intensity of wind at the generation location. This makes them a precursor to various atmospheric phenomena like distant storms, tropical cyclones, or even large scale sea breeze like monsoon. Since they are not affected by wind once they propagate out of their generating region, they cannot be described by regional wave models forced by local winds. However, their prediction is important, in particular, for ship routing and off shore structure designing. In the present work, the propagation of swell waves from the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean to the central and northern Indian Ocean has been studied. For this purpose a spectral ocean Wave Model (WAM has been used to simulate significant wave height for 13 years from 1993–2005 using NCEP blended winds at a horizontal spatial resolution of 1° × 1°. It has been observed that Indian Ocean, with average wave height of approximately 2–3 m during July, is mostly dominated by swell waves generated predominantly under the extreme windy conditions prevailing over the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean. In fact the swell waves reaching the Indian Ocean in early or mid May carry unique signatures of monsoon arriving over the Indian Subcontinent. Pre-monsoon month of April contains low swell waves ranging from 0.5–1 m. The amplitudes subsequently increase to approximately 1.5–2 meters around 7–15 days prior to the arrival of monsoon over the Indian Subcontinent. This embedded signature may be utilized as one of the important oceanographic precursor to the monsoon onset over the Indian Ocean.

  13. Multidecadal Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Circulation Induces an Increasing Northern Indian Ocean Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, P.; Jyoti, J.; Krishnan, R.; Sandeep, N.; Griffies, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    North Indian Ocean sea level has shown significant increase during last three to four decades. Analyses of long-term climate data sets and ocean model sensitivity experiments identify a mechanism for multidecadal sea level variability relative to global mean. Our results indicate that North Indian Ocean sea level rise is accompanied by a weakening summer monsoon circulation. Given that Indian Ocean meridional heat transport is primarily regulated by the annual cycle of monsoon winds, weakening of summer monsoon circulation has resulted in reduced upwelling off Arabia and Somalia and decreased southward heat transport, and corresponding increase of heat storage in the North Indian Ocean. These changes in turn lead to increased retention of heat and increased thermosteric sea level rise in the North Indian Ocean, especially in the Arabian Sea. These findings imply that rising North Indian Ocean sea level due to weakening of monsoon circulation demands adaptive strategies to enable a resilient South Asian population.

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature with moored buoy observations over the Northern Indian Ocean · B Nanda Kishore Reddy R Venkatesan Krishna K Osuri Simi Mathew Jagadeesh Kadiyam K Jossia Joseph · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The Northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is unique due ...

  15. Collective institutional entrepreneurship and contestations in wind energy in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X

    2015-01-01

    With 21,136MW of wind energy installed in 2014, India is considered a success story in terms of net installed capacity. Few existing studies on Indian wind energy have highlighted the important role of institutions, and how they stemmed from the work of advocacy groups; studies also tend to focus on

  16. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large number of radiosonde observations of wind profiles over the Indian Ocean during the monsoon months. It has been found that the first ... include several sources of both systematic and random errors. Among them cloud top height .... highly correlated with the pseudo-winds at levels between 850mb and 600mb (r ј 0:8) ...

  17. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    satellite and in situ measurements. A case study using the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and. Indian Ocean buoy wind speed data resulted in an improvement of about 10%. 1. Introduction. The need for studying temporal variability of oceanic winds has been pointed out by many authors (for example, Ezraty R S 1989).

  18. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  19. Wind Patterns of Coastal Tanzania: Their Variability and Trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, the wind speeds were significantly correlated with the El-Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, while at Mtwara the winds were also correlated with the Indian Ocean Dipole. These correlations were higher during the SE Monsoon than during the NE Monsoon. Trends in the monthly mean ...

  20. The cultural analysis in the environmental impact studies. Jepirachi wind pilot project and connecting road between the Aburra valley and Cauca River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Aura Luz; Carmona, Sergio Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This article is synthesis of the investigation to choose I in environment title of Master and Development of the National University of Host Colombia Medellin, on the speech, the social images and representations that emerge in the Studies from environmental Impact -EIA- from the cultural systems from communities affected by the implantation and operation. From two macro projects, that are part of the Plans of national Development, regional and local in Colombia: one, the Project Pilot of Generation of Aeolian Energy Jepirachi, in Colombian the Guajira discharge that affects indigenous communities of several establishments Wayuu in the sector of Average Moon. The other, the project of Road Connection between Valleys of the Aburra River - and the Cauca River, which it affects communities that inhabit an axis of rural transition - urban, whose cultural composition is diverse in its origin, mobility and interactions. It was left from two hypotheses: one, is that the analysis made in the cultural dimension of the EIA, is insufficient lo identify, lo evaluate and to handle the impacts on the cultural systems; second, front lo the treatment of the cultural systems is the existence of fundamental differences. There is cultural systems in Colombia which status is recognized greater and category than to others. The analysis of the speech allowed to obtain a diagnosis on semantic the rhetorical structure and - formal and textual cohesion, coherence, correlations and associations in the EIA and to identify the social images and representations that emerge on the populations taken part by the projects. Finally conclusions. That consider they leave to the debate on the cultural analyses that have been made in the EIA ,their emptiness and limitations and the different courses open that can take futures works from investigation

  1. Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

  2. A look at the changing environment along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Das, V.K.

    Increased human activity along the Indian coastline has exerted pressure on its morphology and ecology. The factors responsible for morphological changes like subsidence, rising sea level, storms, storm surges, sediment input from rivers, sediment...

  3. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores

  4. Multispectral processing of ERTS-A (LANDSAT) data for uranium exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: a visible region ratio to enhance surface alteration associated with roll-type uraium deposits. Final report, June 1974--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, B.C.; Pillars, W.W.

    1975-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to document possible detection capabilities of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data for use in exploration for uranium roll-type deposits. Spectral reflectivity, mineralogy, iron content, and color paramenters were measured for twenty natural surface samples collected from a semiarid region. The relationships of these properties to LANDSAT response-weighted reflectances and to reflectance ratios are discussed. It was found that the single ratio technique of multispectral processing is likely to be sensitive enough to separate hematitic stain, but not limonitic. A combination of the LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ and R/sub 7,6/ ratios, and a processing technique sensitive to vegetative cover is recommended for detecting areas of limonitic stain. Digital level slicing of LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ over the Wind River Basin, after geometric correction, resulted in adequate enhancement of Triassic redbeds and lighter red materials, but not for limonitic areas. No recommendations for prospects in the area were made. Information pertaining to techniques of evaluating laboratory reflectance spectra for remote sensing applications, ratio processing, and planimetric correction of LANDSAT data is presented qualitatively

  5. Trust and Survival: "AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred twenty five Hunkpapa Indians fled from the Grand River Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation to the Cheyenne River Reservation to council with Big Foot's band when Sitting Bull was killed on December 15, 1890. These Indian families did not contribute to the number of fatalities at Wounded Knee because they were being held by the U.S.…

  6. North Antelope Highlands Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlson, Matthew [Citizens Energy Corporation (CEC), Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This is the final report on the Wind Energy Development of 190 Mw on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in collaboration with Citizens Energy Corporation. The report discusses all pre-development activities since July of 2010 when award was granted. A systems impact study along with wind data accumulated over the past 5 years is contained in this report. We have responded to several RFPs concerning the sale of energy to certain offtakers, but we have failed to win a Power Purchase Agreement due to existing wind farms that won and the interconnection costs were already included in a previous PPAs, which we don't have that luxury. We continue this effort and hopefully in the near future we will win an RFP.

  7. Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  8. Biophysical processes in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Murtugudde, R.; Vialard, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Wiggert, J.D.; Hood, R.R.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    , University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. 3 IRD, LOCEAN, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. 4 Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. 5 Department of Marine Sciences, University.... consequence of the unique forcing by monsoon winds (Fig- ure 1). There are seasonally reversing monsoon winds in the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and extending to 10°S, with a stronger clockwise (weaker counterclockwise) circulation during the summer...

  9. Wind system documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  10. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  11. West Indian Ocean Deltas Exchange and Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The West Indian Ocean Deltas Exchange and Research Network (WIoDER) aims to support research, training, and pilot interventions in up to four Western Indian Ocean river deltas under pressure from human activity. Research will examine in particular the links between population mobility, agriculture, climate change, ...

  12. Effect of riverine freshwater discharge in salinity simulations over the northern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathupurath Kuttan, Sandeep; Pant, Vimlesh; Devendra Rao, Ambarukhana

    2017-04-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) in the north Indian Ocean (NIO) exhibits contrasting spatial distribution, particularly in the two semi-enclosed basins namely the Arabian sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB). BoB experiences excess amount of freshwater inflow from rivers as well as from the surplus of precipitation over evaporation (E-P) and thus maintains a fresher surface water throughout the year as compared to AS. Major rivers such as Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Irrawaddy discharge large amount of freshwater volume to the BoB. The input of relatively less saline waters by the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) makes the eastern equatorial IO fresher. Substantial change in salinity and temperature due to river runoff results in a change in ambient sea-water density near river mouths in coastal regions. In the present study, we simulate the circulation features of the NIO using a free-surface primitive equation ocean general circulation model 'Regional Ocean Modeling System' (ROMS). The model domain extends from 30°S-30°N, 30°E-120°E with 1/4 x 1/4 degree resolution in the horizontal and 40 vertical terrain following sigma levels. The model is initialized with annual mean climatology of temperature and salinity from World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and forced with daily climatological winds from Quikscat and ASCAT and other atmospheric forcing fields from TropFlux. Different numerical experiments were carried out to understand the impact of freshwater forcing on the sea surface salinity (SSS) simulations. Model simulations and available in-situ and satellite observations utilized to understand processes, particularly the contribution of freshwater forcing, controlling the SSS spatial and seasonal variations in various sectors of the Indian Ocean.

  13. Wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Woll, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Across the country, huge open spaces are covered in gently turning wind turbines. In Wind Energy, explore how these machines generate electricity, learn about the history of wind power, and discover the latest advances in the field. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  14. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  15. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  16. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel Energy...

  17. Renewable energy in Indian country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  18. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern Indian river basins during 1985-2005 using variable infiltration capacity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pulakesh; Behera, Mukunda Dev; Patidar, Nitesh; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Tripathi, Poonam; Behera, Priti Ranjan; Srivastava, S. K.; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Thakur, Praveen; Agrawal, S. P.; Krishnamurthy, Y. V. N.

    2018-03-01

    As a catchment phenomenon, land use and land cover change (LULCC) has a great role in influencing the hydrological cycle. In this study, decadal LULC maps of 1985, 1995, 2005 and predicted-2025 of the Subarnarekha, Brahmani, Baitarani, Mahanadi and Nagavali River basins of eastern India were analyzed in the framework of the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macro scale hydrologic model to estimate their relative consequences. The model simulation showed a decrease in ET with 0.0276% during 1985-1995, but a slight increase with 0.0097% during 1995-2005. Conversely, runoff and base flow showed an overall increasing trend with 0.0319 and 0.0041% respectively during 1985-1995. In response to the predicted LULC in 2025, the VIC model simulation estimated reduction of ET with 0.0851% with an increase of runoff by 0.051%. Among the vegetation parameters, leaf area index (LAI) emerged as the most sensitive one to alter the simulated water balance. LULC alterations via deforestation, urbanization, cropland expansions led to reduced canopy cover for interception and transpiration that in turn contributed to overall decrease in ET and increase in runoff and base flow. This study reiterates changes in the hydrology due to LULCC, thereby providing useful inputs for integrated water resources management in the principle of sustained ecology.

  19. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well

  20. Power quality and integration of wind farms in weak grids in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hauge Madsen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept.; Vikkelsoe, A.; Koelbaek Jensen, K. [Danske Elvaerkers Forening Udredningsafdelingen (DEFU), Lyngby (Denmark); Fathima, K.A.; Unnikrishnan, A.K.

    2000-04-01

    This is the final report of a joint Danish and Indian project' Power Quality and Integration of Wind Farms in Weak Grids'. The power quality issues have been studied and analysed with the Indian conditions as a case. On the basis of meetings with Danish wind turbine industry, Indian electricity boards, nodal agencies, wind turbine industry and authorities, the critical power quality as-pects in India have been identified. Measurements on selected wind farms and wind turbines have quantified the power quality, and analyses of power quality issues, especially reactive power compensation, have been performed. Based on measurements and analyses, preliminary recommendations for grid integration of wind turbines in weak grids have been formulated. (au)

  1. Ambient noise in large rivers (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S; Mijić, Miomir

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the results of hydroacoustic noise research in three large European rivers: the Danube, the Sava, and the Tisa. Noise in these rivers was observed during a period of ten years, which includes all annual variation in hydrological and meteorological conditions (flow rate, speed of flow, wind speed, etc.). Noise spectra are characterized by wide maximums at frequencies between 20 and 30 Hz, and relatively constant slope toward higher frequencies. Spectral level of noise changes in time in relatively wide limits. At low frequencies, below 100 Hz, the dynamics of noise level is correlated with the dynamics of water flow and speed. At higher frequencies, noise spectra are mostly influenced by human activities on river and on riverbanks. The influence of wind on noise in rivers is complex due to the annual variation of river surface. The influence of wind is less pronounced than in oceans, seas, and lakes. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  2. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  3. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  4. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  5. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  6. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  7. PV–wind hybrid power option for a low wind topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Acharya, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimally harness the wind energy by unification of solar resource. • Analysis of PV–wind hybrid system with tangible experience. • Cost of generation and renewable fraction are $0.488/kWh and 0.90 respectively. • Maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75% with installed PV–wind system. • Indicative annual grid electricity conservation is 90%. - Abstract: Solar and wind are clean energy sources with enormous potential to alleviate grid dependence. The paper aims to optimally harness the wind resource with the support of solar energy through hybrid technology for a north-east Indian state Tripura (low wind topography). Techno-economic analysis of a photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid simulation model has been performed for small scale application in an educational building. The study also evaluates the tangible performance of a similar plant in practical condition of the site. It has emerged from the study that major energy generation is turning out from PV segment which is promising almost all round the year. Nonetheless, a considerable amount of wind power is found to be generated during half of the year when average PV power production is comparatively less. The cost of electricity from the simulation model is found to be $0.488/kWh while renewable fraction in the total electricity share is obtained to be 0.90. From the actual performance of the plant, maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75%

  8. WIND TURBINES FOR WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barladean A.S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wind turbine choice for wind power stations is examined in this paper. It is shown by comparison of parameters and characteristics of wind turbines, that for existing modes and speeds of wind in territory of Republic of Moldova it is necessary to use multi-blade small speed rotation wind turbines of fan class.

  9. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  10. SSMI wind speed measurements over the Southern Hemisphere oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    1993-01-01

    The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) carried by the USAF Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft correlates the intensity of microwave radiation emitted at the ocean surface with the 10-m height wind speed. The 4-year mean global features of the SSMI data were similar to the climatological-mean annual wind speed estimated from ship reports. Time series of area-weighted 60 deg S - zero deg monthly mean wind speeds indicated that the South Indian Ocean had the largest wind speeds throughout the year.

  11. 77 FR 22530 - Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... fireworks display for a wedding ceremony on the waters of the Hudson River in the vicinity of Rhinecliff, NY... health or risk to safety that might disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal Governments This... with Indian Tribal Governments, because it would not have a substantial direct effect on one or more...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  17. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of... found in abundance on the Campo Reservation; (2) make use of the Campo Reservation's wind energy... (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project, located on the Campo Indian Reservation in...

  18. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  19. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  20. Wind Power Generation in India: Evolution, Trends and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Khan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of shrinking conventional resources coupled with environmental perils, the wind power offers an attractive alternative. Wind power generation in India started way back in early 1980s with the installation of experimental wind turbines in western and southern states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. For first two decades of its existence until about 2000 the progress was slow but steady. In last one decade Indian wind electricity sector has grown at very rapid pace which has promoted the country to the fifth position as largest wind electric power generator and the third largest market in the world. The galvanization of wind sector has been achieved through some aggressive policy mechanisms and persistent support by government organizations such as MNRE and C-WET. This paper articulates the journey of Indian wind program right since its inception to the present trends and developments as well as the future prospects. Keywords: mnre, c-wet, renewable energy, wind power, wind turbines.

  1. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  2. The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes over southern Indian peninsula station. M N Patil∗. , R T Waghmare, T Dharmaraj, G R Chinthalu,. Devendraa Siingh and G S Meena. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding ...

  3. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  4. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  5. Prospects of solar photovoltaic–micro-wind based hybrid power systems in western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Good prospects of PV–wind hybrid systems are found in western Himalayan Indian state. • A 6 kWp roof mounted PV–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur location is studied. • Optimum PV–wind hybrid system configurations are determined for 12 locations in the region. • Comparative analysis of hybrid systems is carried out using ANN, NASA and measured data. • Methodology can be used for assessing the potential of hybrid power systems worldwide. - Abstract: The western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh is known as the hydro-power state of India with associated social and environmental problems of large hydro power plants. The reduced water inflow in the rivers during extreme winters affects power generation in the state. Therefore solar and wind resources need to be utilized to supplement power generation requirements. With this objective the prospects of photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid systems are studied for 12 locations of the state. The NASA data, Artificial Neural Network predicted and ground measured data are used in the analysis of Hamirpur location whereas for remaining 11 locations estimated, NASA and Artificial Neural Network predicted data are used, as measured solar and wind data are not available for most of the locations in the state. Root Mean Square Error between three input data types are found to range from 0.08 to 1.89. The results show that ANN predicted data are close to measured/estimated data. A 6 kWp roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur with daily average energy demand of 5.2 kWh/day is studied. This system specifications are used to obtain optimum PV–micro wind based hybrid power system configurations for all locations. The optimum configuration for Hamirpur is found to be a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 8 kWp PV system whereas for other 11 locations a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 2–9 kWp PV systems are obtained. The

  6. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  7. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  8. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  9. Coastal Boundary Layer Characteristics of Wind, Turbulence, and Surface Roughness Parameter over the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Namboodiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.

  10. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (Pcultures with which they identify are recommended.

  11. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  12. Observations of wind and waves in the central Bay of Bengal during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    relation for gross estimation of effective depth within which the sound energy is generally trapped .... variations are considerably high in the northern ... ical Indian Ocean. During July and August, the southwesterly winds sweep the south central Bay of Bengal and the wind speed reaches up to 9 to. 15m/s in July which is the ...

  13. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  14. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  15. Indian Ledger Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  16. Jim Crow, Indian Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, Orlan J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews history of voting rights for Indians and discusses a 1986 decision calling for election reform in Big Horn County, Montana, to eliminate violations of the voting rights of the county's Indian citizens. Notes that positive effects--such as election of the county's first Indian commissioner--co-exist with enduring anti-Indian sentiment. (JHZ)

  17. Variations in long term wind speed during different decades in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study has been carried out by comparing the extreme wind speeds estimated based on. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for 100 years return period using Fischer Tippet-1 (commonly known as Gumbel) and Weibull distributions for three locations (off Goa, Visakhapatnam and Machili- patnam) in the north Indian Ocean.

  18. Variations in long term wind speed during different decades in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study has been carried out by comparing the extreme wind speeds estimated based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for 100 years return period using Fischer Tippet-1 (commonly known as Gumbel)and Weibull distributions for three locations (off Goa,Visakhapatnam and Machilipatnam)in the north Indian Ocean.

  19. Timoshenko-Wagner-Kappus Torsion Bending Theory and Wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Timoshenko-Wagner-Kappus Torsion Bending. Theory and Wind Tunnel Balance Design. S P Govinda Raju and K R Y Simha. S P Govinda Raju is a. Professor at the. Aero- space Engineering. Department, Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His interests are fluid mechanics, aircraft design, testing and analysis.

  20. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time series data available for 240 hours in the month of May, 1999 were subjected to an auto-correlation analysis. The analysis indicates an exponential fall ...

  1. Influence of wind loading

    OpenAIRE

    MAVLONOV RAVSHANBEK ABDUJABBOROVICH; VAKKASOV KHAYRULLO SAYFULLAHANOVICH

    2015-01-01

    Each wind load is determined by a probabilistic-statistical method based on the concept of “equivalent static wind load”, on the assumption that structural frames and components/cladding behave elastically in strong wind.

  2. Tower Winds - Cape Kennedy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from Wind Gust Charts. Record contains hourly wind directions and speed with a peak wind recorded at the end of each day. Sorted by: station,...

  3. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  4. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  5. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 3). These rivers seem to have maintained ... the river cuts a deep can- yon with practically vertical walls (valley slopes). ... furiously at work, cutting channel beds, eroding slopes, and denuding watersheds. This ever-youthfulness of the.

  6. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  7. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization.......In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....

  8. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  9. Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

  10. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  11. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  12. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  13. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  14. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  15. Wind Fab: Manufacturer of water pumping windmills in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurumoorthy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Wind Fab is one of the four manufacturers appointed recently by the Indian government to produce a classic gear type wind pump for deep well pumping (H = 50-100 meter). In various regions, the ground water table has been lowering considerably and a deep well wind pump is required. Wind Fab is still producing the 12PU500 windmill. The main problem is that the wind pumps are applied in a wide range of climatological, hydrological and agricultural conditions. Different types of windmills suitable for the different application ranges should be produced. It is explained that the drawings of the 12PU500 windmills were easily available and consequently the windmills were produced all over the country. There was no quality control and the 12PU500 was applied under low lift to high lift conditions. 5 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 5 ... The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. ... The wave model results have been compared with in-situ observations and satellite altimeter data.

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The MSMR data at 75km resolution from the Oceansat-I have been assimilated in the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) data assimilation forecast system. ... The impact of surface wind speed from MSMR is to increase easterlies over the tropical Indian Ocean. Shifting of the positions of ...

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. R Venkatesan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 1 February 2018 pp 14. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature with moored buoy observations over the Northern Indian Ocean · B Nanda Kishore Reddy R ...

  19. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Simi Mathew. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 1 February 2018 pp 14. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature with moored buoy observations over the Northern Indian Ocean · B Nanda Kishore Reddy R ...

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon · T Dharmaraj M N Patil R T Waghmare P Ernest Raj · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over ...

  1. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone ...

  2. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  3. Wind energy; Energie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachey, C.

    2000-05-01

    This public information paper presents the wind energy resource in the Languedoc Roussillon region, explains how a wind turbine works, the different types of utilization and the cost of the wind energy. The environmental impacts of the wind energy, on the noise and the landscape, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  5. Wind energy centre at Gujarat State, India. Business plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hulle, F.; Jansen, J.C.; Prasad, N.S.; Suresh, R.

    1997-07-01

    The report describes the business plan for the establishment of a Wind Energy Centre in Gujarat. This Wind Energy Center has to provide a reliable delivery of a range of development and technical quality assurance services to the wind energy industry in northern India on the basis of sustained operations and recovery of all operating costs and - contingent on the way the Centre is financed - at least part of the initial investment costs. Core activities of the Wind Energy Centre are: Research and development supporting activities for the wind energy sector; Testing and certification of wind energy equipment; Consultancy, monitoring and information services; and Training courses on wind energy technology and implementation. The wind energy centre aims with its services at a number of customers: the manufacturing industry, wind farm developers and governmental authorities. An exploration of the market for the services of the envisaged wind energy centre shows that the concept is financially viable. A set of assumptions has been made about the growth rate of the installed wind power capacity in Northern India and about the number of wind turbine manufacturing companies in the target area of the centre. From these assumptions the total number of new wind turbine types coming on the Indian market annually is derived for a period of ten years. These figures have served as a basis for the determination of the required manpower and facilities of the centre for design and development support activities, feasibility and siting studies, testing and certification. Furthermore a projection has been made for providing expert manpower capacity for carrying out R and D, consultancy and other services. 14 tabs., 1 ref

  6. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  7. Title V Operating Permit: XTO Energy, Inc. - River Bend Dehydration Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initial Title V Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000026-2011.00) and the Administrative Permit Record for the XTO Energy, Inc., River Bend Dehydration Site, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation.

  8. Sand spit and shoreline dynamics near Terekhol river mouth, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasekaran, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Gowthaman, R.; Jishad, M.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Evolution of shoreline and sand spit at the mouth of the Terekhol River, near Keri beach, located in the Indian state of Goa has been investigated From the analysis of the data collected, the shoreline oscillation (accretion & erosion) is seasonal...

  9. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  10. New River controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbaum, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The New River for more than 100 million years has made its way, beginning from a source in the mountains of North Carolina and winding northward through Virginia and West Virginia. Today there are dams in its path, to be sure; but between its wellspring in North Carolina and the point at which it crosses into Virginia, it has never suffered the ignominy of impoundment. Not long ago, however, the freedom of the New was almost sacrificed to help satisfy the appetite of a society hungry for electric energy. In 1965, Appalachian Power Company announced its intention to construct in North Carolina the Blue Ridge Project, a pumped-storage facility for generating electricity that would have required damming the river and flooding thousands of acres of its valley. Supporting Appalachian's plans were the national AFL-CIO, the Federal Power Commission, and the governors of Virginia and West Virginia. And though Blue Ridge would have consumed four units of power for every three it produced, destroying in the process unappraisable archeological treasures and displacing hundreds of families - all to provide peak-load electricity to cities far from the serene river that was to yield the energy - construction of the dams was approved time and time again. The threat of Blue Ridge, which loomed for more than eleven years, was finally eliminated by the efforts of one of the most diverse-environmental coalitions ever established. The State of North Carolina, the people of the New River Valley, and conservation groups and newspaper editors from across the country banded together to fight the project in the courts, in Congress, in the media - always against overwhelming odds. The author tells the fascinating story of the tactics and maneuvers employed by those struggling to preserve the river, while also pointing beyond the New to an effective strategy of environmental action.

  11. Morphology of the Zambezi River plume in the Sofala Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, hydrographic data collected in the vicinity of the Zambezi River plume between 2004-2007 is discussed alongside historical data to infer the plume morphology. The sampling plan called for 73 CTD stations that were interspersed with sampling of shrimp recruitment. Satellite-derived wind speed and river ...

  12. Three Rivers: Protecting the Yukon's Great Boreal Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri Peepre

    2007-01-01

    The Three Rivers Project in the Yukon, Canada, aims to protect a magnificent but little known 30,000 km2 (11,583 miles2) wilderness in the Peel watershed, using the tools of science, visual art, literature, and community engagement. After completing ecological inventories, conservation values maps, and community trips on the Wind, Snake, and Bonnet Plume rivers, the...

  13. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Pulakesh Das. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 19. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern Indian river basins during 1985–2005 using variable infiltration capacity ...

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Article ID 63. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) from the Indian Cenozoic and its palaeobiogeographic significance ... Article ID 65. Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on support vector regression and gene expression programming for river flow simulation.

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probabilistic seismic hazard at the archaeological site of Gol Gumbaz in Vijayapura, south India · Shivakumar G Patil .... Article ID 19. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern Indian river basins during 1985–2005 using variable infiltration capacity approach · Pulakesh Das ...

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These periods broadly coincide with the late Holocene strengthened Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the early part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). The debris which clogged the course of the river in the vicinity of the Chandubi Lake is attributed to tectonically induced increase in sediment ...

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Nitesh Patidar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 19. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern Indian river basins during 1985–2005 using variable infiltration capacity ...

  19. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  20. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  1. "Gaa-Noodin-Oke" (Alternative Energy/Wind Power): A Curriculum Implementation on the White Earth Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzey, Siddika Selcen; Nyachwaya, James; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    A wind energy focused curriculum for grades 4-8 was designed and implemented to promote the understanding of wind energy concepts with American Indian students. 57 students who participated in the 2009 summer program of the "Reach for the Sky" (RFTS) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) received the curriculum. The…

  2. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two ap....... The greatest sector-wise extreme winds are from west to northwest. Different data, different periods and different methods have provided a range of values of the 50-year wind and accordingly the gust values, as summarized in Table 15.......The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...

  3. Sacred rivers: their spiritual significance in Hindu religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2015-06-01

    The ancient civilizations in India, China, Egypt and Mesopotamia have flourished due to large rivers that provided water for agriculture over millennia. Egypt was able to grow well because of the Nile. Similarly, Mesopotamia had two rivers namely the Tigris and the Euphrates. Likewise, India and China have several great rivers that continue to support the agrarian culture. This article discusses the sacred significance of rivers in the ancient and contemporary Indian culture with examples from popular Hindu scriptures. It also presents the ancient model of an eco-friendly check dam and its modern application with potential to mitigate future water-related problems across the drylands of India and elsewhere.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF WIND TO SERVE UPPER SKAGIT'S BOW HILL TRIBAL LANDS AND FEASIBILITY UPDATE FOR RESIDENTIAL RENEWABLE ENERGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RICH, LAUREN

    2013-09-30

    A two year wind resource assessment was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing a community scale wind generation system for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe's Bow Hill land base, and the project researched residential wind resource technologies to determine the feasibility of contributing renewable wind resource to the mix of energy options for our single and multi-family residential units.

  5. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.......This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  6. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  7. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  8. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  9. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  10. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  11. Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

  12. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  13. The CMEMS L3 scatterometer wind product

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloe, Jos; Stoffelen, Ad; Verhoef, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Within the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service KNMI produces several ocean surface Level 3 wind products. These are daily updated global maps on a regular grid of the available scatterometer wind observations and derived properties, and produced from our EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF) operational near-real time (NRT) Level 2 swath-based wind products by linear interpolation. Currently available products are the ASCAT on Metop A/B stress equivalent wind vectors, accompanied by ECMWF NWP reference stress equivalent winds from the operational ECMWF NWP model. For each ASCAT scatterometer we provide products on 2 different resolutions, 0.25 and 0.125 degrees. In addition we provide wind stress vectors, and derivative fields (curl and divergence) for stress equivalent wind and wind stress, both for the observations and for the NWP reference winds. New NRT scatterometer products will be made available when additional scatterometer instruments become available, and NRT access to the data can be arranged. We hope OSCAT on the Indian ScatSat-1 satellite will be the the next NRT product to be added. In addition multi-year reprocessing datasets have been made available for ASCAT on Metop-A (1-Jan-2007 up to 31-Mar-2014) and Seawinds on QuikScat (19-Jul-1999 up to 21-Nov-2009). For ASCAT 0.25 and 0.125 degree resolution products are provided, and for QuikScat 0.50 and 0.25 degree resolution products are provided, These products are based on reprocessing the L2 scatterometer products with the latest processing software version, and include reference winds from the ECMWF ERA-Interim model. Additional reprocessing datasets will be added when reprocessed L2 datasets become available. This will hopefully include the ERS-1 and ERS-2 scatterometer datasets (1992-2001), which will extend the available date range back to 1992. These products are available for download through the CMEMS portal website: http://marine.copernicus.eu/

  14. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...

  15. The Effect of Wind Forcing on Modeling Coastal Circulation at a Marine Renewable Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Inaccurate wind data can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In this research, a high-resolution wind model was coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of wind forcing on model accuracy. Two wind-forcing conditions were investigated: (1 using wind data measured onshore on the NUI Galway campus (NUIG and (2 using offshore wind data provided by a high resolution wind model (HR. A scenario with no wind forcing (NW was also assessed. The onshore wind data varied with time but the speed and direction were applied across the full model domain. The modeled offshore wind fields varied with both time and space. The effect of wind forcing on modeled hydrodynamics was assessed via comparison of modeled surface currents with surface current measurements obtained from a High-Frequency (HF radar Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar (CODAR observation system. Results indicated that winds were most significant in simulating the north-south surface velocity component. The model using high resolution temporally- and spatially-varying wind data achieved better agreement with the CODAR surface currents than the model using the onshore wind measurements and the model without any wind forcing.

  16. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  17. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  18. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  19. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  20. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  1. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ananth Ramaswamy, Indian Institute of Science , Bengaluru Anil Kulkarni, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai Anup Bhattacharjee, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai Anupam Dewan , Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi Asif Ekbal, Indian Institute of Technology, Patna Chandra Kishen J M, Indian ...

  2. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the Secretary...

  3. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  4. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  5. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Editorial Board. Sadhana. Editor. N Viswanadham, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. Senior Associate Editors. Arakeri J H, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Hari K V S, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Mujumdar P P, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Manoj Kumar Tiwari, Indian Institute of Technology, ...

  6. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  7. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  8. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50-year wind speed (ten minute averages) under standard conditions, i.e. 10 meter over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are Skjern...

  9. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, Ole; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrainwith the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites...

  10. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu......Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint...... quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination R-2. Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind...... direction is especially critical for layout optimization and the recommended choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is finally presented....

  11. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  12. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  13. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  14. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  15. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  16. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  17. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  18. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  19. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  20. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . There is allusion to the disappearance of the river in Van. Parva of the Mahabharat, and also in the Siddhant Shiromani. Great Betrayal. The Aravali continued to rise. The newly formed Yamuna was forced to migrate progressively eastward.

  1. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  2. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  3. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  4. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  5. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  6. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  7. Trachoma among the Yanomami Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are one of the last primitive groups of Indians living in Brazil. They have almost no contact with other cultures. The epidemiology of eye disease among Yanomami is virtually unknown. For the first time, a trachoma survey was conducted among Yanomami Indians in the State of Amazonas near the Venezuelan border of the Brazilian rain forest. Ophthalmic examination was carried out on a total of 613 individuals (338 males and 275 females from eight Yanomami villages along the Marauiá River located in the upper Rio Negro Basin. Age was classified into three categories (children, adults, and elderly and trachoma was classified into five grades: follicular, inflammatory intense, cicatricial, trichiasis, and corneal opacity. Trachoma was endemic in all villages visited. Overall, 30.3% of the subjects had trachoma. Females were significantly more affected (37.4% than males (23.9%. The inflammatory trachoma rate reached 24.9% in children and the cicatricial form increased with age, reaching 13.9% among adults and 35.21% among the elderly. Trichiasis or corneal opacities were not detected and treatment of the entire population was initiated with 1 g azithromycin. The detection of endemic trachoma among the Yanomami is relevant for the understanding of the epidemiology of this disease in the Brazilian rain forest and underscores the necessity for a program of trachoma control in this region.

  8. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are dealt...... with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...

  9. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, K.

    2006-01-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs

  10. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    2006-07-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  12. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost $1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

  13. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  14. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The wind turbine technology is a very complex technology involving multidisciplinary and broad technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, mechanics, structure dynamics, meteorology as well as electrical engineering addressing the generation, transmission, and integration of wind turbines...... into the power system. Wind turbine technology has matured over the years and become the most promising and reliable renewable energy technology today. It has moved very fast, since the early 1980s, from wind turbines of a few kilowatts to today’s multimegawatt-sized wind turbines [13]. Besides their size......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled...

  15. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  16. Turning to the wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, B.

    1981-10-01

    Consideration is given the economic and technological aspects of both free-stream (horizontal-axis) and cross-wind (vertical-axis) wind energy conversion systems, with attention to operational devices ranging in rotor diameter from 10 to 40 m and in output from 22 to 630 kW. After a historical survey of wind turbine design and applications development, the near-term technical feasibility and economic attractiveness of combined wind/fossil-fueled generator and wind/hydroelectric systems are assessed. Also presented are estimates of wind energy potential extraction in the U.S. and Denmark, the industrial requirements of large-scale implementation, energy storage possibilities such as pumped hydro and flywheels, and cost comparisons of electrical generation by large and small wind systems, coal-fired plants, and light-water fission reactors.

  17. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  18. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  19. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Spring 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, R.

    2008-03-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community. This issue features an interview with Steven J. Morello, director of DOE's newly formed Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, and a feature on the newly installed Vestas V-47 turbine at Turtle Mountain Community College.

  20. Indian coal set for an overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2000-01-01

    A major restructuring is planned for Indian government-owned coal, which is likely to have a significant impact on future productivity and exporting. The Ministry of Mines and Metals is debating whether to wind up Coal India Ltd. (CIL) as a holding company and convert all its subsidiaries into separate corporate entities, or whether to merge all the subsidiaries with CIL and make it a single strong unit. If it takes the first option, a new regulatory body will be put in place for the domestic coal industry. The CIL board will gather feedback and present a recommendation to the ministry. Implications of the restructuring are briefly discussed. 1 photo.

  1. Renewable Energy Opportunities Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer

    2008-10-22

    The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.

  2. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  3. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  4. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)

    2012-07-01

    Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

  6. 78 FR 26384 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin Bay Mills Indian Community, Michigan Bear River Band of the... Reservation, South Dakota Crow Tribe of Montana Death Valley Timbi-sha Shoshone Tribe (previously listed as the Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Band of California) Delaware Nation, Oklahoma Delaware Tribe of...

  7. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  8. An Archeological Survey in the Gypsum Breaks on the Elm Fork of the Red River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    respectively). Further south running along the Red River and the Brazos River in northern Texas is the Henrietta Focus. The Harrell site near the con...fluence of the Brazos and the Clear Fork rivers is the type site for this association. The Henrietta Focus occurred about the same time as *the...De Soto expedition in 1541 suffered from a lack of salt supplies and persuaded Indians to lead them to some natural salt deposits in northeastern

  9. Evaluation of precipitation and river discharge variations over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007; Xu et al. 2010;. Du et al. 2011). Keywords. Change point; correlation; precipitation; river flow; time scale; trend analysis. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 2, March 2015, pp. 335–352 c Indian Academy of Sciences. 335 ..... indicate significant trends at 95% confidence level. Hollow triangles indicate insignificant trends.

  10. Evidence of topographic disequilibrium in the Subarnarekha River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 7. Evidence of topographic disequilibrium in the Subarnarekha River Basin, India: A digital ... Sciences Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar 382 355, India. Department of Geography, Presidency University, Kolkata 700 073, India.

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  12. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment. Chinmaya Maharana, Sandeep Kumar Gautam,. Abhay Kumar Singh and Jayant K Tripathi. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(6) cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary data ...

  13. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  14. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...... – Storm management at national and European level. For that, detailed scenarios for offshore wind power development by 2020 and 2030 were required. The aggregation level that is suitable for the analysis to be done is at wind farm level. Therefore, the scenarios for offshore wind power development offer...... details about the wind farms such as: capacity and coordinates. Since the focus is on the impact of storm fronts passage in Northen Europe, the offshore wind power scenarios were estimated only for the countries at North and Baltic Sea. The sources used are public sources, mentioned in the reference list...

  15. Wind farm economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy are changing rapidly, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. Although the United Kingdom has regions of high wind speed, these are often in difficult terrain and construction costs are often higher than elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, wind energy costs are converging with those of the conventional thermal sources. At present, bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, which means that energy prices are higher. Ways of overcoming this problem are explored. It is important, also, to examine the value of wind energy. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than energy from centralized plant, since it is fed into the low-voltage distribution network. (Author)

  16. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  17. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    ), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide......): assuming geostrophic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u(*) and direction at standard conditions by means of the geostrophic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 degrees sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values...... of the friction velocity pressure pu(*)(2)/2 taken once every two months. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at the west coast of Jutland (25 +/- 1 m/s) than at any of the other sites (22 +/- 1 m/s). These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck...

  18. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has therefore been developed. The unscented Kalman filter was first tested on linear and non-linear test cases......Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify...... which was successful. Then the estimation of a wind turbine state including dynamic inflow was tested on a simulated NREL 5MW turbine was performed. This worked perfectly with wind speeds from low to nominal wind speed as the output prediction errors where white. In high wind where the pitch actuator...

  19. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  20. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  1. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  2. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  3. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  4. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  5. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ..., Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC... XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, and TGP Development...

  6. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... after running through the Thai-Burmese border. In 2003, a cascade of up to 13 dams were approved by the Chinese government, however, as of yet no dams have been built due to a prolonged controversy between Chinese government officials, Chinese and international environmental NGOs, the media, social...

  7. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  8. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  9. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  10. Wind on the moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1992-01-01

    A local town councillor describes the setting up of a wind farm in the south Pennines which plans to sell electricity to the local electricity suppliers. The Coal Clough wind farm will generate sufficient electricity to meet the average demand of 7,500 households and will be managed by a consortium known as Wind Resources Limited linking the construction company and the utilities aiming to buy the electricity produced. While wind power offers many environmental advantages over other means of power generation, local opposition was strong on the basis of the noise produced and clearly visible structures in an area designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. (UK)

  11. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  12. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  13. Winds of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.; Short, L.

    1998-01-01

    The British countryside is oversubscribed with multiple and often irreconcilable demands. The siting of wind turbines is but one facet of this situation. While the problems of these demands are widely recognised, there is little understanding or agreement on how to resolve them. The 1996 Future Landscape: New Partnerships was an attempt to address this challenge. The use of wind energy as a case study initiated a partnership between contemporary artists and the wind energy industry. It became clear that artists have an important role to play in creating new ways of seeing that will establish wind turbines as new icons for a sustainable future. (Author)

  14. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  15. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  16. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  17. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  18. The role stratification on Indian ocean mixing under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, V.; Valsala, V.; Ravindran, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of changes in Indian ocean stratification on mixing under global warming is examined. Previous studies on global warming and associated weakening of winds reported to increase the stratification of the world ocean leading to a reduction in mixing, increased acidity, reduced oxygen and there by a reduction in productivity. However this processes is not uniform and are also modulated by changes in wind pattern of the future. Our study evaluate the role of stratification and surface fluxes on mixing focusing northern Indian ocean. A dynamical downscaling study using Regional ocean Modelling system (ROMS) forced with stratification and surface fluxes from selected CMIP5 models are presented. Results from an extensive set of historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (rcp8.5) scenario simulations are used to quantify the distinctive role of stratification on mixing.

  19. Recent predictors of Indian summer monsoon based on Indian and Pacific Ocean SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Namendra Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Mishra, Nishant

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) of various geographical locations of Indian and Pacific Ocean with the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) to identify possible predictors of ISMR. We identified eight SST predictors based on spatial patterns of correlation coefficients between ISMR and SST of the regions mentioned above during the time domain 1982-2013. The five multiple linear regression (MLR) models have been developed by these predictors in various combinations. The stability and performance of these MLR models are verified using cross-validation method and other statistical methods. The skill of forecast to predict observed ISMR from these MLR models is found to be substantially better based on various statistical verification measures. It is observed that the MLR models constructed using the combination of SST indices in tropical and extra tropical Indian and Pacific is able to predict ISMR accurately for almost all the years during the time domain of our study. We tried to propose the physical mechanism of the teleconnection through regression analysis with wind over Indian subcontinent and the eight predictors and the results are in the conformity with correlation coefficient analysis. The robustness of these models is seen by predicting the ISMR during recent independent years of 2014-2017 and found the model 5 is able to predict ISMR accurately in these years also.

  20. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world’s coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas  100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world’s smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of river waters in these settings will be strongly influenced by these interactions. We conclude that new investigations are needed to characterize how plumes interact offshore of river mouths to

  1. Characteristics of Atmospheric River Families in California's Russian River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, M. A.; Wilson, A. M.; Ralph, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of antecedent conditions and storm duration on atmospheric river (AR) impacts in California's Russian River basin. This study concludes that successive ARs, or families of ARs, produce an enhanced streamflow response compared to individual storms. This amplifies the impacts of these storms, which contribute to 50% of the annual precipitation in the Russian River basin. Using the Modern Era Retrospective - analysis for Research and Applications 2 dataset and 228 AR events from November 2004 - April 2017 affecting Bodega Bay, CA (BBY), this study identified favorable characteristics for families vs single ARs and their associated impacts. It was found that 111 AR events ( 50%) occurred within 5 days of one another with 44 events ( 40%) occurring within 24 hours. Using the winter of 2017, which had a multitude of successive ARs in Northern California, this study evaluates the applicability of family composites using case study comparisons. The results of this study show large divergences of family composites from the overall AR pattern, depending on the time interval between events. A composite of all AR events show Bodega Bay generally south of the jet exit region, SW-NE tilt of 500mb heights and a more northerly subtropical high. ARs occurring on the same day have faster southerly winds, a weaker low off the coast and a southerly moisture plume extending along the CA coast. Comparatively ARs that occur the following day, feature a more zonal pattern with faster winds north of BBY, a deeper low off the coast and a moisture plume southwest of the Russian River watershed.

  2. Wind Power Today: (2002) Wind Energy Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2002 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2002, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  3. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  4. Indian Inuit Pottery '73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

  5. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  6. Indian Summer Arts Festival


    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Yann; Tabu; Tejpal, Tarun; Kunzru, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The SFU Woodward's Cultural Unit partnered with the Indian Summer Festival Society to kick off the inaugural Indian Summer Festival. Held at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts, it included an interactive Literature Series with notable authors from both India and Canada, including special guests Yann Martel, Bollywood superstar Tabu, journalist Tarun Tejpal, writer Hari Kunzru, and many others.

  7. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  8. The Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    There are two unique aspects of geography of the Indian Ocean that profoundly influence its climate and circulation: (a) The Indian Ocean’s northern expanse is curtailed by the Eurasian landmass around the Tropic of Cancer (making it the only ocean...

  9. Becoming an Indian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramachandra Guha

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... ern education, and other accoutrements of civilization. In the competing version, associated with the ruled, the white man's Raj was always illegitimate, marked by coercion and backed by force, its central aim the economic exploitation of Indian labour and Indian raw materials. Thus, British bookshops and ...

  10. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  11. Role of time series sediment traps in understanding the Indian summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    "Monsoon", meaning “season” is from the Arabic word "mausim", defining the seasonally changing wind pattern. The Indian summer monsoon system is driven by the differential atmospheric pressure between land and ocean. Boreal cooling of the land mass... otherwise would have made the continents preventing heating up during summer. Ancient Greeks and Roman were very familiar with the monsoon wind system in their navigation. Monsoons have a direct impact on the socio- economic fabric of the vast...

  12. Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible. This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset (Table 1 is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc. In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset (Luo et al., 2017 is publicly available from Science Data Bank (https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447.

  13. Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yao; Wang, Dongxiao; Priyadarshana Gamage, Tilak; Zhou, Fenghua; Madusanka Widanage, Charith; Liu, Taiwei

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible. This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset (Table 1) is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc. In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset (Luo et al., 2017) is publicly available from Science Data Bank (https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447).

  14. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  15. Wind energy - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  16. 76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming..., Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development...

  17. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  18. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Doc No: 2010-16213] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact..., Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development...

  19. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  20. 78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of an amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin and the...

  1. 75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Tribal-State Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming...

  2. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval by the Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the...

  3. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  4. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  5. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  6. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...: 2010-16214] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240, (202) 219-4066. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988...

  7. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  8. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  9. 76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming...: September 13, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming...

  10. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  11. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation...

  12. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  13. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  14. 77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  15. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  16. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative effective~~ess of secondary school principals in selected sctiools in Cross River State. In pursuance of this study, two hypothesis were formulated. Two sets of questionnaires, Principal's Self-Evaluation. Questionnaire ...

  17. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    towns of the Harappan culture (4600 to 4100 years Before Pres en t. - BP) and ashrams ofrishis (sages) lay on the banks of this life-line of the Vedic time. Where has that great river gone? It is today represented by the disproportionately wide and astonishingly water-less, sand-filled channels ofGhaggar in Haryana and ...

  18. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  19. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative .... ranked significantly ahead of men as democratic leaders ... effectiveness and leadership styles of secondary school principals In Cross River. State. METHODOLOGY. Research Area: The study was conducte'd in c ~ m.

  20. A 'special effort' to provide improved sounding and cloud-motion wind data for FGGE. [First GARP Global Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, J. R.; Dimego, G.; Smith, W. L.; Suomi, V. E.

    1979-01-01

    Enhancement and editing of high-density cloud motion wind assessments and research satellite soundings have been necessary to improve the quality of data used in The Global Weather Experiment. Editing operations are conducted by a man-computer interactive data access system. Editing will focus on such inputs as non-US satellite data, NOAA operational sounding and wind data sets, wind data from the Indian Ocean satellite, dropwindsonde data, and tropical mesoscale wind data. Improved techniques for deriving cloud heights and higher resolution sounding in meteorologically active areas are principal parts of the data enhancement program.

  1. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  2. Wind speed dynamical model in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    , the dynamic model for wind flow will be established. The state space variables are determined based on a fine mesh defined for the farm. The end goal of this method is to assist the development of a dynamical model of a wind farm that can be engaged for better wind farm control strategies.......This paper presents a model for wind speed in a wind farm. The basic purpose of the paper is to calculate approximately the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine in a farm. In this regard the governing equations of flow will be solved for the whole wind farm. In ideal circumstances...

  3. Volume 9 No. 9 December 2009 1824 EFFECTS OF JUNE WINDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... temperatures in the Indian subcontinent, which in turn affects available soil moisture for crop growth. The results also ... Given that rains occur as a result of moisture and energy transfer by global wind systems, and that every ocean has its ..... condensation and cloud formation. This explains the decrease in ...

  4. Effects of june winds on rainfall in the coastal region of kenya | Muti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They impart subsidence, drying and cloud free conditions, altering the climatological properties in the areas they traverse. The attainment of peak June wind velocities causes a characteristic depression in rainfall probability and amounts on their course, similar to the 'Ganges depression' of temperatures in the Indian ...

  5. Monsoon wind and maritime trade: A case study of historical evidence from Orissa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Raut, L.N.

    Monsoon plays a predominant role in the daily life of the people of South Asia. The use of monsoon wind in the Indian Ocean for maritime trade was a boon to the sailing ships to reach overseas countries. It is believed that Hippalus discovered...

  6. Fixture for winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  7. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  9. MWR, Meteor Wind Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of a state of the art meteor wind radar, and acceptable comprises in the interests of economy, are detailed. Design consideration of some existing and proposed radars are discussed. The need for international cooperation in mesopause level wind measurement, such as that being fostered by the MAP GLOBMET (Global Meteor Observations System) project, is emphasized.

  10. Research on wind energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available & underlying technologies Ovid: composite man- rated trainer airplane Eskom?s wind farm, Klipheuwel, Cape Town ? CSIR, then DME & City of Cape Town undertook study on large grid connected wind turbines ? included a study tour to Europe. ? Recommended...

  11. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  12. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...

  13. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...

  14. The difficult wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed

  15. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  16. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  17. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power...... system considering conventional power plants, distributed generation based on wind energy and CHP technology as well as the load and transmission facilities. In particular, the different models are used to represent two well-known test systems, the RBTS and the IEEE-RTS, and to calculate...

  18. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    for the installation of wind turbines in cities, with Copenhagen, DK, as example. Focus is taken on turbine with a swept area of maximum 5m2, since turbines of this size are relatively easy to be integrated in the urban space and are in the financial range for small companies as well as for private persons. Elements......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings...... the lower wind energy in cities other factors foster the attractiveness of urban wind energy application, like the demand or wish to reduce CO2 emissions and the possibility to produce energy directly to ones household....

  19. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  20. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...... conditions. So, a new aeroelastic blade model has been derived, which includes important features of large wind turbines, yet simple enough to be suitable for analytical analysis and control design....

  1. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  2. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena-especially the wind situation-when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31 m s -1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were likely caused by microburst straight-line wind and/or embedded small vortices, rather than tornadoes.

  3. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models...

  4. The Indian monsoon variability and civilization changes in the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Yi, Liang; Li, Xianglei; Zhang, Haiwei; Li, Hangying; Ning, Youfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2017-12-01

    The vast Indo-Gangetic Plain in South Asia has been home to some of the world's oldest civilizations, whose fortunes ebbed and flowed with time-plausibly driven in part by shifts in the spatiotemporal patterns of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. We use speleothem oxygen isotope records from North India to reconstruct the monsoon's variability on socially relevant time scales, allowing us to examine the history of civilization changes in the context of varying hydroclimatic conditions over the past 5700 years. Our data suggest that significant shifts in monsoon rainfall have occurred in concert with changes in the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the discharges of the Himalayan rivers. The close temporal relationship between these large-scale hydroclimatic changes and the intervals marking the significant sociopolitical developments of the Indus Valley and Vedic civilizations suggests a plausible role of climate change in shaping the important chapters of the history of human civilization in the Indian subcontinent.

  5. Scope and prospects of re-engineering and retrofitting wind farms in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajsekhar, B.; Van Hulle, F.J.L.

    2001-09-01

    The paper starts with a brief analysis of the characteristics of the Indian wind energy programmes while enumerating the developments that have taken place so far. In view of the large scope for renewable energy based power generation and in order to boost the present uprise of the wind farm development, the authors investigate the possibilities that lay in re-engineering of existing wind farms. Existing wind farm entrepreneurs are showing interest to improve the performance of their wind farms. New initiatives are suggested addressing the involved technical and commercial concerns of both the state-run utility (the principal customer of wind generated electricity) and wind farm entrepreneur to spur development of economically competitive wind-power plants In addition, inferences are drawn from a recently conducted detailed case study at a 5 year old large wind farm in Muppandal area. The study involved conducting detailed WAsP based analysis based on remote land use and land cover details interfacing with GIS. In addition, detailed site investigations were conducted to assess the health of the machines and the adequacy of the power evacuation facility together with the analysis of the machine down times. The paper highlights the benefits that can be expected from such undertakings for several parties both in India and in EU. The paper finally outlines the possible business opportunities and economic benefits that exist for retrofitting and re-engineering in the country, which has over 700 individually designed wind farms. 2 refs

  6. An Analysis of Wintertime Winds in Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-06-20

    This report consists of a description of the wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction around the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Meteorological data for this study were collected at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (Reagan National), Dulles International Airport (Dulles), and a set of surface meteorological stations that are located on a number of building tops around the National Mall. A five-year wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction measured at Reagan National and Dulles are presented. A more detailed analysis was completed for the period December 2003 through February 2004 using data gathered from stations located around the National Mall, Reagan National, and Dulles. Key findings of our study include the following: * There are systematic differences between the wind speed and wind direction observed at Reagan National and the wind speed and wind direction measured by building top weather stations located in the National Mall. Although Dulles is located much further from the National Mall than Reagan National, there is better agreement between the wind speed and wind direction measured at Dulles and the weather stations in the National Mall. * When the winds are light (less than 3 ms-1 or 7 mph), there are significant differences in the wind directions reported at the various weather stations within the Mall. * Although the mean characteristics of the wind are similar at the various locations, significant, short-term differences are found when the time series are compared. These differences have important implications for the dispersion of airborne contaminants. In support of wintertime special events in the area of the National Mall, we recommend placing four additional meteorological instruments: three additional surface stations, one on the east bank of the Potomac River, one south of the Reflecting Pool (to better define the flow within the Mall), and a surface station near the Herbert C. Hoover Building; and wind

  7. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Other modification of the forecast model introduced in 2001 include introduction of a non-local PBL scheme and use of daily NCEP SST analysis instead of SST climatol- ogy. These changes seem to have overcome some of the initial spin-up related deficiency of the forecast model and resulted in a better definition of the ini-.

  8. Wind and tornado guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project is to provide guidance and criteria for design of new facilities and for evaluation of existing ones subjected to extreme winds, earthquakes, and floods. This paper describes the treatment of wind and tornado hazards. Four facility-use categories are defined which represent increasing levels of risk to personnel or the environment in the event of a high wind event. Facilities are assigned to a particular category, depending on their mission, value, or toxic material content. The assigned facility-use category determines the design and evaluation criteria. The criteria are based on probabilistic hazard assessment. Performance goals are also specified for each facility-use category. A uniform approach to design wind loads, based on the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard, allows treatment of high winds and hurricane and tornado winds in a similar manner. Based on the wind hazard models, some sites must account for the possibility of tornadoes while others do not. Atmospheric pressure changes and missiles must be taken into account when considering tornadoes. The design and evaluation guidelines are designed to establish consistent levels of risk for different natural phenomena hazards and for facilities at different geographical locations

  9. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.

    1992-02-01

    Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects

  10. Wind farms and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)

  11. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

  12. Mongolia wind resource assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Chadraa, B.; Natsagdorj, L.

    1998-01-01

    The development of detailed, regional wind-resource distributions and other pertinent wind resource characteristics (e.g., assessment maps and reliable estimates of seasonal, diurnal, and directional) is an important step in planning and accelerating the deployment of wind energy systems. This paper summarizes the approach and methods being used to conduct a wind energy resource assessment of Mongolia. The primary goals of this project are to develop a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas of Mongolia and to establish a wind measurement program in specific regions of Mongolia to identify prospective sites for wind energy projects and to help validate some of the wind resource estimates. The Mongolian wind resource atlas will include detailed, computerized wind power maps and other valuable wind resource characteristic information for the different regions of Mongolia

  13. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...... by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in the IEC61400-27-1 Committee Draft for electrical simulation models for wind power generation, which is currently under review, [1]. The Type 4 wind turbine model described in this report includes a set of adjustments of the standard Type 4 wind turbine model...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  14. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  15. Satellite winds as a tool for offshore wind resource assessment: The Great Lakes Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new observational wind atlas for the Great Lakes, and proposes a methodology to combine in situ and satellite wind observations for offshore wind resource assessment. Efficient wind energy projects rely on accurate wind resource estimates, which are complex to obtain offshore...... the North American Regional Reanalysis. Generalized wind climates are obtained for each buoy and coastal site with the wind model WAsP, and combined into a single wind speed estimate for the Great Lakes region. The method of classes is used to account for the temporal sparseness in the SAR data set...

  16. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  17. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...

  18. Offshore wind speed and wind power characteristics for ten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper utilizes wind speed data measured at 3 and 10 m above water surface level using buoys at 10 stations in Ionian and Aegean Seas to understand the behaviour of wind and thereafter energy yield at these stations using 5 MW rated power offshore wind turbine. With wind power densities of 971 and 693 W/m2 at ...

  19. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  20. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effectiveness of vegetation in reducing wind ... Wind erosion; roughness length; shear velocity ratio; shear stress ratio; roughness density; wind tunnel. J. Earth .... flow direction induced by its kinematic viscosity. An increase in shear stress causes a proportional increase in the height-dependent change in wind velocity.

  1. Impact of Diurnal Variation of Winds on Coastal Waves off South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Remya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The land-sea breeze systems, the most interesting phenomena observed at coastal regions, have significant impact on the costal wave characteristics. Present study also focuses the diurnal variations of winds and its impact on wave parameters like significant wave height and mean wave period off Ennore port located in the south east coast of India The impact of the diurnal variation of winds on complex wave patterns in the coastal regions of Indian Ocean have been addressed earlier also. In the present study an attempt has been made to explore the impact of diurnal variation of winds on coastal waves using numerical model forced with European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF and National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP blended wind fields. It has been observed that most of the time, the ECMWF blended wind field reproduces the diurnal variation.

  2. Sensing the wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining...... measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Høvsøre, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled...

  3. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen.......On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...

  4. Financing renewables - wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

  5. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijith, S. S.; Rao, P. V. N.; Mohan, Mannil

    2016-05-01

    Elevated aerosols assume importance as the diabatic heating due to aerosol absorption is more intense at higher altitudes where the atmosphere becomes thinner. Indian region, especially its central and northern latitudes, experiences significant loading of elevated aerosols during pre-monsoon and summer months. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over Indian region is investigated in the present study, using multi-year satellite observations from Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) along with reanalysis winds from MERRA. Central India is observed to have prominent aerosols loading at higher altitudes during pre-monsoon season, whereas it is during summer months over north-west India. Further analysis reveals that the elevated aerosols over Indian region in pre-monsoon and summer months are significantly contributed by transported mineral dust from the arid continental regions at west. In addition to the mineral dust advection, aerosols at higher altitudes over Indian region are enriched by strong convection and associated vertical transport of surface level aerosols. Vertical transport of aerosols observed over Indian region during pre-monsoon and summer months is aided by intense convergence at the surface level and divergence at the upper level. Moreover, aerosol source/sink strength estimated using aerosol flux continuity equation show significant aerosol production over central India during pre-monsoon. Strong vertical transport prevails during pre-monsoon uplifts the locally produced aerosols, with considerable anthropogenic fraction, to higher altitudes where their impacts would be more intense.

  6. Decadal and interannual variability of the Indian Ocean SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of the Indian Ocean on interannual and decadal timescales is investigated in observations, coupled model simulation and model experiment. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode was specifically analyzed using a data-adaptive method. This study reveals one decadal mode and two interannual modes in the sea surface temperature (SST) of the IOD. The decadal mode in the IOD is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) of the North Pacific SST. The two interannual modes are related to the biennial and canonical components of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), consistent with previous studies. This study hypothesizes that the relation between the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific on decadal scale may be through the northerly winds from the western North Pacific. The long simulation of Community Climate System Model version 4 also indicates the presence of IOD modes associated with the decadal PDO and canonical ENSO modes. However, the model fails to simulate the biennial ENSO mode in the Indian Ocean. The relation between the Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean is further supported by the regionally de-coupled model experiment.

  7. On the shortening of Indian summer monsoon season in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeerali, C. T.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the future projections of the length of rainy season (LRS) has paramount societal impact considering its potential to alter the seasonal mean rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Here, we explored the projections of LRS using both historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5). RCP8.5 simulations project shortening of the LRS of Indian summer monsoon by altering the timing of onset and withdrawal dates. Most CMIP5 RCP8.5 model simulations indicate a faster warming rate over the western tropical Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the Indian Ocean. It is found that the pronounced western Indian Ocean warming and associated increase in convection results in warmer upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean compared to the Indian subcontinent, reducing the meridional gradient in upper tropospheric temperature (UTT) over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) domain. The weakening of the meridional gradient in UTT induces weakening of easterly vertical wind shear over the ASM domain during first and last phase of monsoon, facilitate delayed (advanced) monsoon onset (withdrawal) dates, ensues the shortening of LRS of the Indian summer monsoon in a warming scenario.

  8. On the shortening of Indian summer monsoon season in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeerali, C. T.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2017-05-01

    Assessing the future projections of the length of rainy season (LRS) has paramount societal impact considering its potential to alter the seasonal mean rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Here, we explored the projections of LRS using both historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5). RCP8.5 simulations project shortening of the LRS of Indian summer monsoon by altering the timing of onset and withdrawal dates. Most CMIP5 RCP8.5 model simulations indicate a faster warming rate over the western tropical Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the Indian Ocean. It is found that the pronounced western Indian Ocean warming and associated increase in convection results in warmer upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean compared to the Indian subcontinent, reducing the meridional gradient in upper tropospheric temperature (UTT) over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) domain. The weakening of the meridional gradient in UTT induces weakening of easterly vertical wind shear over the ASM domain during first and last phase of monsoon, facilitate delayed (advanced) monsoon onset (withdrawal) dates, ensues the shortening of LRS of the Indian summer monsoon in a warming scenario.

  9. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  10. Sensitivity experiments with an adaptation model of circulation of western tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    circulation at 10 m depth is controlled by both wind stress and sea surface topography. Circulation at 50 m depth is mainly controlled by thermohaline forcing and sea surface topography. The current speed in the western tropical Indian Ocean is of the order...

  11. Evolution of Indian Ocean biases in the summer monsoon season hindcasts from the Met Office Global Seasonal Forecasting System GloSea5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevuturi, A.; Turner, A. G.; Woolnough, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we investigate the development of biases in the Indian Ocean region in summer hindcasts of the UK Met Office coupled initialised global seasonal forecasting system, GloSea5-GC2. Previous work has demonstrated the rapid evolution of strong monsoon circulation biases over India from seasonal forecasts initialised in early May, together with coupled strong easterly wind biases on the equator. We analyse a set of three springtime start dates for the 20-year hindcast period (1992-2011) and fifteen total ensemble members for each year. We use comparisons with a variety of observations to test the rate of evolving mean-state biases in the Arabian Sea, over India, and over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Biases are all shown to develop rapidly, particularly for the circulation bias over India that is connected to convection. These circulation biases later reach the surface and lead to responses in Arabian Sea SST in accordance with coastal and Ekman upwelling processes. We also assess the evolution of radiation and turbulent heat fluxes at the surface. Meanwhile at the equator, easterly biases in surface winds are shown to develop rapidly, consistent with an SST pattern that is consistent with positive-Indian Ocean dipole mean state conditions (warm western equatorial Indian Ocean, cold east). This bias develops consistent with coupled ocean-atmosphere exchanges and Bjerknes feedback. We hypothesize that lower tropospheric easterly wind biases developing in the equatorial region originate from the surface, and also that signals of the cold bias in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean propagate to the Bay of Bengal via coastal Kelvin waves. Earlier work has shown the utility of wind-stress corrections in the Indian Ocean for correcting the easterly winds bias there and ultimately improving the evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole. We identify and test this wind-stress correction technique in case study years from the hindcast period to see their impact on seasonal

  12. Wind turbine influence on surfers wind conditions at Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Andersen, Søren Juhl

    alter the wind conditions on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. The Dynamic Wake Meander Model is used to investigate the wind conditions north east of the planned new turbines at Hanstholm covering a surf area from a location called “Fish Factory” to a location called...... “Hamborg”. This model, which predicts instationary wind conditions behind one or more wind turbines, has previously been used to predict the changed power and load conditions for wind turbines in wind farm conditions. Avery fine agreement to measurements is seen and the model is therefore considered...

  13. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...

  14. The social connectivity of urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Pinto, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    By social connectivity we refer to the communication and movement of people, goods, ideas, and culture along and across rivers, recognizing longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity, much as has been described for other rivers for hydrology and ecology. We focus on rivers as they pass through cities, and the relationships between these rivers and city dwellers. Historically, the most important longitudinal connectivity function of rivers was their role as major transport routes and the simplification of formerly complex, irregular banks and beds, into straight, uniform shipping channels has resulted in a loss of lateral and vertical connectivity, notably the quotidian uses such as fishing, washing clothes, water supply, swimming and other recreation. The scale of the river itself, and its scale in comparison to the scale of the city, largely determine the river's social function and the degree to which it influences city form. River width affects the perception of 'closeness' of the other bank, ease of bridging the river, influence of the river on the city's street pattern, and type of waterfront uses that occur. Up to 15 m wide, people can converse, whereas across rivers 50 to 200 m wide, people are not recognizable but still clearly visible, instilling the banks with a 'lively' atmosphere. At widths over 200 m, people blur, yet moving vehicles and trees branches shaking in wind may still provide some dynamic elements to an otherwise static landscape composed of building facades. In exceptionally wide rivers, the city on the opposite bank is little more than a skyline, which often becomes a signature and symbol of regional identity. In contemplating how people use rivers, we can define a range of human activities in relation to height above the water (i.e., instream to banktop), a vertical dimension of human connectivity with rivers. Many uses occur on the top of the bank, such as quiet contemplation, walking, or cycling along a riverside trail, while

  15. Solar wind velocity and daily variation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, H.S.; Riker, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recently parameters applicable to the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have become much better defined. Superior quality of data bases that are now available, particularly for the post-1971 period, make it possible to believe the long-term trends in the data. These data are correlated with the secular changes observed in the diurnal variation parameters obtained from neutron monitor data at Deep River and underground muon telescope data at Embudo (30 MEW) and Socorro (82 MWE). The annual mean amplitudes appear to have large values during the epochs of high speed solar wind streams. Results are discussed

  16. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  17. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  18. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  19. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

    2005-09-01

    This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

  20. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  1. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    inves- tigated for a full polar (i.e. as function of mean inflow wind direction). This investigation relates to a mean wind speed bin defined as 8m=s±1m=s. The impact of ambient turbu- lence intensity and turbine inter spacing on the production of a wind turbine operating under full wake conditions...... is investi- gated. Four different turbine inter spacings, ranging between 3.8 and 10.4 rotor diameters, are analyzed for ambient turbu- lence intensities varying between 2% and 20%. This analysis is based on full scale production data from three other wind farms Wieringermeer [3], Horns Rev [4] and Nysted [5......]. A very satisfactory agreement between experimental data and predictions is observed. This paper finally includes additionally an analysis of the production impact caused by atmospheric stability effects. For this study, atmospheric stability conditions are defined in terms of the Monin-Obukhov length...

  2. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have designed and constructed an HTS machine......A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely on in the future. The work presented...... experimental setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises...

  3. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  4. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...... at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the longterm wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting...... for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation...

  5. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  6. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...

  7. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  8. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  9. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  10. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  11. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  12. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. The theoretical model estimated the average ...

  13. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  14. Wind energy: A viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the economic feasibility of wind energy in the current economic and political environment. The article specifically addresses the wind farm application to India, with asides to Europe and the US. Topics discussed include cost of energy generation for a 10 MW wind farm, cost comparison for captive energy options (diesel, coal, wind), environmental impacts, and social benefits

  15. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, Torben S.

    This poster presents the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model with statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on short term...... forecasting for existing wind farms, as well as long term power system planning for future wind farms....

  16. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  17. Postglacial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    of El Niiio-Southern Oscillarion (ENSO) (Krishnamurthy and Coswam~, 2000). The decrease in the Indian mon- soon rainfall associated with the warm phases of ENS0 is due to an anomalous regional Hadley circula- tion with descending motion over... down in recent decades (Kumar el al, 1999). A southeastward shift in rhe Walker circulation anomalies associated with ENS0 events may lead to a reduced subsidence over the Indian region, thus favoring normal monsoon condi- tions. Additionally...

  18. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    velocity and model angle were varied . Additionally, static wall pressures and cross section flow were studied with the addition of a screen. The pressure...the geometry of a wind lens or flange on the shroud and a gradually diverging shape, proved to accelerate the flow through the duct. 14. SUBJECT...Tunnel velocity and model angle were varied . Additionally, static wall pressures and cross section flow were studied with the addition of a screen. The

  19. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  20. Wind energy handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Tony; Sharpe, David; Bossanyi, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually inChoice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power<