WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind power solar

  1. Small Footprint Solar/Wind-powered CASTNET System Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In this Research Effort “Small Footprint Solar/Wind-Powered CASTNET System” there are two data sets. One data set contains atmospheric concentration measurements, at...

  2. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  3. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  4. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  5. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  6. Solar wind power electric plant on Vis (Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A project of a solar photovoltaic electric power plant presented by the Republic of Croatia at the meeting of the E.P.I.A. Mission for photovoltaic technology of the Mediterranean countries, aroused a great interest of the representatives of the invited countries. However, the interest within Croatia in the project has disappeared although E.P.I.A. offered a financing of two thirds of costs. There are attempts to construct 1800 kw wind-driven generators at the same location not taking into consideration a possibility of building a hybrid solar-wind-power electric plant. The chance that the solar part is completely of domestic origin is not accepted but the preference is given to the building of imported wind-driven generators. (orig.)

  7. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  8. Application of Power Systems Economics to Wind and Solar Power Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Andrew David

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is the economic implications of the technical challenges of integrating variable generation, namely wind and solar, into the electric power system. The research is organized around three topics: short-term variability of wind and solar generation, changes in the economic value of wind and solar with increasing penetration, and the effectiveness of different measures at mitigating changes in economic value with increasing penetration levels. Early studies of PV g...

  9. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  10. Solar-wind system powers mountain clean-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    By using a hybrid solar-wind system, the Japanese have tackled the problem of human excrement left by tourists in mountain lodges and in natural parks by installing flush toilets and wastewater treatment plants. The solar array (4.9 kW{sub p}) consists of 76 panels of single-crystal photovoltaic cells each with an output of 64 Wp. The wind turbines (total capacity 2.1 kW) operate whatever the wind strength or direction. Storage batteries prevent any dip in power which would result from low ambient temperatures. The system can still function at temperatures as low as minus 25{sup o}C. Between November and April when the lodge is closed, the waste is decomposed biologically. A block diagram shows the elements of the system, and details of cost are given. The system won the 1999 New Energy Award.

  11. Optimization criteria for solar and wind power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salieva, R B

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the design of solar and wind power systems requires both the specification of the target function and the optimization of the system with respect to two criteria, namely, the system must be economical (minimum cost to the economy) and it must be reliable (the probability of failure-free operation of the system must be not less than a standard value).

  12. Anisotropic Behaviour of Magnetic Power Spectra in Solar Wind Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Saur, J.; Gerick, F.; von Papen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction:High altitude fast solar wind turbulence (SWT) shows different spectral properties as a function of the angle between the flow direction and the scale dependent mean magnetic field (Horbury et al., PRL, 2008). The average magnetic power contained in the near perpendicular direction (80º-90º) was found to be approximately 5 times larger than the average power in the parallel direction (0º- 10º). In addition, the parallel power spectra was found to give a steeper (-2) power law than the perpendicular power spectral density (PSD) which followed a near Kolmogorov slope (-5/3). Similar anisotropic behaviour has also been observed (Chen et al., MNRAS, 2011) for slow solar wind (SSW), but using a different method exploiting multi-spacecraft data of Cluster. Purpose:In the current study, using Ulysses data, we investigate (i) the anisotropic behaviour of near ecliptic slow solar wind using the same methodology (described below) as that of Horbury et al. (2008) and (ii) the dependence of the anisotropic behaviour of SWT as a function of the heliospheric latitude.Method:We apply the wavelet method to calculate the turbulent power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the local mean magnetic field (LMF). According to Horbury et al., LMF for a given scale (or size) is obtained using an envelope of the envelope of that size. Results:(i) SSW intervals always show near -5/3 perpendicular spectra. Unlike the fast solar wind (FSW) intervals, for SSW, we often find intervals where power parallel to the mean field is not observed. For a few intervals with sufficient power in parallel direction, slow wind turbulence also exhibit -2 parallel spectra similar to FSW.(ii) The behaviours of parallel and perpendicular power spectra are found to be independent of the heliospheric latitude. Conclusion:In the current study we do not find significant influence of the heliospheric latitude on the spectral slopes of parallel and perpendicular

  13. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  14. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  15. A study on evaluating the power generation of solar-wind hybrid systems in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulgen, K. [Ege Univ., Solar Energy Inst., Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-03-15

    Turkey is abundant in terms of renewable energy resources. Residential and industrial utilization of solar energy started in the 1980s, while the first Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) windmill park, located at Alacati, Izmir, was commissioned in 1998. Additionally, power generation through solar-wind hybrid systems has recently appeared on the Turkish market. This study investigates the wind and solar thermal power availability in Izmir, located in the western part of Turkey. Simple models were developed to determine wind, solar, and hybrid power resources per unit area. Experimental data, consisting of hourly records over a 5 yr period, 1995-1999, were measured in the Solar/Wind Meteorological Station of the Solar Energy Institute at Ege University. Correlations between solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, a daily, and a monthly basis. It can be concluded that possible applications of hybrid systems could be considered for the efficient utilization of these resources. (Author)

  16. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, D.; Rae, I.J.; Mann, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillations in the Pc 4-5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind-IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996-2004) of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature), plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  17. Autonomous wind/solar power systems with battery storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protogeropoulos, C I

    1993-12-31

    The performance of an autonomous hybrid renewable energy system consisting of combined photovoltaic/wind power generation with battery storage is under evaluation in this thesis. Detailed mathematical analysis of the renewable components and the battery was necessary in order to establish the theoretical background for accurate simulation results. Model validation was achieved through experimentation. The lack of a sizing method to combine both hybrid system total cost and long-term reliability level was the result of an extended literature survey. The new achievements which are described in this research work refer to: - simplified modelling for the performance of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic panels for all solar irradiance levels. -development of a new current-voltage expression with respect to wind speed for wind turbine performance simulation. -establishment of the battery storage state of voltage, SOV, simulation algorithm for long-term dynamic operational conditions. The proposed methodology takes into account 8 distinct cases covering steady state and transient effects and can be used for autonomous system reliability calculations. -techno-economic evaluation of the size of the hybrid system components by considering both reliability and economic criteria as design parameters. Two sizing scenarios for the renewable components are examined : the average year method and the ``worst renewable`` month method. (Author)

  18. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  19. Contribution of Strong Discontinuities to the Power Spectrum of the Solar Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2 22 samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the ''inertial subrange'' with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this ''inertial subrange.'' Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.

  20. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF oscillations in the Pc 4–5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind–IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996–2004 of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature, plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind–magnetosphere coupling.

  1. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV el ) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV el of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV el (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV el of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV el of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  2. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Dominik [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) and Frankfurt International Graduate School for Science, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); von Bremen, Lueder [ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg, Marie-Curie-Str. 1, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Greiner, Martin [Corporate Research and Technology, Siemens AG, D-81730 Muenchen (Germany); Aarhus School of Engineering and Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 118, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hoffmann, Clemens [Corporate Research and Technology, Siemens AG, D-81730 Muenchen (Germany); Speckmann, Markus; Bofinger, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Koenigstor 59, D-34119 Kassel (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases. (author)

  3. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  4. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  5. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  6. Microgrid Control Strategy Utlizing Thermal Energy Storage With Renewable Solar And Wind Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited MICROGRID CONTROL STRATEGY UTLIZING THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE WITH RENEWABLE SOLAR AND WIND... control tracks increasing power generation in the morning. The batteries require a large amount of electrical power to charge every morning, as charge ...is 37 lost throughout the night. This causes the solar panels to output their maximum power generation. The MPPT control records when power

  7. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-07-15

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV{sup el}) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV{sup el} of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV{sup el} (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV{sup el} of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV{sup el} of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  8. A GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID WIND-SOLAR POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAAMAR TALEB

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid renewable energy system consisting of a photovoltaic generator and a wind driven DC machine is interconnected with the power utilities grid. The interconnection is done through the use of two separate single phase full wave controlled bridge converters. The bridge converters are operated in the “inverter mode of operation”. That is to guaranty the extraction of the real powers from the wind driven generator as well as from the photovoltaic generator and inject them into the power utilities grid. At any pretended surrounding weather conditions, maximum extraction of powers from both renewable energy sources is targeted. This is done through the realization of self-adjusted firing angle controllers responsible of triggering the semiconductor elements of the controlled converters. An active power filter is shunted with the proposed setup to guaranty the sinusoid quality of the power utilities line current. The overall performance of the proposed system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Quite satisfactory and encouraging results have been obtained.

  9. Comparison of Solar and Wind Power Output and Correlation with Real-Time Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepfl, Kathryn E.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Solocha, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study presents a method that can be used to determine the least volatile power output of a wind and solar hybrid energy system in which wind and solar systems have the same peak power. Hourly data for wind and PV systems in Northwest Ohio are used to show that a combination of both types of sustainable energy sources produces a more stable power output and would be more valuable to the grid than either individually. This method could be used to determine the ideal ratio in any part of the country and should help convince electric utility companies to bring more renewable generation online. This study also looks at real-time market pricing and how each system (solar, wind, and hybrid) correlates with 2009 hourly pricing from the Midwest Interconnect. KEH acknowledges support from the NSF-REU grant PHY-1004649 to the Univ. of Toledo and Garland Energy Systems/Ohio Department of Development.

  10. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  11. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    to be better understood. This relates both to the technical capabilities of the plants for delivering specific services and to the quantification of the needs. The paper presents the approach of the European IEE project REserviceS, aiming at establishing reference guidance for the ongoing developments......With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...

  12. Market to facilitate wind and solar energy integration in the bulk power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Soeder, Lennart [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Clark, Charlton [U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC (United States); Pineda, Ivan [European Wind Energy Association, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: IEA Task 25 collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital-cost/high-marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, the experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are that the average market prices decreased because of wind power. This reduction in price may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market; however, capacity markets are difficult to design. Further, the flexibility attributes of the capacity need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging. (orig.)

  13. Hybrid power system (hydro, solar and wind) for rural electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahinda Kurukulasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Generation of affordable cheap electric energy for rural development by a hybrid power system (10-50 kW) of hydropower, solar and wind energies on self determining basis and computer application to determine its performance. In this paper the following topics were discussed, design of hybrid power system, its justification and economic analysis, manufacturing and installation of the system. (Author)

  14. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  15. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  16. The climate and air-quality benefits of wind and solar power in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Dev; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, Galen

    2017-09-01

    Wind and solar energy reduce combustion-based electricity generation and provide air-quality and greenhouse gas emission benefits. These benefits vary dramatically by region and over time. From 2007 to 2015, solar and wind power deployment increased rapidly while regulatory changes and fossil fuel price changes led to steep cuts in overall power-sector emissions. Here we evaluate how wind and solar climate and air-quality benefits evolved during this time period. We find cumulative wind and solar air-quality benefits of 2015 US$29.7-112.8 billion mostly from 3,000 to 12,700 avoided premature mortalities, and cumulative climate benefits of 2015 US$5.3-106.8 billion. The ranges span results across a suite of air-quality and health impact models and social cost of carbon estimates. We find that binding cap-and-trade pollutant markets may reduce these cumulative benefits by up to 16%. In 2015, based on central estimates, combined marginal benefits equal 7.3 ¢ kWh-1 (wind) and 4.0 ¢ kWh-1 (solar).

  17. Integrating wind and solar power into the energy systems of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Although they have been pursued by scientists and entrepreneurs for two decades, solar and wind energy have not yet claimed the large share of the world energy market that proponents hoped they would. Yet the past two years brought a series of developments that suggest the time has come for solar and wind energy to compete directly with fossil fuels. Wind and solar power generators are likely to contribute significant power to the electricity systems of scores of countries within the next decade, with generating costs as low as 4-5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This will require adjustment in the operation of power transmission and distribution systems to accommodate intermittent resources, as well as new time-specific pricing of electricity. The transition to more open, competitive power systems, with liberal access by independent producers, is likely to speed introduction of the new technologies. Altogether, the energy that strikes the earth`s atmosphere in the form of sunlight each year, and the winds that flow from it, represent the equivalent of nearly 1,000 trillion barrels of oil-sufficient to fuel the global economy thousands of times over. By relying on a new generation of efficient, high-tech, and mass produced energy conversion devices such as advanced wind turbines and photovoltaics, the world can rapidly reduce its dependence on oil and coal in the twenty-first century. In the more distant future, solar and wind energy have the potential not only to supply much of the world`s electricity but to displace the direct use of oil and natural gas. Solar and wind energy can be used to split water via electrolysis, producing hydrogen gas that can be substituted for liquid and gaseous fuels. (46 refs.)

  18. Integrating wind and solar power into the energy systems of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although they have been pursued by scientists and entrepreneurs for two decades, solar and wind energy have not yet claimed the large share of the world energy market that proponents hoped they would. Yet the past two years brought a series of developments that suggest the time has come for solar and wind energy to compete directly with fossil fuels. Wind and solar power generators are likely to contribute significant power to the electricity systems of scores of countries within the next decade, with generating costs as low as 4-5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This will require adjustment in the operation of power transmission and distribution systems to accommodate intermittent resources, as well as new time-specific pricing of electricity. The transition to more open, competitive power systems, with liberal access by independent producers, is likely to speed introduction of the new technologies. Altogether, the energy that strikes the earth`s atmosphere in the form of sunlight each year, and the winds that flow from it, represent the equivalent of nearly 1,000 trillion barrels of oil-sufficient to fuel the global economy thousands of times over. By relying on a new generation of efficient, high-tech, and mass produced energy conversion devices such as advanced wind turbines and photovoltaics, the world can rapidly reduce its dependence on oil and coal in the twenty-first century. In the more distant future, solar and wind energy have the potential not only to supply much of the world`s electricity but to displace the direct use of oil and natural gas. Solar and wind energy can be used to split water via electrolysis, producing hydrogen gas that can be substituted for liquid and gaseous fuels. (46 refs.)

  19. Comparing electricity transitions: A historical analysis of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Vinichenko, Vadim; Jewell, Jessica; Suzuki, Masahiro; Antal, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to understanding national variations in using low-carbon electricity sources by comparing the evolution of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan. It develops and applies a framework for analyzing low-carbon electricity transitions based on interplay of techno-economic, political and socio-technical processes. We explain why in the 1970s–1980s, the energy paths of the two countries were remarkably similar, but since the 1990s Germany has become a leader in renewables while phasing out nuclear energy, whereas Japan has deployed less renewables while becoming a leader in nuclear power. We link these differences to the faster growth of electricity demand and energy insecurity in Japan, the easier diffusion of onshore wind power technology and the weakening of the nuclear power regime induced by stagnation and competition from coal and renewables in Germany. We show how these changes involve the interplay of five distinct mechanisms which may also play a role in other energy transitions. - Highlights: • We identify five mechanisms which play a role in national low-carbon electricity transitions. • Use of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan diverged in the 1990s. • Wind power diffused to Germany from Denmark but different geography stalled it in Japan. • Demand growth and energy insecurity prompted nuclear power expansion in Japan. • Competition with domestic coal and wind led to the demise of nuclear power in Germany.

  20. On the optimal mix of wind and solar generation in the future Chinese power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Matthias; Weissbart, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest and fastest growing economies in the world. Until now, the corresponding growth of electricity consumption has been mainly provided by coal. However, as national reserves are limited and since burning coal leads to severe environmental problems, the employment of alternative sources of energy supply has become an important part of the Chinese energy policy. Recent studies show that wind energy alone could meet all of China's electricity demand. While our results validate these findings with regard to annual production, we look at the hour-by-hour resolution and uncover a major limitation: wind generation will not match the demand at every given point in time. This results in significant periods with over- and undersupply. Our study shows that combining wind and solar generation in the power system reduces overproduction significantly and increases the capacity credit of the combined VRE (variable renewable energy sources). The article demonstrates that up to 70% of VRE comprising 20–30% solar generation in the form of photovoltaics (PV) can be integrated into China's electricity system with moderate storage requirements. We encourage planners to consider those findings in their long-term planning in order to set up a sustainable power system for China at low costs. - Highlights: • Analyzing the potentials for wind and solar generation in China. • Capacity credit of variable renewable energy sources. • Future storage demand for a renewable based Chinese power system. • Defining the optimal mix of wind and solar generation.

  1. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe...

  2. Study on optimal configuration of the grid-connected wind-solar-battery hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Xu, Guchao; Ju, Rong; Wu, Tiantian

    2017-08-01

    The capacity allocation of each energy unit in the grid-connected wind-solar-battery hybrid power system is a significant segment in system design. In this paper, taking power grid dispatching into account, the research priorities are as follows: (1) We establish the mathematic models of each energy unit in the hybrid power system. (2) Based on dispatching of the power grid, energy surplus rate, system energy volatility and total cost, we establish the evaluation system for the wind-solar-battery power system and use a number of different devices as the constraint condition. (3) Based on an improved Genetic algorithm, we put forward a multi-objective optimisation algorithm to solve the optimal configuration problem in the hybrid power system, so we can achieve the high efficiency and economy of the grid-connected hybrid power system. The simulation result shows that the grid-connected wind-solar-battery hybrid power system has a higher comprehensive performance; the method of optimal configuration in this paper is useful and reasonable.

  3. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  4. Reliability Assessment Considering the Coordination of Wind Power, Solar Energy and Energy Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiying; BAI Xiaomin; XU Jing

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) power in an electric grid can result in a high operating risk due to their randomness and intermi- ttency. Energy storage (ES) can be used to coordinate with them to reduce this risk by improving supply continuity. It is therefore important to evaluate the reliability benefits of systems consist of wind power, solar photovoltaic power and energy storage. The objective of this paper is to evaluate how the parameters such as the capacity and characteristics of ES and the configuration of a hybrid generation system (HGS) affect the system adequacy based on the sequential Monte Carlo approach.

  5. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  6. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  7. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  8. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y; Sakuma, H; Ushiyama, I [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  10. Correlation of wind and solar power in high-latitude arctic areas in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbakken Kine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the possibilities for combining wind and solar power in a household-scale hybrid renewable energy system in arctic high-latitude areas in the North of Norway. By combining two complementary renewable energy sources, the efficiency and reliability of the power output can be improved compared to a system utilizing wind or solar power independently. This paper assesses the correlation between wind and solar power on different timescales in four different locations in Northern Norway and Svalbard. For all locations complementary characteristics of wind and solar power are found, however, the strength of the correlation is highly variable for each location and for the different timescales. The best correlation for all places is found on a monthly timescale. HOMER is used to run simulations on hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES for each location. For three of the four locations the HRES produces more power than what is consumed in the household.

  11. FENCH-analysis of electricity generation greenhouse gas emissions from solar and wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of energy supply systems with regard to the influence on climate change requires not only the quantification of direct emissions caused by the operation of a power plant. It also has to take into account indirect emissions resulting from e.g. construction and dismounting of the power plant. Processes like manufacturing the materials for building the plant, the transportation of components and the construction and maintenance of the power plant are included. A tool to determine and assess the energy and mass flows is the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) which allows the assessment of environmental impacts related to a product or service. In this paper a FENCH (Full Energy Chain)-analysis based on a LCA of electricity production from wind and solar power plants under operation conditions typical for application its Germany is presented. The FENCH-analysis is based on two methods, Process Chain Analysis (PCA) and Input-Output-Analysis (IOA) which are illustrated by the example of an electricity generation from a wind power plant. The calculated results are shown for the cumulated (indirect and direct) Greenhouse-Gas (GHG)-emissions for an electricity production from wind and solar power plants. A comparison of the results to the electricity production from a coal fired power plant is performed. At last a comparison of 1 kWh electricity from renewable energy to 1 kWh from fossil energy carrier has to be done, because the benefits of 1 kWh electricity from various types of power plants are different. Electricity from wind energy depends on the meteorological conditions while electricity from a fossil fired power plant is able to follow the power requirements of the consumers nearly all the time. By considering the comparison of the different benefit provided the GHG-Emissions are presented. (author)

  12. Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors: Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of the 'Greening the Grid - Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions'. Wind and solar are inherently more variable and uncertain than the traditional dispatchable thermal and hydro generators that have historically provided a majority of grid-supplied electricity. The unique characteristics of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources have resulted in many misperceptions regarding their contribution to a low-cost and reliable power grid. Common areas of concern include: 1) The potential need for increased operating reserves, 2) The impact of variability and uncertainty on operating costs and pollutant emissions of thermal plants, and 3) The technical limits of VRE penetration rates to maintain grid stability and reliability. This fact sheet corrects misperceptions in these areas.

  13. On the exergetic capacity factor of a windSolar power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    production. In this paper, a detailed exergetic analysis aiming to identify the overall Exergetic Capacity Factor (ExCF) for a windsolar power generation system was done. ExCF, as a new parameter, can be used for better classification and evaluation of renewable energy sources (RES). All the energy...... and exergy characteristics of wind and solar energy were examined in order to identify the variables that affect the power output of the hybrid system. A validated open source PV optimization tool was also included in the analysis, It was shown that parameters as e.g. air density or tracking losses, low......In the recent years, exergy analysis has become a very important tool in the evaluation of systems’ efficiency. It aims on minimizing the energy related-system losses and therefore maximizing energy savings and helps society substantially to move towards sustainable development and cleaner...

  14. A Comparative Study of CFD Models of a Real Wind Turbine in Solar Chimney Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gholamalizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches have been applied to model the turbine inside the system. In particular, a real wind turbine coupled to the system was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD in three investigations. Gholamalizadeh et al. simulated a wind turbine with the same blade profile as the Manzanares SCPP’s turbine (FX W-151-A blade profile, while a CLARK Y blade profile was modelled by Guo et al. and Ming et al. In this study, simulations of the Manzanares prototype were carried out using the CFD model developed by Gholamalizadeh et al. Then, results obtained by modelling different turbine blade profiles at different turbine rotational speeds were compared. The results showed that a turbine with the CLARK Y blade profile significantly overestimates the value of the pressure drop across the Manzanares prototype turbine as compared to the FX W-151-A blade profile. In addition, modelling of both blade profiles led to very similar trends in changes in turbine efficiency and power output with respect to rotational speed.

  15. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  16. DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR-WIND POWER SPECTRA ON THE DIRECTION OF THE LOCAL MEAN MAGNETIC FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Wavelet analysis can be used to measure the power spectrum of solar-wind fluctuations along a line in any direction (θ, φ) with respect to the local mean magnetic field B 0 . This technique is applied to study solar-wind turbulence in high-speed streams in the ecliptic plane near solar minimum using magnetic field measurements with a cadence of eight vectors per second. The analysis of nine high-speed streams shows that the reduced spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations (trace power) is approximately azimuthally symmetric about B 0 in both the inertial range and dissipation range; in the inertial range the spectra are characterized by a power-law exponent that changes continuously from 1.6 ± 0.1 in the direction perpendicular to the mean field to 2.0 ± 0.1 in the direction parallel to the mean field. The large uncertainties suggest that the perpendicular power-law indices 3/2 and 5/3 are both consistent with the data. The results are similar to those found by Horbury et al. at high heliographic latitudes. Comparisons between solar-wind observations and the theories of strong incompressible MHD turbulence developed by Goldreich and Sridhar and Boldyrev are not rigorously justified because these theories only apply to turbulence with vanishing cross-helicity although the normalized cross-helicity of solar-wind turbulence is not negligible. Assuming these theories can be generalized in such a way that the three-dimensional wavevector spectra have similar functional forms when the cross-helicity is nonzero, then for the interval of Ulysses data analyzed by Horbury et al. the ratio of the spectra perpendicular and parallel to B 0 is more consistent with the Goldreich and Sridhar scaling P perpendicular /P || ∝ ν 1/3 than with the Boldyrev scaling ν 1/2 . The analysis of high-speed streams in the ecliptic plane does not yield a reliable measurement of this scaling law. The transition from a turbulent MHD-scale energy cascade to a kinetic Alfven wave (KAW

  17. Design and analysis of a hybrid renewable energy plant with solar and wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalci, Ersan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A distributed generation system is developed with separate solar plant and wind turbine. • The solar plant is controlled with MPPT infrastructure of Perturb and Observe algorithm. • Power generation of source sites are converted to DC with PI controlled buck converters and collected on a DC busbar. • Harvested DC power is converted to AC with a full bridge inverter and SPWM control is performed in inverter. • The total harmonic distortion (THD) ratio of the generated 3-phase line is obtained in the limit of standards. - Abstract: A hybrid renewable energy plant that is based on solar and wind energy conversion systems is designed and analysed in this paper. Each separate energy conversion system is controlled either using regular PI controller or extended PI controller with an auxiliary controller containing Perturb and Observe algorithm. The solar plant model is constituted by connecting 170 W photovoltaic (PV) panels serially and energy conversion is performed with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm that controls the modulator of buck converter. The MPPT algorithm utilized in the control step of converter is developed using Perturb and Observe (P and O) that is extended with PI controller. The wind energy plant is designed with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and the AC–DC conversion stage is constituted with an uncontrolled full-bridge rectifier. All the converter outputs are connected to a busbar over interphase transformers (IPTs). The DC bus-bar voltage is supplied to a full bridge inverter to generate three-phase AC voltages at the output of inverter. The three-phase inverter is controlled with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme, which is developed with phase shifted carrier signals. The total harmonic distortion (THD) ratios are obtained at proper values according to international standards such as IEC61000 and IEEE 519-1992. Measurement results and obtained three phase voltage are analysed

  18. Variability of the Magnetic Field Power Spectrum in the Solar Wind at Electron Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, O.; Kajdič, P.; Turc, L.; Perrone, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A.

    2017-12-01

    At electron scales, the power spectrum of solar-wind magnetic fluctuations can be highly variable and the dissipation mechanisms of the magnetic energy into the various particle species is under debate. In this paper, we investigate data from the Cluster mission’s STAFF Search Coil magnetometer when the level of turbulence is sufficiently high that the morphology of the power spectrum at electron scales can be investigated. The Cluster spacecraft sample a disturbed interval of plasma where two streams of solar wind interact. Meanwhile, several discontinuities (coherent structures) are seen in the large-scale magnetic field, while at small scales several intermittent bursts of wave activity (whistler waves) are present. Several different morphologies of the power spectrum can be identified: (1) two power laws separated by a break, (2) an exponential cutoff near the Taylor shifted electron scales, and (3) strong spectral knees at the Taylor shifted electron scales. These different morphologies are investigated by using wavelet coherence, showing that, in this interval, a clear break and strong spectral knees are features that are associated with sporadic quasi parallel propagating whistler waves, even for short times. On the other hand, when no signatures of whistler waves at ∼ 0.1{--}0.2{f}{ce} are present, a clear break is difficult to find and the spectrum is often more characteristic of a power law with an exponential cutoff.

  19. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  1. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Pfluger, Benjamin; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Ragwitz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research highlights: → This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. → The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. → Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. → Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. → Scenario outlook for the North African CSP

  2. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.kost@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Pfluger, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.pfluger@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhammer, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.eichhammer@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ragwitz, Mario, E-mail: mario.ragwitz@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research Highlights: > This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. > The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. > Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. > Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. > Scenario outlook for the North African CSP market in

  3. Operation strategy for grid-tied DC-coupling power converter interface integrating wind/solar/battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, H. L.; Wu, J. C.; Lin, J. H.; Su, W. N.; Wu, T. S.; Lin, Y. T.

    2017-11-01

    The operation strategy for a small-capacity grid-tied DC-coupling power converter interface (GDPCI) integrating wind energy, solar energy and battery energy storage is proposed. The GDPCI is composed of a wind generator, a solar module set a battery bank, a boost DC-DC power converter (DDPC), a bidirectional DDPC power converter, an AC-DC power converter (ADPC) and a five-level DC-AC inverter (DAI). A solar module set, a wind generator and a battery bank are coupled to the common DC bus through the boost DDPC, the ADPC and the bidirectional DDPC, respectively. For verifying the performance of the GDPCI under different operation modes, computer simulation is carried out by PSIM.

  4. Techno-Economic Assessment of Concentrating Solar Power and Wind Hybridization in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ayadi

    2018-03-01

    A strong complementarity between wind and direct normal solar radiation was observed in the selected location in Jordan, which emphasizes the attractiveness of the selected hybrid system. The optimal configuration of the CSP-wind hybrid system was obtained with a solar field of a 2.6 solar multiple and a 5 hours energy storage. The achieved capacity factor was 94%, and the LCOE is lower than those resulted for standalone CSP plants.

  5. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-11-14

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  6. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-01-01

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  7. POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF FLUCTUATIONS OF BULK AND THERMAL SPEEDS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s 1 bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are 1.43 and 1.38, respectively, whereas they are 3.08 and 2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.

  8. POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF FLUCTUATIONS OF BULK AND THERMAL SPEEDS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-10

    This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s{sup 1} bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are 1.43 and 1.38, respectively, whereas they are 3.08 and 2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.

  9. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  10. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  11. Analysis of the solar/wind resources in Southern Spain for optimal sizing of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Ruiz, S.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Santos-Alamillos, F. J.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Tovar-Pescador, J.

    2010-09-01

    A drawback common to the solar and wind energy systems is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather and climate on a wide range of time scales. In addition, the variation of the energy output may not match with the time distribution of the load demand. This can partially be solved by the use of batteries for energy storage in stand-alone systems. The problem caused by the variable nature of the solar and wind resources can be partially overcome by the use of energy systems that uses both renewable resources in a combined manner, that is, hybrid wind-solar systems. Since both resources can show complementary characteristics in certain location, the independent use of solar or wind systems results in considerable over sizing of the batteries system compared to the use of hybrid solar-wind systems. Nevertheless, to the day, there is no single recognized method for properly sizing these hybrid wind-solar systems. In this work, we present a method for sizing wind-solar hybrid systems in southern Spain. The method is based on the analysis of the wind and solar resources on daily scale, particularly, its temporal complementary characteristics. The method aims to minimize the size of the energy storage systems, trying to provide the most reliable supply.

  12. A data mining approach: Analyzing wind speed and insolation period data in Turkey for installations of wind and solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ilhami; Sagiroglu, Seref; Demirtas, Mehmet; Yesilbudak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wind speed and insolation period data were analyzed using a data mining approach. ► Most of the studies in the literature were based on Weibull and Rayleigh models. ► Nearest and farest neighbor algorithms were used with different distance metrics. ► Many inferences were achieved in efficient limits for wind and solar farm analyses. - Abstract: Wind and solar power plant installations have been recently increased rapidly with respect to the depletion of fossil-based fuels all over the world. Due to stochastic nature of meteorological conditions, wind and solar energies have a non-schedulable nature and they require several installation analyses to determine the location and the capacities of wind and solar power to be produced. This paper focuses on the similarity, feasibility and numerical analyses of 75 cities in Turkey based on the monthly average wind speed and insolation period data. The nearest and the farest neighbor algorithms are used as agglomerative hierarchical clustering methods with Euclidean, Manhattan and Minkowski distance metrics in the stage of making the similarity and feasibility analyses. The maximum cophenetic correlation coefficient is achieved by the nearest neighbor algorithm with the Minkowski distance metric in the similarity and feasibility analyses. On the other hand, graphical representations of the monthly average wind speed and insolation period data are utilized for making the numerical analysis. The highest annual average wind speed and insolation period are obtained as 3.88 m/s and 8.45 h/day, respectively. Overall, many inferences were achieved in acceptable and efficient limits for wind and solar energy.

  13. Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    The growing importance and successive expansion of renewable energies raise new challenges for decision makers, economists, transmission system operators, scientists and many more. In this interdisciplinary field, the role of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) is to reduce the errors and provide an a priori estimate of remaining uncertainties associated with the large share of weather-dependent power sources. For this purpose it is essential to optimize NWP model forecasts with respect to those prognostic variables which are relevant for wind and solar power plants. An improved weather forecast serves as the basis for a sophisticated power forecasts. Consequently, a well-timed energy trading on the stock market, and electrical grid stability can be maintained. The German Weather Service (DWD) currently is involved with two projects concerning research in the field of renewable energy, namely ORKA*) and EWeLiNE**). Whereas the latter is in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute (IWES), the project ORKA is led by energy & meteo systems (emsys). Both cooperate with German transmission system operators. The goal of the projects is to improve wind and photovoltaic (PV) power forecasts by combining optimized NWP and enhanced power forecast models. In this context, the German Weather Service aims to improve its model system, including the ensemble forecasting system, by working on data assimilation, model physics and statistical post processing. This presentation is focused on the identification of critical weather situations and the associated errors in the German regional NWP model COSMO-DE. First steps leading to improved physical parameterization schemes within the NWP-model are presented. Wind mast measurements reaching up to 200 m height above ground are used for the estimation of the (NWP) wind forecast error at heights relevant for wind energy plants. One particular problem is the daily cycle in wind speed. The transition from stable stratification during

  14. Conversion of piston-driven shocks from powerful solar flares to blast wave shocks in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, S.

    1990-01-01

    It was suggested by Smart and Shea (1985) that the time of arrival of solar-flare-generated shock waves at any point in space may be predicted by assuming that they are first driven from the Sun after which they decay into blast shocks. Their study was extended by using the duration of the Type IV radio emission as a phenomenological symptom of the piston-driven phase of these shocks. Using a sample of 39 cases of combined Type II/Type IV observations from 1972 to 1982 solar flares, it was found that the average predicted times-of-arrival of these shocks to Earth (and elsewhere) deviate from the actual times by 1.40 hr with a standard deviation of 1.25 hr. On the average, a representative shock from this sample is emitted from a powerful flare with a velocity of 1,560 km sec -1 ; moves at a constant inertial velocity to a distance of 0.12 AU after which it begins to decelerate as a classical (Sedov-type) blast shock that is convected by the ambient solar wind as suggested by Smart and Shea; and arrives to Earth 45.8 hr after its initiation in the Sun. Shocks that appear to deviate from this phenomenological scenario by virtue of lack of detection on Earth are assumed to decay into fast mode MHD waves. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab., 53 refs

  15. On the causes of spectral enhancements in solar wind power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unti, T.; Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Enhancements in power spectra of the solar-wind ion flux in the frequency neighborhood of 0.5 Hz had been noted by Unti et al. (1973). It was speculated that these were due to convected small-scale density irregularities. In this paper, 54 flux spectra calculated from OGO 5 data are examined. It is seen that the few prominent spectral peaks which occur were not generated by density irregularities, but were due to several different causes, including convected discontinuities and propagating transverse waves. A superposition of many spectra, however, reveals a moderate enhancement at a frequency corresponding to convected features with a correlation length of a proton gyroradius, consistent with the results of Neugebauer (1975).

  16. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  17. Study on the optimization allocation of wind-solar in power system based on multi-region production simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhicheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power supply optimization model is proposed. The model takes the minimum fossil energy consumption as the target, considering the output characteristics of the conventional power supply and the renewable power supply. The optimal capacity ratio of wind-solar in the power supply under various constraints is calculated, and the interrelation between conventional power supply and renewable energy is analyzed in the system of high proportion renewable energy integration. Using the model, we can provide scientific guidance for the coordinated and orderly development of renewable energy and conventional power sources.

  18. Prospects of solar photovoltaic–micro-wind based hybrid power systems in western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Good prospects of PV–wind hybrid systems are found in western Himalayan Indian state. • A 6 kWp roof mounted PV–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur location is studied. • Optimum PV–wind hybrid system configurations are determined for 12 locations in the region. • Comparative analysis of hybrid systems is carried out using ANN, NASA and measured data. • Methodology can be used for assessing the potential of hybrid power systems worldwide. - Abstract: The western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh is known as the hydro-power state of India with associated social and environmental problems of large hydro power plants. The reduced water inflow in the rivers during extreme winters affects power generation in the state. Therefore solar and wind resources need to be utilized to supplement power generation requirements. With this objective the prospects of photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid systems are studied for 12 locations of the state. The NASA data, Artificial Neural Network predicted and ground measured data are used in the analysis of Hamirpur location whereas for remaining 11 locations estimated, NASA and Artificial Neural Network predicted data are used, as measured solar and wind data are not available for most of the locations in the state. Root Mean Square Error between three input data types are found to range from 0.08 to 1.89. The results show that ANN predicted data are close to measured/estimated data. A 6 kWp roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur with daily average energy demand of 5.2 kWh/day is studied. This system specifications are used to obtain optimum PV–micro wind based hybrid power system configurations for all locations. The optimum configuration for Hamirpur is found to be a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 8 kWp PV system whereas for other 11 locations a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 2–9 kWp PV systems are obtained. The

  19. Wind and solar data for sizing small wind turbine and photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, W [Northumbrian Energy Workshop Ltd., Hexham (GB)

    1990-01-01

    Small renewable energy power systems have to be more carefully sized and installed than fossil fuelled alternatives. Accurate assessment of the energy resource available at the site is the first step in system design. This paper describes the sort of data available and how they are processed. When small systems are involved there is little money available for detailed meteorological investigations. This has led our company to develop the techniques described. (author).

  20. Comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chains of solar and wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Vate, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Fair comparison of the climate impacts from different energy sources can be made only by accounting for the emissions of all relevant greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the full energy chain (FENCH) of the energy sources. The scanty FENCH-GHG literature is reviewed. The literature data on FENCH material and energy use for renewable, solar and wind power technologies are discussed. Some calculations of FENCH-GHG emission factors are presented using basic literature data on the major energy and materials fluxes associated with each link of the FENCH. GHGs considered are CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, and CF 4 . The FENCH CO 2 -equivalent emission factors of wind and solar power systems are in the range of 10-50 and 100-400 g CO 2 /kWh, resp. This is low compared to those of fossil fuels: 500-1200 g CO 2 /kWh. Compared to the international-consensus emission factors of nuclear and hydropower (5-20 g CO 2 /kWh), those of modern wind power and solar-thermal power are somewhat higher: 10-50 and 20-200 g CO 2 /kWh, resp. Solar PV has a ca. 10 times higher FENCH-GHG emission factor; however, advanced solar PV systems are expected to have 5-10 times lower emission factors. Important inconsistencies exist between literature data on FENCH-GHG emission factors which require explanation. Land-use associated (negative CO 2 sink) contributions due to low photosynthesis under solar systems have been estimated, amounting to ca. 20 and 11 g CO 2 /kWh for solar PV and solar thermal, resp. No information is available about contributions associated with backup supply or storage systems. (author)

  1. The “Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies” Benchmarking Exercise on Short-Term Forecasting of Wind and Solar Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperati, Simone; Alessandrini, Stefano; Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    the power output of two wind farms and two photovoltaic power plants, in order to compare the merits of forecasts based on different modeling approaches and input data. It was thus possible to obtain a better knowledge of the state of the art in both wind and solar power forecasting, with an overview...

  2. Electricity generation comparison of food waste-based bioenergy with wind and solar powers: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Bao Dung Thi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The food waste treatment-based anaerobic digestion has been proven to play a primary role in electricity industry with high potentially economic benefits, which could reduce electricity prices in comparison with other renewable energy resources such as wind and solar power. The levelized costs of electricity were reported to be 65, 190, 130 and 204 US$ MWh−1 for food waste treatment in anaerobic landfill, anaerobic digestion biogas, solar power, and wind power, respectively. As examples, the approaches of food waste treatment via anaerobic digestion to provide a partial energy supply for many countries in future were estimated as 42.9 TWh yr−1 in China (sharing 0.87% of total electricity generation, 7.04 TWh yr−1 in Japan (0.64% of total electricity generation and 13.3 TWh yr−1 in the US (0.31% of total electricity generation. Electricity generation by treating food waste is promised to play an important role in renewable energy management. Comparing with wind and solar powers, converting food waste to bioenergy provides the lowest investment costs (500 US$ kW−1 and low operation cost (0.1 US$ kWh−1. With some limits in geography and season of other renewable powers, using food waste for electricity generation is supposedly to be a suitable solution for balancing energy demand in many countries.

  3. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  4. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  5. Magnetic Pumping as a Source of Particle Heating and Power-law Distributions in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichko, E.; Egedal, J.; Daughton, W.; Kasper, J.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the rate of expansion of the solar wind, the plasma should cool rapidly as a function of distance to the Sun. Observations show this is not the case. In this work, a magnetic pumping model is developed as a possible explanation for the heating and the generation of power-law distribution functions observed in the solar wind plasma. Most previous studies in this area focus on the role that the dissipation of turbulent energy on microscopic kinetic scales plays in the overall heating of the plasma. However, with magnetic pumping, particles are energized by the largest-scale turbulent fluctuations, thus bypassing the energy cascade. In contrast to other models, we include the pressure anisotropy term, providing a channel for the large-scale fluctuations to heat the plasma directly. A complete set of coupled differential equations describing the evolution, and energization, of the distribution function are derived, as well as an approximate closed-form solution. Numerical simulations using the VPIC kinetic code are applied to verify the model’s analytical predictions. The results of the model for realistic solar wind scenario are computed, where thermal streaming of particles are important for generating a phase shift between the magnetic perturbations and the pressure anisotropy. In turn, averaged over a pump cycle, the phase shift permits mechanical work to be converted directly to heat in the plasma. The results of this scenario show that magnetic pumping may account for a significant portion of the solar wind energization.

  6. Reserve Requirement Impacts of Microgrid Integration of Wind, Solar, and Ocean Wave Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortego Trujillo, Patxi

    2016-01-01

    The ocean wave energy is a free and abundant resource which has led to exploring new methods to take advantage of the energy in an efficient and profitable way. The wave energy harnessing techniques are not as mature as other renewable energy resources ones such as wind or solar. Nevertheless, in recent years wave energy converters (WECs) have been gaining attention and restoring confidence worldwide in their role to meet the increasing demands and strict environmental standards Ocean wave po...

  7. For the definition of capacity effects of electricity generation from wind power and solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltschmitt, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is the objective of this contribution to define the calculable really available output of a fluctuating electricity generation from wind energy and solar radiation. Apart from that, the methods for determining the really available output are explained, as far as they are necessary for understanding the definitions. Exemplified on a simulated large-scale regenerative electricity generation in Germany, in addition, some defined values are calculated and discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  9. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  10. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  11. Financial benefits of solar and wind power in South Africa in 2015

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of renewables (mainly wind & PV) for procurement from independent power producers. The CSIR conducted a study on the financial benefits of the first renewables in South Africa in 2014, and a continuation of this financial benefit study was conducted...

  12. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  13. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  14. Limitation of solar energy and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines, solar energy collectors and photovoltaic cells have been popular sources of electricity since the oil crisis in the late seventies, and they are increasingly favored by many scientists and much of the public as methods for reducing global warming. The older wind farms in California are outdated. New wind turbines have not followed, primarily because of competition from lower-cost natural gas. The Times urges increased federal and state subsidies for the wind and solar industries. The primary reason that wind and solar energies have not made inroads in the past, and will never supply more than a few percentage points of the world's electrical energy, is their unpredictable variations in time and their constant need for back-ups. The only non-carbon-dioxide-emitting generator capable of backing up wind and solar energy and replacing coal and gas generators is nuclear fission. Nuclear power may be the practical solution to global warming, after all.

  15. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  16. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  17. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  18. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  19. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant's operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant's decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains

  20. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant`s operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant`s decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains. Refs, figs, tabs.

  1. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  2. Evaluation of a proposal for reliable low-cost grid power with 100% wind, water, and solar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Christopher T M; Qvist, Staffan A; Apt, Jay; Bazilian, Morgan; Brandt, Adam R; Caldeira, Ken; Davis, Steven J; Diakov, Victor; Handschy, Mark A; Hines, Paul D H; Jaramillo, Paulina; Kammen, Daniel M; Long, Jane C S; Morgan, M Granger; Reed, Adam; Sivaram, Varun; Sweeney, James; Tynan, George R; Victor, David G; Weyant, John P; Whitacre, Jay F

    2017-06-27

    A number of analyses, meta-analyses, and assessments, including those performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency, have concluded that deployment of a diverse portfolio of clean energy technologies makes a transition to a low-carbon-emission energy system both more feasible and less costly than other pathways. In contrast, Jacobson et al. [Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA, Cameron MA, Frew BA (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(49):15060-15065] argue that it is feasible to provide "low-cost solutions to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of WWS [wind, water and solar power] across all energy sectors in the continental United States between 2050 and 2055", with only electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers. In this paper, we evaluate that study and find significant shortcomings in the analysis. In particular, we point out that this work used invalid modeling tools, contained modeling errors, and made implausible and inadequately supported assumptions. Policy makers should treat with caution any visions of a rapid, reliable, and low-cost transition to entire energy systems that relies almost exclusively on wind, solar, and hydroelectric power.

  3. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  4. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  5. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  6. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  7. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  8. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  9. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  10. Remote monitoring of solar and wind power installation via GSN and Internet; Sistema de telegestion de instalaciones solares y eolicas a traves de GSN e Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, P. M. L.; Valmaseda, J. C. T.; Uruena, H. J. C.; Bujedo, L. A. N.

    2004-07-01

    Remote monitoring of solar and wind power installations is important for installers since some local rules oblige them to keep a maintenance plan, and the installations are normally sparse. It is also important for end users because they demand more information about the system and management capacity each time. In this paper we present CARTIF's development for the company ENERPAL to fulfil these needs. It is formed by two subsystems: one for data acquisition and control of the installations via GSM, and the other, a server software that allows the user to access her installation remotely through the Internet in order to manage it. (Author)

  11. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  12. Comparison Between The Characteristics Of Wind Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on wind speed and global solar radiation over the period 1985 – 1999 for Onne obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) stationed at Onne, Nigeria have been compiled and evaluated, to determine the wind power which is compared with the global solar radiation energies. Monthly and ...

  13. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Solar powered dugout aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murrell, S.

    2001-10-01

    Pasture dugouts are a significant source of water for livestock on the Canadian Prairies and as such, must maintain the best water quality possible. Aeration improves the water quality and is part of a good management plan to reduce overall water treatment costs. Although dugouts can be aerated naturally through wind and wave action and photosynthesis, this generally aerates only the top portion of the dugout. Artificial aeration by air injection into the lowest point of the dugout ensures that the water is oxygenated throughout the entire dugout. Solar aeration can be used in remote areas where grid power is not practical. With solar powered aeration systems, solar panels are used to generate the electrical power needed to run the compressor while storing excess energy in batteries. A solar aeration system includes solar panels, deep cycle batteries to store excess power, a control board with a regulator, a compressor, a weighed feeder hose, and an air diffuser. This publication presented the design of a solar aeration system and its cost. 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  16. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  17. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  18. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  19. Role of the lifetime of ring current particles on the solar wind-magnetosphere power transfer during the intense geomagnetic storm of 28 August 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Lee, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    For the intense magnetic storms of 28 August 1978 it is shown that the power transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere is well represented by the expression obtained by Vasyliunas et al. (1982, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 359) from dimensional analysis, but this representation becomes improved when such an expression is modified by a factor due to an influence of the lifetime of ring current particles as suggested by Lee and Akasofu (1984, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1423). During a steady state regime of the ring current evolution of this storm, our study suggests that the power transfer depends on the solar wind density, the transverse component of the IMF (Interplanetary magnetic field) (with respect to the Sun-Earth line) and also, explicitly, on the time constant for ring current energy decay, but not on the solar wind speed. (author)

  20. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide wind power increased by 12.4% in 2013 to reach 318.6 GW but the world market globally decreased by losing 10 GW: only 35.6 GW have been installed in 2013 which is even less than was installed in 2009. This activity contraction is mainly due to the collapse of the American market, American authorities having been late to decide to maintain federal incentives. The European wind power market also contracted in 2013 because of the lack of trust of the investors in the new energy policies of the European governments. In the rest of the world wind energy has kept on growing particularly in China and Canada. At the end of 2013 the cumulated wind power reached 117,73 GW in Europe. About 1.5 MW out of 10 MW of wind power installed in Europe in 2013 come from off-shore wind farms, United-Kingdom and Denmark being the most important players by totalling more than 70% of the off-shore wind power installed at the end of 2013. Various charts and tables give the figures of the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 in different parts of the world: Europe, North America and Asia, the time evolution of the worldwide wind power since 1995, the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 for the different countries of Europe and the ratio between the cumulated wind power and the country population. A table lists the main manufacturers of wind turbines and gives their turnover and number of employees at the end of 2013

  1. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  2. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  3. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  4. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  5. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  6. Wind power: Italian wind power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, G.; Casale, C.

    2008-01-01

    Trends in the world point a growing wind power sector in the future taking into account the safety of energy supply and environmental issues. Will determine the future scenario of price and availability of conventional energy sources. The current level reached by the price of oil create a win-win situation [it

  7. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  8. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  9. Wind power variability and power system reserves in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Variable renewable generation, primarily from wind and solar, introduces new uncertainties in the operation of power systems. This paper describes and applies a method to quantify how wind power development will affect the use of short-term automatic reserves in the future South African power sys...

  10. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  11. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  12. Statement on Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-15

    Wind power will grow in importance in future electricity supply. In the next few decades it will to some degree replace fossil power but it will, at the same time also depend on fossil-b beyond, when wind power is expected to have a substantial share of the electricity market, CO{sub 2} emission-free electricity plants that are well suited for balancing the wind intermittency will be required. Predictions of the future penetration of wind power into the electricity market are critically dependent on a number of policy measures and will be especially influenced by climate driven energy policies. Very large investments will also be necessary as is shown by the lEA's Blue Map Scenario which includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity by 2050 at a cost of USD 700 billion. This implies an average 8% increase of wind electricity per year energy system, i.e. an energy system so large that it affects the entire world. The Energy Committee's scenario for electricity production in the year 2050 includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity out of a total of 45,000 TWh. Wind electricity thus has a within presently reached penetration of wind energy in a single country and within the calculated future projections of its penetration. Future large continental and intercontinental power grids may enable higher penetrations of wind energy since contributions of wind power from a larger area will tend to reduce its intermittency. Also, large-scale storage systems (thermal storage as is intermittent power systems. These alternatives have been discussed from a technical point of view [3] but for the required large-scale systems, further studies on the social, environmental and economical implications are needed

  13. Wind power forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Rui [Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), S.A., Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. Systems and Development System Operator; Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Delgado Domingos, Jose [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Seccao de Ambiente e Energia

    2012-07-01

    Accurate wind power forecast are needed to reduce integration costs in the electric grid caused by wind inherent variability. Currently, Portugal has a significant wind power penetration level and consequently the need to have reliable wind power forecasts at different temporal scales, including localized events such as ramps. This paper provides an overview of the methodologies used by REN to forecast wind power at national level, based on statistical and probabilistic combinations of NWP and measured data with the aim of improving accuracy of pure NWP. Results show that significant improvement can be achieved with statistical combination with persistence in the short-term and with probabilistic combination in the medium-term. NWP are also able to detect ramp events with 3 day notice to the operational planning. (orig.)

  14. Wind and solar energy incentives in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.

    2006-01-01

    Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy

  15. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  16. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...

  17. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Noel Simas Barbosa

    Full Text Available Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG. RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015. For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG and the levelized cost of water (LCOW are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  18. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  19. The merit-order effect in the Italian power market: The impact of solar and wind generation on national wholesale electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Cataldi, Alessandra; Zoppoli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Italy promoted one of the most generous renewable support schemes worldwide which resulted in a high increase of solar power generation. We analyze the Italian day-ahead wholesale electricity market, finding empirical evidence of the merit-order effect. Over the period 2005–2013 an increase of 1 GWh in the hourly average of daily production from solar and wind sources has, on average, reduced wholesale electricity prices by respectively 2.3€/MWh and 4.2€/MWh and has amplified their volatility. The impact on prices has decreased over time in correspondence with the increase in solar and wind electricity production. We estimate that, over the period 2009–2013, solar production has generated higher monetary savings than wind production, mainly because the former is more prominent than the latter. However, in the solar case, monetary savings are not sufficient to compensate the cost of the related supporting schemes which are entirely internalized within end-user tariffs, causing a reduction of the consumer surplus, while the opposite occurs in the case of wind. - Highlights: • We find empirical evidence of the merit-order effect in the Italian market. • 1 GWh from solar and wind (hourly average) reduces prices by 2.3€/MW and 4.2€/MWh. • The impact of RES on price has declined as RES production has increased. • Monetary savings from solar production do not compensate the cost of the incentives. • Monetary savings from wind production are higher than the cost of the incentives

  20. The Solar Wind Environment in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pognan, Quentin; Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2018-03-01

    We use magnetograms of eight solar analogs of ages 30 Myr–3.6 Gyr obtained from Zeeman Doppler Imaging and taken from the literature, together with two solar magnetograms, to drive magnetohydrodynamical wind simulations and construct an evolutionary scenario of the solar wind environment and its angular momentum loss rate. With observed magnetograms of the radial field strength as the only variant in the wind model, we find that a power-law model fitted to the derived angular momentum loss rate against time, t, results in a spin-down relation Ω ∝ t ‑0.51, for angular speed Ω, which is remarkably consistent with the well-established Skumanich law Ω ∝ t ‑0.5. We use the model wind conditions to estimate the magnetospheric standoff distances for an Earth-like test planet situated at 1 au for each of the stellar cases, and to obtain trends of minimum and maximum wind ram pressure and average ram pressure in the solar system through time. The wind ram pressure declines with time as \\overline{{P}ram}}\\propto {t}2/3, amounting to a factor of 50 or so over the present lifetime of the solar system.

  1. The difficult wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed

  2. Wind in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  3. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  4. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H. [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  5. Status of Wind Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    With the development of wind turbine technology, wind power will become more controllable and grid‐friendly. It is desirable to make wind farms operate as conventional power plants. Wind turbine generators (WTGs) were mainly used in rural and remote areas for wind power generation. WTG‐based wind...... energy conversion systems (WECS) can be divided into the four main types (type 1‐4). Due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of the wind, the integration of wind power into the grid has brought challenges in several different areas, including power quality, system reliability, stability......, and planning. The impact of each is largely dependent on the level of wind power penetration in the grid. In many countries, relatively high levels of wind power penetration have been achieved. This chapter shows the estimated wind power penetration in leading wind markets....

  6. PHOTOIONIZATION IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T., E-mail: elandi@umich.edu [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    In this work we investigate the effects of photoionization on the charge state composition of the solar wind. Using measured solar EUV and X-ray irradiance, the Michigan Ionization Code and a model for the fast and slow solar wind, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe with and without including photoionization for both types of wind. We find that the solar radiation has significant effects on the charge state distribution of C, N, and O, causing the ionization levels of these elements to be higher than without photoionization; differences are largest for oxygen. The ions commonly observed for elements heavier than O are much less affected, except in ICMEs where Fe ions more ionized than 16+ can also be affected by the solar radiation. We also show that the commonly used O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} density ratio is the most sensitive to photoionization; this sensitivity also causes the value of this ratio to depend on the phase of the solar cycle. We show that the O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio needs to be used with caution for solar wind classification and coronal temperature estimates, and recommend the C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} ratio for these purposes.

  7. Analysis of variability and predictability challenges of wind and solar power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Virag, A.; Kling, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    In power systems, reserves are essential to ensure system security, certainly when challenges of predictability (inaccurate forecast) and variability (imperfect correlation of renewable generation and system load) are causing power imbalances. Different techniques can be used to size and allocate

  8. Designing Wind and Solar Power Purchase Agreements to Support Grid Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Power purchase agreements (PPAs) represent one of many institutional tools that power systems can use to improve grid services from variable renewable energy (VRE) generators. This fact sheet introduces the concept of PPAs for VRE generators and provides a brief summary of key PPA components that can facilitate VRE generators to enhance grid stability and serve as a source of power system flexibility.

  9. Wind and Solar Curtailment: International Experience and Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew, Debra; Bird, Lori; Milligan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar generation on power systems are resulting in increasing curtailment. Wind and solar integration studies predict increased curtailment as penetration levels grow. This paper examines experiences with curtailment on bulk power systems internationally. It discusses...... how much curtailment is occurring, how it is occurring, why it is occurring, and what is being done to reduce curtailment. This summary is produced as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power....

  10. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  11. An overview of the photovoltaic, wind power, solar water heating and small-scale hydropower supply industries in South Africa up to 1994/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, G.; Holm, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper contains a broad overview of the South African photovoltaic, solar water heating, wind power and small-scale hydropower industries. Against the general lack of a comprehensive national database on renewable energy supply and demand, this overview attempts to provide general background information on these commercial industries, market trends, local sales figures, export volumes and installed capacity estimates. It also identifies the industry's major constraints, as well as their future outlook. (author). 12 refs., 13 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Deployed Base Solar Power (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    various time intervals. Data Acquisitions and Components:  FieldPoint  Current, Voltage, and Power Transducers  POA Pyranometers  Solar...Tracking Pyranometer  Weather Station  kWh Meter Parameters being monitored:  Solar Module Temperatures  Ambient Temperature  Wind Speed  Wind

  13. The “Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies” Benchmarking Exercise on Short-Term Forecasting of Wind and Solar Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sperati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A benchmarking exercise was organized within the framework of the European Action Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies (“WIRE” with the purpose of evaluating the performance of state of the art models for short-term renewable energy forecasting. The exercise consisted in forecasting the power output of two wind farms and two photovoltaic power plants, in order to compare the merits of forecasts based on different modeling approaches and input data. It was thus possible to obtain a better knowledge of the state of the art in both wind and solar power forecasting, with an overview and comparison of the principal and the novel approaches that are used today in the field, and to assess the evolution of forecast performance with respect to previous benchmarking exercises. The outcome of this exercise consisted then in proposing new challenges in the renewable power forecasting field and identifying the main areas for improving accuracy in the future.

  14. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...

  15. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The global wind power market not only repelled the strictures of the financial crisis, but saw the installation of 37 GW in 2009, which is almost 10 GW up on 2008. China and the United States registered particularly steady growth and the European Union also picked up momentum to break its installation record. A total capacity of 158 GW of wind power are now installed across the world from which 74.8 GW in the European Union. Among the European countries Denmark has the highest wind capacity per inhabitant in 2009: 627.5 kW/1000 inhabitants. Spain seeks to limit its market's growth in order to better manage the development of wind energy across the country. German growth is back, Italy chalks up a new record for installation and the French market is becoming increasingly regulated. United-Kingdom is developing offshore wind farms: the offshore capacity could reasonably rise to 20000 MW by 2020. The last part of the article reports some economical news from the leading players: Vestas, GE-Energy, Gamesa, Enercon, Sinovel and Siemens. (A.C.)

  16. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers, uncert...... depending on the rival’s wind generation, given that its own expected generation is not high. Finally, as anticipated, expected system cost is higher when both wind power producers are expected to have low wind power generation......In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...

  17. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  18. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  19. Wind power engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, P J

    1977-02-10

    The device is a wind-power engine with vertical axis and with one or several wings with airfoil profile fixed on a frame which is pivoted at the vertical axis. Each wing forms at least on one part of its length an angle of inclination with the vertical. The angle increases under the influence of the centrifugal force when the r.p.m. exceed a normal operation range. This method helps to reduce mechanical loads occurring with high wind speeds without requiring a complicated construction.

  20. Variation of the solar wind velocity following solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Lee, Y.

    1975-01-01

    By use of the superposed epoch method, changes in the solar wind velocity following solar flares have been investigated by using the solar wind velocity data obtained by Pioneer 6 and 7 and Vela 3, 4, and 5 satellites. A significant increase of the solar wind velocity has been found on the second day following importance 3 solar flares and on the third day following importance 2 solar flares. No significant increase of the solar wind velocity has been found for limb flares. (auth)

  1. Wind Powering America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. (NREL); Dougherty, P. J. (DOE)

    2001-07-07

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately $60 billion investment and $1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced.

  2. Commercial wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, G.W.; Smith, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990 the 23,000 wind turbines in the world connected to utility grids were rated at a total of 2200 MW and produced 3,353,000,000 kWh of electricity. This represents the residential use of a city with population of 1,000,000 at US energy use rates, or 2,000,000 at European rates. Denmark produced about 2% of its electricity from the wind, while California and Hawaii produced about 1% of theirs. California wind farms produced 76% of the world total, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) received nearly half of this. In addition to these grid-connected turbines, more than 50,000 smaller turbines (averaging about 100 watts each) supplied electricity to remote areas, such as Mongolia. Such non-grid-connected turbines can be components of hybrid generation systems when combined with energy storage and/or complementary power sources. However, the emphasis of this paper is on utility-connected wind turbines. Wind also supplies mechanical energy, such as for water pumping

  3. Wind Powering America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced

  4. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  5. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  6. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the economic crisis affecting most of the globe's major economies, wind energy continues to gain supporters around the world. Global wind power capacity increased by 40.5 GW between 2010 and 2011 compared to a 39 GW rise between 2009 and 2010, after deduction of decommissioned capacity. By the end of 2011 global installed wind turbine capacity should stand at around 238.5 GW, and much of the world's growth is being driven by capacity build-up in the emerging markets (China, India...). In 2011 Asia was the world's biggest market (52%) ahead of Europe (24.5%) and North-America (19.7%). Europe has still the largest wind power capacity in the world with 40.6% of total in 2011. 2011 was another tough year for Vestas company while Gamesa company has managed to maintain positive profit growth by gaining market shares abroad. Siemens keeps its lead in the offshore market. The Chinese market is now suffering form excess capacity and Chinese companies fell prey to domestic competition

  7. Market value of wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Shoeb, M.A.; Lopes Ferreira, H.M.; Kling, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Variability and predictability constraints of wind hinder the cost-efficient integration of wind power generation into power markets. Within the framework of EIT KIC INNOENERGY Offwindtech project, a ‘Market Value’ tool is developed. Here, the market value of wind power generation can be assessed

  8. Solar Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  9. Impact of high penetration of wind and solar PV generation on the country power system load: The case study of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komušanac, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 69 scenarios of wind and solar PV as a base technology are analysed with EnergyPLAN model. • Pareto analysis is used for selection of the optimal scenario. • Multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. • Results shows optimal mix of 1.65 GW of wind and 1.6 GW of solar PV. - Abstract: Even though the Republic of Croatia is on track of achieving goals set in the Europe 2020 strategy, to achieve the goals set in the 2030 European framework for climate and energy policies will require more effort. The new 2030 framework calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level, yet the Republic of Croatia does not have such an ambitious plan. In times when wind plants and photovoltaic systems have reached grid parity in the majority of European countries, this paper analysed the influence of construction of wind and photovoltaic power plants in order to present the optimal constructing ratio of such systems on the Croatian power system load. Simulations have been conducted in the EnergyPLAN model for the year 2012. After the simulation presented promising scenarios, applying the Pareto analysis showed the optimal scenario for generating electricity from renewables, scenario with the lowest import of electricity, scenario with the lowest CO 2 emissions and with the lowest critical excess electricity production. In addition, all of the scenarios were subjected to a multiple criteria decision analysis in order to find the best overall scenario. After showing that the best overall scenario was 1.65 GW of wind power plants and 1.6 GW of installed PV capacity, a multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. Indeed, all of the simulations proved that PV will have a bigger role in the Republic of Croatia than expected.

  10. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Mark Z., E-mail: jacobson@stanford.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Delucchi, Mark A., E-mail: madelucchi@ucdavis.ed [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. Addressing them requires major changes in our energy infrastructure. Here, we analyze the feasibility of providing worldwide energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, heating/cooling, etc.) from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, we discuss WWS energy system characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability of WWS resources, numbers of WWS devices, and area and material requirements. In Part II, we address variability, economics, and policy of WWS energy. We estimate that {approx}3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines, {approx}49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants, {approx}40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, {approx}1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop PV systems, {approx}5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, {approx}270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants, {approx}720,000 0.75 MW wave devices, and {approx}490,000 1 MW tidal turbines can power a 2030 WWS world that uses electricity and electrolytic hydrogen for all purposes. Such a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires only {approx}0.41% and {approx}0.59% more of the world's land for footprint and spacing, respectively. We suggest producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and replacing the pre-existing energy by 2050. Barriers to the plan are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world should be similar to that today. - Research highlights: {yields} Replacing world energy with wind, water, and sun (WWS) reduces world power demand 30%. {yields} WWS for world requires only 0.41% and 0.51% more world land for footprint and spacing, respectively. {yields} Practical to provide 100% new energy with WWS by 2030 and replace existing energy by 2050.

  11. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. -M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, J. [RePPAE; Lefton, S. A. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Agan, D. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  12. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  13. Turbulence in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...

  14. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  15. Dayside magnetic ULF power at high latitudes: A possible long-term proxy for the solar wind velocity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    1999-01-01

    We examine the occurrence of dayside high-latitude magnetic variations with periods between 2 and 10 min statistically using data from around 20 magnetic stations in Greenland, Scandinavia, and Canada, many of which have been in operation for a full solar cycle. We derive time series of the power...

  16. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  17. Wind power - energy from air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1998-01-01

    The wind conditions for wind power generation are favourable on the coast, in the archipelagos and in the fell areas of Finland. About 7 MW of wind power has been constructed in Finland, with the investment support of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. In 1995 about 11 GWh were produced by wind energy. A number of wind power plants are under design on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia as well as on the Aaland Islands. The first arctic wind park was constructed in Lapland in September 1996

  18. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from (techno-economic) ‘disabilities’, such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different......This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power are often referred to as ‘political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO2-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other...... instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  19. Geometry of solar corona expansion and solar wind parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnev, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The character of the parameter chanqe of solar wind plasma in the region of the Earth orbit is studied. The main regularities in the parametep behaviour of solar wind (plasma velocity and density) are qualitatively explained in the framework of a model according to which solar corona expansion stronqly differs from radial expansion, that is: the solar wind current lines are focused towards helioequator during the period of low solar activity with gradual transfer to radial expansion during the years of high solar activity. It is shown that the geometry of the solar wind current tubes and its change with the solar activity cycle can not serve an explanation of the observed change of the solar wind parameters

  20. Wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1976-08-26

    The invention is concerned with a wind-power plant whose rotor axis is pivoted in the supporting structure and swingable around an axis of tilt, forming an angle with the rotor axis and the vertical axis, and allowing precession of the rotor. On changes of wind direction an electric positioning device is moving the rotor axis into the new direction in such a way that no precession forces are exerted on the supporting structure and this one may very easily be held. Instead of one rotor, also a type with two coaxial, co-planar countercurrent rotors may be used. Each of the two countercurrent rotors is carrying a number of magnetic poles, distributed all over the circumference, acting together with the magnetic poles of the other rotor. At least the poles of one rotor have electric line windings being connected by leads with a collector so that the two rotors form the two parts of a power generator being each rotatable with respect to the other ('stator' and 'rotor').

  1. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  2. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  3. Trend in China's Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractive prospects for wind power development Sha Yiqiang:In recent years,the development and utilization of wind energy has achieved remarkable results.To the end of 2007,the installed capacity of the wind power had reached 94 000 MW all over the world,which is distributed over 60 countries.Over the past 20 years,the wind power generation installation cost has been reduced by 50% and is closing to that of the conventional energy resources.Meanwhile,the single unit capacity,efficiency and reliability of wind power have been greatly improved.

  4. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-109-000] Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory...

  5. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  6. Wind power's coming of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the role that wind power has in meeting future energy demand. The topics of the article include demonstration of current technology, an overview of research and market activity, institutional and regulatory barriers and other issues, financing of wind power projects, incentives and penalties, current market experience, national trends in application of wind power plants, advanced technologies, intermittency, power quality, and transmission and distribution

  7. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  8. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    Expansion of wind power is an important element in Danish climate change abatement policy. Starting from a high penetration of approx 20% however, momentary excess production will become an important issue in the future. Through energy systems analyses using the EnergyPLAN model and economic...... analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  9. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  10. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  11. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  12. Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Brian E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.

  13. Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    highly charged ions of the solar wind. The main challenge in predicting the resultant photon flux in the X-ray energy bands is due to the...Newton, an X-ray astronomical observatory. We use OMNI solar wind conditions, heavy ion composition data from ACE, the Hodges neutral hydrogen model...of SWEEP was to compare theoretical models of X-ray emission in the terrestrial magnetosphere caused by the Solar Wind Charge Exchange

  14. The wind power of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A.

    2010-01-01

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  15. Byproduct metal requirements for U.S. wind and solar photovoltaic electricity generation up to the year 2040 under various Clean Power Plan scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nedal T.; Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has and will likely continue to obtain an increasing share of its electricity from solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power, especially under the Clean Power Plan (CPP). The need for additional solar PV modules and wind turbines will, among other things, result in greater demand for a number of minor metals that are produced mainly or only as byproducts. In this analysis, the quantities of 11 byproduct metals (Ag, Cd, Te, In, Ga, Se, Ge, Nd, Pr, Dy, and Tb) required for wind turbines with rare-earth permanent magnets and four solar PV technologies are assessed through the year 2040. Three key uncertainties (electricity generation capacities, technology market shares, and material intensities) are varied to develop 42 scenarios for each byproduct metal. The results indicate that byproduct metal requirements vary significantly across technologies, scenarios, and over time. In certain scenarios, the requirements are projected to become a significant portion of current primary production. This is especially the case for Te, Ge, Dy, In, and Tb under the more aggressive scenarios of increasing market share and conservative material intensities. Te and Dy are, perhaps, of most concern given their substitution limitations. In certain years, the differences in byproduct metal requirements between the technology market share and material intensity scenarios are greater than those between the various CPP and No CPP scenarios. Cumulatively across years 2016–2040, the various CPP scenarios are estimated to require 15–43% more byproduct metals than the No CPP scenario depending on the specific byproduct metal and scenario. Increasing primary production via enhanced recovery rates of the byproduct metals during the beneficiation and enrichment operations, improving end-of-life recycling rates, and developing substitutes are important strategies that may help meet the increased demand for these byproduct metals.

  16. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  17. Effect of current sheets on the solar wind magnetic field power spectrum from the Ulysses observation: from Kraichnan to Kolmogorov scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Miao, B; Hu, Q; Qin, G

    2011-03-25

    The MHD turbulence theory developed by Iroshnikov and Kraichnan predicts a k(-1.5) power spectrum. Solar wind observations, however, often show a k(-5/3) Kolmogorov scaling. Based on 3 years worth of Ulysses magnetic field data where over 28,000 current sheets are identified, we propose that the current sheet is the cause of the Kolmogorov scaling. We show that for 5 longest current-sheet-free periods the magnetic field power spectra are all described by the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scaling. In comparison, for 5 periods that have the most number of current sheets, the power spectra all exhibit Kolmogorov scaling. The implication of our results is discussed.

  18. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  19. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  20. Disadvantages of the wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Odd W.

    2005-01-01

    The article discussed various disadvantages of the wind power production and focuses on turbine types, generators, operational safety and development aspects. Some environmental problems are mentioned

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  2. Mastering the power of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the author deals with environmental aspects use of fossil fuels for the energy production. As a way for our planet to get back to a normal and ecologically balanced system the fossil fuels reduction and their replacement by renewable racecourses is recommended. Energetic potential of flowing sun, wind and tidal waves as power resources is discussed. The natural ecological resources are best utilised in the United States where the installed wind power output is 1600 MW. With 360 MW installed output in 1991 the Denmark took lead among European countries in utilising the wind power. The most dynamic power plant development among the European Union countries was recorded in Germany, where the installed power output of the wind power plants is 632 MW, i.e. i.e. 11.5 times higher compared to 55 MW in 1991. The economy of wind power in Germany and in Slovakia is compared. In Slovakia with annual 200 000 kWh power generation annually and the present kWh purchase price guarantee the rate of return of 10 million slovak crowns investment into a wind power plant project is in 100 years. Although the first wind power plants have already been built in the Zahorie, Kremnicke Bane, and Secovce regions, the wind exploitation status in Slovakia is still limping. According to professionals, the wind conditions in Slovakia are not ideal, but sufficient for a supplementary wind power plant system, that can be quite motivating especially for villages. Mount Chopok or mount Krizna are ideal sites to erect the three-blade tower with respect to wind speed. And also the anticipated Kremnicke vrchy site is worth considering. (author)

  3. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  4. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  5. Solar wind radiation damage in lunar dust grains and the characteristics of the ancient solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Chaumont, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current understanding of the exposure history of lunar dust grains to the ancient solar wind is reviewed, the work being based mostly on a Monte Carlo statistical code, describing the 'gardening' effects of the meteorite bombardment in the lunar regolith, and on analytical models, yielding the lifetimes of the grains against various types of destruction processes. Families of lunar dust grains are identified, and evidence is presented showing that lunar dust grains were not partially shielded from solar wind ions. Results of solar wind simulation experiments are used to interpret the thickness distribution of the amorphous coatings of solar wind radiation-damaged material observed on 1-micron lunar dust grains. It is argued that such distributions reflect the speed distribution of the ancient solar wind as averaged over periods of approximately 5000 years in duration, and that the ancient solar wind is less energetic than the present day solar wind

  6. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    and the background solar wind conditions. We found that both solar wind models are capable of predicting the large-scale features of the observed solar wind speed (root-mean-square error, RMSE ≈100 km/s) but tend to either overestimate (ESWF) or underestimate (WSA) the number of high-speed solar wind streams (threat......High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluate...... high-speed stream forecasts made by the empirical solar wind forecast (ESWF) and the semiempirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model based on the in situ plasma measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft for the years 2011 to 2014. While the ESWF makes use of an empirical relation...

  7. MCMC for Wind Power Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Klöckl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for the direct generation of synthetic time series of wind power output. It is shown that obtaining a stochastic model directly in the wind power domain leads to reduced number of states and to lower order of the Markov chain at equal

  8. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  9. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  10. Validation of Power Output for the WIND Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Clifton, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Renewable energy integration studies require wind data sets of high quality with realistic representations of the variability, ramping characteristics, and forecast performance for current wind power plants. The Wind Integration National Data Set (WIND) Toolkit is meant to be an update for and expansion of the original data sets created for the weather years from 2004 through 2006 during the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and the Eastern Wind Integration Study. The WIND Toolkit expands these data sets to include the entire continental United States, increasing the total number of sites represented, and it includes the weather years from 2007 through 2012. In addition, the WIND Toolkit has a finer resolution for both the temporal and geographic dimensions. Three separate data sets will be created: a meteorological data set, a wind power data set, and a forecast data set. This report describes the validation of the wind power data set.

  11. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  12. Solar winds along curved magnetic field lines

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Chen, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Both remote-sensing measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and in situ measurements by the Ulysses spacecraft show a bimodal structure for the solar wind at solar minimum conditions. At present what makes the fast wind fast and the slow wind slow still remains to be answered. While a robust empirical correlation exists between the coronal expansion rate $f_c$ of the flow tubes and the speeds $v$ measured in situ, further data analysis suggests that $v$ depends on ...

  13. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  14. Innovation paths in wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke

    Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back....... The ‘Danish Design’ remains the global standard. The direct drive design, while uncommon in Denmark, dominates the German installation base. Direct drive technology has thus emerged as a distinctly German design and sub-trajectory within the overall technological innovation path. When it comes to organising...... global interconnectedness of wind technology markets and the role of emerging new players, such as China and India....

  15. Attitudes towards wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.

    1993-01-01

    Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

  16. Solar wind classification from a machine learning perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, V.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    It is a very well known fact that the ubiquitous solar wind comes in at least two varieties, the slow solar wind and the coronal hole wind. The simplified view of two solar wind types has been frequently challenged. Existing solar wind categorization schemes rely mainly on different combinations of the solar wind proton speed, the O and C charge state ratios, the Alfvén speed, the expected proton temperature and the specific proton entropy. In available solar wind classification schemes, solar wind from stream interaction regimes is often considered either as coronal hole wind or slow solar wind, although their plasma properties are different compared to "pure" coronal hole or slow solar wind. As shown in Neugebauer et al. (2016), even if only two solar wind types are assumed, available solar wind categorization schemes differ considerably for intermediate solar wind speeds. Thus, the decision boundary between the coronal hole and the slow solar wind is so far not well defined.In this situation, a machine learning approach to solar wind classification can provide an additional perspective.We apply a well-known machine learning method, k-means, to the task of solar wind classification in order to answer the following questions: (1) How many solar wind types can reliably be identified in our data set comprised of ten years of solar wind observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)? (2) Which combinations of solar wind parameters are particularly useful for solar wind classification?Potential subtypes of slow solar wind are of particular interest because they can provide hints of respective different source regions or release mechanisms of slow solar wind.

  17. Supplementary speed control for wind power smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Frunt, J.; Kechroud, A.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Wind fluctuations result in even larger wind power fluctuations because the power of wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. This report analyzes wind power fluctuations to investigate inertial power smoothing, in particular for the frequency range of 0.08 - 0.5 Hz. Due to the growing

  18. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  19. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described. The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed. Power electronic applications...

  20. Modeling and Modern Control of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book covers the modeling of wind power and application of modern control methods to the wind power control—specifically the models of type 3 and type 4 wind turbines. The modeling aspects will help readers to streamline the wind turbine and wind power plant modeling, and reduce the burden...... of power system simulations to investigate the impact of wind power on power systems. The use of modern control methods will help technology development, especially from the perspective of manufactures....

  1. Wind power plants the fuel savers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind is a converted from of solar energy. The Sun's radiation heats different parts of the earth at variable rates as the earth surfaces absorb or reflect at different rates. This in turn causes portions of the atmosphere to warm at varying levels. The hot air rises reducing atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface beneath, the cooler air rushes to replace it and in the process creates a momentum called wind. Air possesses mass and when it sets into motion, it contains the energy of that motion, called the Kinetic Energy. A part of the Kinetic Energy of the wind can be converted into other forms of energy i.e. mechanical force or electric power that can be used to perform work. The cost of electric energy from the wind system has dropped from the initial cost of 30 to 40 Cents per kWh to about 5 to 7 Cents/k Wh during the past 20 years. The costs are continually declining as the technology is advanced, the unit size is increased and larger plants are built. Wind power is now a viable, robust and fast growing industry. The cost of wind energy is expected to drop to 2 to 3 Cents / kWh during the next 5 to 10 years. Due to sky-rocketing prices of the fossil fuels, the competitive position of power generation technologies is rapidly changing. Wind energy is likely to emerge as the cheapest source of electric power generation in the global market in the near future. The current assessment of the global wind resources indicate that the wind energy potential is more than double the world's electricity needs. (author)

  2. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  3. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems.Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described.The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed.Power electronic applications for improving the performance of wind turbines and wind farms in power systems have been illustrated.

  4. Wind Power in Electrical Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, large number of wind turbines/wind farms have been installed and connected to power systems. In addition to the large centralised wind farms connected to transmission grids, many distributed wind turbines and wind farms are operated as dist...

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  7. Solar powered Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  8. Starting to Explore Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Described is a simple, cheap and versatile homemade windmill and electrical generator suitable for a school class to use to explore many aspects and practicalities of using wind to generate electrical power. (Contains 8 figures.)

  9. Wind power policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian government's ambition of developing 3 TWh wind power by 2010 seems hard to fulfill. Recently Norway's first wind park was officially opened on the island of Smoela, just off Kristiansund. The 20 large windmills are Danish-made and described in some detail in this article. Fulfillment of the government's ambition requires that 20 similar power stations are put into operation the coming eight years, and so far it has not been decided to build the next one. Statkraft have great ambitions for wind power. However, environmental considerations present difficulties. For instance, for Smoela, Statkraft spent an extra 4 million NOK on ground cables the last 1.5 km to land in order to minimize the disturbance of bird populations. Considerations for the white-tailed eagle may be a decisive factor in the development of wind power plants in Norway

  10. Panorama 2016 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2015-11-01

    While onshore wind power is a rapidly growing global industry, the offshore wind power market remains in its consolidation and globalization phase. This most mature of renewable marine energies continues to develop and can no longer be considered a niche industry. This fact sheet evaluates the market over the last several years, looking at its potential and its current rank in terms of electricity production costs. (author)

  11. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....

  12. Panorama 2013 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2012-10-01

    While onshore wind power is already a well-developed global industry, offshore wind power is still in the consolidation and globalization phase. The most mature of marine renewable energies is beginning to venture off the European coast and even to other continents, driven by public policies and the ever increasing number of players joining this promising market, which should evolve into deeper waters thanks to floating structures. (author)

  13. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  14. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  15. Wind and solar resource data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used...... to support continental-scale, national, or regional renewable energy development; facilitate prospecting by developers; and enable grid integration studies. This review first provides an introduction to the wind and solar resource data sets, then provides an overview of the common methods used...... for their creation and validation. A brief history of wind and solar resource data sets is then presented, followed by areas for future research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website....

  16. Solar and Wind Site Screening Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NREL created a decision tree to guide state and local governments and other stakeholders through a process for screening sites for their suitability for future redevelopment with solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and wind energy.

  17. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  18. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  19. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  20. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  1. Solar-wind predictions for the Parker Solar Probe orbit. Near-Sun extrapolations derived from an empirical solar-wind model based on Helios and OMNI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzmer, M. S.; Bothmer, V.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP; formerly Solar Probe Plus) mission will be humanitys first in situ exploration of the solar corona with closest perihelia at 9.86 solar radii (R⊙) distance to the Sun. It will help answer hitherto unresolved questions on the heating of the solar corona and the source and acceleration of the solar wind and solar energetic particles. The scope of this study is to model the solar-wind environment for PSPs unprecedented distances in its prime mission phase during the years 2018 to 2025. The study is performed within the Coronagraphic German And US SolarProbePlus Survey (CGAUSS) which is the German contribution to the PSP mission as part of the Wide-field Imager for Solar PRobe. Aim. We present an empirical solar-wind model for the inner heliosphere which is derived from OMNI and Helios data. The German-US space probes Helios 1 and Helios 2 flew in the 1970s and observed solar wind in the ecliptic within heliocentric distances of 0.29 au to 0.98 au. The OMNI database consists of multi-spacecraft intercalibrated in situ data obtained near 1 au over more than five solar cycles. The international sunspot number (SSN) and its predictions are used to derive dependencies of the major solar-wind parameters on solar activity and to forecast their properties for the PSP mission. Methods: The frequency distributions for the solar-wind key parameters, magnetic field strength, proton velocity, density, and temperature, are represented by lognormal functions. In addition, we consider the velocity distributions bi-componental shape, consisting of a slower and a faster part. Functional relations to solar activity are compiled with use of the OMNI data by correlating and fitting the frequency distributions with the SSN. Further, based on the combined data set from both Helios probes, the parameters frequency distributions are fitted with respect to solar distance to obtain power law dependencies. Thus an empirical solar-wind model for the inner

  2. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  3. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (∼11%), temperature (∼40%), thermal pressure (∼55%), mass flux (∼34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (∼41%), energy flux (∼48%), IMF magnitude (∼31%), and radial component of the IMF (∼38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ∼1.4 nPa, compared to ∼2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ∼11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  4. Wind power; Die Kraft der Winde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2009-10-30

    Wind power plants are probably only one pillar of the bridge that is taking us into an energy future still unimaginable to us. They are extremely cost-intensive and bulky and they spoil our landscapes. Their patronage by political leaders is understandable considering our excessive dependence on oil and gas. True energy autonomy is currently still a utopian dream for a country as poor in resources as Germany. On the other hand, to reach Utopia you have to build bridges there. Seen this way all currently available types of renewable energy represent bridge technologies whose realisation is imperative.

  5. Wind power in political whirlwind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2002-01-01

    In Norway, according to this article, shifting fair wind and head wind for wind power have changed to unpredictable political whirlwinds. That is, there is great uncertainty with respect to further development of wind power in Norway as well as in nearby markets such as Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. The government, represented by Enova, has announced reduced investment grants, and so the realization of a ''green'' market, at home or across the frontiers, becomes very important. The political goal of producing 3 TWh of wind power per year by 2010 apparently is still valid, but it is difficult to see any robust and convincing clarity when it comes to policy instruments and economical frames that will make it possible to reach that goal. In its directive on renewable energy sources in the energy generation, the EU has quoted a total increase in capacity from 14 percent in 1997 to 22 percent in 2010. This has been shared among the member countries as indicative targets and there is great freedom in the selection of policy instruments. At the end of 2002, the wind power production in Norway is 0.3 TWh/year

  6. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao

    2010-10-01

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  7. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao [Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA, Beijing (China)

    2010-10-15

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  8. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  9. Low-power wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Shevchenko, Yu.V.; Shikhajlov, N.A.; Kokhanevich, V.P.; Tanan, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Design peculiarities, as well as the prospects of development and introduction of the low-power (from 0.5 up to 4 kW) wind power plants (WPP) are considered. The variants of WPP with vertical and horizontal rotation axis are described. The data characterizing cost and structure of expenditures on WPP manufacture and operation are given

  10. Manifestation of solar activity in solar wind particle flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the origin of long-term variations in flux density of solar wind particles (nv) for different velocity regimes. The study revealed a relationship of these variations to the area of the polar coronal holes (CH). It is shown that within the framework of the model under development, the main longterm variations of nv are a result of the latitude redistribution of the solar wind mass flux in the heliosphere and are due to changes in the large-scale geometry of the solar plasma flow in the corona. A study has been made of the variations of nv for high speed solar wind streams. It is found that nv in high speed streams which are formed in CH, decreases from minimum to maximum solar activity. The analysis indicates that this decrease is attributable to the magnetic field strength increase in coronal holes. It has been found that periods of rapid global changes of background magnetic fields on the Sun are accompanied by a reconfiguration of coronal magnetic fields, rapid changes in the length of quiescent filaments, and by an increase in the density of the particle flux of a high speed solar wind. It has been established that these periods precede the formation of CH, corresponding to the increase in solar wind velocity near the Earth and to enhancement of the level of geomagnetic disturbance. (author)

  11. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  12. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budischak, Cory; Sewell, DeAnna; Thomson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    intermittent power, we seek combinations of diverse renewables at diverse sites, with storage, that are not intermittent and satisfy need a given fraction of hours. And 2) we seek minimal cost, calculating true cost of electricity without subsidies and with inclusion of external costs. Our model evaluated over...... renewable generation and the excess capacity together meet electric load with less storage, lowering total system cost. At 2030 technology costs and with excess electricity displacing natural gas, we find that the electric system can be powered 90%–99.9% of hours entirely on renewable electricity, at costs...

  13. Wind power project at Pasni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, Jamil

    1998-01-01

    Major power generation capacity additions have recently been achieved in Pakistan as a result of policy initiatives taken in response to widespread power shortages in the eighties. These additions are based mainly on residual fuel oil and natural gas as fuel, resulting in a marked shift in favor of thermal generation and away from the traditionally dominant hydel sources. In recent decades, the supply of electricity to less developed areas has also been accorded high priority in Pakistan, although economic considerations in grid expansion have largely limited an otherwise aggressive rural electrification program to areas easily accessible from the national grid. These factors, coupled with relatively high system losses, have contributed to an unprecedented increase in emissions of greenhouse gases from the power generation industry in the country. An option which merits serious consideration in Pakistan is wind power. Wind power provides an opportunity to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels and, at the same time, expand the power supply capacity to remote locations where grid expansion is not practical. Preliminary analysis of wind data in selected coastal locations in the Balochistan province indicates that a potential exists for harvesting wind energy using currently available technologies. (author)

  14. Clouds blown by the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voiculescu, M; Condurache-Bota, S; Usoskin, I

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we investigate possible relationships between the cloud cover (CC) and the interplanetary electric field (IEF), which is modulated by the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field. We show that CC at mid–high latitudes systematically correlates with positive IEF, which has a clear energetic input into the atmosphere, but not with negative IEF, in general agreement with predictions of the global electric circuit (GEC)-related mechanism. Thus, our results suggest that mid–high latitude clouds might be affected by the solar wind via the GEC. Since IEF responds differently to solar activity than, for instance, cosmic ray flux or solar irradiance, we also show that such a study allows distinguishing one solar-driven mechanism of cloud evolution, via the GEC, from others. (letter)

  15. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Palm Springs, CA (United States); Stewart, Royce [Red Mountain Energy Partners, Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  16. Ion acoustic waves in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Frank, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plasma wave measurements on the Helios I and 2 spacecraft have revealed the occurrence of electric field turbulence in the solar wind at frequencies between the electron and ion plasma frequencies. Wavelength measurements with the Imp 6 spacecraft now provide strong evidence that these waves are short-wavelength ion acoustic waves which are Doppler-shifted upward in frequency by the motion of the solar wind. Comparison of the Helios results with measurements from the earth-orbiting Imp 6 and 8 spacecraft shows that the ion acoustic turbulence detected in interplanetary space has characteristics essentially identical to those of bursts of electrostatic turbulence generated by protons streaming into the solar wind from the earth's bow shock. In a few cases, enhanced ion acoustic wave intensities have been observed in direct association with abrupt increases in the anisotropy of the solar wind electron distribution. This relationship strongly suggests that the ion acoustic waves detected by Helios far from the earth are produced by an electron heat flux instability, as was suggested by Forslund. Possible related mechanisms which could explain the generation of ion acoustic waves by protons streaming into the solar wind from the earth's bow shock are also considered

  17. Solar Illumination Control of the Polar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; De Keyser, J.; André, M.; Eriksson, A. I.; Haaland, S.; Li, K.; Poedts, S.

    2017-11-01

    Polar wind outflow is an important process through which the ionosphere supplies plasma to the magnetosphere. The main source of energy driving the polar wind is solar illumination of the ionosphere. As a result, many studies have found a relation between polar wind flux densities and solar EUV intensity, but less is known about their relation to the solar zenith angle at the ionospheric origin, certainly at higher altitudes. The low energy of the outflowing particles and spacecraft charging means it is very difficult to measure the polar wind at high altitudes. We take advantage of an alternative method that allows estimations of the polar wind flux densities far in the lobes. We analyze measurements made by the Cluster spacecraft at altitudes from 4 up to 20 RE. We observe a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle in the ion flux density and see that both the ion velocity and density exhibit a solar zenith angle dependence as well. We also find a seasonal variation of the flux density.

  18. Laboratory Facility for Simulating Solar Wind Sails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Ikkoh; Ueno, Kazuma; Oshio, Yuya; Ayabe, Tomohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic sail (MagSail) is a deep space propulsion system, in which an artificial magnetic cavity captures the energy of the solar wind to propel a spacecraft in the direction leaving the sun. For a scale-model experiment of the plasma flow of MagSail, we employed a magnetoplasmadynamic arcjet as a solar wind simulator. It is observed that a plasma flow from the solar wind simulator reaches a quasi-steady state of about 0.8 ms duration after a transient phase when initiating the discharge. During this initial phase of the discharge, a blast-wave was observed to develop radially in a vacuum chamber. When a solenoidal coil (MagSail scale model) is immersed into the quasi-steady flow where the velocity is 45 km/s, and the number density is 10 19 m-3, a bow shock as well as a magnetic cavity were formed in front of the coil. As a result of the interaction between the plasma flow and the magnetic cavity, the momentum of the simulated solar wind is decreased, and it is found from the thrust measurement that the solar wind momentum is transferred to the coil simulating MagSail.

  19. Solar-wind minor ions: recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the years following the Solar Wind Four Conference at Burghausen our knowledge of the solar wind ion composition and dynamics has grown. There have been some surprises, and our understanding of the evolution of the solar wind has been improved. Systematic studies have shown that the minor ions generally travel with a common bulk speed and have temperatures roughly proportional to their masses. It has been determined that the 3 He ++ content varies greatly; 3 He ++ / 4 He ++ ranges from as high as 10 2 values to below 2 x 10 - 4 . In some solar wind flows which can be related to energetic coronal events, the minor ions are found in unusual ionization states containing Fe 16 + as a prominent ion, showing that the states were formed at unusually high temperatures. Unexpectedly, in a few flows substantial quantities of 4 He + have been detected, sometimes with ions identifiable as O 2 + and O 3 + . Surprisingly, in some of these examples the ionization state is mixed showing that part of the plasma escaped the corona without attaining the usual million-degree temperatures while other parts were heated more nearly in the normal manner. Additionally, detailed studies of the minor ions have increased our understanding of the coronal expansion. For example, such studies have contributed to identifying near equatorial coronal streamers as the source of solar wind flows between high speed streams

  20. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    model to be developed in collaboration with ENFOR A/S; a danish company that specialises in forecasting and optimisation for the energy sector. This integrated prediction model will allow for the description of the expected variability in wind power production in the coming hours to days, accounting......This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...

  1. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, T. S.

    This poster describes the status as of April 2012 of the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 \\Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a meso scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with a statistical tool in order to better predict short...... term power variation from off shore wind farms, as well as to conduct forecast error assessment studies in preparation for later implementation of such a feature in an existing simulation model. The addition of a forecast error estimation feature will further increase the value of this tool, as it...

  2. LONG-TERM TRENDS IN THE SOLAR WIND PROTON MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Heather A.; McComas, David J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); DeForest, Craig E. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We examine the long-term time evolution (1965–2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature ( T {sub p}) and speed ( V {sub p}) and between the proton density ( n {sub p}) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature–speed ( T {sub p}– V {sub p}) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density–speed ( n {sub p}– V {sub p}) relationship is not linear like the T {sub p}– V {sub p} relationship, we perform power-law fits for n {sub p}– V {sub p}. The exponent (steepness in the n {sub p}– V {sub p} relationship) is correlated with the solar cycle. This exponent has a stronger correlation with current sheet tilt angle than with sunspot number because the sunspot number maxima vary considerably from cycle to cycle and the tilt angle maxima do not. To understand this finding, we examined the average n {sub p} for different speed ranges, and found that for the slow wind n {sub p} is highly correlated with the sunspot number, with a lag of approximately four years. The fast wind n {sub p} variation was less, but in phase with the cycle. This phase difference may contribute to the n {sub p}– V {sub p} exponent correlation with the solar cycle. These long-term trends are important since empirical formulas based on fits to T {sub p} and V {sub p} data are commonly used to identify interplanetary coronal mass ejections, but these formulas do not include any time dependence. Changes in the solar wind density over a solar cycle will create corresponding changes in the near-Earth space environment and the overall extent of the heliosphere.

  3. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  4. ULF Wave Activity in the Magnetosphere: Resolving Solar Wind Interdependencies to Identify Driving Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S. N.; Watt, C. E. J.; Owens, M. J.; Rae, I. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves in the magnetosphere are involved in the energization and transport of radiation belt particles and are strongly driven by the external solar wind. However, the interdependency of solar wind parameters and the variety of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling processes make it difficult to distinguish the effect of individual processes and to predict magnetospheric wave power using solar wind properties. We examine 15 years of dayside ground-based measurements at a single representative frequency (2.5 mHz) and a single magnetic latitude (corresponding to L ˜ 6.6RE). We determine the relative contribution to ULF wave power from instantaneous nonderived solar wind parameters, accounting for their interdependencies. The most influential parameters for ground-based ULF wave power are solar wind speed vsw, southward interplanetary magnetic field component Bzstill account for significant amounts of power. We suggest that these three parameters correspond to driving by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, formation, and/or propagation of flux transfer events and density perturbations from solar wind structures sweeping past the Earth. We anticipate that this new parameter reduction will aid comparisons of ULF generation mechanisms between magnetospheric sectors and will enable more sophisticated empirical models predicting magnetospheric ULF power using external solar wind driving parameters.

  5. Drivers of imbalance cost of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obersteiner, C.; Siewierski, T.; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In Europe an increasing share of wind power is sold on the power market. Therefore more and more wind power generators become balancing responsible and face imbalance cost that reduce revenues from selling wind power. A comparison of literature illustrates that the imbalance cost of wind power...... varies in a wide range. To explain differences we indentify parameters influencing imbalance cost and compare them for case studies in Austria, Denmark and Poland. Besides the wind power forecast error also the correlation between imbalance and imbalance price influences imbalance cost significantly...... of imperfect forecast is better suited to reflect real cost incurred due to inaccurate wind power forecasts....

  6. Dynamic influences of wind power on the power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    The thesis first presents the basics influences of wind power on the power system stability and quality by pointing out the main power quality issues of wind power in a small-scale case and following, the expected large-scale problems are introduced. Secondly, a dynamic wind turbine model that supports power quality assessment of wind turbines is presented. Thirdly, an aggregate wind farm model that support power quality and stability analysis from large wind farms is presented. The aggregate wind farm model includes the smoothing of the relative power fluctuation from a wind farm compared to a single wind turbine. Finally, applications of the aggregate wind farm model to the power systems are presented. The power quality and stability characteristics influenced by large-scale wind power are illustrated with three cases. In this thesis, special emphasis has been given to appropriate models to represent the wind acting on wind farms. The wind speed model to a single wind turbine includes turbulence and tower shadow effects from the wind and the rotational sampling turbulence due to the rotation of the blades. In a park scale, the wind speed model to the wind farm includes the spatial coherence between different wind turbines. Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suitable to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power system quality and stability. The flicker and frequency deviations are the main power quality parameters presented. The power system stability concentrates on the voltage stability and on the power system oscillations. From the cases studied, voltage and the frequency variations were smaller than expected from the large-scale wind power integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting large

  7. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  8. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  9. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  10. Wind power statistics and an evaluation of wind energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, M.; Parsa, S.; Majidi, M. [Materials and Energy Research Centre, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the statistical data of fifty days` wind speed measurements at the MERC- solar site are used to find out the wind energy density and other wind characteristics with the help of the Weibull probability distribution function. It is emphasized that the Weibull and Rayleigh probability functions are useful tools for wind energy density estimation but are not quite appropriate for properly fitting the actual wind data of low mean speed, short-time records. One has to use either the actual wind data (histogram) or look for a better fit by other models of the probability function. (Author)

  11. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  12. PV–wind hybrid power option for a low wind topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Acharya, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimally harness the wind energy by unification of solar resource. • Analysis of PV–wind hybrid system with tangible experience. • Cost of generation and renewable fraction are $0.488/kWh and 0.90 respectively. • Maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75% with installed PV–wind system. • Indicative annual grid electricity conservation is 90%. - Abstract: Solar and wind are clean energy sources with enormous potential to alleviate grid dependence. The paper aims to optimally harness the wind resource with the support of solar energy through hybrid technology for a north-east Indian state Tripura (low wind topography). Techno-economic analysis of a photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid simulation model has been performed for small scale application in an educational building. The study also evaluates the tangible performance of a similar plant in practical condition of the site. It has emerged from the study that major energy generation is turning out from PV segment which is promising almost all round the year. Nonetheless, a considerable amount of wind power is found to be generated during half of the year when average PV power production is comparatively less. The cost of electricity from the simulation model is found to be $0.488/kWh while renewable fraction in the total electricity share is obtained to be 0.90. From the actual performance of the plant, maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75%

  13. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  14. Solar wind controlled pulsations: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odera, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the solar wind controlled Pc 3, 4 pulsations by early and recent researchers are highlighted. The review focuses on the recent observations, which cover the time during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Results from early and recent observations agree on one point, that is, that the Pc 3, 4 pulsations are influenced by three main solar wind parameters, namely, the solar wind velocity V/sub 5w/, the IMF orientation theta/sub x/B, and magnitude B. The results can be interpreted, preferably, in terms of an external origin for Pc 3, 4 pulsations. This implies, essentially, the signal model, which means that the pulsations originate in the upstream waves (in the interplanetary medium) and are transported by convection to the magnetopause, where they couple to oscillations of the magnetospheric field lines

  15. Diagnostics of the solar wind transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotova, N.A.; Nagelis, Ya.V.; Rudnitskij, G.M.; Smirnova, T.V.; AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga. Radioastrofizicheskaya Observatoriya; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities are discussed of a more complete study of hardly observable regions of the interplanetary medium, in the zone of the solar wind formation, where transition from subsonic to supersonic flow occurs at R sun . It is shown that an investigation of fine structure of the extended transonic region of the solar wind and of the sequence of changes in the parameters of the interplanetary plasma in the region of the solar wind formation with the changing distance from the Sun can be effectuated by using jointly different modifications of the occupation method. Combination of two or more modifications of this method supposes using compact radio sources of different classes and observations in two different wavelength ranges, namely at short centimeter and at meter waves

  16. WIND observations of coherent electrostatic waves in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mangeney

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The time domain sampler (TDS experiment on WIND measures electric and magnetic wave forms with a sampling rate which reaches 120 000 points per second. We analyse here observations made in the solar wind near the Lagrange point L1. In the range of frequencies above the proton plasma frequency fpi and smaller than or of the order of the electron plasma frequency fpe, TDS observed three kinds of electrostatic (e.s. waves: coherent wave packets of Langmuir waves with frequencies f ~ fpe, coherent wave packets with frequencies in the ion acoustic range fpi < f < fpe, and more or less isolated non-sinusoidal spikes lasting less than 1 ms. We confirm that the observed frequency of the low frequency (LF ion acoustic wave packets is dominated by the Doppler effect: the wavelengths are short, 10 to 50 electron Debye lengths λD. The electric field in the isolated electrostatic structures (IES and in the LF wave packets is more or less aligned with the solar wind magnetic field. Across the IES, which have a spatial width of the order of ~ 25λD, there is a small but finite electric potential drop, implying an average electric field generally directed away from the Sun. The IES wave forms, which have not been previously reported in the solar wind, are similar, although with a smaller amplitude, to the weak double layers observed in the auroral regions, and to the electrostatic solitary waves observed in other regions in the magnetosphere. We have also studied the solar wind conditions which favour the occurrence of the three kinds of waves: all these e.s. waves are observed more or less continuously in the whole solar wind (except in the densest regions where a parasite prevents the TDS observations. The type (wave packet or IES of the observed LF waves is mainly determined by the proton temperature and by the direction of the magnetic field, which themselves depend on the latitude of WIND with respect to the heliospheric current sheet.Key words

  17. WIND observations of coherent electrostatic waves in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mangeney

    Full Text Available The time domain sampler (TDS experiment on WIND measures electric and magnetic wave forms with a sampling rate which reaches 120 000 points per second. We analyse here observations made in the solar wind near the Lagrange point L1. In the range of frequencies above the proton plasma frequency fpi and smaller than or of the order of the electron plasma frequency fpe, TDS observed three kinds of electrostatic (e.s. waves: coherent wave packets of Langmuir waves with frequencies f ~ fpe, coherent wave packets with frequencies in the ion acoustic range fpi < f < fpe, and more or less isolated non-sinusoidal spikes lasting less than 1 ms. We confirm that the observed frequency of the low frequency (LF ion acoustic wave packets is dominated by the Doppler effect: the wavelengths are short, 10 to 50 electron Debye lengths λD. The electric field in the isolated electrostatic structures (IES and in the LF wave packets is more or less aligned with the solar wind magnetic field. Across the IES, which have a spatial width of the order of ~ 25λD, there is a small but finite electric potential drop, implying an average electric field generally directed away from the Sun. The IES wave forms, which have not been previously reported in the solar wind, are similar, although with a smaller amplitude, to the weak double layers observed in the auroral regions, and to the electrostatic solitary waves observed in other regions in the magnetosphere. We have also studied the solar wind conditions which favour the occurrence of the three kinds of waves: all these e.s. waves are observed more or less continuously in the whole solar wind (except in the densest regions where a parasite prevents the TDS observations. The type (wave packet or IES of the observed LF waves is mainly determined

  18. THE NEW HORIZONS SOLAR WIND AROUND PLUTO (SWAP) OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR WIND FROM 11–33 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Livadiotis, G. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Nicolaou, G., E-mail: helliott@swri.edu [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, SE-98128, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument on National Aeronautics and Space Administration's New Horizons Pluto mission has collected solar wind observations en route from Earth to Pluto, and these observations continue beyond Pluto. Few missions have explored the solar wind in the outer heliosphere making this dataset a critical addition to the field. We created a forward model of SWAP count rates, which includes a comprehensive instrument response function based on laboratory and flight calibrations. By fitting the count rates with this model, the proton density (n), speed (V), and temperature (T) parameters are determined. Comparisons between SWAP parameters and both propagated 1 au observations and prior Voyager 2 observations indicate consistency in both the range and mean wind values. These comparisons as well as our additional findings confirm that small and midsized solar wind structures are worn down with increasing distance due to dynamic interaction of parcels of wind with different speed. For instance, the T–V relationship steepens, as the range in V is limited more than the range in T with distance. At times the T–V correlation clearly breaks down beyond 20 au, which may indicate wind currently expanding and cooling may have an elevated T reflecting prior heating and compression in the inner heliosphere. The power of wind parameters at shorter periodicities decreases with distance as the longer periodicities strengthen. The solar rotation periodicity is present in temperature beyond 20 au indicating the observed parcel temperature may reflect not only current heating or cooling, but also heating occurring closer to the Sun.

  19. THE NEW HORIZONS SOLAR WIND AROUND PLUTO (SWAP) OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR WIND FROM 11–33 au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Livadiotis, G.; Nicolaou, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument on National Aeronautics and Space Administration's New Horizons Pluto mission has collected solar wind observations en route from Earth to Pluto, and these observations continue beyond Pluto. Few missions have explored the solar wind in the outer heliosphere making this dataset a critical addition to the field. We created a forward model of SWAP count rates, which includes a comprehensive instrument response function based on laboratory and flight calibrations. By fitting the count rates with this model, the proton density (n), speed (V), and temperature (T) parameters are determined. Comparisons between SWAP parameters and both propagated 1 au observations and prior Voyager 2 observations indicate consistency in both the range and mean wind values. These comparisons as well as our additional findings confirm that small and midsized solar wind structures are worn down with increasing distance due to dynamic interaction of parcels of wind with different speed. For instance, the T–V relationship steepens, as the range in V is limited more than the range in T with distance. At times the T–V correlation clearly breaks down beyond 20 au, which may indicate wind currently expanding and cooling may have an elevated T reflecting prior heating and compression in the inner heliosphere. The power of wind parameters at shorter periodicities decreases with distance as the longer periodicities strengthen. The solar rotation periodicity is present in temperature beyond 20 au indicating the observed parcel temperature may reflect not only current heating or cooling, but also heating occurring closer to the Sun

  20. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  1. Wind-powered aqueduct systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, F R; Ljungstroem, O [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The MITRE Corporation is proposing to develop a preliminarydesign for a system that would use large-scale wind-driven units to provide power for the pumping of water from the main reservoir to auxiliary reservoirs in other parts of an aqueduct system. The study would include a comparison of the cost and effectiveness of alternative methods of performing such operations.

  2. Enhancement of Nutrient Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Utilizing an Electric Fan Air Blower with Renewable Energy of Solar and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sewage treatment efficiency of hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs was evaluated under different ventilation methods. The removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP in the vertical flow- (VF- horizontal flow (HF CWs using an electric fan air blower by the renewable energy of solar and wind power were higher than those by natural ventilation, excluding only suspended solids (SS. The TN treatment efficiency in the CW using the air blower especially increased rapidly by 16.6% in comparison with the CW employing natural ventilation, since the VF bed provided suitable conditions (aerobic for nitrification to occur. The average removal efficiencies of BOD, SS, TN, and TP in the effluent were 98.8, 97.4, 58.0, and 48.3% in the CW using an electric fan air blower, respectively. The treatment performance of the CWs under different ventilation methods was assessed, showing TN in the CW using an electric fan air blower to be reduced by 57.5~58.6% for inlet TN loading, whereas reduction by 19.0~53.3% was observed in the CW with natural ventilation. Therefore, to increase the removal of nutrients in CWs, an improved ventilation system, providing ventilation via an electric fan air blower with the renewable energy, is recommended.

  3. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  4. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  5. Wind power; Vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevseth, Joergen

    2009-07-01

    The clear majority of Norwegian politicians seem to think that the climate crisis must be taken seriously. But they have not taken the consequences of this view in relation to what Norway should do. Particularly to act quickly. Technologies for renewable energy must be developed and put into use now. Only through thorough testing and mass production at a mature and affordable technology is it achieved. The innovation must be provided to poor countries. That is where the strongest growth in consumption and emissions is coming. Now coal is the solution - a climate term 'bad guy'. Norway's 'moon landing' with the purification of gas power plants will probably never be profitable. A hyper-modern gas power plant at Kaarstoe - without cleaning - have been idle most of the time since start-up because the power is too expensive. Moreover, natural gas is a very valuable resource even as more and more need to replace oil. The world has a serious energy crisis, oil production is about to pass the top, and only a fifth of the world's population has fully taken part in the festivities. China, India and many other poor countries are now in good speed to make up the rich, with family car to everyone and an enormous need for more electricity. There is a great time pressure in relation to the climate crisis, economic analysis shows that it is costly to delay action. (AG)

  6. Wind and Solar Energy Role in the Achievement of EU Climate Policy After 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper grades the possible role of solar and wind energy in the generation of electricity after 2020. The development of those energy sources will be defined by the climate policy implemented based on the last year's Paris Climate Agreement, but also by the existing initiatives of the European Commission (2030 climate and energy framework and 2050 low-carbon economy). Additionally, electricity generation from RES is observed through the decrease of dependency on the import of fossil fuels outside of the EU. According to the report of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the biggest share of RES power plants, after hydro power plants, in EU are wind and solar power plants. Both wind and sun are constantly available resources, but with variable specific power, which makes the maximal generation dependent on the time of day and/or weather (wind, clouds). Future increase of wind and solar energy has to be observed from various perspectives as to properly grade it for the next period, until 2020. Therefore, this paper considers the following, intertwined aspects: Maturity of wind and solar technologies and future trends, Price of electricity generation from wind and solar power plants, with an analysis of price decreasing trends; Possibilities of power energy system and measures for the acceptance of wind and solar power plants; Integrative approach to all forms and transformations of electricity; Market integration of RES - aspirations towards free trade(author).

  7. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between fast and slow solar wind streams and the dynamically evolved interaction regions is reflected in the characteristic fluctuations of both the solar wind and the embedded magnetic field. High-resolution magnetic field data from the Ulysses spacecraft have been analyzed. The observations show rapid variations in the magnetic field components and in the magnetic field strength, suggesting a structured nature of the solar wind at small scales. The typical sizes of fluctuations cover a broad range. If translated to the solar surface, the scales span from the size of granules (∼10 3 km) and supergranules (∼10 4 km) on the Sun down to ∼10 2 km and less. The properties of the short time structures change in the different types of solar wind. While fluctuations in fast streams are more homogeneous, slow streams present a bursty behavior in the magnetic field variances, and the regions of transition are characterized by high levels of power in narrow structures around the transitions. The probability density functions of the magnetic field increments at several scales reveal a higher level of intermittency in the mixed streams, which is related to the presence of well localized features. It is concluded that, apart from the differences in the nature of fluctuations in flows of different coronal origin, there is a small-scale structuring that depends on the origin of streams themselves but it is also related to a bursty generation of the fluctuations.

  9. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Research on mesh-based estimation of natural energy for Southeast Asia as represented by Myanmar (Assessment of wind power and solar energy using numerical weather model); 1999 nendo Myanmar koku wo rei ni shita Tonan Asia ni okeru shizen energy no mesh suitei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suchi kisho model ni yoru furyoku taiyo energy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As the first step for the introduction of wind power systems and photovoltaic power systems into developing countries in Southeast Asia etc. and for their diffusion in them for the exploitation of natural energy, a numerical weather model useable in Southeast Asia is developed to make up for the insufficiency of weather data in the region. A technique is developed, to explain which the case of Myanmar is cited, for estimating with accuracy such natural conditions as wind direction, wind velocity, and solar radiation in the past one-year period for the assessment of power to be generated using wind turbines and solar panels. The results of the observation of wind conditions indicate that wind directions are mainly northerly or westerly and that wind speeds are as week as 1-3m/s on the average. As for total solar radiation per diem in December through March, it is found that there is 17-23MJ/m{sup 2}/day, which is twice the level to be measured in Tokyo. A comparison is made between the weather observation results and a model calculation, and it is found that the latter sufficiently reproduces the actual weather conditions. Based on the values of wind conditions and solar radiation estimated in Myanmar, the amount of power to be obtained from an assumed arrangement of wind power systems and solar panels is assessed. (NEDO)

  11. Combined wind and solar feed-in to the grid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights South African wind and solar resources and presents a case study on wind and solar PV combination. It also distinguishes between traditional and new philosophies regarding energy system design and the changes...

  12. Wind Power Prediction using Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Badger, Jake; Landberg, Lars

    2005-01-01

    offshore wind farm and the whole Jutland/Funen area. The utilities used these forecasts for maintenance planning, fuel consumption estimates and over-the-weekend trading on the Leipzig power exchange. Othernotable scientific results include the better accuracy of forecasts made up from a simple...... superposition of two NWP provider (in our case, DMI and DWD), an investigation of the merits of a parameterisation of the turbulent kinetic energy within thedelivered wind speed forecasts, and the finding that a “naïve” downscaling of each of the coarse ECMWF ensemble members with higher resolution HIRLAM did...

  13. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  14. RE-SUPPLY: Securing the supply chains of wind power and solar PV Securing the supply chain for renewable energy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Franz; Vuille, Francois; Ziem, Sabine [E4tech UK Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Rastogi, Ankur; Sengupta, Subhabrata [Avalon Consulting, Mumbai (India)

    2012-11-15

    The RE-SUPPLY project aimed to provide insight into the elements of the supply chains which are presently or can in the future evolve as critical constraints in further large-scale deployment of on- and offshore wind and solar photovoltaic energy. The objectives of the study were twofold: Risk assessment: identify potential bottlenecks in the supply chains of wind and PV and assess their criticality and timeline for occurrence; and, Risk management: identify suitable mitigation strategies and recommend specific actions at policy and industry level.

  15. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    determine the power required to fly the airplane, optimize the airframe/propulsion system, and train the pilot. He made the first flights on April 7, 1980, and made a brief solar-powered flight on May 18. The official project pilot was Janice Brown, a Bakersfield school teacher who weighed in at slightly under 100 pounds and was a charter pilot with commercial, instrument, and glider ratings. She checked out in the plane at Shafter and made about 40 flights under battery and solar power there. Wind direction, turbulence, convection, temperature and radiation at Shafter in mid-summer proved to be less than ideal for Gossamer Penguin because takeoffs required no crosswind and increases in temperature reduced the power output from the solar cells. Consequently, the project moved to Dryden in late July, although conditions there also were not ideal. Nevertheless, Janice finished the testing, and on August 7, 1980, she flew a public demonstration of the aircraft at Dryden in which it went roughly 1.95 miles in 14 minutes and 21 seconds. This was significant as the first sustained flight of an aircraft relying solely on direct solar power rather than batteries. It provided the designers with practical experience for developing a more advanced, solar-powered aircraft, since the Gossamer Penguin was fragile and had limited controllability. This necessitated its flying early in the day when there were minimal wind and turbulence levels, but the angle of the sun was also low, requiring a panel for the solar cells that could be tilted toward the sun. Using the specific conclusions derived from their experience with Gossamer Penguin, the AeroVironment engineers designed Solar Challenger, a piloted, solar-powered aircraft strong enough to handle both long and high flights when encountering normal turbulence.

  16. Nordic wind power conference 2007. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-11-01

    This fourth Nordic Wind Power Conference was focused on power system integration and electrical systems of wind turbines and wind farms. NWPC presents the newest research results related to technical electrical aspects of wind power, spanning from power system integration to electrical design and control of wind turbines. The first NWPC was held in Trondheim (2000), Norway, the second in Gothenburg (2004), Sweden, and the third in Espoo (2006), Finland. Invited speakers, oral presentation of papers and poster sessions ensured this to be a valuable event for professionals and high-level students wanting to strengthen their knowledge on wind power integration and electrical systems. (au)

  17. Nordic wind power conference 2007. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutululis, N; Soerensen, P [eds.

    2007-11-15

    This fourth Nordic Wind Power Conference was focused on power system integration and electrical systems of wind turbines and wind farms. NWPC presents the newest research results related to technical electrical aspects of wind power, spanning from power system integration to electrical design and control of wind turbines. The first NWPC was held in Trondheim (2000), Norway, the second in Gothenburg (2004), Sweden, and the third in Espoo (2006), Finland. Invited speakers, oral presentation of papers and poster sessions ensured this to be a valuable event for professionals and high-level students wanting to strengthen their knowledge on wind power integration and electrical systems. (au)

  18. Numerical simulation of wind loads on solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kao-Chun; Chung, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Shu-Tsung

    2018-05-01

    Solar panels mounted on the roof of a building or ground are often vulnerable to strong wind loads. This study aims to investigate wind loads on solar panels using computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The results show good agreement with wind tunnel data, e.g. the streamwise distribution of mean surface pressure coefficient of a solar panel. Wind uplift for solar panels with four aspect ratios is evaluated. The effect of inclined angle and clearance (or height) of a solar panel is addressed. It is found that wind uplift of a solar panel increases when there is an increase in inclined angle and the clearance above ground shows an opposite effect.

  19. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel wind-solar-liquid air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, W.; Pan, C. Z.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the nature of fluctuation and intermittency, the utilization of wind and solar power will bring a huge impact to the power grid management. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-liquid air energy storage (WS-LAES) system was proposed. In this system, wind and solar power are stored in the form of liquid air by cryogenic liquefaction technology and thermal energy by solar thermal collector, respectively. Owing to the high density of liquid air, the system has a large storage capacity and no geographic constraints. The WS-LAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to investigate the best system performance. The result shows that the increases of compressor adiabatic efficiency, turbine inlet pressure and inlet temperature all have a beneficial effect.

  20. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  2. Solar wind structure suggested by bimodal correlations of solar wind speed and density between the spacecraft SOHO and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Ipavich, F.

    2007-08-01

    We calculate the cross-spacecraft maximum lagged-cross-correlation coefficients for 2-hour intervals of solar wind speed and density measurements made by the plasma instruments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Wind spacecraft over the period from 1996, the minimum of solar cycle 23, through the end of 2005. During this period, SOHO was located at L1, about 200 R E upstream from the Earth, while Wind spent most of the time in the interplanetary medium at distances of more than 100 R E from the Earth. Yearly histograms of the maximum, time-lagged correlation coefficients for both the speed and density are bimodal in shape, suggesting the existence of two distinct solar wind regimes. The larger correlation coefficients we suggest are due to structured solar wind, including discontinuities and shocks, while the smaller are likely due to Alfvénic turbulence. While further work will be required to firmly establish the physical nature of the two populations, the results of the analysis are consistent with a solar wind that consists of turbulence from quiet regions of the Sun interspersed with highly filamentary structures largely convected from regions in the inner solar corona. The bimodal appearance of the distributions is less evident in the solar wind speed than in the density correlations, consistent with the observation that the filamentary structures are convected with nearly constant speed by the time they reach 1 AU. We also find that at solar minimum the fits for the density correlations have smaller high-correlation components than at solar maximum. We interpret this as due to the presence of more relatively uniform Alfvénic regions at solar minimum than at solar maximum.

  3. The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Carbone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both astrophysics and plasma physics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Helios inner heliosphere and Ulysses' high latitude observations, recent multi-spacecrafts measurements in the solar wind (Cluster four satellites and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.

  4. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  5. Classification of solar wind with machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico); A. Carè (Algo); J.E. Borovsky (Joseph)

    2017-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a four-category classification algorithm for the solar wind, based on Gaussian Process. The four categories are the ones previously adopted in Xu and Borovsky (2015): ejecta, coronal hole origin plasma, streamer belt origin plasma, and sector reversal origin plasma. The

  6. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), 158/1-158/7 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  7. Solar wind conditions for a quiet magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, K.J.; Gussenhoven, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The conditions of the solar wind that lead to a quiet magnetosphere are determined under the assumption that the quiet or baseline magnetosphere can be identified by prolonged periods of low values of the am index. The authors analyzed solar wind data from 1978 to 1984 (7 years) during periods in which am ≤ 3 nT to identify those solar wind parameters that deviate significantly from average values. Parallel studies were also performed for prolonged periods of Kp = 0, 0+ and AE z ) show distinctive variations from average values. They independently varied these solar wind parameters and the length of time the conditions must persist to minimize am. This was done with the additional requirement that the conditions yield a reasonable number of occurrences (5% of the data set). The resulting baseline conditions are V ≤ 390 km/s; 180 degree - arctan |B y /B z | ≤ 101 degree, when b z ≤ 0 (no restriction on B z positive); B ≤ 6.5 nT; and persistence of these conditions for at least 5 hours. Minimizing the am index does not require a clear upper limit on the value of B z as might be anticipated from the work of Gussenhoven (1988) and Berthelier (1980). Apparently, this is a result of the requirement that the conditions must occur 5% of the time. When the requirement is lowered to 1% occurrence, an upper limit to B z emerges

  8. Modeling 3-D solar wind structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, Dušan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2003), s. 497-506 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003003; GA AV ČR IBS1003006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : solar wind * modeling Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  9. Wind and solar resource data sets: Wind and solar resource data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Badger, Jake [Department of Wind Energy, Danish Technical University, Copenhagen Denmark; Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2017-12-05

    The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used to support continental-scale, national, or regional renewable energy development; facilitate prospecting by developers; and enable grid integration studies. This review first provides an introduction to the wind and solar resource data sets, then provides an overview of the common methods used for their creation and validation. A brief history of wind and solar resource data sets is then presented, followed by areas for future research.

  10. Kinetic Physics of the Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsch Eckart

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic plasma physics of the solar corona and solar wind are reviewed with emphasis on the theoretical understanding of the in situ measurements of solar wind particles and waves, as well as on the remote-sensing observations of the solar corona made by means of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging. In order to explain coronal and interplanetary heating, the microphysics of the dissipation of various forms of mechanical, electric and magnetic energy at small scales (e.g., contained in plasma waves, turbulences or non-uniform flows must be addressed. We therefore scrutinise the basic assumptions underlying the classical transport theory and the related collisional heating rates, and also describe alternatives associated with wave-particle interactions. We elucidate the kinetic aspects of heating the solar corona and interplanetary plasma through Landau- and cyclotron-resonant damping of plasma waves, and analyse in detail wave absorption and micro instabilities. Important aspects (virtues and limitations of fluid models, either single- and multi-species or magnetohydrodynamic and multi-moment models, for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are critically discussed. Also, kinetic model results which were recently obtained by numerically solving the Vlasov–Boltzmann equation in a coronal funnel and hole are presented. Promising areas and perspectives for future research are outlined finally.

  11. Intermittency Statistics in the Expanding Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, M. E.; Parashar, T. N.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind is observed to be turbulent. One of the open questions in solar wind research is how the turbulence evolves as the solar wind expands to great distances. Some studies have focused on evolution of the outer scale but not much has been done to understand how intermittency evolves in the expanding wind beyond 1 AU (see [1,2]). We use magnetic field data from Voyager I spacecraft from 1 to 10AU to study the evolution of statistics of magnetic discontinuities. We perform various statistical tests on these discontinuities and make connections to the physical processes occurring in the expanding wind.[1] Tsurutani, Bruce T., and Edward J. Smith. "Interplanetary discontinuities: Temporal variations and the radial gradient from 1 to 8.5 AU." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 84.A6 (1979): 2773-2787.[2] Greco, A., et al. "Evidence for nonlinear development of magnetohydrodynamic scale intermittency in the inner heliosphere." The Astrophysical Journal 749.2 (2012): 105.

  12. Dynamic Influences of Wind Power on The Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Pedro Andrè Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    between different wind turbines.Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suit-able to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power systemquality and stability...... integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting largeamount of wind power showed very small voltage variations. The frequency variations analysed from the Nordel showed also small varia...

  13. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also......This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...

  14. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, Pat

    2000-04-06

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives include: Educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain DOE wind energy program objectives and goals; describe program accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  15. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the ... for power generation. ... determined because they are functions of the solar angles that ..... able to withstand the weight and the blowing wind.

  16. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  17. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  18. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  19. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  20. Trend chart: wind power. Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the fourth quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  1. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  2. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  3. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  4. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  5. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  6. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  7. Wind power in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravn, Hans F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes organisational and economic elements related to wind power in a deregulated market, it describes physical and technical characteristics of wind power and it describes how wind power is handled in daily operation as well as on the market. (author)

  8. Electric solar wind sail mass budget model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The electric solar wind sail (E-sail is a new type of propellantless propulsion system for Solar System transportation, which uses the natural solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. The E-sail consists of thin centrifugally stretched tethers that are kept charged by an onboard electron gun and, as such, experience Coulomb drag through the high-speed solar wind plasma stream. This paper discusses a mass breakdown and a performance model for an E-sail spacecraft that hosts a mission-specific payload of prescribed mass. In particular, the model is able to estimate the total spacecraft mass and its propulsive acceleration as a function of various design parameters such as the number of tethers and their length. A number of subsystem masses are calculated assuming existing or near-term E-sail technology. In light of the obtained performance estimates, an E-sail represents a promising propulsion system for a variety of transportation needs in the Solar System.

  9. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes. Solar PV gives DC Power. But load is AC; Needs a DC-AC convertor. Now if we add a battery. Battery stores only DC. Require a AC-DC convertor for charging; Require a DC-AC convertor during discharging. For low power, each ...

  10. Development of a controller based on Fuzzy theory to better use the energy of a hybrid system power generation solar-photovoltaic and wind; Desenvolvimento de um controlador baseado na teoria Fuzzy para melhor aproveitamento da energia de um sistema hibrido de geracao de energia solar-fotovoltaico e eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto de Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental

    2010-07-01

    The work developed a methodology fuzzy and simulated its use in control of a hybrid system of electric power generation, using solar-photovoltaic and wind energy. Using this control system, we get the point of maximum energy generation and transfer all the energy generated from alternative sources, solar-photovoltaic and wind energy to charge and / or batteries. The model uses three input variables, which are: wind (wind speed), sun (solar radiation) and batteries (charge the battery bank). With these variables, the fuzzy system will play, according to the rules to be described, what is the source of power supply system, which will have priority and how the batteries are loaded. For the simulations regarding the use of fuzzy theory to control, we used the scientific computing environment MATLAB. In this environment have been analyzed and simulated all mathematical modeling, rules and other variables described in the fuzzy system. This model can be applied to implement a control system of hybrid power generation, providing the best use of renewable energy, solar and wind, so that we can extract the maximum possible energy of these alternative sources without compromising the environment. (author)

  11. Efficiency of a small wind power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.; Christov, Ch.; Kozarev, N.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to obtain the optimal solution for wind station both by technical parameters and costs. The energetic characteristics of the wind as a renewable energy source are discussed and assessment of the economical efficiency is made. For the determination of the optimal wind parameters the method of integral wind curves is used. The low power wind generators (0.4 - 1.5 kW) are considered as optimal for the presented wind characteristics

  12. NEMO 2 - Be aware: Wind and solar are coming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finnish research and development is well placed with respect to new renewable energy technologies in that there exists considerable expertise in specialized areas. For example, over 20 % of all power transmission equipment and generators used in wind energy systems world-wide are manufactured in Finland, while advanced instruments for monitoring wind speed are also highly regarded internationally. Moreover, unique wind technology for complex windy and freezing conditions have been developed. Finland has a 10 % share in the European photovoltaic market, and has competitive advantages in photovoltaic systems and applications, thin film solar cells, and automated electronic controlling systems. A unique solar energy storage system based on hydrogen technology demonstrates skills on overcoming the summer-winter syndrome of large-scale solar energy utilization. The annual turnover of the Finnish industries on solar and wind energy has increased from 5 million ECU in 1988 to almost 50 million ECU in 1996. The national R and D and D from 1988 onwards has played an important role in this context. Most of the research and development into new and renewable energy technologies in Finland has been carried out through the Advanced New Energy Systems and Technologies Research Programme (NEMO2) of Tekes

  13. Wind power forecast error smoothing within a wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleck, Nadja; Bremen, Lueder von

    2007-01-01

    Smoothing of wind power forecast errors is well-known for large areas. Comparable effects within a wind farm are investigated in this paper. A Neural Network was taken to predict the power output of a wind farm in north-western Germany comprising 17 turbines. A comparison was done between an algorithm that fits mean wind and mean power data of the wind farm and a second algorithm that fits wind and power data individually for each turbine. The evaluation of root mean square errors (RMSE) shows that relative small smoothing effects occur. However, it can be shown for this wind farm that individual calculations have the advantage that only a few turbines are needed to give better results than the use of mean data. Furthermore different results occurred if predicted wind speeds are directly fitted to observed wind power or if predicted wind speeds are first fitted to observed wind speeds and then applied to a power curve. The first approach gives slightly better RMSE values, the bias improves considerably

  14. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  15. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability...... and unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility......, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented to increase...

  16. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  17. Harnessing wind power with sustained policy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, L. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Economics, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The ''Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)'' has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, a combination of domestic policy support for wind power and the rise of Suzlon (a leading global wind turbine manufacturer) have led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. (Author)

  18. Wind and IMP 8 Solar Wind, Magnetosheath and Shock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide the community access to magnetosheath data near Earth. We provided 27 years of IMP 8 magnetosheath proton velocities, densities, and temperatures with our best (usually 1-min.) time resolution. IMP 8 crosses the magnetosheath twice each 125 day orbit, and we provided magnetosheath data for the roughly 27 years of data for which magnetometer data are also available (which are needed to reliably pick boundaries). We provided this 27 years of IMP 8 magnetosheath data to the NSSDC; this data is now integrated with the IMP 8 solar wind data with flags indicating whether each data point is in the solar wind, magnetosheath, or at the boundary between the two regions. The plasma speed, density, and temperature are provided for each magnetosheath point. These data are also available on the MIT web site ftp://space .mit.edu/pub/plasma/imp/www/imp.html. We provide ASCII time-ordered rows of data giving the observation time, the spacecraft position in GSE, the velocity is GSE, the density and temperature for protons. We also have analyzed and archived on our web site the Wind magnetosheath plasma parameters. These consist of ascii files of the proton and alpha densities, speeds, and thermal speeds. These data are available at ftp://space.mit.edu/pub/plasma/wind/sheath These are the two products promised in the work statement and they have been completed in full.

  19. Spacecraft observations of solar wind turbulence: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbury, T S; Forman, M A; Oughton, S

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements in the solar wind offer the opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a collisionless plasma in great detail. We review some of the key results of the study of this medium: the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves propagating predominantly away from the Sun; the existence of an active turbulent cascade; and the presence of intermittency similar to that in neutral fluids. We also discuss the presence of anisotropy in wavevector space relative to the local magnetic field direction. Some models suggest that MHD turbulence can evolve to a state with power predominantly in wavevectors either parallel to the magnetic field ('slab' fluctuations) or approximately perpendicular to it ('2D'). We review the existing evidence for such anisotropy, which has important consequences for the transport of energetic particles. Finally, we present the first results of a new analysis which provides the most accurate measurements to date of the wave-vector anisotropy of wavevector power in solar wind MHD turbulence

  20. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  1. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the effects...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms.......Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...

  2. Blowing in the Wind: A Review of Wind Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind as a replenishable energy resource has come back into favour in recent decades. It is much promoted as a viable, clean energy option that will help towards reducing CO[subscript 2] emissions in the UK. This article examines the history of wind power and considers the development of wind turbines, together with their economic,…

  3. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  4. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudivani, J.; Huettner, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  5. Endurance Wind Power : practical insights into small wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed practical issues related to purchasing and installing small wind turbines in Canada. Wind power capacity can be estimated by looking at provincial wind maps as well as by seeking wind data at local airports. Wind resources are typically measured at heights of between 20 meters and 50 m. The height of a wind turbine tower can significantly increase the turbine's wind generating capacity. Turbine rotors should always be placed 30 feet higher than obstacles within 500 feet. Many provinces have now mandated utilities to accept renewable energy resources from grid-connected wind energy plants. Net billing systems are used to determine the billing relationship between power-producing consumers and the utilities who will buy the excess power and sell it to other consumers. Utilities are not yet mandated to purchase excess power, and it is likely that federal and provincial legislation will be needed to ensure that net billing systems continue to grow. Many Canadian municipalities have no ordinances related to wind turbine placements. Consumers interested in purchasing small wind turbines should ensure that the turbine has been certified by an accredited test facility and has an adequate safety system. The noise of the turbine as well as its power performance in relation to the purchaser's needs must also be considered. It was concluded that small wind turbines can provide a means for electricity consumers to reduce their carbon footprint and hedge against the inflationary costs of fossil-fuelled energy resources. tabs., figs

  6. Wind Power Today: 2000 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, W.

    2001-05-08

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  7. Optimal control of wind power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.; Boer, de W.W.; Bosgra, O.H.; Peeters, S.A.W.M.; Ploeg, J.

    1988-01-01

    The control system design for a wind power plant is investigated. Both theoverall wind farm control and the individual wind turbine control effect thewind farm dynamic performance.For a wind turbine with a synchronous generator and rectifier/invertersystem a multivariable controller is designed.

  8. Wind power in Mali 1979-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadou Adama Diallo.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer to the users maps of available wind power, the percentage of calm wind, the average speed of the wind and tables of wind frequencies in Mali, in order to provide possible solutions for the energy problems of the country. 11 tabs, 3 maps

  9. Solar and wind exergy potentials for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Vázquez-Martín, Sandra; Zorzano, María-Paz

    2016-01-01

    The energy requirements of the planetary exploration spacecrafts constrain the lifetime of the missions, their mobility and capabilities, and the number of instruments onboard. They are limiting factors in planetary exploration. Several missions to the surface of Mars have proven the feasibility and success of solar panels as energy source. The analysis of the exergy efficiency of the solar radiation has been carried out successfully on Earth, however, to date, there is not an extensive research regarding the thermodynamic exergy efficiency of in-situ renewable energy sources on Mars. In this paper, we analyse the obtainable energy (exergy) from solar radiation under Martian conditions. For this analysis we have used the surface environmental variables on Mars measured in-situ by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Curiosity rover and from satellite by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer instrument onboard the Mars Global Surveyor satellite mission. We evaluate the exergy efficiency from solar radiation on a global spatial scale using orbital data for a Martian year; and in a one single location in Mars (the Gale crater) but with an appreciable temporal resolution (1 h). Also, we analyse the wind energy as an alternative source of energy for Mars exploration and compare the results with those obtained on Earth. We study the viability of solar and wind energy station for the future exploration of Mars, showing that a small square solar cell of 0.30 m length could maintain a meteorological station on Mars. We conclude that the low density of the atmosphere of Mars is responsible of the low thermal exergy efficiency of solar panels. It also makes the use of wind energy uneffective. Finally, we provide insights for the development of new solar cells on Mars. - Highlights: • We analyse the exergy of solar radiation under Martian environment • Real data from in-situ instruments is used to determine the maximum efficiency of radiation • Wind

  10. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  11. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Renewable energy; pumping water; technical optimization; ... The country already start on a mega-project of solar power production (2000 MW) ...... with a wind turbine in a standalone renewable energy system based on hydrogen.

  12. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    to the technical characteristics of individual installations spread across large regions. The proposed methodology is validated using actual power data in Europe and can be applied to represent intermittent generation in network development plans, reliability and market studies, as well as operational guidelines.......The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  13. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  14. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  15. In the wind of change. The wind power as pacesetters and guide to a fast turn to renewable energies; Im Wind des Wandels. Die Windkraft als Schrittmacher und Wegweiser zu einer schnellen Wende zu Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H.; Alt, F.

    2007-07-01

    All renewable energy potentials (water power, bioenergy, wave power, geothermal energy) clearly are widespread as oil, natural gas, coal or uranium. For these potentials there are natural, spatial restrictions. In contrast to this, there exist any spatial restrictions for solar power and wind force. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on wind force as a pacesetter and guide to a fast turn to renewable energy. Solar energy and wind energy have two crucial advantages of realizations: (a) The solar power plants and wind power plants can be installed faster than all other plants for generation of electrical power; (b) Solar power plants and wind power plants enable a radical shortening and simplification for the power supply. The generation and supply of electricity from solar power and wind power are also economically undefeatable. It is not a utopia to increase the contribution of the wind energy at the German power generation on basis of the renewable energy law in few years on over 40 %. The thesis, a further development of the wind power only is possible with offshore installations, because no suitable locations are present in the inland, is not correct. The emphasis of the use of wind power must remain with onshore plants. A broad dispersion of wind power plants should have priority, because the grid entrance is more easily realizable. The political attention must be directed toward the overcoming of the permission obstacles. Wind energy enables the passing of electricity from the shade of atomic and fossil power supply.

  16. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  17. Wind Power Today: Wind Energy Program Highlights 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program accomplishments for the previous year. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2001 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2001, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  18. Wind energy power plants (wind farms) review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, K B; McKeary, M [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health

    2010-07-01

    Global wind power capacity has increased by an average cumulative rate of over 30 percent over the past 10 years. Although wind energy emits no air pollutants and facilities can often share spaces with other activities, public opposition to wind power development is an ongoing cause of concern. Development at the local level in Ontario has been met with fierce opposition on the basis of health concerns, aesthetic values, potential environmental impacts, and economic risks. This report was prepared for the Town of Wasaga Beach, and examined some of the controversy surrounding wind power developments through a review of evidence found in the scientific literature. The impacts of wind power developments related to noise, shadow flicker, avian mortality, bats, and real estate values were evaluated. The study included details of interviews conducted with individuals from Ontario localities where wind farms were located. 77 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  19. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  20. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...

  1. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...

  2. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  3. Application of synchronous grid-connected controller in the wind-solar-storage micro grid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hua; Ren, Yongfeng; Li, Le; Luo, Zhenpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using distributed generators (DG) not only to inject power into the grid, but also to enhance the power quality. In this study, a space voltage pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control method is proposed for a synchronous grid-connected controller in a wind-solar-storage micro grid. This method is based on the appropriate topology of the synchronous controller. The wind-solar-storage micro grid is controlled to reconnect to the grid synchronous...

  4. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Ye, Z; Gao, W

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m 2 per hour. Comparing

  5. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  6. Wind Power Prediction Considering Nonlinear Atmospheric Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of nonlinear atmospheric disturbances on wind power prediction. A Lorenz system is introduced as an atmospheric disturbance model. Three new improved wind forecasting models combined with a Lorenz comprehensive disturbance are put forward in this study. Firstly, we define the form of the Lorenz disturbance variable and the wind speed perturbation formula. Then, different artificial neural network models are used to verify the new idea and obtain better wind speed predictions. Finally we separately use the original and improved wind speed series to predict the related wind power. This proves that the corrected wind speed provides higher precision wind power predictions. This research presents a totally new direction in the wind prediction field and has profound theoretical research value and practical guiding significance.

  7. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  8. Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity

  9. Wind power project; Proyecto eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja D, Marco A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the international scope, nowadays it is recognized that the wind power generation is an innovating activity of high technology that has been integrated to the electrical systems in order to diversify the power generation and to foment the sustainable development. In several industrialized countries no one discusses any longer if wind power generation is a viable alternative or not, because in the last ten years the facts have widely demonstrated their technical viability and environmental advantage with respect to the conventional generation schemes. [Spanish] En el ambito internacional, hoy en dia se reconoce que la generacion eoloelectrica es una actividad innovadora de alta tecnologia que se ha integrado a los sistemas electricos con el proposito de diversificar la generacion de electricidad y fomentar el desarrollo sustentable. En varios paises industrializados ya no se discute si la generacion eoloelectrica es una alternativa viable o no, pues en los ultimos diez anos los hechos han demostrado ampliamente su viabilidad tecnica y ventaja ambiental respecto a la generacion convencional.

  10. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1996-01-01

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  11. Danish Wind Power Export and Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  12. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 158. ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aa67e0

  13. The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Roberto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both plasma physics and astrophysics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Ulysses’ high latitude observations and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.

  14. Kinetic Properties of the Neutral Solar Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florinski, V.; Heerikhuisen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Charge-exchange collisions between the solar wind protons and interstellar hydrogen produce a distinctive population of neutral hydrogen streaming radially at nearly the solar-wind speed. This tenuous population, known as the neutral solar wind (NSW) is thought to play a key role in the appearance of the Interplanetary Boundary EXplorer ribbon, a bright circular band in the sky that is the source of neutral hydrogen with energies near 1 keV. According to the leading model of the ribbon, the velocity distribution of NSW hydrogen is imparted on the pickup ions (PUIs) generated via charge exchange with the interstellar protons beyond the heliopause, and in this way controls the stability of the resulting ring distribution of PUIs against hydromagnetic wave generation. In this paper, we examine the velocity distributions of the NSW atoms in the heliosphere and the outer heliosheath regions by following the phase-space trajectories of the Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that these distributions are highly anisotropic, with the parallel (radial) temperature greatly exceeding the perpendicular temperature. Ions picked up near 90° from the anisotropic NSW would form a stable ring distribution capable of generating the ribbon flux. We also discuss a second population of neutrals born in charge transfer collisions with interstellar PUIs, the so-called neutralized pickup ion (NPI) component. Their high thermal velocities translate into large parallel velocity spread of the daughter ribbon PUIs, which would adversely affect plasma stability in local interstellar space.

  15. Kinetic Properties of the Neutral Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinski, V.; Heerikhuisen, J.

    2017-03-01

    Charge-exchange collisions between the solar wind protons and interstellar hydrogen produce a distinctive population of neutral hydrogen streaming radially at nearly the solar-wind speed. This tenuous population, known as the neutral solar wind (NSW) is thought to play a key role in the appearance of the Interplanetary Boundary EXplorer ribbon, a bright circular band in the sky that is the source of neutral hydrogen with energies near 1 keV. According to the leading model of the ribbon, the velocity distribution of NSW hydrogen is imparted on the pickup ions (PUIs) generated via charge exchange with the interstellar protons beyond the heliopause, and in this way controls the stability of the resulting ring distribution of PUIs against hydromagnetic wave generation. In this paper, we examine the velocity distributions of the NSW atoms in the heliosphere and the outer heliosheath regions by following the phase-space trajectories of the Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that these distributions are highly anisotropic, with the parallel (radial) temperature greatly exceeding the perpendicular temperature. Ions picked up near 90° from the anisotropic NSW would form a stable ring distribution capable of generating the ribbon flux. We also discuss a second population of neutrals born in charge transfer collisions with interstellar PUIs, the so-called neutralized pickup ion (NPI) component. Their high thermal velocities translate into large parallel velocity spread of the daughter ribbon PUIs, which would adversely affect plasma stability in local interstellar space.

  16. Solar Wind Charge Exchange During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ina P.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Sibeck, David G.; Collier, Michael R.; Kuntz, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    On March 31st. 2001, a coronal mass ejection pushed the subsolar magnetopause to the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit at 6.6 RE. The NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMe) employed a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to simulate the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction during the peak of this geomagnetic storm. Robertson et aL then modeled the expected 50ft X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal neutrals in the dayside cusp and magnetosheath. The locations of the bow shock, magnetopause and cusps were clearly evident in their simulations. Another geomagnetic storm took place on July 14, 2000 (Bastille Day). We again modeled X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange, but this time as observed from a moving spacecraft. This paper discusses the impact of spacecraft location on observed X-ray emission and the degree to which the locations of the bow shock and magnetopause can be detected in images.

  17. Energy: Solar electricity gaining second wind. - The sun as a power plant. Energie: Sonnen-Strom im Aufwind. - Das Kraftwerk Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, F; Kippenhahn, R

    1990-03-01

    The blue cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are becoming more and more efficient: the dream of cheap solar energy may soon become true. The competitors are more expensive than is often thought, for in the case of the conventional energies the costs of 'side effects' are often forgotten - for example, damage to the environment by power plants and cars. The radiation of the 'Sun Power Plant', on the other hand, creates no fumes and is inexhaustible. (orig.).

  18. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  19. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  20. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  1. Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dana Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

  2. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  3. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  4. Feasibility of wind power generation in Ghana | Ayensu | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For payback period of 10 years, the projected cost of the energy produced by a single turbine was estimated to be GHC 0.30 (~ 20 cents) per kWh (compared to 14 cents/kWh for photovoltaic generation and 10 cents/kWh for solar thermal), which therefore makes large scale optimized wind power generation competitive in ...

  5. Impacts of Wind Power on Power System Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittal, E.; Keane, A.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines how wind power will impact the stability of power systems. It focuses on the three aspects of power system stability: voltage stability, rotor angle stability and frequency stability. It completes a detailed analysis as to how wind power in power systems will impact the

  6. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the very large offshore wind farms were designed as wind power plants, including possibilities to contribute to the stability of the grid by offering grid services (also called ancillary services). One of those services is reserve power, which is achieved by down......-regulating the wind farm from its maximum possible power. The power can be ramped up quite quickly, but the influence of wakes makes it difficult to assess the exact amount of down-regulation available to sell. Currently, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the possible power...... will be verified on some of the large offshore wind farms owned by Vattenfall, and possibly in a DONG Energy wind farm too. Dedicated experiments to the wind flow in large offshore wind farms are planned. Main body of abstract Modern wind turbines have a SCADA signal called possible power. In normal operation...

  7. Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Bendel, D.

    2010-09-01

    Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio H.-T. Mengelkamp*,** , D. Bendel** *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht GmbH **anemos Gesellschaft für Umweltmeteorologie mbH The renewable energy industry has rapidly developed during the last two decades and so have the needs for high quality comprehensive meteorological services. It is, however, only recently that international financial institutions bundle wind farms and solar power plants and offer shares in these aggregate portfolios. The monetary value of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio is determined by legal and technical aspects, the expected annual energy production of each wind farm and solar power plant and the associated uncertainty of the energy yield estimation or the investment risk. Building an aggregate portfolio will reduce the overall uncertainty through diversification in contrast to the single wind farm/solar power plant energy yield uncertainty. This is similar to equity funds based on a variety of companies or products. Meteorological aspects contribute to the diversification in various ways. There is the uncertainty in the estimation of the expected long-term mean energy production of the wind and solar power plants. Different components of uncertainty have to be considered depending on whether the power plant is already in operation or in the planning phase. The uncertainty related to a wind farm in the planning phase comprises the methodology of the wind potential estimation and the uncertainty of the site specific wind turbine power curve as well as the uncertainty of the wind farm effect calculation. The uncertainty related to a solar power plant in the pre-operational phase comprises the uncertainty of the radiation data base and that of the performance curve. The long-term mean annual energy yield of operational wind farms and solar power plants is estimated on the basis of the actual energy production and it

  8. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal......The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented....

  9. Wind Power Forecasting Error Frequency Analyses for Operational Power System Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.

    2012-08-01

    The examination of wind power forecasting errors is crucial for optimal unit commitment and economic dispatch of power systems with significant wind power penetrations. This scheduling process includes both renewable and nonrenewable generators, and the incorporation of wind power forecasts will become increasingly important as wind fleets constitute a larger portion of generation portfolios. This research considers the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study database of wind power forecasts and numerical actualizations. This database comprises more than 30,000 locations spread over the western United States, with a total wind power capacity of 960 GW. Error analyses for individual sites and for specific balancing areas are performed using the database, quantifying the fit to theoretical distributions through goodness-of-fit metrics. Insights into wind-power forecasting error distributions are established for various levels of temporal and spatial resolution, contrasts made among the frequency distribution alternatives, and recommendations put forth for harnessing the results. Empirical data are used to produce more realistic site-level forecasts than previously employed, such that higher resolution operational studies are possible. This research feeds into a larger work of renewable integration through the links wind power forecasting has with various operational issues, such as stochastic unit commitment and flexible reserve level determination.

  10. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  11. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  12. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  13. Assessing temporal complementarity of solar, wind and hydrokinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES exhibit various characteristics when it comes to their availability in time and space domain. Some are characterised by significant variability and limited predictability. This makes their integration to the power grid a complicated task. Temporal and spatial complementarity of RES is perceived as one of the possible ways to facilitate the process of integration. This paper investigates the concept of temporal complementarity of solar wind and hydrokinetic energy in case of two sites in Poland. Obtained results indicate existence of some beneficial complementarity on inter-annual and annual time scale. Combination of those three RES in one hybrid system makes power source more reliable.

  14. Energy coupling function and solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Lee, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    The power delivered by the solar wind dynamo to the open magnetosphere is calculated based on the concept of field line reconnection, independent of the MHD steady reconnection theories. By recognizing a previously overlooked geometrical relationship between the reconnection electric field and the magnetic field, the calculated power is shown to be approximately proportional to the Akasofu-Perreault energy coupling function for the magnetospheric substorm. In addition to the polar cap potential, field line reconnection also gives rise to parallel electric fields on open field lines in the high-latitude cusp and the polar cap reions

  15. LCA of electricity systems with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O' Dwyer, C. O.; Flynn, D.

    Electricity systems are shifting from being based on fossil fuels towards renewable sources to enhance energy security and mitigate climate change. However, by introducing high shares of variable renewables - such as wind and solar - dispatchable power plants are required to vary their output...... to fulfill the remaining electrical demand, potentially increasing their environmental impacts [1,2]. In this study the environmental impacts of potential short-term future electricity systems in Ireland with high shares of wind power (35-50% of total installed capacity) were evaluated using life cycle...... considered: while not outweighing the benefits from increasing wind energy, cycling emissions are not negligible and should thus be systematically included (i.e. by using emission factors per unit of fuel input rather than per unit of power generated). Cycling emissions increased with the installed wind...

  16. On the Origins of the Intercorrelations Between Solar Wind Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the time variations of the diverse solar wind variables at 1 AU (e.g., solar wind speed, density, proton temperature, electron temperature, magnetic field strength, specific entropy, heavy-ion charge-state densities, and electron strahl intensity) are highly intercorrelated with each other. In correlation studies of the driving of the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system by the solar wind, these solar wind intercorrelations make determining cause and effect very difficult. In this report analyses of solar wind spacecraft measurements and compressible-fluid computer simulations are used to study the origins of the solar wind intercorrelations. Two causes are found: (1) synchronized changes in the values of the solar wind variables as the plasma types of the solar wind are switched by solar rotation and (2) dynamic interactions (compressions and rarefactions) in the solar wind between the Sun and the Earth. These findings provide an incremental increase in the understanding of how the Sun-Earth system operates.

  17. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over ∼2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 ± 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 ± 0.5 per mille amu –1 for Ne and 2.6 ± 0.5 per mille amu –1 for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  18. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Bochsler, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bern, Sidlerstasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); McKeegan, Kevin D. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Neugebauer, Marcia [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Reisenfeld, Daniel B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: heber@ess.ucla.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  19. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  20. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business raising type regional consortium - small business creating base type (Development of mobile hybrid power source system using wind and solar energies); 1998 nendo kahanshiki furyoku taiyoko hybrid dengen system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Regarding new energy power sources such as solar cells and small wind power systems (1-3kW), research and development is conducted for a new hybrid system featuring 'mobile, package type, no construction cost.' In the research, 4-12m telescopic wind turbine supporting poles are manufactured for two types of wind turbines respectively generating 1.5kW and 2.5kW. A slide type mechanism is employed for solar cell deployment, which enables on-site deployment. Each solar panel accommodates 24 solar cells, and one is installed on top of a container to serve as control room. A control system is developed for this hybrid power source system, which receives power from a wind power turbine and solar cells and supplies power to three kinds of power sources. For the stable supply of power to the loads, 24V/1500Ah batteries are provided. Each power charging controller and protecting device are found to operate smoothly in a verification test, which means the goal of the development endeavors has been achieved. (NEDO)

  1. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Challenges on wind power development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianjin; Shi, Jingli

    2010-09-15

    Wind power has experienced exponential growth in China in the past five years, which exceeds the most optimistic expectations. The increasing penetration and aggressive future plan are arousing big concerns about its impact on operation and security of existing power networks. This paper introduces present condition of wind power development in China and the challenges on both grid integration and regulations. Most of these challenges are economical rather than technical. Feed-in tariff policies and grid code are the key countermeasures. Accurate wind forecast and economical mass energy storage are needed to guarantee compliance of wind power to the grid.

  3. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  4. Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bruno, R., E-mail: shiota@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    Turbulence in the solar wind can play essential roles in the heating of coronal and solar wind plasma and the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles. Turbulence sources are not well understood and thought to be partly enhanced by interaction with the large-scale inhomogeneity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and/or transported from the solar corona. To investigate the interaction with background inhomogeneity and the turbulence sources, we have developed a new 3D MHD model that includes the transport and dissipation of turbulence using the theoretical model of Zank et al. We solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of three moments or variables, the energy in the forward and backward fluctuating modes and the residual energy and their three corresponding correlation lengths. The transport model is coupled to our 3D model of the inhomogeneous solar wind. We present results of the coupled solar wind-turbulence model assuming a simple tilted dipole magnetic configuration that mimics solar minimum conditions, together with several comparative intermediate cases. By considering eight possible solar wind and turbulence source configurations, we show that the large-scale solar wind and IMF inhomogeneity and the strength of the turbulence sources significantly affect the distribution of turbulence in the heliosphere within 6 au. We compare the predicted turbulence distribution results from a complete solar minimum model with in situ measurements made by the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft, finding that the synthetic profiles of the turbulence intensities show reasonable agreement with observations.

  5. On the spatial hedging effectiveness of German wind power futures for wind power generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Sønderby; Pircalabu, Anca

    2018-01-01

    The wind power futures recently introduced on the German market fill the gap of a standardized product that addresses directly the volume risk in wind power trading. While the German wind power futures entail risk-reducing benefits for wind power generators generally speaking, it remains unclear...... the extent of these benefits across wind farms with different geographical locations. In this paper, we consider the wind utilization at 31 different locations in Germany, and for each site, we propose a copula model for the joint behavior of the site-specific wind index and the overall German wind index....... Our results indicate that static mixture copulas are preferred to the stand-alone copula models usually employed in the economic literature. Further, we find evidence of asymmetric dependence and upper tail dependence. To quantify the benefits of wind power futures at each wind site, we perform...

  6. Opportunities for wind and solar to displace coal and associated health impacts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, D. S.; Strasert, B.; Slusarewicz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Texas uses more coal for power production than any other state, but also leads the nation in wind power while lagging in solar. Many analysts expect that more than half of coal power plants may close within the next decade, unable to compete with cheaper natural gas and renewable electricity. To what extent could displacing coal with wind and solar yield benefits for air quality, health, and climate? Here, we present modeling of the ozone, particulate matter, and associated health impacts of each of 15 coal power plants in Texas, using the CAMx model for air quality and BenMAP for health effects. We show that health impacts from unscrubbed coal plants near urban areas can be an order of magnitude larger than some other facilities. We then analyze the temporal patterns of generation that could be obtained from solar and wind farms in various regions of Texas that could displace these coal plants. We find that winds along the southern Gulf coast of Texas exhibit strikingly different temporal patterns than in west Texas, peaking on summer afternoons rather than winter nights. Thus, wind farms from the two regions along with solar farms could provide complementary sources of power to displace coal. We quantify several metrics to characterize the extent to which wind and solar farms in different regions provide complementary sources of power that can reliably displace traditional sources of electricity.

  7. Solar wind acceleration in coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Past attempts to explain the large solar wind velocities in high speed streams by theoretical models of the expansion have invoked either extended nonthermal heating of the corona, heat flux inhibition, or direct addition of momentum to the expanding coronal plasma. Several workers have shown that inhibiting the heat flux at low coronal densities is probably not adequate to explain quantitatively the observed plasma velocities in high speed streams. It stressed that, in order to account for both these large plasma velocities and the low densities found in coronal holes (from which most high speed streams are believed to emanate), extended heating by itself will not suffice. One needs a nonthermal mechanism to provide the bulk acceleration of the high wind plasma close to the sun, and the most likely candidate at present is direct addition of the momentum carried by outward-propagating waves to the expanding corona. Some form of momentum addition appears to be absolutely necessary if one hopes to build quantitatively self-consistent models of coronal holes and high speed solar wind streams

  8. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  9. Morphology of Pseudostreamers and Solar Wind Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The solar dynamo and photospheric convection lead to three main types of structures extending from the solar surface into the corona - active regions, solar filaments (prominences when observed at the limb) and coronal holes. These structures exist over a wide range of scales, and are interlinked with each other in evolution and dynamics. Active regions can form clusters of magnetic activity and the strongest overlie sunspots. In the decay of active regions, the boundaries separating opposite magnetic polarities (neutral lines) develop the specific structures called filament channels above which filaments form. In the presence of flux imbalance decaying active regions can also give birth to lower latitude coronal holes. The accumulation of magnetic flux at coronal hole boundaries also creates the conditions for filament formation: polar crown filaments are permanently present at the boundaries of the polar coronal holes. Middle-latitude and equatorial coronal holes - the result of active region evolution - can create pseudostreamers (PSs) if other coronal holes of the same polarity are present. While helmet streamers form between open fields of opposite polarities, the pseudostreamer, characterized by a smaller coronal imprint, typically shows a more prominent straight ray or stalk extending from the corona. The pseudostreamer base at photospheric heights is multipolar; often one observes tripolar magnetic configurations with two neutral lines - where filaments can form - separating the coronal holes. Here we discuss the specific role of filament channels on pseudostreamer topology and on solar wind properties. 1D numerical analysis of PSs shows that the properties of the solar wind from around PSs depend on the presence/absence of filament channels, number of channels and chirality at the PS base low in the corona.

  10. Optimal Control of Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Pijarski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system control is a complex task, which is strongly related to the number and kind of generating units as well as to the applied technologies, such as conventional coal fired power plants or wind and photovoltaic farms. Fast development of wind generation that is considered as unstable generation sets new strong requirements concerning remote control and data hubs cooperating with SCADA systems. Considering specific nature of the wind power generation, the authors analyze the problem of optimal control for wind power generation in farms located over a selected remote-controlled part of the Operator grid under advantageous wind conditions. This article presents an original stepwise method for tracing power flows that makes possible to eliminate current (power overloading of power grid branches. Its core idea is to consider the discussed problem as an optimization task.

  11. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  12. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  13. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  14. Offshore wind power in the Aegean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    hub heights at around 100 m using a combination of satellite wind fields and the long-term climate of atmospheric stability from the mesoscale model (Badger et al. 2016). The result of the mean wind speed at hub-height for the Aegean Sea is shown in Figure 1. The map shows the stability dependent......, where the spatial variations in wind speed are very high, accurate resource mapping is of great importance as the produced wind power is proportional to the cubed wind speed. It is challenging to model the wind resource and it is costly to measure from the ground at every place of interest. Maps based...

  15. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  16. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth’s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1 Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2 The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3 For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4 Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth’s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  17. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    , UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tenthousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12MW class, with tip heights of over 200m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most...

  18. INERTIAL RANGE TURBULENCE OF FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND AT 0.72 AU AND SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Munteanu, Costel [Institute for Space Sciences, Măgurele (Romania); Zhang, Tielong [Space Research Institute, Graz (Austria); Bruno, Roberto [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofizica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy); Kovacs, Peter, E-mail: eliteo@spacescience.ro [Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-05-10

    We investigate Venus Express observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of solar cycle 24. The power spectral densities (PSDs) of the magnetic field components have been computed for time intervals that satisfy the data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow, defined for speeds larger and smaller, respectively, than 450 km s{sup −1}. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast wind than for the slow. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005–0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is −1.60 for fast solar wind and −1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is observed for the spectral behavior of both the slow and fast wind.

  19. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  20. On WKB expansions for Alfven waves in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollweg, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    The author reexamines the WKB expansion for toroidal Alfven waves in the solar wind, as described by equations (9) of Heinemann and Olbert (1980). His principal conclusions are as follows: (1) The WKB expansion used by Belcher (1971) and Hollweg (1973) is nonuniformly convergent. (2) Using the method of multiple scales (Nayfeh, 1981), he obtains an expansion which is uniform. (3) The uniform expansion takes into account the small modification to the Alfven wave phase speed due to spatial gradients of the background. (4) Both the uniform and nonuniform expansions reveal that each normal mode has both Elsaesser variables δz + ≠ 0 and δz - ≠ 0. Thus if δz - corresponds to the outgoing mode in a homogeneous background, an observation of δz + ≠ 0 does not necessarily imply the presence of the inward propagating mode, as is commonly assumed. (5) Even at the Alfven critical point (where V = υ A ) he finds that δz + ≠ 0. Thus incompressible MHD turbulence, which requires both δz + ≠ 0 and δz - ≠ 0, can proceed at the Alfven critical point (cf. Roberts, 1989). (6) With very few exceptions, the predictions of these calculations do not agree with recent observations (Marsch and Tu, 1990) of the power spectra of δz + and δz - in the solar wind. Thus the evolution of Alfven waves in the solar wind is governed by dynamics not included in the Heinemann and Olbert equations

  1. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  2. Applications of the use of the renewable energies, solar power and wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells; Obtencion de hidrogeno, a partir de la electrolisis del agua mediante energias renovables almacenamiento y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, J. J.; Martin, I.; Aperribay, V.; San Martin, J. I.; Arrieta, J. M.; Zuazua, J.; Romero, E.

    2004-07-01

    The object of the presented communication is to show the applications of the use of the renewable energies, particularly the solar power and the wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells. The electrical energy produced in the solar badges and in the windpowers is, principally, injected into the electrical networks, for his transport, distribution and consumption, if the network the demand. The novel aspect is, that if the network does not demand potency, this one is transformed into hydrogen at the same photovoltaic station or into the base of the tower of the windpower and, later, stored to feed the fuel cells, not producing to him any type of element pollutant, since the residual element is the water. (Author)

  3. The sun, the solar wind, and the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Miralles, Mari Paz

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a concise, up-to-date overview of current research on the observations, theoretical interpretations, and empirical and physical descriptions of the Sun, the Solar Wind, and the Heliosphere, from the solar interior outward to the planets.

  4. Wind Power: Building and Connecting Large Wind Power Plants; Vindkraft: bygga och ansluta stoerre vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    This brochure is written for those who want to build a large wind power plant (1 MW or more) or wind power parks. It describes the process from idea to completed plant. A review of environmental impacts of wind power is also included

  5. Realities and myths of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis

    2001-01-01

    In the last ten years we have seen an impressive growth of electrical generation by wind power. However this increase cannot be explained by an advance of the technology or by the improvement of the economic factors. The explanation of the boom is based mostly on environmental aspects instead of strategic considerations on energy supply. In Argentina wind power is promoted as a kind of economically viable panacea based on four myths: the explosive growth of wind power, the decrease of costs as a function of the power increase, the wind power potential of Patagonia, the analogy with conventional technologies. The analysis of these myths shows that the global wind power production is very low and it is concentrated in few developed countries, it is supported by environmental interests and protected by important subsidies. In Argentina this support cannot be justified neither by environmental considerations nor by economic reasons

  6. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  7. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...... is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively...

  8. Landscape externalities from onshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, Juergen; Ohl, Cornelia; Hartje, Volkmar

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of renewable energy is a central element of the German Federal Government's climate and energy policy. The target for 2020 is to produce 30% of the electricity from renewable energies. Wind power has been selected to be a major contributor to this change. Replacing old wind turbines by modern ones and building new turbines on land will be crucial in meeting this target. However, the expansion of onshore wind power is not universally accepted. In several regions of Germany residents are protesting against setting up new wind turbines. To determine the negative effects two choice experiments were applied in Westsachsen and Nordhessen, Germany. In both regions the externalities of wind power generation until 2020 based on today's state of technology were measured. The results show that negative landscape externalities would result from expanding wind power generation. Using latent class models three different groups of respondents experiencing different degrees of externalities were identified.

  9. Coulomb collisions in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L. W.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1985-01-01

    A major improvement of the present investigation over previous studies of the subject is related to the use of helium temperatures obtained from helium ion measurements uncontaminated by the high-velocity tail of the proton distribution. More observations, covering a large parameter range, were employed, and the effects of interspecies drift were taken into account. It is shown in a more definite way than has been done previously, that Coulomb collisions provide the most important mechanism bringing about equilibrium between helium and protons in the solar wind. Other mechanisms may play some part in restricted regions, but Coulomb collisions are dominant on the macroscale.

  10. Simulation experiments and solar wind sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.E.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Russell, W.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Weller, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to isolate the role played by solar wind sputtering from other lunar surface phenomena a number of simulation experiments were performed, including isotope abundance measurements of Ca sputtered from terrestrial fluorite and plagioclase by 50-keV and 130-keV 14 N beams, measurement of the energy distribution of U atoms sputtered with 80-keV 40 Ar, and measurement of the fraction of sputtered U atoms which stick on the surfaces used to collect these atoms. 10 references

  11. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  12. Assessment of solar and wind energy potentials for three free economic and industrial zones of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali; Sabzpooshani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential of renewable energy sources of solar and wind in three free economic and industrial zones of Chabahar, Kish and Salafchegan in Iran. Feasibility of harnessing solar energy was investigated by using key solar parameters like monthly mean global, beam and diffuse solar radiation as well as clearness index. It was found that all locations had great potentials for utilizing different solar energy systems. Additionally, the monthly, seasonal, semi-yearly and yearly optimum tilt angles of south-facing solar surfaces were determined. For all zones, adjusting the tilt angle twice a year or in other words, the semi-yearly tilt adjustment for two periods of warm (April–September) and cold (October–March) were highly recommended, since it offers almost the same level of annual solar energy gain (SEG) as those of monthly and seasonal adjustments. Weibull Distribution Function (WDF) was performed for analyzing the wind potentials at different heights. It was found that Chabahar was not suitable for wind energy development, but Kish and Salafchegan with yearly wind powers of 111.28 W/m 2 and 114.34 W/m 2 , respectively ranked in class 2 which are considered marginal for wind power development. Three different wind turbine models were proposed for Kish and Salafchegan. - Highlights: • Feasibility of solar and wind energy for three locations of Iran was investigated. • All locations were suitable for solar energy utilization. • The optimum tilt angles of solar surfaces were determined. • Chabahar was unsuitable, but Kish and Salafchegan were marginal for wind purpose

  13. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  14. Development of Offshore Wind Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind power development target as initially proposed in "The 12=Five-Year" on energy recourses development and renewable energy recourses currently under development is to reach 5m KW by 2015 and 30m KW by 2020. With the unfolding of offshore wind turbine planning from different areas, the curtain of offshore wind power development for our country's "The 12=Five-Year" has been opened.

  15. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2 . The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  16. Solar power role in the future power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    One studied the most essential factors, materials and processes governing the role of the solar power in the future power generation. Paper describes new principles to convert solar energy, to produce solar silicon and solar elements, to encapsulate solar modules, to make use of stationary solar concentrators [ru

  17. Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binrong WEN; Sha WEI; Kexiang WEI; Wenxian YANG; Zhike PENG; Fulei CHU

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines.This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine.First,wind speed models,particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model,are described in detail.The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modem large-scale wind turbines.Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory.Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow,whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear.Under steady wind conditions,power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss.Wind farm loss is constant at 3α(3α-1)R2/(8H2).By contrast,rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed.That is,when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works,the rotor loss stabilizes around zero,but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works,the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies.The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

  18. The solar wind and the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, I.; Kamide, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The sun constantly emits an enormous amount of radiation into space. This energy emission consists of three modes. Almost all the energy is emitted in the form of familiar sunlight but sun also emits X-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and UV radiation, which is absorbed above the earth's stratosphere, as a second mode of solar energy. The sun has made another important mode of energy emission in which the energy is carried out by charged particles. These particles have a bery wide range of energies, from less than 1 keV to more than 1 GeV. Because of this wide range, it is convenient to group them into two components: particles, with energies greater than 10 keV and the lower-energy particles. The former are generally referred to as solar portions or solar cosmic rays; their emission is associated with active features on the sun. Low-energy particles constitute plasma which is called the solar wind

  19. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  20. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    . The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  1. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  2. High-Altitude Wind Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—The paper presents the innovative technology of highaltitude wind power generation, indicated as Kitenergy, which exploits the automatic flight of tethered airfoils (e.g., power kites) to extract energy from wind blowing between 200 and 800 m above the ground. The key points of this

  3. Development of Danish Wind Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency. In the early nineties favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid. As a result wind power was booming...

  4. The 3-D solar radioastronomy and the structure of the corona and the solar wind. [solar probes of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism causing solar radio bursts (1 and 111) is examined. It is proposed that a nonthermal energy source is responsible for the bursts; nonthermal energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The advantages are examined for an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission, which is proposed as a means of stereoscopically viewing solar radio bursts, solar magnetic fields, coronal structure, and the solar wind.

  5. Composition Modeling and Equivalence of an Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haohuai; TANG Yong; HOU Junxian; ZOU Jiangfeng; LIANGShuang; SU Feng

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic of wind and solar generation is random and fluctuant. In order to improve their generation performance, the integrated power generation of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is a focus in the study. In this paper,

  6. The new IEA Wind Task 36 on Wind Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind E...... forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions....

  7. Solar wind structure out of the ecliptic plane over solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, J. M.; Bzowski, M.; Tokumaru, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sun constantly emits a stream of plasma known as solar wind. Ground-based observations of the solar wind speed through the interplanetary scintillations (IPS) of radio flux from distant point sources and in-situ measurements by Ulysses mission revealed that the solar wind flow has different characteristics depending on the latitude. This latitudinal structure evolves with the cycle of solar activity. The knowledge on the evolution of solar wind structure is important for understanding the interaction between the interstellar medium surrounding the Sun and the solar wind, which is responsible for creation of the heliosphere. The solar wind structure must be taken into account in interpretation of most of the observations of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms, interstellar neutral atoms, pickup ions, and heliospheric backscatter glow. The information on the solar wind structure is not any longer available from direct measurements after the termination of Ulysses mission and the only source of the solar wind out of the ecliptic plane is the IPS observations. However, the solar wind structure obtained from this method contains inevitable gaps in the time- and heliolatitude coverage. Sokół et al 2015 used the solar wind speed data out of the ecliptic plane retrieved from the IPS observations performed by Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (Nagoya University, Japan) and developed a methodology to construct a model of evolution of solar wind speed and density from 1985 to 2013 that fills the data gaps. In this paper we will present a refined model of the solar wind speed and density structure as a function of heliographic latitude updated by the most recent data from IPS observations. And we will discuss methods of extrapolation of the solar wind structure out of the ecliptic plane for the past solar cycles, when the data were not available, as well as forecasting for few years upward.

  8. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  9. Observations of micro-turbulence in the solar wind near the sun with interplanetary scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Misawa, H.; Kojima, M.; Mori, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takaba, H.; Kondo, T.; Tokumaru, M.; Manoharan, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    Velocity and density turbulence of solar wind were inferred from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at 2.3 GHz and 8.5 GHz using a single-antenna. The observations were made during September and October in 1992 - 1994. They covered the distance range between 5 and 76 solar radii (Rs). We applied the spectrum fitting method to obtain a velocity, an axial ratio, an inner scale and a power-law spectrum index. We examined the difference of the turbulence properties near the Sun between low-speed solar wind and high-speed solar wind. Both of solar winds showed acceleration at the distance range of 10 - 30 Rs. The radial dependence of anisotropy and spectrum index did not have significant difference between low-speed and high-speed solar winds. Near the sun, the radial dependence of the inner scale showed the separation from the linear relation as reported by previous works. We found that the inner scale of high-speed solar wind is larger than that of low-speed wind.

  10. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show......Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...

  11. Integrated Control for Small Power Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The control strategies of the small power wind generator are usually divided into the maximum power point tracking (MPPT case, which requires the wind generator produce power as much as possible, and the power limited control (PLC case that demands the wind generator produce a power level following the load requirement. Integration of these two operating cases responding to flexible and sophisticated power demands is the main topic of this article. A small power wind generator including the sluggish mechanical dynamic phenomenon, which uses the permanent magnet synchronous generator, is introduced to validate different control methods integrating MPPT and PLC cases and based on hysteresis control. It is a matter of an indirect power control method derived from three direct methods following perturb and observe principle as well as from a look-up table. To analyze and compare the proposed power control methods, which are implemented into an emulator of a small power wind generator, a power demand profile is used. This profile is randomly generated based on measured rapid wind velocity data. Analyzing experimental results, from the power viewpoint, all proposed methods reveal steady-state error with big amount of peak resulting from the nature of perturb and observe.

  12. Wind Power Statistics Sweden 2009; Vindkraftstatistik 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-15

    In 2009, wind power produced 2.5 TWh, an increase of 26 percent over the previous year. Throughout the period 2003-2009 has production of electricity from wind power almost quadrupled. Sweden's total net production of electricity amounted, according to provisional statistics for 2009, to 133.7 TWh. The year 2007 wind energy's share passed 1.0 percent of total net production of electricity for the first time. In 2008 the proportion was 1.4 percent, and in 2009 to almost 1.9 percent of total net production. Total installed power 2009 was 1448 MW and the number of plants was 1359, an inckW{sub pse} with 363 MW and 198 resp. from 2008. In 2009, there were three main support system for wind power in Sweden: the certificate system; the wind pilot project; and the environmental bonus. The electricity certificate system is a market-based support system for electricity generation from renewables which includes wind power as one of the approved techniques. The system was introduced in 2003 and aims to increase the production of electricity from renewable energy sources by 25 TWh from 2002 levels by 2020.. Wind pilot support is a support to the market for large-scale wind power. Support aims to reduce the cost of the creation of new wind energy and promoting new technologies. Wind Pilot Aid, which has existed since 2003, has been extended until in 2012 and has increased by 350 million SEK (about 36 M Euro) for the period 2008-2012. The environmental bonus, which means a tax subsidy, has been stepped down for each year until and by the year 2009, which was the last year. In 2009, environmental bonus was 0.12 SEK/kWh for electricity from offshore wind. For onshore wind power the environmentally bonus ceased in 2008

  13. Validation of Sodar Measurements for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2006-01-01

    the project and a new remote power system has been designed. A direct comparison between SODAR and cup measurements revealed a limitation for the SODAR measurements during different weather conditions, especially since the SODAR was not able to measure wind speeds above 15 m/s due to an increasing back-ground......A ground-based SODAR has been tested for 1½ years together with a traditional measurement set-up consisting of cups and vanes for measuring wind data for wind power assessment at a remote location. Many problems associated to the operation of a remote located SODAR have been solved during...... noise. Instead, using the SODAR as a profiler to establish representative wind speed profiles was successful. These wind speed profiles are combined with low height reference measurements to establish reliable hub height wind speed distributions. Representative wind speed profiles can be establish...

  14. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  15. Calculation of Wind Power Limit adjusting the Continuation Power Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel; Martínez García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit. The calculation is based in static constrains, dynamic constraints or both. In this paper is developed a method for the calculation of wind power limit using some adjust in the continuation power flow, and having into account the static constrains. The method is complemented with Minimal Power Production Criterion. The method is proved in the Isla de la Juventud Electric System. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)

  16. Power Quality Issues on Wind Power Installations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Lund, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    offshore wind farms connected at transmission level. In this perspective, the power quality issues are divided into local issues particularly related to the voltage quality in the distribution systems and global issues related to the power system control and stability. Power quality characteristics of wind...

  17. Model predictive control for wind power gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Boyd, Stephen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    We consider the operation of a wind turbine and a connected local battery or other electrical storage device, taking into account varying wind speed, with the goal of maximizing the total energy generated while respecting limits on the time derivative (gradient) of power delivered to the grid. We...... ranges. The system dynamics are quite non-linear, and the constraints and objectives are not convex functions of the control inputs, so the resulting optimal control problem is difficult to solve globally. In this paper, we show that by a novel change of variables, which focuses on power flows, we can...... wind data and modern wind forecasting methods. The simulation results using real wind data demonstrate the ability to reject the disturbances from fast changes in wind speed, ensuring certain power gradients, with an insignificant loss in energy production....

  18. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  19. Solar wind velocity and temperature in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of 1992, the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft were at heliocentric distances of 56.0, 37.3, and 39.0 AU and heliographic latitudes of 3.3 deg N, 17.4 deg N, and 8.6 deg S, respectively. Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 are at similar celestial longitudes, while Pioneer 10 is on the opposite side of the Sun. All three spacecraft have working plasma analyzers, so intercomparison of data from these spacecraft provides important information about the global character of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. The averaged solar wind speed continued to exhibit its well-known variation with solar cycle: Even at heliocentric distances greater than 50 AU, the average speed is highest during the declining phase of the solar cycle and lowest near solar minimum. There was a strong latitudinal gradient in solar wind speed between 3 deg and 17 deg N during the last solar minimum, but this gradient has since disappeared. The solar wind temperature declined with increasing heliocentric distance out to a heliocentric distance of at least 20 AU; this decline appeared to continue at larger heliocentric distances, but temperatures in the outer heliosphere were suprisingly high. While Pioneer 10 and Voyager 2 observed comparable solar wind temperatures, the temperature at Pioneer 11 was significantly higher, which suggests the existence of a large-scale variation of temperature with heliographic longitude. There was also some suggestion that solar wind temperatures were higher near solar minimum.

  20. Characteristics of Solar Wind Density Depletions During Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunchan Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind density depletions are phenomena that solar wind density is rapidly decreased and keep the state. They are generally believed to be caused by the interplanetary (IP shocks. However, there are other cases that are hardly associated with IP shocks. We set up a hypothesis for this phenomenon and analyze this study. We have collected the solar wind parameters such as density, speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF data related to the solar wind density depletion events during the period from 1996 to 2013 that are obtained with the advanced composition explorer (ACE and the Wind satellite. We also calculate two pressures (magnetic, dynamic and analyze the relation with density depletion. As a result, we found total 53 events and the most these phenomena’s sources caused by IP shock are interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We also found that solar wind density depletions are scarcely related with IP shock’s parameters. The solar wind density is correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure within density depletion. However, the solar wind density has an little anti-correlation with IMF strength during all events of solar wind density depletion, regardless of the presence of IP shocks. Additionally, In 47 events of IP shocks, we find 6 events that show a feature of blast wave. The quantities of IP shocks are weaker than blast wave from the Sun, they are declined in a short time after increasing rapidly. We thus argue that IMF strength or dynamic pressure are an important factor in understanding the nature of solar wind density depletion. Since IMF strength and solar wind speed varies with solar cycle, we will also investigate the characteristics of solar wind density depletion events in different phases of solar cycle as an additional clue to their physical nature.

  1. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  2. The solar wind in the third dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, M.

    1996-01-01

    For many years, solar-wind physicists have been using plasma and field data acquired near the ecliptic plane together with data on the scintillation of radio sources and remote sensing of structures in the solar corona to estimate the properties of the high-latitude solar wind. Because of the highly successful Ulysses mission, the moment of truth is now here. This paper summarizes the principal agreements and differences between the Ulysses observations and expectations. The speed of the high-latitude solar wind was even greater than anticipated. The strength of the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field was found to be independent of latitude. The tilt of the heliospheric current sheet caused reverse corotating shocks to be observed to higher latitudes than forward corotating shocks. The energetic particles accelerated in these shocks were detected well poleward of the latitudes at which Ulysses observed the interaction regions themselves. As anticipated, there was a strong flux of outward propagating Alfven waves throughout the polar flow. Those waves were probably largely responsible for the smaller-than-anticipated increase of galactic cosmic rays with increasing latitude. As expected, the charge state or ionization temperature of heavy ions was lower in the polar flow than in low-latitude interstream flows. What was not anticipated was the correlation of elemental abundances with ionization temperatures; the Ulysses data revealed a connection between the first ionization time in the upper chromosphere and the final ionization state in the corona. As expected, transient events were detected to ∼60 deg. latitude, but the properties of those high latitude transient flows held some surprises. At high latitudes, the speeds of the transient interplanetary plasma clouds were approximately the same as the speed of the ambient plasma and the expansion of the clouds drove forward and reverse shock pairs that had never been seen at low latitudes. At high

  3. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  4. Concentrating solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelli, Enzo; Vignolini, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy can be used instead of fossil fuels to produce high-temperature heat for use in many industrial processes and in electricity generation. If carried out on a large scale, the replacement would make it possible to reduce harmful emissions and stabilise the global climate over the long term. ENEA has an innovative project in this sector [it

  5. Coordinated Frequency Control of Wind Turbines in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán Claudio

    The integration of large amounts of wind power in power systems presents huge challenges. In particular, with the increase of wind power generation, more regulation reserves would be necessary, the capability of the power system to offer conventional regulating power would be reduced...... particular views. These models were developed and verified during this work, basedaround a particular manufacturer’s wind turbine and on said isolated power system withwind power. The capability of variable speed wind turbines for providing Inertial Response is analysed. To perform this assessment, a control...... generation were studied considering a large share of wind power in the system. Results show the abilities of the architectures to manage the variability of the generated wind power, reducing the impact on the grid frequency and providing suitable frequency regulation service when required. The coordination...

  6. Were chondrites magnetized by the early solar wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Rona; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cohen, Ofer

    2018-06-01

    Chondritic meteorites have been traditionally thought to be samples of undifferentiated bodies that never experienced large-scale melting. This view has been challenged by the existence of post-accretional, unidirectional natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in CV carbonaceous chondrites. The relatively young inferred NRM age [∼10 million years (My) after solar system formation] and long duration of NRM acquisition (1-106 y) have been interpreted as evidence that the magnetizing field was that of a core dynamo within the CV parent body. This would imply that CV chondrites represent the primitive crust of a partially differentiated body. However, an alternative hypothesis is that the NRM was imparted by the early solar wind. Here we demonstrate that the solar wind scenario is unlikely due to three main factors: 1) the magnitude of the early solar wind magnetic field is estimated to be limits field amplification due to pile-up of the solar wind to less than a factor of 3.5 times that of the instantaneous solar wind field, and 3) the solar wind field likely changed over timescales orders of magnitude shorter than the timescale of NRM acquisition. Using analytical arguments, numerical simulations and astronomical observations of the present-day solar wind and magnetic fields of young stars, we show that the maximum mean field the ancient solar wind could have imparted on an undifferentiated CV parent body is <3.5 nT, which is 3-4 and 3 orders of magnitude weaker than the paleointensities recorded by the CV chondrites Allende and Kaba, respectively. Therefore, the solar wind is highly unlikely to be the source of the NRM in CV chondrites. Nevertheless, future high sensitivity paleomagnetic studies of rapidly-cooled meteorites with high magnetic recording fidelity could potentially trace the evolution of the solar wind field in time.

  7. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole M ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also com- pute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength. 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of energy emitted by coronal hole and ...

  8. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  9. Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrook, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aho, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Buckspan, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Pao, L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Singhvi, V. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pourbeik, P. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bhatt, N. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a comprehensive study undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, and the University of Colorado to understand how the contribution of wind power providing active power control (APC) can benefit the total power system economics, increase revenue streams, improve the reliability and security of the power system, and provide superior and efficient response while reducing any structural and loading impacts that may reduce the life of the wind turbine or its components. The study includes power system simulations, control simulations, and actual field tests using turbines at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The study focuses on synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generation control, and analyzes timeframes ranging from milliseconds to minutes to the lifetime of wind turbines, locational scope ranging from components of turbines to large wind plants to entire synchronous interconnections, and additional topics ranging from economics to power system engineering to control design.

  10. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  11. Wind power, distrubted generation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    the possibilities for integration of even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the impact of heat pumps for district heating. The analyses demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without......Denmark has the World?s highest penetration of wind power in electricity generation with a share of 15.0% of total domestic demand in 2002 (DEA, 2004). This is unevenly distributed in the two electricity systems of Denmark giving a share as high as 20.7% in Western Denmark in 2003 up from 18...... power balancing strategies are not applied, costly grid expansions will follow expansions in installed wind power capacity....

  12. Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW wind turbines for large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nygaard Nielsen, Joergen; Thisted, Jan; Groendahl, Erik; Egedal, Per; Noertoft Frydensbjerg, Michael; Jensen, Kim Hoej [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Siemens Wind power A/S is the key player on the offshore wind power market. The Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine is among the word's largest, most advanced and competitive wind turbines with a solid portfolio of large offshore wind farms. Transmission system operators and developers require dynamic wind turbine models for evaluation of fault-ride-through capability and investigations of power system stability. The even larger size of the on- and offshore wind farms has entailed that the grid impact of the voltage and frequency control capability of the wind farm can be appropriated modelled and evaluated. Siemens Wind Power has developed a dynamic model of the 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine with the fault-ride-through sequences and models of the voltage and frequency controllers to be applied for large offshore wind farms. The dynamic models have been implemented in the commercially available simulation tools such as DIgSILENT PowerFactory and Siemens PTI PSS/E and successfully validated from measurements. (orig.)

  13. MHD turbulence in the solar wind: evolution and anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbury, T. S.; Forman, M. A.; Oughton, S.

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements in the solar wind offer the opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a collisionless plasma in great detail. We review some of the key results of the study of this medium: the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves propagating predominantly away from the Sun; the existence of an active turbulent cascade; and intermittency similar to that in neutral fluids. The presence of a magnetic field leads to anisotropy of the fluctuations, which are predominantly perpendicular to this direction, as well as anisotropy of the spectrum. Some models suggest that MHD turbulence can evolve to a state with power predominantly in wave vectors either parallel to the magnetic field (slab fluctuations) or approximately perpendicular to it (2D). We present results of a new, wavelet-based analysis of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind, and demonstrate that the 2D component has a spectral index near the Kolmogorov value of 5/3, while slab fluctuations have a spectral index near 2. We also estimate the relative power levels in slab and 2D fluctuations, as well as the level of compressive fluctuations. Deviations of the data from the simple slab/2D model suggest the presence of power in intermediate directions and we compare our data with critical balance models. (Author)

  14. Alfvénic fluctuations in "newborn"' polar solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D structure of the solar wind is strongly dependent upon the Sun's activity cycle. At low solar activity a bimodal structure is dominant, with a fast and uniform flow at the high latitudes, and slow and variable flows at low latitudes. Around solar maximum, in sharp contrast, variable flows are observed at all latitudes. This last kind of pattern, however, is a relatively short-lived feature, and quite soon after solar maximum the polar wind tends to regain its role. The plasma parameter distributions for these newborn polar flows appear very similar to those typically observed in polar wind at low solar activity. The point addressed here is about polar wind fluctuations. As is well known, the low-solar-activity polar wind is characterized by a strong flow of Alfvénic fluctuations. Does this hold for the new polar flows too? An answer to this question is given here through a comparative statistical analysis on parameters such as total energy, cross helicity, and residual energy, that are of general use to describe the Alfvénic character of fluctuations. Our results indicate that the main features of the Alfvénic fluctuations observed in low-solar-activity polar wind have been quickly recovered in the new polar flows developed shortly after solar maximum. Keywords. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; Sources of the solar wind – Space plasma physics (Turbulence

  15. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  16. Evolution of the solar wind acceleration region during 1990-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Kondo, Tetsuro; Takaba, Hiroshi; Mori, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    The single-station measurements of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) at 2GHz and 8GHz using the Kashima radio telescope are used to study the distribution of the solar wind velocity and density fluctuations near the sun. Wind velocities derived from our IPS data with the IPS co-spectrum method show a radial increase in the distance range between 10 and 30 Rs (solar radii). From the scintillation index analysis, it is found that the radial fall of density fluctuations in the solar wind is described by the power-law function. A series of Kashima IPS observations reveals that a pronounced change in velocity and turbulence level occurs at the polar region of the sun during 1990-1994. That is, the high-speed wind and the reduced-turbulence region develop there as the solar activity declines. This fact is consistent with the long-term evolution of the coronal magnetic structure inferred from He1083nm observations

  17. The model of unshocked deceleration of the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidalevich, E.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The motion of the Sun relative to the interstellar gas is considered as an hydrodynamic flow in a point-source field. Interstellar gas has been found to undergo considerable compaction as it is braked in the solar gravitational field. Solar-wind braking due to ion charge exchange processes on interstellar hydrogen atoms is discussed. It is shown that tangible solar-wind braking occurs at a distance of about 3x1O 14 cm from the Sun in the apex direction. In the opposite direction solar wind propagates freely

  18. Wind power: public policies; Energia eolica: politicas publicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique Tavares; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: henrique@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the incentive models to the wind power applied in Germany and Denmark, two countries with great participation of wind power in their energetic matrixes, analysing the barriers found to the wind power development.

  19. Reactive power control methods for improved reliability of wind power inverters under wind speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    method to relieve the thermal cycling of power switching devices under severe wind speed variations, by circulating reactive power among the parallel power converters in a WTS or among the WTS's in a wind park. The amount of reactive power is adjusted to limit the junction temperature fluctuation...

  20. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  1. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  2. Wind Turbine and Wind Power Plant Modelling Aspects for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Göksu, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Large amount of wind power installations introduce modeling challenges for power system operators at both the planning and operational stages of power systems. Depending on the scope of the study, the modeling details of the wind turbine or the wind power plant are required to be different. A wind...... turbine model which is developed for the short-term voltage stability studies can be inaccurate and sufficient for the frequency stability studies. Accordingly, a complete and detailed wind power plant model for every kind of study is not feasible in terms of the computational time and also...... and wind power plants are reviewed for power system stability studies. Important remarks of the models are presented by means of simulations to emphasize the impact of these modelling details on the power system....

  3. Voyager microwave scintillation measurements of solar wind plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the solar conjunctions of Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in August 1979, September 1980, and November 1982, temporal variations of intensity and frequency of the dual-wavelength (3.6 and 13 cm) radio transmissions from the spacecraft were observed and subsequently analyzed to infer characteristics of the solar wind plasma flow. Measurements of the temporal wave structure function were used to estimate the spectral index of the power law spatial spectrum of irregularities. Theoretical-intensity scintillation spectra were compared with measured intensity spectra to obtain least-squares estimates of (1) mean velocity, (2) random velocity, (3) axial ratio, and (4) electron density standard deviation. Uncertainties in parameter estimates were calculated by standard propagation of errors techniques. Mean velocity and electron density standard deviations in 1979-1980 show little dependence on solar latitude. Density standard deviation estimates were 3-10% of the background mean density and mean velocity estimates ranged from approx.200 km/s inside 17 solar radii to approx.300 km/s at 25 solar radii. 1982 density standard deviation estimates increased rapidly with latitude near 45 0 N, then sharply decreased north of that latitude, indicating the existence of a polar region of reduced fluctuations surrounded by a thin cone of strong density irregularities

  4. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control curves for each individual wind turbine off-line. In typical wind farms with regular layout, based on the detailed analysis of the influence of pitch angle and tip speed ratio on the total active power of the wind farm by the exhausted search, the optimization is simplified with the reduced computation complexity. By using the optimized control curves, the annual energy production (AEP is increased by 1.03% compared to using the MPPT method in a case-study of a typical eighty-turbine wind farm.

  5. 77 FR 31839 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program... projects. The 2012 Wind and Water Power Program, Wind Power Peer Review Meeting will review wind technology... portfolio. The 2012 Wind Power Peer Review Meeting will be held June 19 through June 21, 2012, in Alexandria...

  6. Power quality improvements of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soebrink, Kent H. [Eltra (Denmark); Stoeber, Ralf; Schettler, Frank; Bergmann, Klaus [Siemens (Germany); Jenkins, Nicholas; Ekanayake, Janaka; Saad-Saoud, Zouhir; Liboa, Maria Luiza; Strbac, Goran [UMIST (United Kingdom); Kaas Pedersen, Joergen; Helgesen Pedersen, Knud Ole [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to investigate how the power quality of the electrical output of wind farms could be improved by the use of modern high power electronic technology. Although the research is of direct application to wind energy it will also be relevant to many other types of small-scale generation embedded in utility distribution networks. The operation of wind turbines with asynchronous generators requires reactive power which, if supplied form the network, leads to low voltages and increased losses. In order to improve the power factor of the generation, fixed capacitors are usually used to provide reactive power. However, if they are sized for the full requirement of the wind farm, they can cause self-excitation and potentially damaging and hazardous overvoltages if the wind turbines` connection with the network is interrupted and they become islanded. An advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) uses a power electronic converter to generate or absorb reactive power. They can be used to provide reactive power with rapid control and with only modestly sized passive components (i.e. small capacitors and reactors). The objective of the project was to combine research and development of this novel form of electronic equipment with its application to increase the use of renewable energy, and wind power in particular, in the European Union. (EG) 19 refs.

  7. Wind power development. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the status and long-term perspectives for the development of wind power, contributing to the Macro Task E1 on production cost for fusion and alternative technologies, part of the programme for Socio-Economic Research on Fusion. The report concentrates on the development of the production costs for wind power, limited to turbines connected to the public grid. The report shows status and perspectives for production costs for wind turbines until the year 2020-30. In general two trends have dominated the grid-connected wind turbine development until now: The average size of the turbines sold at the market place has increased substantially, while at the same time the efficiency of turbine electricity production has increased steadily. Together these trends have increased the cost-effectiveness of wind power by almost 45% over a time span of 9-10 years. Looking at perspectives, a substantial cut in wind power cost per kWh can be expected within the next 20-30 years. A survey performed for a number of long-term forecasts for the wind power technology in general shows a decrease in production costs of 2-2.5% p.a., which implies that the cost of wind-generated electricity would be halved by the year 2030, probably making it fully competitive to conventional fossil fuel based electricity production. (au)

  8. Switching overvoltages in offshore wind power grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Ivan

    and cables are presented. In Chapter 4 results from time domain measurements and simulations of switching operations in offshore wind power grids are described. Specifically, switching operations on a single wind turbine, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid measured in several real...... offshore wind farms are shown together with simulation results. Switching operations in offshore wind power grids can be simulated with different electromagnetic transient programs. Different programs were used in the project and compared results are included in Chapter 4. Also in Chapter 4 different......Switching transients in wind turbines, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid in offshore wind farms, during normal or abnormal operation, are the most important phenomena when conducting insulation coordination studies. However, the recommended models and methods from...

  9. Off shore wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinali, F.; Botta, G.; Lembo, E.; Serri, L.; Vailati, R.; Viani, S.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy are present sea area with good wind intensity usable for offshore wind farms. The tourist vocation of territory requires facilities to accept the people at sufficient distance from the coast in deep waters. Innovative solution on the floating platforms can be an interesting prospect [it

  10. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  11. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  12. Estimating the impacts of wind power on power systems—summary of IEA Wind collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-04-01

    Adding wind power to power systems will have beneficial impacts by reducing the emissions of electricity production and reducing the operational costs of the power system as less fuel is consumed in conventional power plants. Wind power will also have a capacity value to a power system. However, possible negative impacts will have to be assessed to make sure that they will only offset a small part of the benefits and also to ensure the security of the power system operation. An international forum for the exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The Task 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' is analyzing existing case studies from different power systems. There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper describes the general issues of wind power impacts on power systems and presents a comparison of results from ten case studies on increased balancing needs due to wind power.

  13. Estimating the impacts of wind power on power systems-summary of IEA Wind collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    Adding wind power to power systems will have beneficial impacts by reducing the emissions of electricity production and reducing the operational costs of the power system as less fuel is consumed in conventional power plants. Wind power will also have a capacity value to a power system. However, possible negative impacts will have to be assessed to make sure that they will only offset a small part of the benefits and also to ensure the security of the power system operation. An international forum for the exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The Task 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' is analyzing existing case studies from different power systems. There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper describes the general issues of wind power impacts on power systems and presents a comparison of results from ten case studies on increased balancing needs due to wind power

  14. Wind power systems. Applications of computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfeng [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Singh, Chanan [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Kusiak, Andrew (eds.) [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind power have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not produce carbon dioxide and other emissions, and can enhance a nation's energy security. For example, recently more significant amounts of wind power are being integrated into conventional power grids. Therefore, it is necessary to address various important and challenging issues related to wind power systems, which are significantly different from the traditional generation systems. This book is a resource for engineers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in studying or using the power of computational intelligence based algorithms in handling various important problems in wind power systems at the levels of power generation, transmission, and distribution. Researchers have been developing biologically-inspired algorithms in a wide variety of complex large-scale engineering domains. Distinguished from the traditional analytical methods, the new methods usually accomplish the task through their computationally efficient mechanisms. Computational intelligence methods such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and fuzzy systems have attracted much attention in electric power systems. Meanwhile, modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet the growing electricity market. In particular, the grid complexity is continuously enhanced by the integration of intermittent wind power as well as the current restructuring efforts in electricity industry. Quite often, the traditional analytical methods become less efficient or even unable to handle this increased complexity. As a result, it is natural to apply computational intelligence as a powerful tool to deal with various important and pressing problems in the current wind power systems. This book presents the state-of-the-art development in the field of computational intelligence applied to wind power systems by reviewing the most up

  15. Cooperative wind turbine control for maximizing wind farm power using sequential convex programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyoo; Law, Kincho H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The continuous wake model describes well the wake profile behind a wind turbine. • The wind farm power function describes well the power production of a wind farm. • Cooperative control increases the wind farm power efficiency by 7.3% in average. • SCP can be employed to efficiently optimize the control actions of wind turbines. - Abstract: This paper describes the use of a cooperative wind farm control approach to improve the power production of a wind farm. The power production by a downstream wind turbine can decrease significantly due to reduced wind speed caused by the upstream wind turbines, thereby lowering the overall wind farm power production efficiency. In spite of the interactions among the wind turbines, the conventional (greedy) wind turbine control strategy tries to maximize the power of each individual wind turbine by controlling its yaw angle, its blade pitch angle and its generator torque. To maximize the overall wind farm power production while taking the wake interference into account, this study employs a cooperative control strategy. We first derive the wind farm power as a differentiable function of the control actions for the wind turbines in a wind farm. The wind farm power function is then maximized using sequential convex programming (SCP) to determine the optimum coordinated control actions for the wind turbines. Using an example wind farm site and available wind data, we show how the cooperative control strategy improves the power production of the wind farm

  16. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  17. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  18. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  19. Mini Solar and Sea Current Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenhali, Abdulrahman; Alshamsi, Hatem; Aljunaibi, Yaser; Almussabi, Dheyab; Alshehhi, Ahmed; Hilal, Hassan Bu

    2017-07-01

    The power demand in United Arab Emirates is increased so that there is a consistent power cut in our region. This is because of high power consumption by factories and also due to less availability of conventional energy resources. Electricity is most needed facility for the human being. All the conventional energy resources are depleting day by day. So we have to shift from conventional to non-conventional energy resources. In this the combination of two energy resources is takes place i.e. wind and solar energy. This process reviles the sustainable energy resources without damaging the nature. We can give uninterrupted power by using hybrid energy system. Basically this system involves the integration of two energy system that will give continuous power. Solar panels are used for converting solar energy and wind turbines are used for converting wind energy into electricity. This electrical power can utilize for various purpose. Generation of electricity will be takes place at affordable cost. This paper deals with the generation of electricity by using two sources combine which leads to generate electricity with affordable cost without damaging the nature balance. The purpose of this project was to design a portable and low cost power system that combines both sea current electric turbine and solar electric technologies. This system will be designed in efforts to develop a power solution for remote locations or use it as another source of green power.

  20. Quality charter. Instrumentation of solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated sites. A preliminary functional analysis; Charte de qualite. Instrumentation des systemes de production d`electricite en sites isoles a base d`energie photovoltaique et eolienne. Premiere analyse fonctionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A.; Mauras, P.; Jacquin, P.

    1996-10-01

    This document is intended to become one of the Quality Charter documents. It presents the functions which must be provided by the instrumentation systems designed for use in solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated designed for use in solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated sites and should be viewed in close conjunction with the `Typology` and `Energy Management` documents covering the same systems of electricity generation in isolated sites; Together, these documents provide the definition of a range of eight energy management systems and four instrumentation systems specially adapted to the different types of facilities and requirements. (authors)