WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind plant output

  1. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  2. Wind resource and plant output data sets for wind integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jaclyn D.; Manobianco, John; Alonge, Charles J.; Brower, Michael C. [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States)

    2010-07-01

    One of the first step towards understanding the impact of increasing penetrations of wind is developing data sets of wind power output over large regions. To facilitate the development of these data sets, AWS Truepower (AWST) generated wind speeds over multiple years (2-3) using the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). These simulations were performed with high spatial resolution (1-2 km) to capture the wind flows over each area of interest. Output was saved in 10-minute interval to capture variations in wind speed so that plant output could be analyzed against utility load and system operations. This paper will describe the methodology of mesoscale modeling, site selection, conversion to power, and downscaling to high frequency output. Additionally, the generation of synthetic forecasts will be discussed. The validation results from recent studies in the eastern United States and Hawaii will be highlighted. (orig.)

  3. Modulating wind power plant output using different frequency modulation components for damping grid oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method, controller, wind power plant, and computer program product are disclosed for operating a wind power plant comprising a plurality of wind turbines, the wind power plant producing a plant power output. The method comprises receiving a modulation request signal indicating a requested...... modulation of the plant power output, the requested modulation specifying a modulation frequency. The method further comprises generating a respective power reference signal for each of at least two wind turbines of the plurality of wind turbines selected to fulfill the requested modulation, Each generated...... power reference signal includes a respective modulation component corresponding to a portion of the requested modulation and having a frequency different than the modulation frequency....

  4. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  5. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  6. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  7. Model output statistics applied to wind power prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensen, A; Giebel, G; Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H; Nielsen, H A [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mathematical Modelling, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Being able to predict the output of a wind farm online for a day or two in advance has significant advantages for utilities, such as better possibility to schedule fossil fuelled power plants and a better position on electricity spot markets. In this paper prediction methods based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are considered. The spatial resolution used in NWP models implies that these predictions are not valid locally at a specific wind farm. Furthermore, due to the non-stationary nature and complexity of the processes in the atmosphere, and occasional changes of NWP models, the deviation between the predicted and the measured wind will be time dependent. If observational data is available, and if the deviation between the predictions and the observations exhibits systematic behavior, this should be corrected for; if statistical methods are used, this approaches is usually referred to as MOS (Model Output Statistics). The influence of atmospheric turbulence intensity, topography, prediction horizon length and auto-correlation of wind speed and power is considered, and to take the time-variations into account, adaptive estimation methods are applied. Three estimation techniques are considered and compared, Extended Kalman Filtering, recursive least squares and a new modified recursive least squares algorithm. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  8. The variability of interconnected wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We present the first frequency-dependent analyses of the geographic smoothing of wind power's variability, analyzing the interconnected measured output of 20 wind plants in Texas. Reductions in variability occur at frequencies corresponding to times shorter than ∼24 h and are quantified by measuring the departure from a Kolmogorov spectrum. At a frequency of 2.8x10 -4 Hz (corresponding to 1 h), an 87% reduction of the variability of a single wind plant is obtained by interconnecting 4 wind plants. Interconnecting the remaining 16 wind plants produces only an additional 8% reduction. We use step change analyses and correlation coefficients to compare our results with previous studies, finding that wind power ramps up faster than it ramps down for each of the step change intervals analyzed and that correlation between the power output of wind plants 200 km away is half that of co-located wind plants. To examine variability at very low frequencies, we estimate yearly wind energy production in the Great Plains region of the United States from automated wind observations at airports covering 36 years. The estimated wind power has significant inter-annual variability and the severity of wind drought years is estimated to be about half that observed nationally for hydroelectric power.

  9. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  10. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  11. Validation of Power Output for the WIND Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Clifton, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Renewable energy integration studies require wind data sets of high quality with realistic representations of the variability, ramping characteristics, and forecast performance for current wind power plants. The Wind Integration National Data Set (WIND) Toolkit is meant to be an update for and expansion of the original data sets created for the weather years from 2004 through 2006 during the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and the Eastern Wind Integration Study. The WIND Toolkit expands these data sets to include the entire continental United States, increasing the total number of sites represented, and it includes the weather years from 2007 through 2012. In addition, the WIND Toolkit has a finer resolution for both the temporal and geographic dimensions. Three separate data sets will be created: a meteorological data set, a wind power data set, and a forecast data set. This report describes the validation of the wind power data set.

  12. Effects of wake effect and time delay on output characteristics of doubly fed induction generators in wind power plant%尾流效应和时滞对双馈机组风电场输出特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      由于双馈机组已成为国内主流机型且大型双馈机组风电场通常占地面积比较大,需要研究双馈风电机组间的尾流效应及时滞对双馈机组风电场的并网点输出特性的影响情况。通过搭建了30台2 MW双馈风电机组组成的风电场模型,对风速波动和电网故障下双馈机组风电场输出特性进行分析和比较。通过仿真表明,机组间的尾流效应导致双馈机组风电场的风能损失;风速时滞平缓了风电场输出功率。%Because doubly fed induction generator has become the mainstream type and a large wind power plant usually covers a larger area,the impacts of wake effects among wind turbines and time delay on output characteristics of wind power plant need to be studied. With a wind power plant model composed of thirty 2⁃MW double fed induction generator wind tur⁃bines,the output characteristic of wind power plant under the conditions of wind speed fluctuation and grid faults is analyzed and compared. The simulation results show that the wake effects among wind turbines can cause the wind energy loss of wind farm and the wind speed time delay will smooth the power output of wind farm;wake effects among wind turbines and wind speed time delays needs to be considered when the grid⁃connection stability of wind farms with double fed induction generator wind turbines is analyzed.

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop and optimize tools for designing large wind farm arrays for deployment offshore. This research is focused on improving the understanding of, and modeling of, wind turbine wakes in order to make more accurate power output predictions for large offshore wind farms...

  14. Intermittent Smoothing Approaches for Wind Power Output: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most common types of renewable energy resource. Due to its sustainability and environmental benefits, it is an emerging source for electric power generation. Rapid and random changes of wind speed makes it an irregular and inconsistent power source when connected to the grid, causing different technical problems in protection, power quality and generation dispatch control. Due to these problems, effective intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output are crucially needed to minimize such problems. This paper reviews various intermittent smoothing approaches used in smoothing the output power fluctuations caused by wind energy. Problems associated with the inclusion of wind energy resources to grid are also briefly reviewed. From this review, it has been found that battery energy storage system is the most suitable and effective smoothing approach, provided that an effective control strategy is available for optimal utilization of battery energy system. This paper further demonstrates different control strategies built for battery energy storage system to obtain the smooth output wind power.

  15. Multi-decadal Variability of the Wind Power Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner Bossi, Nicolas; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Prieto, Luis; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the long-term wind power variability is essential to provide a realistic outlook on the power output during the lifetime of a planned wind power project. In this work, the Power Output (Po) of a market wind turbine is simulated with a daily resolution for the period 1871-2009 at two different locations in Spain, one at the Central Iberian Plateau and another at the Gibraltar Strait Area. This is attained through a statistical downscaling of the daily wind conditions. It implements a Greedy Algorithm as classificator of a geostrophic-based wind predictor, which is derived by considering the SLP daily field from the 56 ensemble members of the longest homogeneous reanalysis available (20CR, 1871-2009). For calibration and validation purposes we use 10 years of wind observations (the predictand) at both sites. As a result, a series of 139 annual wind speed Probability Density Functions (PDF) are obtained, with a good performance in terms of wind speed uncertainty reduction (average daily wind speed MAE=1.48 m/s). The obtained centennial series allow to investigate the multi-decadal variability of wind power from different points of view. Significant periodicities around the 25-yr frequency band, as well as long-term linear trends are detected at both locations. In addition, a negative correlation is found between annual Po at both locations, evidencing the differences in the dynamical mechanisms ruling them (and possible complementary behavior). Furthermore, the impact that the three leading large-scale circulation patterns over Iberia (NAO, EA and SCAND) exert over wind power output is evaluated. Results show distinct (and non-stationary) couplings to these forcings depending on the geographical position and season or month. Moreover, significant non-stationary correlations are observed with the slow varying Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index for both case studies. Finally, an empirical relationship is explored between the annual Po and the

  16. Using machine learning to predict wind turbine power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, A; Kilcher, L; Lundquist, J K; Fleming, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to rank atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that from the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data are required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of the different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site. (letter)

  17. Wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1976-08-26

    The invention is concerned with a wind-power plant whose rotor axis is pivoted in the supporting structure and swingable around an axis of tilt, forming an angle with the rotor axis and the vertical axis, and allowing precession of the rotor. On changes of wind direction an electric positioning device is moving the rotor axis into the new direction in such a way that no precession forces are exerted on the supporting structure and this one may very easily be held. Instead of one rotor, also a type with two coaxial, co-planar countercurrent rotors may be used. Each of the two countercurrent rotors is carrying a number of magnetic poles, distributed all over the circumference, acting together with the magnetic poles of the other rotor. At least the poles of one rotor have electric line windings being connected by leads with a collector so that the two rotors form the two parts of a power generator being each rotatable with respect to the other ('stator' and 'rotor').

  18. Utility-sized Madaras wind plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, D. H.; Minardi, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis and technological updating were conducted for the Madaras Rotor Power Plant concept, to determine its ability to compete both technically and economically with horizontal axis wind turbine generators currently under development. The Madaras system uses large cylinders rotating vertically atop each regularly spaced flatcar of a train to propel them, by means of Magnus-effect interaction with the wind, along a circular or oval track. Alternators geared to the wheels of each car generate electrical power, which is transmitted to a power station by a trolley system. The study, consisting of electromechanical design, wind tunnel testing, and performance and cost analyses, shows that utility-sized plants greater than 228 MW in capacity and producing 975,000 kWh/year are feasible. Energy costs for such plants are projected to be between 22% lower and 12% higher than horizontal axis turbine plants of comparable output.

  19. Active Subspaces for Wind Plant Surrogate Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Adcock, Christiane [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2018-01-12

    Understanding the uncertainty in wind plant performance is crucial to their cost-effective design and operation. However, conventional approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ), such as Monte Carlo techniques or surrogate modeling, are often computationally intractable for utility-scale wind plants because of poor congergence rates or the curse of dimensionality. In this paper we demonstrate that wind plant power uncertainty can be well represented with a low-dimensional active subspace, thereby achieving a significant reduction in the dimension of the surrogate modeling problem. We apply the active sub-spaces technique to UQ of plant power output with respect to uncertainty in turbine axial induction factors, and find a single active subspace direction dominates the sensitivity in power output. When this single active subspace direction is used to construct a quadratic surrogate model, the number of model unknowns can be reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude without compromising performance on unseen test data. We conclude that the dimension reduction achieved with active subspaces makes surrogate-based UQ approaches tractable for utility-scale wind plants.

  20. Output Power Smoothing Control for a Wind Farm Based on the Allocation of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new output power smoothing control strategy for a wind farm based on the allocation of wind turbines. The wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into control wind turbines (CWT and power wind turbines (PWT, separately. The PWTs are expected to output as much power as possible and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy combining the rotor inertia based power smoothing method is adopted. The CWTs are in charge of the output power smoothing for the whole wind farm by giving the calculated appropriate power. The battery energy storage system (BESS with small capacity is installed to be the support and its charge and discharge times are greatly reduced comparing with the traditional ESSs based power smoothing strategies. The simulation model of the permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG based wind farm by considering the wake effect is built in Matlab/Simulink to test the proposed power smoothing method. Three different working modes of the wind farm are given in the simulation and the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed power smoothing control strategy.

  1. Smoothing Control of Wind Farm Output by Using Kinetic Energy of Variable Speed Wind Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a new control method for reducing fluctuation of power system frequency through smoothing active power output of wind farm. The proposal is based on the modulation of rotaional kinetic energy of variable speed wind power generators through power converters between permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) and transmission lines. In this paper, the proposed control is called Fluctuation Absorption by Flywheel Characteristics control (FAFC). The FAFC can be easily implemented by adding wind farm output signal to Maximum Power Point Tracking control signal through a feedback control loop. In order to verify the effectiveness of the FAFC control, a simulation study was carried out. In the study, it was assumed that the wind farm consisting of PMSG type wind power generator and induction machine type wind power generaotors is connected with a power sysem. The results of the study show that the FAFC control is a useful method for reducing the impacts of wind farm output fluctuation on system frequency without additional devices such as secondary battery.

  2. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  3. Investigation on the integral output power model of a large-scale wind farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Nengsheng; MA Xiuqian; NI Weidou

    2007-01-01

    The integral output power model of a large-scale wind farm is needed when estimating the wind farm's output over a period of time in the future.The actual wind speed power model and calculation method of a wind farm made up of many wind turbine units are discussed.After analyzing the incoming wind flow characteristics and their energy distributions,and after considering the multi-effects among the wind turbine units and certain assumptions,the incoming wind flow model of multi-units is built.The calculation algorithms and steps of the integral output power model of a large-scale wind farm are provided.Finally,an actual power output of the wind farm is calculated and analyzed by using the practical measurement wind speed data.The characteristics of a large-scale wind farm are also discussed.

  4. Measuring power output intermittency and unsteady loading in a micro wind farm model

    OpenAIRE

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this study porous disc models are used as a turbine model for a wind-tunnel wind farm experiment, allowing the measurement of the power output, thrust force and spatially averaged incoming velocity for every turbine. The model's capabilities for studying the unsteady turbine loading, wind farm power output intermittency and spatio temporal correlations between wind turbines are demonstrated on an aligned wind farm, consisting of 100 wind turbine models.

  5. Empirical investigation on using wind speed volatility to estimate the operation probability and power output of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Heping; Shi, Jing; Qu, Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ten-minute wind speed and power generation data of an offshore wind turbine are used. ► An ARMA–GARCH-M model is built to simultaneously forecast wind speed mean and volatility. ► The operation probability and expected power output of the wind turbine are predicted. ► The integrated approach produces more accurate wind power forecasting than other conventional methods. - Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a quantitative methodology that performs the interval estimation of wind speed, calculates the operation probability of wind turbine, and forecasts the wind power output. The technological advantage of this methodology stems from the empowered capability of mean and volatility forecasting of wind speed. Based on the real wind speed and corresponding wind power output data from an offshore wind turbine, this methodology is applied to build an ARMA–GARCH-M model for wind speed forecasting, and then to compute the operation probability and the expected power output of the wind turbine. The results show that the developed methodology is effective, the obtained interval estimation of wind speed is reliable, and the forecasted operation probability and expected wind power output of the wind turbine are accurate

  6. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  7. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  8. Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Meyers, Johan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies. (paper)

  9. Modelling of wind power plant controller, wind speed time series, aggregation and sample results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    This report describes the modelling of a wind power plant (WPP) including its controller. Several ancillary services like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) are implemented. The focus in this document is on the performance of the WPP output...... and not the impact of the WPP on the power system. By means of simulation tests, the capability of the implemented wind power plant model to deliver ancillary services is investigated....

  10. Low-power wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Shevchenko, Yu.V.; Shikhajlov, N.A.; Kokhanevich, V.P.; Tanan, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Design peculiarities, as well as the prospects of development and introduction of the low-power (from 0.5 up to 4 kW) wind power plants (WPP) are considered. The variants of WPP with vertical and horizontal rotation axis are described. The data characterizing cost and structure of expenditures on WPP manufacture and operation are given

  11. Data-driven wind plant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebraad, P.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Each wind turbine in a cluster of wind turbines (a wind power plant) can influence the performance of other turbines through the wake that forms downstream of its rotor. The wake has a reduced wind velocity, since the turbine extracts energy from the flow, and the obstruction by the wind turbine

  12. Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Utilizing Wind Turbine Inertia as Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2011-01-01

    For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....

  13. Optimal control of wind power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.; Boer, de W.W.; Bosgra, O.H.; Peeters, S.A.W.M.; Ploeg, J.

    1988-01-01

    The control system design for a wind power plant is investigated. Both theoverall wind farm control and the individual wind turbine control effect thewind farm dynamic performance.For a wind turbine with a synchronous generator and rectifier/invertersystem a multivariable controller is designed.

  14. Integrating wind output with bulk power operations and wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wind farms have three characteristics that complicate their widespread application as an electricity resource: limited control, unpredictability and variability. Therefore the integration of wind output into bulk power electric systems is qualitatively different from that of other types of generators. The electric system operator must move other generators up or down to offset the time-varying wind fluctuations. Such movements raise the costs of fuel and maintenance for these other generators. Not only is wind power different, it is new. The operators of bulk power systems have limited experience in integrating wind output into the larger system. As a consequence, market rules that treat wind fairly - neither subsidizing nor penalizing its operation - have not yet been developed. The lack of data and analytical methods encourages wind advocates and sceptics to rely primarily on their biases and beliefs in suggesting how wind should be integrated into bulk power systems. This project helps fill this data and analysis gap. Specifically, it develops and applies a quantitative method for the integration of a wind resource into a large electric system. The method permits wind to bid its output into a short-term forward market (specifically, an hour-ahead energy market) or to appear in real time and accept only intrahour and hourly imbalance payments for the unscheduled energy it delivers to the system. Finally, the method analyses the short-term (minute-to-minute) variation in wind output to determine the regulation requirement the wind resource imposes on the electrical system. (author)

  15. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  16. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yoon, Y. S.; Yoon, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  17. Classification of micro-, mini- and small wind electric power plants applying wind fluid drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabev, S.; Kollen, H.; Sabeva, A.

    2006-01-01

    Wind power plants have various design features and efficiency ranges from 30 to 42%. In Bulgaria the first attempts in the field were made in the early 70-tees of the last century. At the moment Rexroth of the Bosch Group turns out a range of high-tech solutions. The generator gear unit with power output of 2.0 MW is a planetary type and the first gear drive is a helical one for noise reduction purposes. The azimuth gear unit rotates the cabin and is also a planetary one. The pitch Gear unit is also planetary and provides for the pitch of the rotor blades. Power plants have highly automated control systems. Essential care is paid to the reliability of the system to meet requirements for long term operation. Building of wind power plants is related to the wind energy potential of the specific site, and to that purpose the wind energy potential map of Bulgaria is used

  18. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...

  19. Detecting, categorizing and forecasting large romps in wind farm power output using meteorological observations and WPPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutler, N.; Kay, M.; Jacka, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Wind Power Prediction Tool (WPPT) has been installed in Australia for the first time, to forecast the power output from the 65MW Roaring 40s Renewable Energy P/L Woolnorth Bluff Point wind form. This article analyses the general performance of WPPT as well as its performance during large romps...... (swings) in power output. In addition to this, detected large ramps are studied in detail and categorized. WPPT combines wind speed and direction forecasts from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology regional numerical weather prediction model, MesoLAPS, with real-time wind power observations to make hourly...... forecasts of the wind farm power output. The general performances of MesoLAPS and WPPTore evaluated over I year using the root mean square error (RMSE). The errors are significantly lower than for basic benchmark forecasts but higher than for many other WPPT installations, where the site conditions...

  20. Output power control of two coupled wind generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boukhelifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are interested to the power control of two wind generators coupled to the network through power converters. Every energy chain conversion is composed of a wind turbine, a gearbox, a Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG, two PWM converters and a DC bus. The power exchange and the DC voltage are controlled by the use of proportional integral correctors. For our study, initially we have modeled all the components of the one system energy conversion, and then we have simulated its behavior using Matlab/Simulink. In another part of this paper we present the analysis of the interaction and the powerflow between the two aerogenerators following a disturbance due to wind speed on every turbine. Also we have considered a connection fault to the DC bus. In each case the assessment of power brought into play is checked. Simulation tests are established.

  1. Output Power Control of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control using Minimum Variance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Higa, Hiroki; Uezato, Katsumi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, there have been problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuels, e. g., coal and oil, and environmental pollution resulting from consumption. Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuating components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades of the windmill. In this paper, output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using an adaptive control is proposed. A self-tuning regulator is used in adaptive control. The control input is determined by the minimum variance control. It is possible to compensate control input to alleviate generating power fluctuation with using proposed controller. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  2. ROBUST CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR MULTIVARIABLE PLANTS WITH QUANTIZED OUTPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with robust output control algorithm for multivariable plants under disturbances. A plant is described by the system of linear differential equations with known relative degrees. Plant parameters are unknown but belong to the known closed bounded set. Plant state vector is unmeasured. Plant output is measured only via static quantizer. Control system algorithm is based on the high gain feedback method. Developed controller provides exponential convergence of tracking error to the bounded area. The area bounds depend on quantizer parameters and the value of external disturbances. Experimental approbation of the proposed control algorithm is performed with the use of Twin Rotor MIMO System laboratory bench. This bench is a helicopter like model with two degrees of freedom (pitch and yaw. DC motors are used as actuators. The output signals are measured via optical encoders. Mathematical model of laboratory bench is obtained. Proposed algorithm was compared with proportional - integral – differential controller in conditions of output quantization. Obtained results have confirmed the efficiency of proposed controller.

  3. Wind power plant in grid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heier, S.

    1993-01-01

    There are new prospects for electrical energy supply in coastal regions and on islands if one succeeds in integrating the available wind energy, dependent on the weather, into existing and to be developed supply structures. Apart from the supply of energy, effects on the grid and on the electrical consumer are gaining in importance. For wind power plants, the operating behaviour is appreciably determined by the electro-technical concept. The mechanical/electrical energy conversion with the corresponding grid connection and plant control play an important part here. Results of measurements and computer simulation make the differences in the behaviour of wind power plants clear. (orig.) [de

  4. Estimation of monthly wind power outputs of WECS with limited record period using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yi-Long; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chang, Yu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ANN with short record training data is used to estimate power outputs in an existing station. ► The suitable numbers/parameters of input neurons for ANN are presented. ► Current wind speeds and previous power outputs are the most important input neurons. ► Choosing suitable input parameters is more important than choosing multiple parameters. - Abstract: For the brand new wind power industry, online recordings of wind power data are always in a relatively limited period. The aim of the study is to investigate the suitable numbers/parameters of input neurons for artificial neural networks under a short record of measured data. Measured wind speeds, wind directions (yaw angles) and power outputs with 10-min resolution at an existing wind power station, located at Jhongtun, Taiwan, are integrated to form three types of input neuron numbers and sixteen cases of input neurons. The first-10 days of each month in 2006 are used for data training to simulate the following 20-day power generation of the same month. The performance of various input neuron cases is evaluated. The simulated results show that using the first 10-day training data with adequate input neurons can estimate energy outputs well except the weak wind regime (May, June, and July). Among the input neuron parameters used, current wind speeds V(t) and previous power outputs P(t − 1) are the most important. Individually using one of them into input neurons can only provide satisfactory estimation. However, simultaneously using these two parameters into input neurons can give the best estimation. Thus, choosing suitable input parameters is more important than choosing multiple parameters.

  5. Balancing Europe's wind power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Christian M; Beerli, Remo; Pfenninger, Stefan; Staffell, Iain; Wernli, Heini

    2017-08-01

    As wind and solar power provide a growing share of Europe's electricity1, understanding and accommodating their variability on multiple timescales remains a critical problem. On weekly timescales, variability is related to long-lasting weather conditions, called weather regimes2-5, which can cause lulls with a loss of wind power across neighbouring countries6. Here we show that weather regimes provide a meteorological explanation for multi-day fluctuations in Europe's wind power and can help guide new deployment pathways which minimise this variability. Mean generation during different regimes currently ranges from 22 GW to 44 GW and is expected to triple by 2030 with current planning strategies. However, balancing future wind capacity across regions with contrasting inter-regime behaviour - specifically deploying in the Balkans instead of the North Sea - would almost eliminate these output variations, maintain mean generation, and increase fleet-wide minimum output. Solar photovoltaics could balance low-wind regimes locally, but only by expanding current capacity tenfold. New deployment strategies based on an understanding of continent-scale wind patterns and pan-European collaboration could enable a high share of wind energy whilst minimising the negative impacts of output variability.

  6. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...

  7. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  8. Comparison of Solar and Wind Power Output and Correlation with Real-Time Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepfl, Kathryn E.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Solocha, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study presents a method that can be used to determine the least volatile power output of a wind and solar hybrid energy system in which wind and solar systems have the same peak power. Hourly data for wind and PV systems in Northwest Ohio are used to show that a combination of both types of sustainable energy sources produces a more stable power output and would be more valuable to the grid than either individually. This method could be used to determine the ideal ratio in any part of the country and should help convince electric utility companies to bring more renewable generation online. This study also looks at real-time market pricing and how each system (solar, wind, and hybrid) correlates with 2009 hourly pricing from the Midwest Interconnect. KEH acknowledges support from the NSF-REU grant PHY-1004649 to the Univ. of Toledo and Garland Energy Systems/Ohio Department of Development.

  9. Off shore wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinali, F.; Botta, G.; Lembo, E.; Serri, L.; Vailati, R.; Viani, S.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy are present sea area with good wind intensity usable for offshore wind farms. The tourist vocation of territory requires facilities to accept the people at sufficient distance from the coast in deep waters. Innovative solution on the floating platforms can be an interesting prospect [it

  10. Impacts from new 50 MW wind power plant - Bogdnaci on the price of electrical energy in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minovski, D.; Sarac, V.; Causevski, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the impact from the new planned wind power plant Bogdnaci on the price for the end users of electrical energy in Republic of Macedonia. In the next years, 50 MW wind power will be installed in the Macedonian electric power system. Production of electricity from wind power plants is unpredictable and of stochastic nature i.e. depends on the weather or the wind speed at the appropriate locations. Output of wind power plants is changing every minute, thus changing in the hourly level can be from 0 - 100%, even several times depending on the occurrence of winds. Changes in output of wind power plants, leads to increased demand for operational reserve in a power system. Preferential price of electrical energy from the wind power plants and increased operational reserve in the electric power system will have big impact on the final price of electrical energy in Republic of Macedonia. (Authors)

  11. Measuring nuclear power plant output by neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovkin, V.A.; Kodanev, S.A.; Panashchenko, N.S.; Sokolov, D.A.; Solov'yanov, O.M.; Tverdovskii, N.D.; Yarichin, A.D.; Ketov, S.N.; Kopeikin, V.I.; Machulin, I.N.; Mikaelyan, L.A.; Sinev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Neutrino emission from a reactor is inseparably linked with the fission process of heavy nuclei: each fission contributes a specific amount to the overall power output and gives rise to neutrinos which are emitted by the fission fragments created. Using a detector to record the neutrino flux gives a curve for the number of nuclei undergoing fission and the reactor power output. The question of whether it is practically possible to make use of neutrino emission from reactors was first posed in the mid-70s in connection with preparations for neutrino research at the Roven nuclear power plant (RAES) and in 1986 at an IAEA symposium on the topic of guarantees. Since 1982, research has been carried on at RAES on the fundamental properties and interactions of neutrinos. Based on this research and in parallel with it, in 1983 specialists from the Kurchatov Nuclear Power Institute and RAES jointly conducted an experiment which demonstrated in principle the possibility of remotely measuring reactor power output using the neutrino emission. This experiment had extremely limited statistics and is of interest today as the first demonstration of practical usage of neutrino emission from a reactor. At present the statistics for detecting neutrino events have increased tenfold and experience in lengthy measurements has been accumulated. This allows better analysis for the possibilities of the method. This paper reviews neutrino detection, theoretical bases of the method, determining the fission scale values for converting a number of neutrinos into power output, and measuring the power output

  12. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  13. Control design for a wind turbine-generator using output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, S. H.; Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The modeling and approach to control design for a large horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) generator are presented. The control design is based on a suboptimal output regulator which allows coordinated control of WT blade pitch angle and field voltage for the purposes of regulating electrical power and terminal voltage. Results of detailed non-linear simulation tests of this controller are shown.

  14. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  15. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation...... in stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  16. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  17. Wind Plant Collector System Fault Protection and Coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the most important protection and coordination considerations for wind power plants. Short-circuit characteristics of both aggregate wind plant and individual wind turbine genera- tors, as well as general interconnection protection requirements are discussed. Many factors such as security, reliability, and safety are considered for proper conservative protection of the wind power plant and individual turbines.

  18. Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...... with deterministic phase and those with probabilistic phase. A case study performed on a string of ten 3MW, Type-IV wind turbines implemented in PSCAD was used to verify the probabilistic SD harmonic model. The probabilistic SD harmonic model can be employed in the planning phase of WPP projects to assess harmonic...

  19. Integrated monitoring of wind plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Qiu, Tong

    2008-03-01

    Wind power is a renewable source of energy that is quickly gaining acceptance by many. Advanced sensor technologies have currently focused solely on improving wind turbine rotor aerodynamics and increasing of the efficiency of the blade design and concentration. Alternatively, potential improvements in wind plant efficiency may be realized through reduction of reactionary losses of kinetic energy to the structural and substructural systems supporting the turbine mechanics. Investigation of the complete dynamic structural response of the wind plant is proposed using a large-scale, high-rate wireless sensor network. The wireless network enables sensors to be placed across the sizable structure, including the rotating blades, without consideration of cabling issues and the economic burden associated with large spools of measurement cables. A large array of multi-axis accelerometers is utilized to evaluate the modal properties of the system as well as individual members and would enable long-term structural condition monitoring of the wind turbine as well. Additionally, environmental parameters, including wind speed, temperature, and humidity, are wirelessly collected for correlation. Such a wireless system could be integrated with electrical monitoring sensors and actuators and incorporated into a remote multi-turbine centralized plant monitoring and control system.

  20. Wind Plant Performance Prediction (WP3) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Anna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    The methods for analysis of operational wind plant data are highly variable across the wind industry, leading to high uncertainties in the validation and bias-correction of preconstruction energy estimation methods. Lack of credibility in the preconstruction energy estimates leads to significant impacts on project financing and therefore the final levelized cost of energy for the plant. In this work, the variation in the evaluation of a wind plant's operational energy production as a result of variations in the processing methods applied to the operational data is examined. Preliminary results indicate that selection of the filters applied to the data and the filter parameters can have significant impacts in the final computed assessment metrics.

  1. Coordinated frequency control from offshore wind power plants connected to multi terminal DC system considering wind speed variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated fast primary frequency control scheme from offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) integrated to a three terminal high voltage DC (HVDC) system is proposed in this study. The impact of wind speed variation on the OWPP active power output and thus on the AC grid frequency and DC grid...... the active power support from OWPP with a ramp rate limiter and (iii) An alternative method for the wind turbine overloading considering rotor speed. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated on a wind power plant integrated into a three terminal HVDC system developed in DIg......SILIENT PowerFactory. The results show that the proposed coordinated frequency control method performs effectively at different wind speeds and minimises the secondary effects on frequency and DC voltage....

  2. Control Strategies for Smoothing of Output Power of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Alok; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a control method for output power smoothing of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) using the inertia of wind turbine and the pitch control. The WECS used in this article adopts an AC-DC-AC converter system. The generator-side converter controls the torque of the PMSG, while the grid-side inverter controls the DC-link and grid voltages. For the generator-side converter, the torque command is determined by using the fuzzy logic. The inputs of the fuzzy logic are the operating point of the rotational speed of the PMSG and the difference between the wind turbine torque and the generator torque. By means of the proposed method, the generator torque is smoothed, and the kinetic energy stored by the inertia of the wind turbine can be utilized to smooth the output power fluctuations of the PMSG. In addition, the wind turbines shaft stress is mitigated compared to a conventional maximum power point tracking control. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the numerical simulations.

  3. Reactive Power Pricing Model Considering the Randomness of Wind Power Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhong; Wu, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    With the increase of wind power capacity integrated into grid, the influence of the randomness of wind power output on the reactive power distribution of grid is gradually highlighted. Meanwhile, the power market reform puts forward higher requirements for reasonable pricing of reactive power service. Based on it, the article combined the optimal power flow model considering wind power randomness with integrated cost allocation method to price reactive power. Meanwhile, considering the advantages and disadvantages of the present cost allocation method and marginal cost pricing, an integrated cost allocation method based on optimal power flow tracing is proposed. The model realized the optimal power flow distribution of reactive power with the minimal integrated cost and wind power integration, under the premise of guaranteeing the balance of reactive power pricing. Finally, through the analysis of multi-scenario calculation examples and the stochastic simulation of wind power outputs, the article compared the results of the model pricing and the marginal cost pricing, which proved that the model is accurate and effective.

  4. Smoothing of Grid-connected Wind-Diesel Power Output Using Energy Capacitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Elbaset

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small hybrid power system consists of two types of power generation; wind turbine and diesel generation, DG connected to power distribution system. The fluctuations like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, and sudden changes in load demand create imbalances in power distribution that can affect the frequency and the voltage in the power system. So, addition of Energy capacitor System, ECS is useful for compensation of fluctuating power, since it is capable of controlling both active and reactive power simultaneously and can smooth the output power flow. Hence, this paper proposes herein a dynamic model and simulation of a grid connected wind/DG based-ECS with power flow controllers between load and generation. Moreover, the paper presents a study to analyze the leveling of output fluctuation of wind power with the installation of ECS. To control the power exchanged between the ECS system and the AC grid, a load Following Control, LFC based supervisor is proposed with the aim to minimize variations of the power generated by the diesel generator. The interesting performance of the proposed supervisor is shown with the help of simulations. The computer simulation program is confirmed on a realistic circuit model which implemented in the Simulink environment of Matlab and works as if on line.

  5. Brief communication: On the influence of vertical wind shear on the combined power output of two model wind turbines in yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical wind shear on the total power output of two aligned model wind turbines as a function of yaw misalignment of the upstream turbine is studied experimentally. It is shown that asymmetries of the power output of the downstream turbine and the combined power of both with respect to the upstream turbine's yaw misalignment angle can be linked to the vertical wind shear of the inflow.

  6. Forecasting winds over nuclear power plants statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of an accident at nuclear power plant, it is essential to forecast the wind velocity at the level where the efflux occurs (about 100 m). At present meteorologists refine the wind forecast from the coarse grid of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The purpose of this study is to improve the forecasts by developing a statistical adaptation method which corrects the NWP forecasts by using statistical comparisons between wind forecasts and observations. The Multiple Linear Regression method is used here to forecast the 100 m wind at 12 and 24 hours range for three Electricite de France (EDF) sites. It turns out that this approach gives better forecasts than the NWP model alone and is worthy of operational use. (author)

  7. Sliding Window Technique for Calculating System LOLP Contributions of Wind Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional electric power generation models do not typically recognize the probabilistic nature of the power variations from wind plants. Most models allow for an accurate hourly representation of wind power output, but do not incorporate any probabilistic assessment of whether the given level of wind power will vary from its expected value. The technique presented in this paper uses this variation to calculate an effective forced-outage rate for wind power plants (EFORW). Depending on the type of wind regime undergoing evaluation, the length and diurnal characteristics of a sliding time window can be adjusted so that the EFORW is based on an appropriate time scale. The algorithm allows us to calculate the loss-of-load probability (LOLP) on an hourly basis, fully incorporating the variability of the wind resource into the calculation. This makes it possible to obtain a more accurate assessment of reliability of systems that include wind generation when system reliability is a concern

  8. Wind power plants the fuel savers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind is a converted from of solar energy. The Sun's radiation heats different parts of the earth at variable rates as the earth surfaces absorb or reflect at different rates. This in turn causes portions of the atmosphere to warm at varying levels. The hot air rises reducing atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface beneath, the cooler air rushes to replace it and in the process creates a momentum called wind. Air possesses mass and when it sets into motion, it contains the energy of that motion, called the Kinetic Energy. A part of the Kinetic Energy of the wind can be converted into other forms of energy i.e. mechanical force or electric power that can be used to perform work. The cost of electric energy from the wind system has dropped from the initial cost of 30 to 40 Cents per kWh to about 5 to 7 Cents/k Wh during the past 20 years. The costs are continually declining as the technology is advanced, the unit size is increased and larger plants are built. Wind power is now a viable, robust and fast growing industry. The cost of wind energy is expected to drop to 2 to 3 Cents / kWh during the next 5 to 10 years. Due to sky-rocketing prices of the fossil fuels, the competitive position of power generation technologies is rapidly changing. Wind energy is likely to emerge as the cheapest source of electric power generation in the global market in the near future. The current assessment of the global wind resources indicate that the wind energy potential is more than double the world's electricity needs. (author)

  9. Optimization of the Energy Output of Osmotic Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the way to a completely renewable energy supply, additional alternatives to hydroelectric, wind, and solar power have to be investigated. Osmotic power is such an alternative with a theoretical global annual potential of up to 14400 TWh (70% of the global electricity consumption of 2008 per year. It utilizes the phenomenon that upon the mixing of fresh water and oceanic salt water (e.g., at a river mouth, around 2.88 MJ of energy per 1 m3 of fresh water is released. Here, we describe a new approach to derive operational parameter settings for osmotic power plants using a pressure exchanger for optimal performance, either with respect to maximum generated power or maximum extracted energy. Up to now, only power optimization is discussed in the literature, but when considering the fresh water supply as a limiting factor, the energy optimization appears as the challenging task.

  10. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, William L. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nordstrom, Charles J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Morrison, Brent J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  11. CFD Study on Aerodynamic Power Output Changes with Inter-Turbine Spacing Variation for a 6 MW Offshore Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Joon Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly important as the use of wind energy is steadily increasing. Among the many wind farm layout design parameters, the inter-turbine spacing is a key factor in the initial investment cost, annual energy production and maintenance cost. The inter-turbine spacing should be determined to maximize the annual energy production and minimize the wake effect, turbulence effect and fatigue load during the service lifetime of wind turbines. Therefore, some compromise between the aerodynamic power output of wind turbines and the inter-turbine spacing is needed. An actuator disc model with the addition of a momentum source was not used, and instead, a full 3-dimensional model with a tower and nacelle was used for CFD analysis because of its great technical significance. The CFD analysis results, such as the aerodynamic power output, axial direction wind speed change, pressure drop across the rotor of wind turbine, and wind speed deficit due to the wake effect with inter-turbine spacing variation, were studied. The results of this study can be applied effectively to wind farm layout design and evaluation.

  12. Butinge Wind Power Plant - Pre-engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollestad, Knut A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study has been done for a wind farm at Butinge in Lithuania consisting of six 600 kW wind turbines. The location of the wind farm is planned near the border with Latvia and near the coast of the Baltic Sea. The preliminary study has through a relatively detailed technical examination of the project, primarily aimed at gathering basic data for budget estimation and cost calculations. Other relevant aspects of the project are also considered. These include an examination of the basis for the project, an analysis of wind conditions, consideration of the various environmental conditions, discussion about the form of organisation and division of responsibility, as well as an examination of the operational and maintenance framework. Based on wind measurements taken at IFE (Institute for Energy Technology), the annual mean wind is estimated to be 7.3 m/s at 45 m height (equivalent to the hub height for the proposed wind turbines). A production calculation has also been done, which shows that the total energy production of the entire wind farm is expected to 9.47 GWh per year. This is equivalent to a use time of 2630 hours respective to a load factor of 30%. The total cost is estimated at 30.2 mill NOK, and the energy price (including operational costs) delivered from the ''power plant wall'', based on this figure and the production estimate, is calculated at 0,32 NOK/kWh. This is based on a lifetime of 20 years for the facility and a 6.5% required rate of return. In addition, there is outlined a possible financial solution based on various price-scenarios and support arrangements. With an equity capital of 8% and 28% external support, the project meets the current energy price in Lithuania (3,4 US cents/kWh). Without support the sales price of the produced energy is increased by approx. 50%. (author)

  13. Gridded Calibration of Ensemble Wind Vector Forecasts Using Ensemble Model Output Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, S. M.; Holman, B. P.; Splitt, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    A computationally efficient method is developed that performs gridded post processing of ensemble wind vector forecasts. An expansive set of idealized WRF model simulations are generated to provide physically consistent high resolution winds over a coastal domain characterized by an intricate land / water mask. Ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) is used to calibrate the ensemble wind vector forecasts at observation locations. The local EMOS predictive parameters (mean and variance) are then spread throughout the grid utilizing flow-dependent statistical relationships extracted from the downscaled WRF winds. Using data withdrawal and 28 east central Florida stations, the method is applied to one year of 24 h wind forecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). Compared to the raw GEFS, the approach improves both the deterministic and probabilistic forecast skill. Analysis of multivariate rank histograms indicate the post processed forecasts are calibrated. Two downscaling case studies are presented, a quiescent easterly flow event and a frontal passage. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach are presented and discussed.

  14. Dynamic Modeling and Very Short-term Prediction of Wind Power Output Using Box-Cox Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kengo; Inoue, Masaki; Murayama, Dai; Adachi, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    We propose a statistical modeling method of wind power output for very short-term prediction. The modeling method with a nonlinear model has cascade structure composed of two parts. One is a linear dynamic part that is driven by a Gaussian white noise and described by an autoregressive model. The other is a nonlinear static part that is driven by the output of the linear part. This nonlinear part is designed for output distribution matching: we shape the distribution of the model output to match with that of the wind power output. The constructed model is utilized for one-step ahead prediction of the wind power output. Furthermore, we study the relation between the prediction accuracy and the prediction horizon.

  15. Wind farm balance of plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, L.; Liebmann, C.

    1992-01-01

    The study consisted of a detailed investigation of the infrastructure required for the construction and operation of a windfarm in the UK. Costing of the equipment and installation was carried out for three UK sites, with different physical characteristics. A literature survey was carried out to determine current practice in the siting of turbines within windfarms in Europe and the USA. Wind turbines were then laid out on the sites selected for study. Requirements and costs for roads, foundations and site buildings, site electrical system and grid connection, the supervisory control and data acquisition system were discussed and evaluated. A comparison between the balance of plant costs for the 33-metre MS-3 400 kW wind turbine and the 50-metre LS-2 1 MW wind turbine was made for each area of study. Overall balance of plant costs was reviewed, with an investigation of the cost components which are most sensitive to variations. The balance of plant costs averaged over the three sites were 13.0 p/kWh/annum for the MS3 windfarms and 10.6 p/kWh/annum for the LS-2 windfarms. Maps of the sites under investigation, design drawings and tables of costs are included to give supporting information to the text. (author)

  16. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Electronics and Automatics Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Matias, J.M. [Department of Statistics, University of Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station. (author)

  17. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Velazquez, Sergio; Matias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station.

  18. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  19. A neural network approach to local downscaling of GCM output for assessing wind power implications of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, D.J.; Hu, T.; Li, X.; Rosen, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented for downscaling General Circulation Model (GCM) output to predict surface wind speeds at scales of interest in the wind power industry under expected future climatic conditions. The approach involves a combination of Neural Network tools and traditional weather forecasting techniques. A Neural Network transfer function is developed to relate local wind speed observations to large scale GCM predictions of atmospheric properties under current climatic conditions. By assuming the invariability of this transfer function under conditions of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide, the resulting transfer function is then applied to GCM output for a transient run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. This methodology is applied to three test sites in regions relevant to the wind power industry - one in Texas and two in California. Changes in daily mean wind speeds at each location are presented and discussed with respect to potential implications for wind power generation. (author)

  20. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  1. Wind Power: Building and Connecting Large Wind Power Plants; Vindkraft: bygga och ansluta stoerre vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    This brochure is written for those who want to build a large wind power plant (1 MW or more) or wind power parks. It describes the process from idea to completed plant. A review of environmental impacts of wind power is also included

  2. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of harmonic resonance problems in Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Firstly, a generic WPP is modeled according to the equivalent circuits of its passive and active components. Main focus is put on modeling active components, i.e. the ones based on power...... converters. Subsequently, pros and cons of frequency and time domain analysis methods are outlined. The next sections are devoted to mitigation methods implemented in the power electronics converters. From the wind turbine perspective, different techniques to enhance the robustness of the controller...... are analyzed. Subsequently, the suitability for active damping of harmonics using STATCOM devices is assessed, with focus both on control techniques and power converter technologies....

  3. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil [' ' Dunarea de Jos' ' University of Galati, 47, Domneasca, 800008-Galati (Romania)

    2010-02-15

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results. (author)

  4. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results.

  5. Wind data for wind driven plant. [site selection for optimal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodhart, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple, averaged wind velocity data provide information on energy availability, facilitate generator site selection and enable appropriate operating ranges to be established for windpowered plants. They also provide a basis for the prediction of extreme wind speeds.

  6. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  7. Aggregated wind power plant models consisting of IEC wind turbine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The common practice regarding the modelling of large generation components has been to make use of models representing the performance of the individual components with a required level of accuracy and details. Owing to the rapid increase of wind power plants comprising large number of wind...... turbines, parameters and models to represent each individual wind turbine in detail makes it necessary to develop aggregated wind power plant models considering the simulation time for power system stability studies. In this paper, aggregated wind power plant models consisting of the IEC 61400-27 variable...... speed wind turbine models (type 3 and type 4) with a power plant controller is presented. The performance of the detailed benchmark wind power plant model and the aggregated model are compared by means of simulations for the specified test cases. Consequently, the results are summarized and discussed...

  8. Wind power scenario generation through state-space specifications for uncertainty analysis of wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Gómez-Aleixandre, Javier; Coto, José

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • State space representations for simulating wind power plant output are proposed. • The representation of wind speed in state space allows structural analysis. • The joint model incorporates the temporal and spatial dependence structure. • The models are easily integrable into a backward/forward sweep algorithm. • Results evidence the remarkable differences between joint and marginal models. - Abstract: This paper proposes the use of state space models to generate scenarios for the analysis of wind power plant (WPP) generation capabilities. The proposal is rooted on the advantages that state space models present for dealing with stochastic processes; mainly their structural definition and the use of Kalman filter to naturally tackle some involved operations. The specification proposed in this paper comprises a structured representation of individual Box–Jenkins models, with indications about further improvements that can be easily performed. These marginal models are combined to form a joint model in which the dependence structure is easily handled. Indications about the procedure to calibrate and check the model, as well as a validation of its statistical appropriateness, are provided. Application of the proposed state space models provides insight on the need to properly specify the structural dependence between wind speeds. In this paper the joint and marginal models are smoothly integrated into a backward–forward sweep algorithm to determine the performance indicators (voltages and powers) of a WPP through simulation. As a result, visibly heavy tails emerge in the generated power probability distribution through the use of the joint model—incorporating a detailed description of the dependence structure—in contrast with the normally distributed power yielded by the margin-based model.

  9. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  10. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nevrala; Stanislav Misak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generator...

  11. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bolado, O. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bollen, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Edds, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hejdak, W. J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Houseman, D. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Klein, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Maibach, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nicolai, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Pasupulati, S. V. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Saylors, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Siebert, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

  12. Understanding Dynamic Model Validation of a Wind Turbine Generator and a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Zhang, Ying Chen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Kosterev, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    Regional reliability organizations require power plants to validate the dynamic models that represent them to ensure that power systems studies are performed to the best representation of the components installed. In the process of validating a wind power plant (WPP), one must be cognizant of the parameter settings of the wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the operational settings of the WPP. Validating the dynamic model of a WPP is required to be performed periodically. This is because the control parameters of the WTGs and the other supporting components within a WPP may be modified to comply with new grid codes or upgrades to the WTG controller with new capabilities developed by the turbine manufacturers or requested by the plant owners or operators. The diversity within a WPP affects the way we represent it in a model. Diversity within a WPP may be found in the way the WTGs are controlled, the wind resource, the layout of the WPP (electrical diversity), and the type of WTGs used. Each group of WTGs constitutes a significant portion of the output power of the WPP, and their unique and salient behaviors should be represented individually. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the process of dynamic model validations of WTGs and WPPs, the available data recorded that must be screened before it is used for the dynamic validations, and the assumptions made in the dynamic models of the WTG and WPP that must be understood. Without understanding the correct process, the validations may lead to the wrong representations of the WTG and WPP modeled.

  13. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  14. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents life cycle analyses of net energy and CO 2 emissions on photovoltaic cell and wind power generation plants. Energy requirements associated with a plant are estimated for producing materials, manufacturing equipment, constructing facilities, acid operating plants. Energy ratio and net supplied energy are calculated by the process energy analysis that examines the entire energy inventory of input and output during life time of a plant. Life cycle CO 2 emission can also be calculated from the energy requirements obtained by the net energy analysis. The emission also includes greenhouse effect equivalent to CO 2 emission of methane gas leakage at a mining as well as CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during generating electricity, natural gas treatment at an extracting well and cement production in industry. The commercially available and future-commercial technologies are dealt with in the study. Regarding PV technologies, two different kinds of installation are investigated; roof-top typed installation of residential houses and ground installation of electric utilities. (author)

  15. Wind energy power plants (wind farms) review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, K B; McKeary, M [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health

    2010-07-01

    Global wind power capacity has increased by an average cumulative rate of over 30 percent over the past 10 years. Although wind energy emits no air pollutants and facilities can often share spaces with other activities, public opposition to wind power development is an ongoing cause of concern. Development at the local level in Ontario has been met with fierce opposition on the basis of health concerns, aesthetic values, potential environmental impacts, and economic risks. This report was prepared for the Town of Wasaga Beach, and examined some of the controversy surrounding wind power developments through a review of evidence found in the scientific literature. The impacts of wind power developments related to noise, shadow flicker, avian mortality, bats, and real estate values were evaluated. The study included details of interviews conducted with individuals from Ontario localities where wind farms were located. 77 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  16. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  17. Wind Power Plant Voltage Control Optimization with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and Statcom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Solanas, Jose Ignacio Busca; Zhao, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    Increasing wind power penetration and the size of wind power plants (WPPs) brings challenges to the operation and control of power systems. Most of WPPs are located far from load centers and the short circuit ratio at the point of common coupling (PCC) is low. The fluctuations of wind power...

  18. IEA Wind Task 37 System Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykes, K; Sanchez Perez Moreno, S.; Zahle, Frederik; Ning, A; McWilliam, M.; Zaayer, M B

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common

  19. Implementation of a Model Output Statistics based on meteorological variable screening for short‐term wind power forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Giebel, Gregor; Codina, Bernat

    2013-01-01

    A combination of physical and statistical treatments to post‐process numerical weather predictions (NWP) outputs is needed for successful short‐term wind power forecasts. One of the most promising and effective approaches for statistical treatment is the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique....... The proposed MOS performed well in both wind farms, and its forecasts compare positively with an actual operative model in use at Risø DTU and other MOS types, showing minimum BIAS and improving NWP power forecast of around 15% in terms of root mean square error. Further improvements could be obtained...

  20. Using wind plant data to increase reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ogilvie, Alistair B.; McKenney, Bridget L.

    2011-01-01

    Operators interested in improving reliability should begin with a focus on the performance of the wind plant as a whole. To then understand the factors which drive individual turbine performance, which together comprise the plant performance, it is necessary to track a number of key indicators. Analysis of these key indicators can reveal the type, frequency, and cause of failures and will also identify their contributions to overall plant performance. The ideal approach to using data to drive good decisions includes first determining which critical decisions can be based on data. When those required decisions are understood, then the analysis required to inform those decisions can be identified, and finally the data to be collected in support of those analyses can be determined. Once equipped with high-quality data and analysis capabilities, the key steps to data-based decision making for reliability improvements are to isolate possible improvements, select the improvements with largest return on investment (ROI), implement the selected improvements, and finally to track their impact.

  1. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  2. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...... of frequency and the maximum frequency deviation increase after a disturbance such as generation loss, load increase, etc. Having no inherent inertial response, wind power plants need additional control concepts in order to provide an additional active power following a disturbance. Several control concepts...... have been implemented in the literature, but the assessment of these control concepts with respect to power system requirements has not been specified. In this paper, a methodology to assess the inertial response from wind power plants is proposed. Accordingly, the proposed methodology is applied...

  3. Financing wind plants, taking leasing into special account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltrup, M.

    1993-01-01

    Leasing cannot be managed without a special sort of external financing of wind power plants. Specifically for wind energy, it was found from an investigation of less than a year that an intended erection of a wind power plant should be carried out in the months of September or October, so that the autumn and winter months rich in energy can be used. For the erection of small wind power plants, it was found that taking advantage of the Investment Cost Grant is more sensible than the Operating Cost Grant. (orig./HW) [de

  4. Induced Torques on Synchronous Generators from Operation of Wind Power Plant based on Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen N.; Jensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that large wind power plants (WPP) contribute to stable and reliable operation of the electric power system. This includes participation with delivery of system services such as voltage and frequency support. With variable-speed WPPs this can be achieved by adding auxiliary...... be predicted with the presented method. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....... controllers that control the active and reactive power output accordingly. While being designed for a given system service, any feedback control affects the closed-loop behavior of the overall system and thereby its small-signal stability properties. Eigenvalue analysis conveniently determines the stability...

  5. Towards a Reactive Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Based on Full Converter Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Kumar, Sathess; Thuring, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a power oscillation damping controller (POD) based on modulation of reactive power (Q POD) is analyzed where the modular and distributed characteristics of the wind power plant (WPP) are considered. For a Q POD it is essential that the phase of the modulated output is tightly...... contributes to a collective response. This ability is shown with a 150 wind turbine (WT) WPP with all WTs represented, and it is demonstrated that the WPP contributes to the inter-area damping. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....... controlled to achieve a positive damping contribution. It is investigated how a park level voltage, reactive power, and power factor control at different grid strengths interact with the Q POD in terms of a resulting phase shift. A WPP is modular and distributed and a WPP Q POD necessitate that each WT...

  6. Wind Power Plant Control Optimisation with Incorporation of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant slope voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and STATCOMS. First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and the whole wind power plant are developed, being appropriate for voltage control...... assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative...... outcomes regarding the impact of system delays, grid conditions and various operating conditions of the wind power plant, with and without incorporation of STATCOMS....

  7. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  8. Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadogan, J. [U.S. Department of Energy (US); Milligan, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Wan, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Kirby, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    2001-09-21

    With the advent of competition in the electric power marketplace, this paper reviews changes that affect wind and other renewable energy technologies, and discusses the role of federal and state policies in the recent wind installations in the United States. In particular, it reviews the implications of ancillary service requirements on a wind farm and presents initial operating results of monitoring one Midwest wind farm. Under federal energy policy, each generator must purchase, or otherwise provide for, ancillary services, such as dispatch, regulation, operation reserve, voltage regulation, and scheduling required to move power to load. As a renewable technology that depends on the forces of nature, short-term output variations are inherently greater for a wind farm than for a gas-fired combined cycle or a supercritical coal-fired unit.

  9. Vibrations of wind power plants; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the meeting of the department vibration engineering of the Association of German Engineers (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 3rd and 4th February, 2010 in Hanover (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures are presented: (1) Reduction of forced strengths generated by wagging and snaking of the rotor in the power strain of wind power plants (F. Mitsch); (2) Reduction of vibrations at wind power plants by means of active additional systems (S. Katz, S. Pankoke, N. Loix); (3) Reduction of vibrations by means of balancing and alignment (E. Becker, M. Kenzler); (4) Active absorber for reducing tonal emissions of vibration at wind power plants (R. Neugebauer, M. Linke, H. Kunze, M. Ulrich); (5) Control structures for damping torsion vibrations and peak loads in the power strain of wind power converters (C. Sourkounis); (6) Possibilities of a non-contact investigation of vibrations at wind power plants (R. Behrendt, E. Reimers, H. Wiegers); (7) Influences on the loadability of CMS statements (R. Wirth); (8) Recording modal structural properties with sensor grids and methods of operational modal analysis (A. Friedmann, D. Mayer, M. Koch, M. Kauba, T. Melz); (9) Early failure detection of damages of roller bearings in wind power gear units with variable speed (B. Hacke, G. Poll); (10) Condition monitoring in wind power plants - structure monitoring and life time monitoring of wind power plants (SCMS and LCMS) (H. Lange); (11) Development of a model-based structural health monitoring system for condition monitoring of rotor blades (C. Ebert, H. Friedmann, F.O. Henkel, B. Frankenstein, L. Schubert); (12) Efficient remote monitoring at wind power plants by means of an external diagnosis centre (G. Ceglarek); (13) Accurate turbine modelling at component and assembly level for durability and acoustic analysis (D. v. Werner, W. Hendricx); (14) Possibilities of the investigation of the dynamic behaviour of power strains in wind power plants by

  10. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Barry; Berry, Peter; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibrations of wind power plants 2011; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 2nd meeting of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) at 8th to 9th February, 2011 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Are test bench measurements of wind gears comparable to field studies (T. Jacob); (2) Investigation of the dynamic behaviour of the drive train of wind power plants (T. Gellermann); (3) Noise source identification at wind power plants by means of microphone arrays with a special geometry (H. Kreidl); (4) Condition monitoring of rotor blades at wind power plants for the detection of damages at rotor blades, icy conditions and dynamic loads (P. Volkmer); (5) Analysis of the scale of damages at rolling bearings in wind power plants - In-depth methods of diagnosis and application of the diagnosis of rolling bearings at wind power plants according to the regulation VDI 3832 (D. Franke); (6) Investigation of acoustic emissions at wind power plants according to the regulation IEC 61400-11 and FGW - Presentation of a new integrated solution for the measuring technique (R. Schlombs); (7) Condition monitoring systems for wind power plants: State of the art and outlook for future developments from the view of the certification (K. Steingroever); (8) Refined vibration diagnostic methods for the condition monitoring at gears of wind power plants (R. Wirth); (9) Damage and self-healing of OWEA foundations (G. Gudehus); (10) Measurement of dynamic movements and condition monitoring at the fundaments of wind power plants beginning with the allocation of damage images till to the strengthening of fundaments (J. Nix); (11) Prediction of damages on wind power plant (P. Bangert); (12) Influence of a indirect converter on the operating characteristic of a power conversion system of wind power plants with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (C. Sourkounis); (13) Determination of realistic load assumptions for the pitch system and specification of a control strategy of a wind power

  12. Wind Turbine and Wind Power Plant Modelling Aspects for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Göksu, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Large amount of wind power installations introduce modeling challenges for power system operators at both the planning and operational stages of power systems. Depending on the scope of the study, the modeling details of the wind turbine or the wind power plant are required to be different. A wind...... turbine model which is developed for the short-term voltage stability studies can be inaccurate and sufficient for the frequency stability studies. Accordingly, a complete and detailed wind power plant model for every kind of study is not feasible in terms of the computational time and also...... and wind power plants are reviewed for power system stability studies. Important remarks of the models are presented by means of simulations to emphasize the impact of these modelling details on the power system....

  13. Options to Improve the Quality of Wind Generation Output Forecasting with the Use of Available Information as Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Magulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of wind generation, besides its positive aspects related to the use of renewable energy, is a challenge from the point of view of power systems’ operational security and economy. The uncertain and variable nature of wind generation sources entails the need for the for the TSO to provide adequate reserves of power, necessary to maintain the grid’s stable operation, and the actors involved in the trading of energy from these sources incur additional of balancing unplanned output deviations. The paper presents the results of analyses concerning the options to forecast a selected wind farm’s output exercised by means of different methods of prediction, using a different range of measurement and forecasting data available on the farm and its surroundings. The analyses focused on the evaluation of forecast errors, and selection of input data for forecasting models and assessment of their impact on prediction quality improvement.

  14. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the very large offshore wind farms were designed as wind power plants, including possibilities to contribute to the stability of the grid by offering grid services (also called ancillary services). One of those services is reserve power, which is achieved by down......-regulating the wind farm from its maximum possible power. The power can be ramped up quite quickly, but the influence of wakes makes it difficult to assess the exact amount of down-regulation available to sell. Currently, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the possible power...... will be verified on some of the large offshore wind farms owned by Vattenfall, and possibly in a DONG Energy wind farm too. Dedicated experiments to the wind flow in large offshore wind farms are planned. Main body of abstract Modern wind turbines have a SCADA signal called possible power. In normal operation...

  15. Study of Interdependence of Wind Generation Output and Potential PV Generation in the Area of ENERGA-OPERATOR SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the interdependence of wind generation output and photovoltaic generation potential in the ENERGA-OPERATOR SA grid. The first study of the interdependence of these two types of renewable sources’ generation outputs was carried out by the Gdańsk Branch of the Institute of Power Engineering in cooperation with ENERGA-OPERATOR in 2012. An important conclusion of the study was the need to repeat the analysis for a larger set of input data as the study covered the period of one year only, and for obvious reasons a limited number of wind farms. The present study’s inputs included a period of four years and more wind farms, due to the continuous connecting of new facilities to the grid. Thus, the results are characterized by a much higher level of credibility, and allow drawing mor correct conclusions regarding the analysed interdependence. The research on the interdependence of the annual wind generation output and potential generation from photovoltaic sources indicates that both generation types are characterized by mutual spatio-temporal dependency. In the study the relationship was quantified by evaluation of the maximum actual wind generation output in specific areas in the case of high PV generation output in a given area and vice versa. The results may allow for appropriate (i.e. substantiating the modelled operating conditions of the system in relation to reality consideration of both types of sources in various types of system analyses of their impact on the grid performance, such as interconnection studies for new sources and distribution grid development planning.

  16. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  17. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  18. Pillar support for a wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-24

    The invention concerns a stationary pillar for a wind power plant with vertical rotors in the outside walls of individual parts of the structure, which are arranged above one antoher and which can turn together freely as a pillar facade. There are problems in such a stationary pillar because of storm forces on the one hand, which try to buckle the pillar, and, on the other hand, the pillar should be easy to mount without difficult fishplates or screwed connections. In order to solve this problem, the invention provides that tension elements run from the top ring of the pillar to the foundation through all the spars and through the connecting rings inside the spars, whose tension forces not only counteract buckling of the pillar, but also pull the intersections of the spars together in tension and independently of the screwed connections also provided. The connecting rings at the connections to the spars have half sleeves, which are pushed into a sleeve of the spar coming from below. The tension elements can consist of bundles of steel wires or a wire rope.

  19. Summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verholek, M. G.

    1977-03-01

    A summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites is presented. National Weather Service archives are an immediately obvious source of wind data, but additional data sources are also available. Utility companies proposing to build nuclear power plants are required to establish on-site meteorological monitoring programs that include towers for collecting wind and temperature data for use in environmental impact assessments. These data are available for more than one hundred planned or operating nuclear power plant sites. A list of the sites, by state, is provided in Appendix A, while Appendix B contains an alphabetical list of the sites. This site wind data provides a valuable addition to the existing NWS data sets, and significantly enlarges the multilevel data presently available. The wind data published through the NRC is assembled and assessed here in order to provide a supplement to existing data sets.

  20. Effects of Wind on Virtual Plants in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. M. Derzaph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Growth-Flow method for animating the effect of wind on the motion and growth of virtual plant branches and leaves. The method incorporates changes to the growth rate when a plant is exposed to winds with speeds higher than a threshold. In particular, growth rate is reduced in branch elongation, increased in the branch radius, reduced in leaf length, and increased in leaf thickness. In addition, when a plant is exposed to wind for long time periods, the branch growth angle is changed to align more closely with the wind vector. The Growth-Flow method incorporates all these effects on growth and motion due to wind in one algorithm.

  1. Optimisation of VSC-HVDC Transmission for Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Rodrigo Da

    Connection of Wind Power Plants (WPP), typically oshore, using VSCHVDC transmission is an emerging solution with many benefits compared to the traditional AC solution, especially concerning the impact on control architecture of the wind farms and the grid. The VSC-HVDC solution is likely to meet...... more stringent grid codes than a conventional AC transmission connection. The purpose of this project is to analyse how HVDC solution, considering the voltage-source converter based technology, for grid connection of large wind power plants can be designed and optimised. By optimisation, the project...... the robust control technique is applied is compared with the classical proportional-integral (PI) performance, by means of time domain simulation in a point-to-point HVDC connection. The three main parameters in the discussion are the wind power delivered from the offshore wind power plant, the variation...

  2. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  3. Coordinated Power Dispatch of a PMSG based Wind Farm for Output Power Maximizing Considering the Wake Effect and Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss in a wind farm (WF) caused by wake interaction between wind turbines (WTs) is quite high, which can be reduced by proper active power dispatch. The electrical loss inside a WF by improper active power and reactive power dispatch is also considerable. In this paper, a coordinated...... active power and reactive power dispatch strategy is proposed for a Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based WF, in order to maximize the total output power by reducing the wake effect and losses inside the devices of the WF, including the copper loss and iron loss of PMSGs, losses inside...

  4. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  5. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  6. Multiple regression approach to predict turbine-generator output for Chinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yea-Kuang; Tsai, Yu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a turbine cycle model using the multiple regression approach to estimate the turbine-generator output for the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The plant operating data was verified using a linear regression model with a corresponding 95% confidence interval for the operating data. In this study, the key parameters were selected as inputs for the multiple regression based turbine cycle model. The proposed model was used to estimate the turbine-generator output. The effectiveness of the proposed turbine cycle model was demonstrated by using plant operating data obtained from the Chinshan NPP Unit 2. The results show that this multiple regression based turbine cycle model can be used to accurately estimate the turbine-generator output. In addition, this study also provides an alternative approach with simple and easy features to evaluate the thermal performance for nuclear power plants.

  7. Multiple regression approach to predict turbine-generator output for Chinshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yea-Kuang; Tsai, Yu-Ching [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a turbine cycle model using the multiple regression approach to estimate the turbine-generator output for the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The plant operating data was verified using a linear regression model with a corresponding 95% confidence interval for the operating data. In this study, the key parameters were selected as inputs for the multiple regression based turbine cycle model. The proposed model was used to estimate the turbine-generator output. The effectiveness of the proposed turbine cycle model was demonstrated by using plant operating data obtained from the Chinshan NPP Unit 2. The results show that this multiple regression based turbine cycle model can be used to accurately estimate the turbine-generator output. In addition, this study also provides an alternative approach with simple and easy features to evaluate the thermal performance for nuclear power plants.

  8. Offshore Wind Power Plant Technology Catalogue - Components of wind power plants, AC collection systems and HVDC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Antonios Cutululis, Nicolaos

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Offshore Wind Power Plants (OWPPs) are connected through many com-ponents as shown in the figure 1. An OWPP consists of controllable, variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs). These WTs are connected through Medium Voltage (MV) sub-marine cables typically at voltage level of upto 33-66 k...... for the cables as well reduce the power losses through them....

  9. Two-Stage Robust Security-Constrained Unit Commitment with Optimizable Interval of Uncertain Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because wind power spillage is barely considered, the existing robust unit commitment cannot accurately analyze the impacts of wind power accommodation on on/off schedules and spinning reserve requirements of conventional generators and cannot consider the network security limits. In this regard, a novel double-level robust security-constrained unit commitment formulation with optimizable interval of uncertain wind power output is firstly proposed in this paper to obtain allowable interval solutions for wind power generation and provide the optimal schedules for conventional generators to cope with the uncertainty in wind power generation. The proposed double-level model is difficult to be solved because of the invalid dual transform in solution process caused by the coupling relation between the discrete and continuous variables. Therefore, a two-stage iterative solution method based on Benders Decomposition is also presented. The proposed double-level model is transformed into a single-level and two-stage robust interval unit commitment model by eliminating the coupling relation, and then this two-stage model can be solved by Benders Decomposition iteratively. Simulation studies on a modified IEEE 26-generator reliability test system connected to a wind farm are conducted to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed model and solution method.

  10. Overplanting in offshore wind power plants in different regulatory regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolter, Christoph; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Rogdakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    framework results more favourable to overplanting. The results indicate that current conceivable offshore wind power plants in the UK can increase their economic value by around 30 mio AC when optimising their capacity setup. In Denmark, current regulations are not suitable for overplanting causing loss...... of value when optimising the capacity design of wind power plants.......Offshore wind power’s journey towards being competitive with other generation technologies relies on technical innovation and maturation, but also on further optimisation of proven and mature solutions. Capacity optimisation or so-called overplanting is one example of optimisation, which...

  11. Grid Integration Issues for Large Scale Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    transmission system operators (TSOs) over the world have come up the grid codes to request the wind power plants (WPPs) to have more or less the same operating capability as the conventional power plants. The grid codes requirements from other TSOs are under development. This paper covers the steady state......The penetration level of wind power into the power system over the world have been increasing very fast in the last few years and is still keeping the fast growth rate. It is just a matter of time that the wind power will be comparable to the conventional power generation. Therefore, many...

  12. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  13. Robust ℋ∞ Dynamic Output Feedback Control Synthesis with Pole Placement Constraints for Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Bakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust ℋ∞ dynamic output feedback control design with pole placement constraints is studied for a linear parameter-varying model of a floating wind turbine. A nonlinear model is obtained and linearized using the FAST software developed for wind turbines. The main contributions of this paper are threefold. Firstly, a family of linear models are represented based on an affine parameter-varying model structure for a wind turbine system. Secondly, the bounded parameter-varying parameters are removed using upper bounded inequalities in the control design process. Thirdly, the control problem is formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The simulation results show a comparison between controller design based on a constant linear model and a controller design for the linear parameter-varying model. The results show the effectiveness of our proposed design technique.

  14. Hurricane Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibra, Besart [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Finucane, Zachary [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Foley, Benjamin [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Hall, Rudy [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Zachary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wendt, Fabian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andersen, Mads Boel Overgaard [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Standish, Kevin [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Lee, Ken [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Raina, Amool [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Wetzel, Kyle [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Hurricanes occur over much of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts, from Long Island to the U.S.-Mexico border, encompassing much of the nation's primary offshore wind resource. Category 5 hurricanes have made landfall as far north as North Carolina, with Category 3 hurricanes reaching New York with some frequency. Along the US West coast, typhoons strike with similar frequency and severity. At present, offshore wind turbine design practices do not fully consider the severe operating conditions imposed by hurricanes. Although universally applied to most turbine designs, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards do not sufficiently address the duration, directionality, magnitude, or character of hurricanes. To assess advanced design features that could mitigate hurricane loading in various ways, this Hurricane-Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study considered a concept design study of a 500-megawatt (MW) wind power plant consisting of 10-MW wind turbines deployed in 25-meter (m) water depths in the Western Gulf of Mexico. This location was selected because hurricane frequency and severity provided a unique set of design challenges that would enable assessment of hurricane risk and projection of cost of energy (COE) changes, all in response to specific U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) objectives. Notably, the concept study pursued a holistic approach that incorporated multiple advanced system elements at the wind turbine and wind power plant levels to meet objectives for system performance and reduced COE. Principal turbine system elements included a 10-MW rotor with structurally efficient, low-solidity blades; a lightweight, permanent-magnet, direct-drive generator, and an innovative fixed substructure. At the wind power plant level, turbines were arrayed in a large-scale wind power plant in a manner aimed at balancing energy production against capital, installation, and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs to achieve significant overall reductions in

  15. Effects of turbine spacing on the power output of extended wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We present results from large eddy simulations of extended wind-farms for several turbine configurations with a range of different spanwise and streamwise spacing combinations. The results show that for wind-farms arranged in a staggered configuration with spanwise spacings in the range ≈[3.5,8]D,

  16. Wind climate estimation using WRF model output: method and model sensitivities over the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahmann, Andrea N.; Vincent, Claire Louise; Peña, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    setup parameters. The results of the year-long sensitivity simulations show that the long-term mean wind speed simulated by the WRF model offshore in the region studied is quite insensitive to the global reanalysis, the number of vertical levels, and the horizontal resolution of the sea surface...... temperature used as lower boundary conditions. Also, the strength and form (grid vs spectral) of the nudging is quite irrelevant for the mean wind speed at 100 m. Large sensitivity is found to the choice of boundary layer parametrization, and to the length of the period that is discarded as spin-up to produce...... a wind climatology. It is found that the spin-up period for the boundary layer winds is likely larger than 12 h over land and could affect the wind climatology for points offshore for quite a distance downstream from the coast....

  17. Cowley Ridge wind plant experiences best production year ever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The Cowley Ridge wind plant in southern Alberta in its fifth year of operation generated 63,380 MWh of electricity, exceeding its annual goal by about 15 per cent. December was one of the highest production months ever. During December the plant operated an an average of 62 per cent capacity throughout the month. The annual average is 35 per cent of capacity

  18. Wind Plant Preconstruction Energy Estimates. Current Practice and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the amount of energy that will be harvested by a wind power plant each year and the variability of that energy is essential to assessing and potentially improving the financial viability of that power plant. The preconstruction energy estimate process predicts the amount of energy--with uncertainty estimates--that a wind power plant will deliver to the point of revenue. This report describes the preconstruction energy estimate process from a technical perspective and seeks to provide insight into the financial implications associated with each step.

  19. Utilization and storage problems in wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molly, J P

    1977-01-01

    The energy yield of a power plant consisting of wind energy converter and storer is considerably influenced by the choice of specific characteristic values of both components. Boundary conditions of the optimization process are site, consumer behavior and a minimum demand of supply safety. If the costs of the power plant components are known, then one may determine the cheapest wind power plant taking account of the boundary conditions. The preconditions and way of calculation for optimum rotary number, the best specific rotor disk power and the necessary storage capacity for a certain supply safety are given.

  20. Minimisation of Generation Variability of a Group of Wind Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Sabolić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Minimisation of variability of energy delivered from a group of wind plants into the power system using portfolio theory approach was studied. One of the assumptions of that theory is Gaussian distribution of the sample, which is not satisfied in case of wind generation. Therefore, optimisation of a “portfolio” of plants with different goal functions was studied. It was supposed that a decision on distribution of a fixed amount of generation capacity to be installed among a set of geographical locations with known wind statistics is to be made with minimised variability of generation as a goal. In that way the statistical cancellation of variability would be used in the best possible manner. This article is a brief report on results of such an investigation. An example of nine locations in Croatia was used. These locations’ wind statistics are known from historic generation data.

  1. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements......, wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe...... faults, causing low voltages at the point of common coupling. As a consequence, a new wind turbine current controller for operation during faults is proposed. It is shown that to achieve the maximum transfer of reactive current at the point of common coupling, a strategy for optimal setting of the active...

  2. Analysis of an inverter-supplied multi-winding transformer with a full-wave rectifier at the output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopcic, Beno; Dolinar, Drago; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the magnetic analysis of an inverter-supplied multi-winding transformer frequently used in resistance spot welding applications. The basic structure of the analyzed system consists of an inverter, a single-phase transformer with two secondary windings and a full-wave rectifier mounted at the output of the transformer, which assure a very short rise time of the welding current. The disturbing current spikes often appear in the transformer's primary in the steady-state operation, which can activate the over-current protection switch-off of the system. The results of numerical analysis performed on the nonlinear model of the discussed system have shown that very strong magnetic saturation of the transformer's iron core, caused by the interaction among the different ohmic resistances of secondary windings and different characteristics of the output rectifier diodes, provokes unwanted current spikes. Magnetic saturation could be efficiently eliminated using very simple passive method proposed in this paper. All findings are confirmed by systematic analysis numerically and experimentally

  3. Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chen; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed. (general)

  4. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nevrala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generators connected to the power grid. Methods of control these systems as a separately working, directly connecting to power grid, control by frequency converter and wiring by synchronous cascade are confronted on the measuring base too.

  5. Wind Plant Power Optimization and Control under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj; Ulker, Demet; Hutchings, Kyle; Oxley, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The development of optimized cooperative wind plant control involves the coordinated operation of individual turbines co-located within a wind plant to improve the overall power production. This is typically achieved by manipulating the trajectory and intensity of wake interactions between nearby turbines, thereby reducing wake losses. However, there are various types of uncertainties involved, such as turbulent inflow and microscale and turbine model input parameters. In a recent NREL-Envision collaboration, a controller that performs wake steering was designed and implemented for the Longyuan Rudong offshore wind plant in Jiangsu, China. The Rudong site contains 25 Envision EN136-4 MW turbines, of which a subset was selected for the field test campaign consisting of the front two rows for the northeasterly wind direction. In the first row, a turbine was selected as the reference turbine, providing comparison power data, while another was selected as the controlled turbine. This controlled turbine wakes three different turbines in the second row depending on the wind direction. A yaw misalignment strategy was designed using Envision's GWCFD, a multi-fidelity plant-scale CFD tool based on SOWFA with a generalized actuator disc (GAD) turbine model, which, in turn, was used to tune NREL's FLORIS model used for wake steering and yaw control optimization. The presentation will account for some associated uncertainties, such as those in atmospheric turbulence and wake profile.

  6. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  7. Statistical Modeling of Large Wind Plant System's Generation - A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents simplistic, yet very accurate, descriptive statistical models of various static and dynamic parameters of energy output from a large system of wind plants operated by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), USA. The system's size at the end of 2013 was 4515 MW of installed capacity. The 5-minute readings from the beginning of 2007 to the end of 2013, recorded and published by BPA, were used to derive a number of experimental distributions, which were then used to devise theoretic statistical models with merely one or two parameters. In spite of the simplicity, they reproduced experimental data with great accuracy, which was checked by rigorous tests of goodness-of-fit. Statistical distribution functions were obtained for the following wind generation-related quantities: total generation as percentage of total installed capacity; change in total generation power in 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 minutes as percentage of total installed capacity; duration of intervals with total generated power, expressed as percentage of total installed capacity, lower than certain pre-specified level. Limitation of total installed wind plant capacity, when it is determined by regulation demand from wind plants, is discussed, too. The models presented here can be utilized in analyses related to power system economics/policy, which is also briefly discussed in the paper. (author).

  8. Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.

  9. Input-output model of regional environmental and economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.H.; Bennett, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The costs of delayed licensing of nuclear power plants calls for a more-comprehensive method of quantifying the economic and environmental impacts on a region. A traditional input-output (I-O) analysis approach is extended to assess the effects of changes in output, income, employment, pollution, water consumption, and the costs and revenues of local government disaggregated among 23 industry sectors during the construction and operating phases. Unlike earlier studies, this model uses nonlinear environmental interactions and specifies environmental feedbacks to the economic sector. 20 references

  10. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  11. An approach to evaluating alternatives for wind power plant locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman, Ateekh Ur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision approaches are preferred for achieving multi-dimensional sustainable renewable energy goals. A more critical issue faced by the wind power industry is the selection of a location to tap prospective energy, which needs to be evaluated on multiple measures. In this paper, the aim is to assess and rank alternative wind power plant locations in Saudi Arabia. The approach presented here takes multiple criteria into consideration, such as wind speed, wind availability, site advantages, terrain details, risk and uncertainty, technology used, third party support, projected demand, types of customers, and government policies. A comparative analysis of feasible alternatives that satisfy all multi- criteria objectives is carried out. The results obtained are subjected to sensitivity analysis. Concepts such as ‘threshold values’ and ‘attribute weights’ make the approach more sensitive.

  12. Coordinated control of wind power plants in offshore HVDC grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2017-01-01

    power between different countries, and different synchronous areas. It is very likely that they will then be combined with offshore wind power plant (OWPP) connections in the North Sea, transforming it in a multi terminal DC (MTDC) grid and, therefore, in a fully meshed offshore DC grid in near future......During the recent years, there has been a significant penetration of offshore wind power into the power system and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The North Sea in Europe has higher potential for offshore wind power; therefore, the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid initiative....... However, increased penetration of offshore wind power into the power system poses several challenges to its security. This thesis deals with two main research challenges, (1) Develop, and analyze the coordinated control strategies for AC voltage and reactive power control in the cluster of OWPPs connected...

  13. Design and analysis of a hybrid renewable energy plant with solar and wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalci, Ersan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A distributed generation system is developed with separate solar plant and wind turbine. • The solar plant is controlled with MPPT infrastructure of Perturb and Observe algorithm. • Power generation of source sites are converted to DC with PI controlled buck converters and collected on a DC busbar. • Harvested DC power is converted to AC with a full bridge inverter and SPWM control is performed in inverter. • The total harmonic distortion (THD) ratio of the generated 3-phase line is obtained in the limit of standards. - Abstract: A hybrid renewable energy plant that is based on solar and wind energy conversion systems is designed and analysed in this paper. Each separate energy conversion system is controlled either using regular PI controller or extended PI controller with an auxiliary controller containing Perturb and Observe algorithm. The solar plant model is constituted by connecting 170 W photovoltaic (PV) panels serially and energy conversion is performed with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm that controls the modulator of buck converter. The MPPT algorithm utilized in the control step of converter is developed using Perturb and Observe (P and O) that is extended with PI controller. The wind energy plant is designed with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and the AC–DC conversion stage is constituted with an uncontrolled full-bridge rectifier. All the converter outputs are connected to a busbar over interphase transformers (IPTs). The DC bus-bar voltage is supplied to a full bridge inverter to generate three-phase AC voltages at the output of inverter. The three-phase inverter is controlled with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme, which is developed with phase shifted carrier signals. The total harmonic distortion (THD) ratios are obtained at proper values according to international standards such as IEC61000 and IEEE 519-1992. Measurement results and obtained three phase voltage are analysed

  14. Guideline for the erection of wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, R.; Kampet, T.

    1990-01-01

    This guideline for the erection of a proper wind power plant is to give hints on some important stations on the way from the idea up to perfect operation of the plant. This guideline, however, does not substitute the professional knowledge of a consulting company or firm neutral to manufacturing. Such firms are listed in an attached list of addresses at the end. When establishing this guideline possible problems which occur in the utilization of wind energy have been considered. These items which in some cases seem to be very problematic should not prevent anybody to trust in the application of wind energy wherever it is economically justified or ecologically useful. (orig./BWI) [de

  15. Solar wind power electric plant on Vis (Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A project of a solar photovoltaic electric power plant presented by the Republic of Croatia at the meeting of the E.P.I.A. Mission for photovoltaic technology of the Mediterranean countries, aroused a great interest of the representatives of the invited countries. However, the interest within Croatia in the project has disappeared although E.P.I.A. offered a financing of two thirds of costs. There are attempts to construct 1800 kw wind-driven generators at the same location not taking into consideration a possibility of building a hybrid solar-wind-power electric plant. The chance that the solar part is completely of domestic origin is not accepted but the preference is given to the building of imported wind-driven generators. (orig.)

  16. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error ε made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R 2 statistic (R a 2 ). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R a 2 statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R a 2 increases

  17. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Renewable Energies, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, Pozo Izquierdo Beach s/n, 35119 Santa Lucia, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error {epsilon} made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R{sup 2} statistic (R{sub a}{sup 2}). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R{sub a}{sup 2} statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R{sub a}{sup 2} increases. (author)

  18. Transients in VSC-HVDC connected offshore wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Schwartzberg, D.; Arana Aristi, I.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is transient phenomena in VSC-HVDC connected offshore wind power plants (WPPs). With the help of a case study modelled in PSCAD simulation software, energisation events are analysed in the time domain. A comparison with more well-known results obtained at energisation of AC...

  19. An index guiding temporal planting policies for wind erosion reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Zheng, D.W.; Stigter, C.J.; He, W.Q.; Tuo, D.B.; Zhao, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation cover has spatial as well as temporal characteristics, but the latter are often neglected. Temporal cover characteristics were explored to recommend planting policies for returning arable land into land better protected from serious wind erosion during late autumn, winter, and

  20. Maximum wind power plant generation by reducing the wake effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Alías, César Guillén; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To analyze the benefit of applying a new control strategy to maximise energy yield. • To operate some wind turbines at non-optimum points for reducing wake effects. • Single, partial and multiple wakes for any wind direction are taken into account. • Thrust coefficient is computed according to Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. - Abstract: This paper analyses, from a steady state point of view, the potential benefit of a Wind Power Plant (WPP) control strategy whose main objective is to maximise its total energy yield over its lifetime by taking into consideration that the wake effect within the WPP varies depending on the operation of each wind turbine. Unlike the conventional approach in which each wind turbine operation is optimised individually to maximise its own energy capture, the proposed control strategy aims to optimise the whole system by operating some wind turbines at sub-optimum points, so that the wake effect within the WPP is reduced and therefore the total power generation is maximised. The methodology used to assess the performance of both control approaches is presented and applied to two particular study cases. It contains a comprehensive wake model considering single, partial and multiple wake effects among turbines. The study also takes into account the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to accurately compute both power and thrust coefficient of each wind turbine. The results suggest a good potential of the proposed concept, since an increase in the annual energy captured by the WPP from 1.86% up to 6.24% may be achieved (depending on the wind rose at the WPP location) by operating some specific wind turbines slightly away from their optimum point and reducing thus the wake effect

  1. Limiting conditions for nuclear power plant competitiveness vs. fossil and wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, Danilo; Cavlina, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare potential energy options for future electricity generation. The paper considers comparison of discounted total cost of electricity generated by nuclear power plant and by combined natural gas and wind plants, having in total equal electricity generation. Large uncertainty in the future fuel costs makes planning of optimal power generating mix very difficult to justify. Probabilistic method is used in the analysis which allows inclusion of uncertainties in future electricity generating cost prediction. Additionally, an informative functional relation between nuclear plant investment cost, natural gas price and wind plant efficiency, that determines competitive power generation between considered options, is also shown. Limiting conditions for nuclear power plant competitiveness vs. fossil and wind plants are presented. (authors)

  2. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...... of full scale converter type wind turbines may be utilized to alter voltage imbalance at the point of connection and further into the grid, in turn changing the resultant negative sequence current flow in the grid. The effects of such control actions have been analyzed and discussed through theoretical...

  3. Design and Tuning of Wind Power Plant Voltage Controller with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs). First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and STATCOM are derived by using the state-space approach....... A complete phasor model of the entire wind power plant is constructed, being appropriate for voltage control assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage...... controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative outcomes regarding the parametrisation of each individual control loop and how to adjust the voltage controller depending on different grid stiffnesses of the wind power plant connection...

  4. Energy output estimation for a small wind turbine positioned on a rooftop in the urban environment with and without a duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.

    2011-05-15

    Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Orsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines with ducted turbines of the same type was carried out. First, a prevailing wind energy direction was detected with rough mean velocity and frequency calculations. Next, a duct was aligned with the direction, where the highest energy potential was found. Further calculations were conducted with more detailed wind velocity distributions, depending on the wind direction sectors. The duct's wind velocity amplification capability was set to 14%, while a total opening angle of 30. was assumed to be accessible from both sides. With the simplifying assumptions and the uncertainties at the location of measurement, the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached an output of 110kWh/m2/a. The available wind had an energy potential of 730kWh/m2/a. Evaluating these results it seems a free standing turbine is preferable, when only considering the power output, whereas the ducted version comprises properties, which are important considering the requirements needed in the inhabited area such as safety and noise issues. (Author)

  5. Harmonic Mitigation Methods in Large Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Hesselbæk, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Various sources of harmonic problems in large wind power plants (WPPs) and optimized harmonic mitigation methods are presented in this paper. The harmonic problems such as sources of harmonic emission and amplification as well as harmonic stability are identified. Also modern preventive...... and remedial harmonic mitigation methods in terms of passive and active filtering are described. It is shown that WPP components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency resonances which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall WPP stability...... as well as amplification of harmonic distortion. It is underlined that there is a potential in terms of active filtering in modern grid-side converters in e.g. wind turbines, STATCOMs or HVDC stations utilized in modern large WPPs. It is also emphasized that the grid-side converter controller should...

  6. Smart — STATCOM control strategy implementation in wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Cantarellas, Antoni Mir; Miranda, H.

    2012-01-01

    High penetration of wind energy into the grid may introduce stability and power quality problems due to the fluctuating nature of the wind and the increasing complexity of the power system. By implementing advanced functionalities in power converters, it is possible to improve the performance...... of the wind farm and also to provide grid support, as it is required by the grid codes. One of the main compliance difficulties that can be found in such power plants are related to reactive power compensation and to keep the harmonics content between the allowed limits, even if the power of the WPP...... converters is increasing. This paper deals with an advanced control strategy design of a three-level converter performing STATCOM and Active Filter functionalities. The proposed system is called Smart-STATCOM since it has the capability of self-controlling reactive power and harmonic voltages at the same...

  7. Considering capital goods in life cycle assessments by input-output analysis. Offshore wind farm as an application example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickelkamp, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Capital goods are not normally taken into consideration in assessing the sustainability of products on the basis of life cycle assessments. Capital goods are machines and buildings that are used for production purposes over the course of a product's life cycle. Using an offshore wind farm as an example the present study shows how capital goods can be taken into account via a methodologically expanded input-output analysis and thus factored into the life cycle assessment. Besides comparing different calculation methods the author performs a detailed analysis of those parameters with the greatest influence on the outcome. The results show that capital goods have a substantial impact on sustainability in both energy-related and environmental terms. Capital goods should therefore be taken into consideration in life cycle assessments.

  8. Method for Prediction of the Power Output from Photovoltaic Power Plant under Actual Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surzhikova, O. A.; Savkin, K. D.

    2017-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic technology is one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity that has practical application in various fields of human activity due to its high availability, huge potential and environmental compatibility. The original simulation model of the photovoltaic power plant has been developed to simulate and investigate the plant operating modes under actual operating conditions. The proposed model considers the impact of the external climatic factors on the solar panel energy characteristics that improves accuracy in the power output prediction. The data obtained through the photovoltaic power plant operation simulation enable a well-reasoned choice of the required capacity for storage devices and determination of the rational algorithms to control the energy complex.

  9. Experimental results of wind powered pumping plant with electrical transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchetta, M.; Prischich, D.; Benedetti, A.; Cara, G.

    1992-01-01

    A demonstrative application of deep well pumping system employing a wind powered pumping plant with an electric transmission was set-up and tested for two years at the test field of the Casaccia center of ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), near Rome. The tests permitted the evaluation of the practical performance, advantages and drawbacks of a wind pumping plant of this type, in order to permit a design optimization and a proper choice of components and of control strategies for future commercial applications. The main point of investigation was the evaluation of the effectiveness of a control scheme based on a 'permanent link' between electric generator and electric motor, avoiding any electronics and switching components, and leading to a very robust and reliable means of transferring energy to the pump at variable speed, and at low cost

  10. A 3 MW wind power plant at Maglarp in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, B.

    1991-01-01

    The wind power plant at Maglarp, in a frequented region of Sweden, is described. Its technical parameters are given and its environmental impacts are dealt with. The whiz of the rotor blades is heard at a distance of 500 to 1000 m; the author refers to the whiz as pleasant. Not a single bird has been found killed by the facility. Interference with the TV signal can at times be observed in the town; this is more marked with metal rotor blades than with blades made of reinforced plastic. A wing of the wind power plant concentrates on its surface an energy of about 20 kW per square meter. (M.D.)

  11. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  12. Modelling and Simulation of VSC-HVDC Connection for Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling and simulation of offshore wind power plants (WPP) connected to the onshore power system grid by VSC based HVDC transmission. Offshore wind power plant is modelled with several wind turbine generators connected to two separate collector buses with their own plant...... wind turbines. Simulation of power ramping up and down as well as steady state operation has been demonstrated. As an additional case, the primary reserve control logic has been implemented and simulated in PSCAD model....

  13. A Comparative Study of CFD Models of a Real Wind Turbine in Solar Chimney Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gholamalizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches have been applied to model the turbine inside the system. In particular, a real wind turbine coupled to the system was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD in three investigations. Gholamalizadeh et al. simulated a wind turbine with the same blade profile as the Manzanares SCPP’s turbine (FX W-151-A blade profile, while a CLARK Y blade profile was modelled by Guo et al. and Ming et al. In this study, simulations of the Manzanares prototype were carried out using the CFD model developed by Gholamalizadeh et al. Then, results obtained by modelling different turbine blade profiles at different turbine rotational speeds were compared. The results showed that a turbine with the CLARK Y blade profile significantly overestimates the value of the pressure drop across the Manzanares prototype turbine as compared to the FX W-151-A blade profile. In addition, modelling of both blade profiles led to very similar trends in changes in turbine efficiency and power output with respect to rotational speed.

  14. First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Merzic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most power systems in underdeveloped and developing countries are based on conventional power plants, mainly "slow-response" thermal power plants and a certain number of hydro power plants; characterized by inflexible generating portfolios and traditionally designed to meet own electricity needs. Taking into account operational capabilities of conventional power systems, their development planning will face problems with integration of notable amounts of installed capacities in wind power plants (WPP. This is what highlights the purpose of this work and in that sense, here, possible variations of simulated output power from WPP in the 10 minute and hourly time interval, which need to be balanced, are investigated, presented and discussed. Comparative calculations for the amount of installed power in WPP that can be integrated into a certain power system, according to available secondary balancing power amounts, in case of concentrated and dispersed future WPP are given. The stated has been done using a part of the power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the considered example, by planned geographically distributed WPP construction, even up to cca. 74% more in installed power of WPP can be integrated into the power system than in case of geographically concentrated WPP construction, for the same available amount of (secondary balancing power. These calculations have shown a significant benefit of planned, geographically distributed WPP construction, as an important recommendation for the development planning of conventional power systems, with limited balancing options. Keywords: balancing reserves,  geographical dispersion, output power  variations

  15. How to simplify the analytics for input-output accountability measurements in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.; Eberle, H.; Matussek, P.; Michel-Piper, I.

    1986-02-01

    An analytical approach to high-performance uranium and plutonium accountancy measurements in reprocessing input and output solutions is presented, which provides larger operational simplicity than the conventionally applied chemical methods. The proposed alternative is based on energy-dispersive absorption edge and fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, using the proven and reliable K-edge densitometry technique as reference method. Two X-ray densitometers developed for accurate and reliable uranium and plutonium analysis in both the feed and product solutions are described. Practical experiences and results from their performance evaluation on actual process solutions from a reprocessing plant are presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Impact of wind power plant reactive current injection during asymmetrical grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines (WTs) are installed in the power system; grid codes for wind power integration are being generated to sustain stable power system operation with non-synchronous generation. Common to most of the grid codes, wind power plants (WPPs...... faults, is investigated, which was not considered in the wind power impact studies before....

  17. Distributed Low-Complexity Controller for Wind Power Plant in Derated Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Madjidian, Daria; Spudic, Vedrana

    2013-01-01

    We consider a wind power plant of megawatt wind turbines operating in derated mode. When operating in this mode, the wind power plant controller is free to distribute power set-points to the individual turbines, as long as the total power demand is met. In this work, we design a controller...... that exploits this freedom to reduce the fatigue on the turbines in the wind power plant. We show that the controller can be designed in a decentralized manner, such that each wind turbine is equipped with a local low-complexity controller relying only on few measurements and little communication. As a basis...... for the controller design, a linear wind turbine model is constructed and verified in an operational wind power plant of megawatt turbines. Due to limitations of the wind power plant available for tests, it is not possible to implement the developed controller; instead the final distributed controller is evaluated...

  18. Increase net plant output through selective operation of the heat-rejection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, E.T.; Queenan, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Depending on unit load and ambient meteorological conditions, a net increase of 800 to 5500 kW in plant output is possible for many generating units through optimized operation of the major motor-driven equipment in the heat-rejection system - the circulating water pumps and mechanical-draft cooling tower fans. This can be realised when the resulting decrease in auxiliary-power demand is greater than the decrease in gross electric generation caused by operating fewer pumps and/or fans. No capital expenditures are incurred and only operating procedures are involved so that the performance gains are achieved at no cost. The paper considers the application of this technique to nuclear power plants, pump optimization and the superimposition of fan and cooling tower performance curves

  19. Coordinated voltage control for multiple wind plants in Eastern Wyoming. Analysis, field experience and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas; MacDowell, Jason; Chmiel, Gary; Konopinski, Ryan; Gautam, Durga [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Laughter, Grant; Hagen, Dave [PacifiCorp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At high levels of wind power penetration, multiple wind plants may be the predominant generation resource over large geographic areas. Thus, not only do wind plants need to provide a high level of functionality, they must coordinate properly with each other. This paper describes the analysis and field testing of wind plant voltage controllers designed to improve system voltage performance through passive coordination. The described wind power plant controls can coordinate the real and reactive power response of multiple wind turbines and thereby make the plant function as a single ''grid friendly'' power generation source. For this application, involving seven large wind plants with predominantly GE wind turbines in Eastern Wyoming, the voltage portion of the controllers were configured and tuned to allow the collective reactive power response of multiple wind plants in the region to work well together. This paper presents the results of the initial configuration and tuning study, and the results of the subsequent field tuning and testing of the modified controls. The paper also presents some comparisons of the measured field performance with the stability simulation models, which show that the available wind plant models provide accurate, high fidelity results for actual operating conditions of commercial wind power plants. (orig.)

  20. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  1. On maintenance management of wind and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Julia

    2009-11-01

    Electrical production in Sweden today is mainly from nuclear and hydro power. However, there is large increase in renewable energy like wind power and the installed new capacity goals are large. Several electrical production sources are important for the sustainability of the energy system. Maintenance is an approach for keeping a system sustainable. The importance of structured maintenance for reliable electrical production systems triggers the development of qualitative and quantitative maintenance management methods. Examples of these methods are Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) which is a structured qualitative approach that focuses on reliability when planning maintenance, and Reliability Centered Asset Management (RCAM) which is a development of RCM into a quantitative approach with the aim to relate preventive maintenance to total maintenance cost and system reliability. This thesis presents models, as applications of RCAM, based on the methods of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and mathematical optimization, applied to wind and nuclear power plants. Both deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used and the proposed models are based on the Total Cost model, which summarizes costs for maintenance and production loss, and the Aircraft model, which is an opportunistic maintenance optimization model. Opportunistic maintenance is preventive maintenance performed at opportunities. The wind power applications in this study show on different ways to cover costs of condition monitoring systems (CMS) and further on economic benefits of these when uncertainties of times to failure are included in the model. The nuclear power applications show on that the optimization model is dependent on the discount rate and that a high discount rate gives more motivation for opportunistic replacements. When put into a stochastic framework and compared to other maintenance strategies it is shown that an extended opportunistic maintenance optimization model has a good overall

  2. How Many Model Evaluations Are Required To Predict The AEP Of A Wind Power Plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    (AEP) predictions expensive. The objective of the present paper is to minimize the number of model evaluations required to capture the wind power plant's AEP using stationary wind farm flow models. Polynomial chaos techniques are proposed based on arbitrary Weibull distributed wind speed and Von Misses...... distributed wind direction. The correlation between wind direction and wind speed are captured by defining Weibull-parameters as functions of wind direction. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the expectation and variance of the wind farm power distributions are compared against...... the traditional binning method with trapezoidal and Simpson's integration rules. The wind farm flow model used in this study is the semi-empirical wake model developed by Larsen [1]. Three test cases are studied: a single turbine, a simple and a real offshore wind power plant. A reduced number of model...

  3. On the equivalence of the solar wind coupling parameter ε and the magnetospheric energy output parameter UT during intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    For intervals with intense geomagnetic activity it is shown that the solar wind coupling parameter ε and the magnetospheric output parameter U T are equivalent and that ranges of values of ε can be set up in terms of values of the ring current-time constant τ. (author)

  4. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Ye, Z; Gao, W

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m 2 per hour. Comparing

  5. Technical Description Lillgrund Wind Power Plant. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppsson, Joakim; Larsen, Poul Erik; Larsson, Aake [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Lillgrund offshore wind power plant comprises 48 wind turbines, each rated at 2.3 MW, bringing the total wind farm capacity to 110 MW. The Lillgrund offshore wind power plant is located in a shallow area of Oeresund, 7 km off the coast of Sweden and 7 km south from the Oeresund Bridge connecting Sweden and Denmark. An average wind speed of around 8,5 m/s at hub height, combined with a relatively low water depth of 4 to 8 meters makes it economically feasible to build here. Vattenfall Vindkraft AB is the owner and operator of Lillgrund offshore wind power plant. Lillgrund is a Swedish pilot project supported by the Swedish Energy Agency. The bidding process was completed during 2005 and the offshore power plant was constructed in the period 2006 to 2007. The wind farm was constructed on time and has now been successfully operational since December 2007. There is, however, always potential for improvement and the aim of this report has been to determine and highlight these areas. It is worth noting out that only the electrical system and the foundations are tailor made at offshore wind power plants. The wind turbines are more or less standard products with none or very limited possibilities for project specific design changes. Geotechnical investigations are expensive and it can be difficult to balance the risks as well as the benefits of this expense in the early phases of a large infrastructure project. As a whole, the geotechnical surveys at Lillgrund proved to be useful. They identified potential issues, such as the fact that extra excavation was required for two of the foundations. It also revealed the location of a small number of boulders that would have to be removed. Vattenfall requested a complete study of the electrical system for Lillgrund to be delivered with the bids. That request was not met. Instead Siemens Wind Power began a complete electrical system study after being awarded the Contract. The electrical system study was completed during the

  6. Harmonic Analysis and Active Filtering in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to presence of long high voltage cable networks, and power transformers for the grid connection, the offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) are susceptible to harmonic distortion and resonances. The grid connection of OWPP should not cause the harmonic distortion beyond the permissible limits...... at the point of common coupling (PCC). The resonance conditions should be avoided in all cases. This paper describes the harmonic analysis techniques applied on an OWPP network model. A method is proposed to estimate the harmonic current compensation from a shunt-connected active power filter to mitigate...

  7. Voltage Feedback based Harmonic Compensation for an Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Lascu, Cristian; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    When an offshore wind power plant is connected to the grid, there is a risk of amplification of certain harmonics and appearance resonances at the point of connection due to the interaction between the grid network and the wind power plant network. Hence, the plant developer is obliged to maintain...

  8. Numerical forecast test on local wind fields at Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2005-01-01

    Non-hydrostatic, full compressible atmospheric dynamics model is applied to perform numerical forecast test on local wind fields at Qinshan nuclear power plant, and prognostic data are compared with observed data for wind fields. The results show that the prognostic of wind speeds is better than that of wind directions as compared with observed results. As the whole, the results of prognostic wind field are consistent with meteorological observation data, 54% of wind speeds are within a factor of 1.5, about 61% of the deviation of wind direction within the 1.5 azimuth (≤33.75 degrees) in the first six hours. (authors)

  9. Economic optimisation of a wind power plant for isolated locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunato, B.; Mummolo, G.; Cavallera, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a model of a wind power plant for isolated locations composed of a vertical axis wind turbine connected to a self-excited induction generator operating at constant voltage and frequency; a back-up diesel generator and a battery system are moreover included in the system. Constant voltage and frequency are obtained only by controlling the generator appropriately. The control system is supposed to be optimised so that the system operates at the highest efficiency. In order to improve the total efficiency even further, a gear-box to vary the gear transmission ratio between the turbine and the generator has been considered. A ''Monte Carlo'' type simulation has been used to analyse the operation of that system over a one year period. The model is based on a probability density function of the wind speed derived by statistical data concerning a given location and on the probabilistic curve of the load required by an isolated location. The cost per kW h for different dimensions of the main components has been evaluated and the optimum configuration has been identified. (author)

  10. Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe

    The penetration of offshore wind power is continuously increasing in the Northern European grids. To assure safety in the operation of the power system, wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services, including reserve power attained through down-regulating the wind farm from its...... power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...... the wind farm scale production capacity. However the summation of these individual signals is simply an over-estimation for the wind power plant, due to reduced wake losses during curtailment. The determination of the possible power with the PossPOW algorithm works as follows: firstly the second...

  11. A Statistical Method for Aggregated Wind Power Plants to Provide Secondary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Ziras, Charalampos; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    curtailment for aggregated wind power plants providing secondary frequency control (SFC) to the power system. By using historical SFC signals and wind speed data, we calculate metrics for the reserve provision error as a function of the scheduled wind power. We show that wind curtailment can be significantly......The increasing penetration of wind power brings significant challenges to power system operators due to the wind’s inherent uncertainty and variability. Traditionally, power plants and more recently demand response have been used to balance the power system. However, the use of wind power...... as a balancing-power source has also been investigated, especially for wind power dominated power systems such as Denmark. The main drawback is that wind power must be curtailed by setting a lower operating point, in order to offer upward regulation. We propose a statistical approach to reduce wind power...

  12. Efficient Approach for Harmonic Resonance Identification of Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    Unlike conventional power systems where the resonance frequencies are mainly determined by the passive components parameters, large Wind Power Plants (WPPs) may introduce additional harmonic resonances because of the interactions of the wideband control systems of power converters with each other...... and with passive components. This paper presents an efficient approach for identification of harmonic resonances in large WPPs containing power electronic converters, cable, transformer, capacitor banks, shunt reactors, etc. The proposed approach introduces a large WPP as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) control...... system by considering the linearized models of the inner control loops of grid-side converters. Therefore, the resonance frequencies of the WPP resulting from passive components and the control loop interactions are identified based on the determinant of the transfer function matrix of the introduced...

  13. Decision 2010-021 : TransAlta Wind Ardenville wind plant and substation : application no. 1604970, proceeding ID 260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    TransAlta Wind, a wholly owned subsidiary of TransAlta Corporation, filed an application in April 2009 to construct and operate the Ardenville wind farm and substation in Alberta. The wind farm consists of 23 wind turbines, each rated at 3 MW, for a total installed capacity of 69 MW. The wind farm would be connected to the Alberta Interconnected Electric System at the substation. TransAlta anticipates that a new 138-kV transmission line will be required and has contacted the transmission facilities for the future applications. The Alberta Utilities Commission issued a notice to all interested parties and landholders within 2 km of the proposed wind farm. Two residents raised concerns regarding the use of fossil fuels and alternative fuels, ecological impacts and aesthetic impacts of wind farms and land values. Upon review of information, the Commission was satisfied that approval of the application was in the public interest and that the wind farm complies with all regulatory requirements, including sound levels. Pursuant to sections 11, 14 and 15 of the Hydro and Electric Energy Act, the Commission approved the application and granted approval to TransAlta Wind to construct and operate the Ardenville wind power plant and substation.

  14. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  15. Development of wind power plants in the end of 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levterov, B.

    2003-01-01

    I brief review of the use of wind energy worldwide and in Bulgaria is made. Data for operating wind power plants in the world (45 countries are considered) and their electricity production are presented. The situation in Bulgaria in the field of wind energy is also described

  16. How Many Model Evaluations Are Required To Predict The AEP Of A Wind Power Plant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, J P; Réthoré, P E; Natarajan, A; Sørensen, J D

    2015-01-01

    Wind farm flow models have advanced considerably with the use of large eddy simulations (LES) and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The main limitation of these techniques is their high computational time requirements; which makes their use for wind farm annual energy production (AEP) predictions expensive. The objective of the present paper is to minimize the number of model evaluations required to capture the wind power plant's AEP using stationary wind farm flow models. Polynomial chaos techniques are proposed based on arbitrary Weibull distributed wind speed and Von Misses distributed wind direction. The correlation between wind direction and wind speed are captured by defining Weibull-parameters as functions of wind direction. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the expectation and variance of the wind farm power distributions are compared against the traditional binning method with trapezoidal and Simpson's integration rules.The wind farm flow model used in this study is the semi-empirical wake model developed by Larsen [1]. Three test cases are studied: a single turbine, a simple and a real offshore wind power plant. A reduced number of model evaluations for a general wind power plant is proposed based on the convergence of the present method for each case. (paper)

  17. Wind Energy Conversion by Plant-Inspired Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael A; Mosher, Curtis L; Henderson, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    In 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy set a target of 20% wind energy by 2030. To date, induction-based turbines form the mainstay of this effort, but turbines are noisy, perceived as unattractive, a potential hazard to bats and birds, and their height hampers deployment in residential settings. Several groups have proposed that artificial plants containing piezoelectric elements may harvest wind energy sufficient to contribute to a carbon-neutral energy economy. Here we measured energy conversion by cottonwood-inspired piezoelectric leaves, and by a "vertical flapping stalk"-the most efficient piezo-leaf previously reported. We emulated cottonwood for its unusually ordered, periodic flutter, properties conducive to piezo excitation. Integrated over 0°-90° (azimuthal) of incident airflow, cottonwood mimics outperformed the vertical flapping stalk, but they produced < daW per conceptualized tree. In contrast, a modest-sized cottonwood tree may dissipate ~ 80 W via leaf motion alone. A major limitation of piezo-transduction is charge generation, which scales with capacitance (area). We thus tested a rudimentary, cattail-inspired leaf with stacked elements wired in parallel. Power increased systematically with capacitance as expected, but extrapolation to acre-sized assemblages predicts < daW. Although our results suggest that present piezoelectric materials will not harvest mid-range power from botanic mimics of convenient size, recent developments in electrostriction and triboelectric systems may offer more fertile ground to further explore this concept.

  18. Energy Output Estimation for a Small Wind Turbine Positioned on a Rooftop in the Urban Environment with and without a Duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    , the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached......Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming...... to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Ørsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines...

  19. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Judith [Climate Forecast Applications Network, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  20. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  1. Modeling of the wind power plant using software DIgSILENT Power factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenovski, Ljubisha; Iliev, Atanas; Fushtikj, Vangel

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for creating a model of the wind power plant NORDEX N-60 in the DIgSILENT Power factory software. At the beginning, the characteristics of the wind power plant and the used software are shortly described. The next step is modeling the part of the power system where the wind power plant will be connected to the grid The modeling of the turbine part and the generator part of the wind power plant is made with blocks, which are part of the machine block of the composite model. Finally, the results obtained from performed practically oriented simulations are presented in graphical form. Design of the model of the wind power plant NORDEX N-60 was performed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, at the University of Rostock, Germany, as a part of the DYSIMAC project. (Author)

  2. Model for the techno-economic analysis of common work of wind power and CCGT power plant to offer constant level of power in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Z.; Rajsl, I.; Filipovic, M.

    2017-11-01

    Wind power varies over time, mainly under the influence of meteorological fluctuations. The variations occur on all time scales. Understanding these variations and their predictability is of key importance for the integration and optimal utilization of wind in the power system. There are two major attributes of variable generation that notably impact the participation on power exchanges: Variability (the output of variable generation changes and resulting in fluctuations in the plant output on all time scales) and Uncertainty (the magnitude and timing of variable generation output is less predictable, wind power output has low levels of predictability). Because of these variability and uncertainty wind plants cannot participate to electricity market, especially to power exchanges. For this purpose, the paper presents techno-economic analysis of work of wind plants together with combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant as support for offering continues power to electricity market. A model of wind farms and CCGT plant was developed in program PLEXOS based on real hourly input data and all characteristics of CCGT with especial analysis of techno-economic characteristics of different types of starts and stops of the plant. The Model analyzes the followings: costs of different start-stop characteristics (hot, warm, cold start-ups and shutdowns) and part load performance of CCGT. Besides the costs, the technical restrictions were considered such as start-up time depending on outage duration, minimum operation time, and minimum load or peaking capability. For calculation purposes, the following parameters are necessary to know in order to be able to economically evaluate changes in the start-up process: ramp up and down rate, time of start time reduction, fuel mass flow during start, electricity production during start, variable cost of start-up process, cost and charges for life time consumption for each start and start type, remuneration during start up time regarding

  3. Socio-economic effects of a HYSOL CSP plant located in different countries: An input output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; López, A.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the socioeconomic effects associated with the production of electricity by a CSP plant with HYSOL configuration, using Input Output Analysis. These effects have been estimated in terms of production of Goods and Services (G&S), multiplier effect, value added,

  4. Structured, Physically Inspired (Gray Box) Models Versus Black Box Modeling for Forecasting the Output Power of Photovoltaic Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulescu, M.; Brabec, Marek; Boata, R.; Badescu, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, 15 February (2017), s. 792-802 ISSN 0360-5442 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST ES1002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : photovoltaic plant * output power * forecasting * fuzzy model * generalized additive model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 4.520, year: 2016

  5. Introduction Of Wavestar Wave Energy Converters At The Danish Offshore Wind Power Plant Horns Rev 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquis, L.; Kramer, Morten; Kringelum, J.

    is to be connected to a wind turbine at the DONG Energy owned wind power plant Horns Rev 2 placed off the western coast of Denmark. The plant delivers its energy production to a transformer station owned by Energinet.dk. Energinet.dk has the obligation to ensure that power is transmitted to the Danish consumers...... with this combination. This can increase the value of the produced power from future wind/wave plants. Further potential synergies of combining wind and wave energy in the same area include increased energy production from the available area and sharing of infrastructure costs as well as O&M facilities. In a future....... If Executed the project will be the first one in the world where wind and wave power are combined at full scale. The goal of the project is to evaluate the opportunities of combining wind and wave energy production on a commercial scale and to demonstrate the reduction of energy fluctuations...

  6. A Chronological Reliability Model to Assess Operating Reserve Allocation to Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind power plants increases worldwide, it is important to understand the effect these power sources have on the operations of the grid. This paper focuses on the operating reserve impact of wind power plants. Many probabilistic methods have been applied to power system analysis, and some of these are the basis of reliability analysis. This paper builds on a probabilistic technique to allocate the operating reserve burden among power plants in the grid. The method was originally posed by Strbac and Kirschen[1] and uses an allocation that prorates the reserve burden based on expected energy not delivered. Extending this method to include wind power plants allows the reserve burden to be allocated among different plants using the same method, yet incorporates information about the intermittent nature of wind power plants

  7. Damping of Low Frequency Power System Oscillations with Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz

    of wind power plants on power system low frequency oscillations and identify methods and limitations for potential contribution to the damping of such oscillations. Consequently, the first part of the studies focuses on how the increased penetration of wind power into power systems affects their natural...... oscillatory performance. To do so, at first a generic test grid displaying a complex inter-area oscillation pattern is introduced. After the evaluation of the test grid oscillatory profile for various wind power penetration scenarios, it is concluded that full-converter based wind power plant dynamics do......-synchronous power source. The main body of the work is devoted to the damping control design for wind power plants with focus on the impact of such control on the plant operation. It can be expected that the referred impact is directly proportional to the control effort, which for power processing devices should...

  8. Power Oscillation Damping from VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Eriksson, Robert; Goumalatsos, Spyridon

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of power oscillation damping service on offshore wind power plants connected to onshore grids by voltage-source-converter-based high voltage direct current transmission is discussed. Novel design guidelines for damping controllers on voltage-source converters and wind power plant...... regarding real wind power plants are discussed: 1) robustness against control/communication delays; 2) limitations due to mechanical resonances in wind turbine generators; 3) actual capability of wind power plants to provide damping without curtailing production; and 4) power-ramp rate limiters....... controllers are derived, using phasor diagrams and a test network model and are then verified on a generic power system model. The effect of voltage regulators is analyzed, which is important for selecting the most robust damping strategy. Furthermore, other often disregarded practical implementation aspects...

  9. Power system stabilising features from wind power plants augmented with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán C.; Kjær, Philip C; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wind power plant augmented with energy storage, configured to provide ancillary services (primary reserve, inertial response, power oscillation damping) for enhancement of power system stability. Energy storage can complement wind power plants thus reducing the need for any...... overload or curtailment to allow active power modulation. A 12MW + 1.6MW augmented plant is used for demonstration of representative performance of the particular ancillary service control algorithms...

  10. Overview of FACTS devices for wind power plants directly connected to the transmission network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. This brings challenges for power system operation, which was designed and developed around conventional power plants with directly coupled synchronous generators. In result, safety and stability...... of the electrical network with high wind energy penetration might be compromised. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant (WPP) owners. On the other hand flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices offer enhancement of grid...... research in FACTS applicability for WPPs is summarized. Examples of few existing FACTS applications for wind farms are given....

  11. Output-only modal analysis of linear time-periodic systems with application to wind turbine simulation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Matthew S.; Sracic, Michael W.; Chauhan, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    to interrogate simulated measurements from a rotating wind turbine. The measurements were simulated for a 5 MW turbine modeled in the HAWC2 simulation code, which includes both structural dynamic and aerodynamic effects. This simulated system identification provides insights into the test and measurement......Many important systems, such as wind turbines, helicopters and turbomachinery, must be modeled with linear time-periodic equations of motion to correctly predict resonance phenomena. Time periodic effects in wind turbines might arise due to blade-to-blade manufacturing variations, stratification...... in the velocity of the wind with height and changes in the aerodynamics of the blades as they pass the tower. These effects may cause parametric resonance or other unexpected phenomena, so it is important to properly characterize them so that these machines can be designed to achieve high reliability, safety...

  12. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  13. Adaptive output-based command shaping for sway control of a 3D overhead crane with payload hoisting and wind disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu M.; Mohamed, Z.; Selamat, H.; Pota, Hemanshu R.; Zainal Abidin, M. S.; Ismail, F. S.; Haruna, A.

    2018-01-01

    Payload hoisting and wind disturbance during crane operations are among the challenging factors that affect a payload sway and thus, affect the crane's performance. This paper proposes a new online adaptive output-based command shaping (AOCS) technique for an effective payload sway reduction of an overhead crane under the influence of those effects. This technique enhances the previously developed output-based command shaping (OCS) which was effective only for a fixed system and without external disturbances. Unlike the conventional input shaping design technique which requires the system's natural frequency and damping ratio, the proposed technique is designed by using the output signal and thus, an online adaptive algorithm can be formulated. To test the effectiveness of the AOCS, experiments are carried out using a laboratory overhead crane with a payload hoisting in the presence of wind, and with different payloads. The superiority of the method is confirmed by 82% and 29% reductions in the overall sway and the maximum transient sway respectively, when compared to the OCS, and two robust input shapers namely Zero Vibration Derivative-Derivative and Extra-Insensitive shapers. Furthermore, the method demonstrates a uniform crane's performance under all conditions. It is envisaged that the proposed method can be very useful in designing an effective controller for a crane system with an unknown payload and under the influence of external disturbances.

  14. Impact of Wind Power Plants with Full Converter Wind Turbines on Power System Small-Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nygaard Nielsen, Jørgen; Dixon, Andrew

    Wind power is being developed in power systems all around the world, and already today wind power covers more than 20 % of the electricity consumption in some countries. As the size of each wind power plant (WPP) increases and as the levels of penetration reaches certain magnitudes, the inclusion...... of the dynamic properties of the WPPs in the power system stability studies become important. The work presented in this report deal with the impact of WPPs based on full converter wind turbines (WTs) on the power system small-signal rotor angle stability. During small disturbances in the power system, the rotor...... speed of the synchronous machines will eventually return to its steady state if the power system is small-signal stable. The dynamic properties of a WPP are fundamentally dierent from those of a synchronous machine, and the interaction of WPPs with the synchronous machines in power system oscillations...

  15. Wind plant capacity credit variations: A comparison of results using multiyear actual and simulated wind-speed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patterns. This paper calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this paper finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  17. Provision of enhanced ancillary services from wind power plants - Examples and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Iov, Florin

    2016-01-01

    Emphasis in this article is on the power system impact of wind power plants capability to provide enhanced ancillary services, i.e. temporary frequency response (TFR) and power oscillation damping (POD). The main objective of the article is to analyze and justify the challenges in the use of TFR...... and POD from wind power plants (WPPs). The study is conducted with an aggregated wind power plant model which is integrated into a generic power system model, specifically designed to assess the targeted ancillary services in a relatively simple, but still relevant environment. Various case studies...... with different wind power penetration levels are considered. The study shows that WPPs can provide additional control features such as TFR and POD to enhance the stability of power systems with large share of wind power. Nevertheless, the results illustrate that the power system stability can be potentially...

  18. Detailed Equivalent VSC-HVDC Modelling for Time Domain Harmonic Stability Studies in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    2018-01-01

    system with 201 voltage levels, without loss of accuracy compared to conventional modelling of the converter. Harmonic stability is a core concern for both existing and future offshore wind power plants (OWPPs). A harmonic stability study will be undertaken with focus on the number of wind turbine...

  19. Land Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Jackson, M.; Ong, S.

    2009-08-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with modern, large wind power plants (defined as greater than 20 megawatts (MW) and constructed after 2000). The analysis discusses standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature, and then discusses their applicability to wind power plants. The report identifies two major 'classes' of wind plant land use: 1) direct impact (i.e., disturbed land due to physical infrastructure development), and 2) total area (i.e., land associated with the complete wind plant project). The analysis also provides data for each of these classes, derived from project applications, environmental impact statements, and other sources. It attempts to identify relationships among land use, wind plant configuration, and geography. The analysts evaluated 172 existing or proposed projects, which represents more than 26 GW of capacity. In addition to providing land-use data and summary statistics, they identify several limitations to the existing wind project area data sets, and suggest additional analysis that could aid in evaluating actual land use and impacts associated with deployment of wind energy.

  20. Perceived Uncertainty Sources in Wind Power Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop covers some of the uncertainties that still impact turbulent wind operation and how these affect design and structural reliability; identifies key sources and prioritization for R and D; and summarizes an analysis of current procedures, industry best practice, standards, and expert opinions.

  1. Model Predictive Voltage Control of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    the efficacy of the proposed WFVC, two case scenarios were designed: the wind farm is under normal operating conditions and the internal wind power fluctuation is considered; and besides internal power fluctuation, the impact of the external grid on the wind farm is considered.......This chapter proposes an autonomous wind farm voltage controller (WFVC) based on model predictive control (MPC). It also introduces the analytical expressions for the voltage sensitivity to tap positions of a transformer. The chapter then describes the discrete models for the wind turbine...... generators (WTGs) and static var compensators (SVCs)/static var generators (SVGs). Next, it describes the implementation of the on‐load tap changing (OLTC) in the MPC. Furthermore, the chapter examines the cost function as well as the constraints of the MPC‐based WFVC for both control modes. In order to test...

  2. Frequency Activated Fast Power Reserve for Wind Power Plant Delivered from Stored Kinetic Energy in the Wind Turbine Inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Thuring, P.; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    is proposed that delivers a short-term power reserve from the kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) inertia, while considering the inherent characteristics of a wind power plant. The aim is to contribute with a fast power reserve to stabilize the frequency drop during large and sudden production deficits......With increased penetration of converter interfaced generation, synchronous generators may start to be displaced to keep the overall power balance. As a consequence the resulting inertia in the system may decrease and make the power system more exposed to frequency excursions. Here, a control...

  3. The importance of flexible power plant operation for Jiangsu's wind integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of different regulation strategies on wind energy integration into the existing energy system of Jiangsu. The ability of wind integration is defined in terms of the ability to avoid excess electricity production, to conserve primary energy consumption and to redu...... regulations of Jiangsu’s energy system are compared and analyzed in the range of a wind input from 0% to 42% of the total electricity demand. It is concluded that operating power plants in a flexible way facilitates the promotion of more intermittent wind integration....

  4. [Effects of planting system on soil and water conservation and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Da-Bing; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Kai

    2010-06-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of wheat/maize/soybean with total no-tillage and mulching (NTM), wheat/maize/soybean with part no-tillage and part mulching (PTM), wheat/maize/soybean with total tillage without mulching (TWM), and wheat/maize/ sweet potato with total tillage without mulching (TWMS) on the soil and water conservation, soil fertility, and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China. The average soil erosion amount and surface runoff of NTM were significantly lower than those of the other three planting systems, being 1189 kg x hm(-2) and 215 m3 x hm(-2), and 10.6% and 84.7% lower than those of TWMS, respectively. The soil organic matter, total N, available K and available N contents of NTM were increased by 15.7%, 18.2%, 55.2%, and 25.9%, respectively, being the highest among the test planting systems. PTM and TWM took the second place, and TWMS pattern had the least. NTM had the highest annual crop output value (18809 yuan x hm(-2)) and net income (12619 yuan x hm(-2)) in three years, being 2.2% -20.6% and 3.8% -32.9% higher than other three planting systems, respectively. In a word, the planting system wheat/maize/soybean was more beneficial to the water and soil conservation and the improvement of soil fertility and crop output value, compared with the traditional planting system wheat/maize/sweet potato.

  5. 77 FR 485 - Wind Plant Performance-Public Meeting on Modeling and Testing Needs for Complex Air Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind Plant Performance... and on-shore utility-scale wind power plants. DOE is requesting this information to support the development of cost-effective wind power deployment. DATES: The meeting will be held Tuesday, January 17, 2012...

  6. Coordinated voltage control in offshore HVDC connected cluster of wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra Naidu; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Rimez, Johan

    This paper presents a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) for a cluster of offshore wind power plants connected to a voltage-source converter-based high-voltage direct current system. The primary control point of the proposed voltage control scheme is the introduced Pilot bus, which is having...... by dispatching reactive power references to each wind turbine (WT) in the wind power plant cluster based on their available reactive power margin and network sensitivity-based participation factors, which are derived from the dV/dQ sensitivity of a WT bus w.r.t. the Pilot bus. This method leads...

  7. Modelling and Simulation of VSC-HVDC Connection for Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Several large offshore wind power plants (WPP) are planned in the seas around Europe. VSC-HVDC is a suitable means of integrating such large and distant offshore WPP which need long submarine cable transmission to the onshore grid. Recent trend is to use large wind turbine generators with full...... scale converters to achieve an optimal operation over a wide speed range. The offshore grid then becomes very much different from the conventional power system grid, in the sense that it is connected to power electronic converters only. A model of the wind power plant with VSC-HVDC connection...

  8. Harmonic Active Filtering and Impedance-based Stability Analysis in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Yang, Guangya; Zhang, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    installation and provides effectively similar functionality as passive filters. This work is focused on harmonic propagation studies in wind power plants, power quality evaluation at the point of connection and harmonic mitigation by active filtering. Finally, an impedance-based stability analysis......Nowadays, to eliminate harmonics injected by the wind turbines in offshore wind power plants there is a need to install passive filters. Moreover, the passive filters are not adaptive to harmonic profile changes due to topology changes, grid loading etc. Therefore, active filters in wind turbines...... are proposed as a flexible harmonic mitigation measure. The motivation of this study is to explore the possibility of embedding active filtering in wind turbine grid-side converters without having to change the system electrical infrastructure. The active filtering method can prevent additional equipment...

  9. Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Fault Currents of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a wind power plant for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. The size of wind power plants (WPPs) keeps getting bigger and bigger. The number of wind plants in the U.S. has increased very rapidly in the past 10 years. It is projected that in the U.S., the total wind power generation will reach 330 GW by 2030. As the importance of WPPs increases, planning engi-neers must perform impact studies used to evaluate short-circuit current (SCC) contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This information is needed to size the circuit breakers, to establish the proper sys-tem protection, and to choose the transient suppressor in the circuits within the WPP. This task can be challenging to protec-tion engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. Three different soft-ware packages are utilized to develop this paper. Time domain simulations and steady-state calculations are used to perform the analysis.

  10. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  11. Power oscillation damping capabilities of wind power plant with full converter wind turbines considering its distributed and modular characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen N.; Jensen, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind power plants (WPP) are for power system stability studies often represented with aggregated models where several wind turbines (WT) are aggregated into a single up-scaled model. The advantage is a reduction in the model complexity and the computational time, and for a number of study types...... aggregation is investigated and it is shown that the level of WPP aggregation only has limited impact on the resulting modal damping. The study is based on a non-linear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....... the accuracy of the results has been found acceptable. A large WPP is, however, both modular and distributed over a large geographical area, and feasibility of aggregating the WTs, thus, have to be reassessed when new applications are introduced for WPPs. Here, the power oscillation damping capabilities...

  12. Phasor measurement of wind power plant operation in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2007-01-01

    Four Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) record continuously voltage and current phasors in the 400 kV and 132 kV transmission system of Eastern Denmark. The abstract evaluates the unique concept for power system monitoring using PMUs. It focuses on utilization of synchronized phasor measurements from...... Nysted off-shore wind farm during a severe storm in 2005. The wind speeds during the event were so high, that Nysted offshore wind farm as well as a significant amount of on-land wind production in Denmark was disconnected from the grid. The PMU analysis illustrates that PMUs complement the traditional...... measurements from a traditional SCADA system. The case reveals the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area....

  13. Uncertainty Quantification of the Real-Time Reserves for Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göçmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    In order to retain the system stability, the wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services. One of those services is reserve power. Here in this study, we focus on the real-time reserves which can be traded in the balancing markets and are currently used for compensation under...... mandatory downregulation stated by the transmission system operators (TSOs). The PossPOW project (Possible Power of down-regulated Offshore Wind power plants) developed a real-time power curve of available power for offshore wind farms for use during down-regulation. The follow-up Concert project......(control and uncertainties in real-time power curves of offshore wind power plants) aims to quantify and finally reduce the uncertainty in reserve power, bringing the PossPOW algorithm and the state of the art forecasting methods together. The experiments designed to test the available power estimated by the Poss...

  14. Design and Analysis of a Slope Voltage Control for a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, J.; Kjær, P. C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses a detailed design of a wind power plant and turbine slope voltage control in the presence of communication delays for a wide short-circuit ratio range operation. The implemented voltage control scheme is based upon the secondary voltage control concept, which offers fast...... of connection with the grid. The performance has been tested using PSCAD/EMTDC program. The plant layout used in the simulations is based on an installed wind power plant, composed of 23 doubly fed generator wind turbines. The resulting performance is evaluated using a compilation of grid code voltage control...... response to grid disturbances, despite the communication delays, i.e., this concept is based on a primary voltage control, located in the wind turbine, which follows an external voltage reference sent by a central controller, called secondary voltage control, which is controlling the voltage at the point...

  15. Using H∞ to design robust POD controllers for wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmedalic, Jasmin; Knüppel, Thyge; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Large wind power plants (WPPs) can help to improve small signal stability by increasing the damping of electromechanical modes of oscillation. This can be done by adding a power system oscillation damping (POD) controller to the wind power plants, similar to power system stabilizer (PSS......) controllers on conventional generation. Here two different design methods are evaluated for their suitability in producing a robust power system oscillation damping controller for wind power plants with full-load converter wind turbine generators (WTGs). Controllers are designed using classic PSS design and H......∞ methods and the designed controllers evaluated on both performance and robustness. It is found that the choice of control signal has a large influence on the robustness of the controllers, and the best performance and robustness is found when the converter active power command is used as control signal...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Veers, P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces the development of a new software framework for research, design, and development of wind energy systems which is meant to 1) represent a full wind plant including all physical and nonphysical assets and associated costs up to the point of grid interconnection, 2) allow use of interchangeable models of varying fidelity for different aspects of the system, and 3) support system level multidisciplinary analyses and optimizations. This paper describes the design of the overall software capability and applies it to a global sensitivity analysis of wind turbine and plant performance and cost. The analysis was performed using three different model configurations involving different levels of fidelity, which illustrate how increasing fidelity can preserve important system interactions that build up to overall system performance and cost. Analyses were performed for a reference wind plant based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 5-MW reference turbine at a mid-Atlantic offshore location within the United States.

  17. Harmonics in Offshore Wind Power Plants Employing Power Electronic Devices in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm

    Introduction The trend in power generation is to partly replace conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. Offshore wind power has been selected to take up a significant proportion of the renewable energy production. The grid codes have been updated to accommodate the rising share...... of wind power. The onshore as well as offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) therefore have to meet the same stringent requirement as the conventional power plants. This can be accommodated by employment of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices, such as the static compensator...... gives rise to a number of challenges to the wind power industry with regard to construction, installation as well as transmission of the generated energy. The STATCOM and the voltage-sourced converter high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) are attractive solutions for grid connection of remotely located...

  18. Documentation, User Support, and Verification of Wind Turbine and Plant Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Zavadil; Vadim Zheglov; Yuriy Kazachkov; Bo Gong; Juan Sanchez; Jun Li

    2012-09-18

    As part of the Utility Wind Energy Integration Group (UWIG) and EnerNex's Wind Turbine Modeling Project, EnerNex has received ARRA (federal stimulus) funding through the Department of Energy (DOE) to further the progress of wind turbine and wind plant models. Despite the large existing and planned wind generation deployment, industry-standard models for wind generation have not been formally adopted. Models commonly provided for interconnection studies are not adequate for use in general transmission planning studies, where public, non-proprietary, documented and validated models are needed. NERC MOD (North American Electric Reliability Corporation) reliability standards require that power flow and dynamics models be provided, in accordance with regional requirements and procedures. The goal of this project is to accelerate the appropriate use of generic wind turbine models for transmission network analysis by: (1) Defining proposed enhancements to the generic wind turbine model structures that would allow representation of more advanced; (2) Comparative testing of the generic models against more detailed (and sometimes proprietary) versions developed by turbine vendors; (3) Developing recommended parameters for the generic models to best mimic the performance of specific commercial wind turbines; (4) Documenting results of the comparative simulations in an application guide for users; (5) Conducting technology transfer activities in regional workshops for dissemination of knowledge and information gained, and to engage electric power and wind industry personnel in the project while underway; (6) Designing of a "living" homepage to establish an online resource for transmission planners.

  19. Methodologies for Wind Turbine and STATCOM Integration in Wind Power Plant Models for Harmonic Resonances Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    -domain. As an alternative, a power based averaged modelling is also proposed. Type IV wind turbine harmonic signature and STATCOM active harmonic mitigation are considered for the simulation case studies. Simulation results provide a good insight of the features and limitations of the proposed methodologies.......This paper approaches modelling methodologies for integration of wind turbines and STATCOM in harmonic resonance studies. Firstly, an admittance equivalent model representing the harmonic signature of grid connected voltage source converters is provided. A simplified type IV wind turbine modelling...... is then straightforward. This linear modelling is suitable to represent the wind turbine in the range of frequencies at which harmonic interactions are likely. Even the admittance method is suitable both for frequency and time domain studies, some limitations arise in practice when implementing it in the time...

  20. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  1. Optimal operation of a pumped-storage hydro plant that compensates the imbalances of a wind power producer

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Álvaro Jaramillo; Castronuovo, Edgardo D.; Sánchez, Ismael; Usaola, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The participation of wind energy in electricity markets requires providing a forecast for future energy production of a wind generator, whose value will be its scheduled energy. Deviations from this schedule because of prediction errors could imply the payment of imbalance costs. In order to decrease these costs, a joint operation between a wind farm and a hydro-pump plant is proposed; the hydro-pump plant changes its production to compensate wind power prediction errors. In order to optimize...

  2. 9{sup th} international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 9th International Workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants at 18th to 19th October, 2010 in Quebec (Canada), lectures and poster papers were presented to the following themes: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) European grid integration studies; (3) Modeling; (4) Wind forecasting; (5) North American grid integration studies; (6) Voltage stability and control; (7) Grid codes and impact studies; (8) Canadian University research (WESNet); (9) Operation and dispatch; (9) Offshore wind power plants; (10) Frequency Control; (11) Methodologies to estimate wind power impacts on power systems, summaries from IEAWIND collaboration; (12) HVDC; (13) Grid codes and system impact studies; (14) Modeling and validation; (15) Regulations, markets and offshore wind energy; (16) Integration issues; (17) Wind turbine control system; (18) Energy management and IT solutions.

  3. Application of Spatial Models in Making Location Decisions of Wind Power Plant in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik, Monika; Hełdak, Maria; Szczepański, Jakub; Patrzałek, Ciechosław

    2017-10-01

    In this paper,we explore the process of making decisions on the location of wind power plants in Poland in connection with a gradually increasing consumption of energy from renewable sources and the increase of impact problems of such facilities. The location of new wind power plants attracts much attention, and both positive and negative publicity. Visualisations can be of assistance when choosing the most advantageous location for a plant, as three-dimensional variants of the facility to be constructed can be prepared. This work involves terrestrial laser scanning of an existing wind power plant and 3D modelling followed by. The model could be subsequently used in visualisation of real terrain, with special purpose in local land development plan. This paper shows a spatial model of a wind power plant as a new element of a capital investment process in Poland. Next, we incorporate the model into an undeveloped site, intended for building a wind farm, subject to the requirements for location of power plants.

  4. A simulation-based Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model to evaluate wind plants locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sameie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world is getting overpopulated and over polluted the human being is seeking to utilize new sources of energy that are cleaner, cheaper, and more accessible. Wind is one of these clean energy sources that is accessible everywhere on the planet earth. This source of energy cannot be stored for later use; therefore, environmental circumstances and geographical location of wind plants are crucial matters. This study proposes a model to decide on the optimum location for a wind farm among the demand area. To tackle the uncertainty related to the geographical position of the nominated location such as wind speed; altitude; mean temperature; and humidity; a simulation method is applied on the problem. Other factors such as the time that a plant is out of service and demand fluctuations also have been considered in the simulation phase. Moreover, a probability distribution function is calculated for the turbine power. Then Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA performs the selection between all the nominated locations for wind farm. The proposed model takes into account several important elements of the problems. Elements such as land cost; average power received from the wind blowing; demand point population etc. are considered at the same time to select the optimum location of wind plants. Finally, the model is applied on a real case in order to demonstrate its reliability and applicability.

  5. Operation and sizing of energy storage for wind power plants in a market system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpaas, M.; Holen, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the scheduling and operation of energy storage for wind power plants in electricity markets. A dynamic programming algorithm is employed to determine the optimal energy exchange with the market for a specified scheduling period, taking into account transmission constraints. During operation, the energy storage is used to smooth variations in wind power production in order to follow the scheduling plan. The method is suitable for any type of energy storage and is also useful for other intermittent energy resources than wind. An application of the method to a case study is also presented, where the impact of energy storage sizing and wind forecasting accuracy on system operation and economics are emphasized. Simulation results show that energy storage makes it possible for owners of wind power plants to take advantage of variations in the spot price, by thus increasing the value of wind power in electricity markets. With present price estimates, energy storage devices such as reversible fuel cells are likely to be a more expensive alternative than grid expansions for the siting of wind farms in weak networks. However, for areas where grid expansions lead to unwanted interference with the local environment, energy storage should be considered as a reasonable way to increase the penetration of wind power. (author)

  6. The first in Poland demonstrative ORC power plant of low power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Wladyslaw; Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra; Stachel, Aleksander A. [West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Klonowicz, Wojciech; Hanausek, Pawel [Turboservice Sp. z o.o., Lodz (Poland); Klonowicz, Piotr; Magiera, Radomir [Lodz Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    A description of the power plant working according to the organic Clausius-Rankine cycle (ORC) and developed at the Department of Heat Engineering (KTC), West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, is presented. The ORC power plant is powered by the low temperature heat of hot water with the temperature of up to 100 C. The hot water heat is here converted into mechanical energy that is generated by a turbine and used to drive a centrifugal air compressor. The ORC turbine is supplied with dry, saturated vapour of the R227ea working fluid of low boiling point. The working fluid vapour is generated in a combined preheater-evaporator heat exchanger. The results of calculations and experimental measurements are presented and supplemented with conclusions derived from the ORC power plant operation. Perspective modernization of the ORC power plant scheme is also outlined. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of two voltage control strategies for a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    plants. This paper addresses the analysis of two different voltage control strategies for a wind power plant, i.e. decentralized and centralized voltage control schemes. The analysis has been performed using the equivalent and simplified transfer functions of the system. Using this representation......Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate to more demanding requirements from grid codes. Recently, voltage support at the point of connection has been introduced by several grid codes from around the world, thus, making it important to analyze this control when applied to wind power......, it is possible to investigate the influence of the plant control gain, short circuit ratio, and time delays on the system stability, as well as the fulfillment of the design requirements. The implemented plant voltage control is based on a slope voltage controller, which calculates the references to be sent...

  8. Did accelerated depreciation result in lower generation efficiencies for wind plants in India: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Pusarla, Shreya; Trivedi, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    India ranks fifth in wind energy installations in the world; with an installed wind capacity is 22 GW at the end of 2014. This has been made possible by a combination of federal financial incentives and state-level feed in tariffs. The federal policies are accelerated depreciation, which allows for higher depreciations in earlier years; and generation based incentive, which provides a premium for each unit of generation. Accelerated depreciation appears to be more effective from deployment and cost perspectives; whereas, generation based incentive is said to be more effective in incentivizing generation. In this paper, using multivariable linear regressions on a sample of approximately 40 wind plants, while controlling for wind regime and wind turbine technology, we investigate the incremental impact of generation based incentive compared to accelerated depreciation. We find that generation based incentive results in at least 3 percentage points higher plant load factors than accelerated depreciation. This indicates that, if higher generation is the goal of renewable policies, generation based incentive should be preferred to accelerated depreciation. This would be similar to the move from investment tax credit to production tax credit in the U.S. - Highlights: • We examine generation effectiveness of federal renewable policies in India. • We examine accelerated depreciation and generation based incentives. • We use a cross-sectional regression analysis on a sample of approx. 40 wind plants. • Generation based incentive results in 3 percentage points higher plant load factor.

  9. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  10. Behavior of a nuclear power plant ventilation stack for wind loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes behavior of self supporting tall reinforced concrete (RC) ventilation stack of a nuclear power plant (NPP) for wind loads. Since the static and equivalent dynamic wind loads are inter-dependant on overall size of the stack, proper sizing of the stack geometry is important for reducing wind loads. The present study investigated the influence of engineered backfill soil on lateral response of ventilation stack. Ignoring backfill soil stiffness up to ground height does not allow to predict actual critical wind velocity causing across wind oscillation. The results show that proposed modification in the stack geometry modeled using 2D beam-spring elements is economical than that of single tapered geometry. Shaft diameter reduced in the proposed geometry indicates that there is a scope for overall space savings in the NPP layout. (author)

  11. Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. The short-circuit behavior will be presented. Both the simplified models and detailed models are used in the simulations and both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are discussed.

  12. Noise measurement at wind power plants; Geraeuschmessung an Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Ralph [Cirrus Research plc, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Wind energy is a supporting pillar of the energy transition. For further expansion, it is important to reduce prejudices, for example by measurements as precise as possible and assessments of the often unobjectively discussed noise emissions. These measurements are based on instruments which can analyze and measure low-frequency sound.

  13. Low-Carbon Economic Dispatching for Power Grid Integrated with Carbon Capture Power Plants and Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission characteristics of all kinds of power units are analyzed against the background of the low carbon economy. This paper introduces carbon trading in the dispatching model, gives full consideration to the benefit or cost of carbon emission and introduces carbon emission in the dispatching model as a decision variable so as to achieve the unity of the economy and the environmental protection of the dispatching model. A low carbon economic dispatching model is established based on multiple objectives, such as the lowest thermal power generation cost, the lowest carbon trading cost and the lowest carbon capture power plant operation cost. Load equalization, output constraint of power unit, ramping constraint, spinning reserve constraint and carbon capture efficiency constraint should be taken into account in terms of constraint conditions. The model is solved by the particle swarm optimization based on dynamic exchange and density distance. The fact that the introduction of carbon trading can effectively reduce the level of carbon emission and increase the acceptance level of wind power is highlighted through the comparison of the results of three models’ computational examples. With the carbon trading mechanism, carbon capture power plants with new technologies are able to give full play to the advantage of reducing carbon emission and wind curtailment so as to promote the development of the energy conservation and emission reduction technology and reduce the total cost of the dispatching system.

  14. Optimization-based reactive power control in HVDC-connected wind power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Schönleber, Kevin; Collados Rodríguez, Carlos; Teixeira Pinto, Rodrigo; Ratés Palau, Sergi; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    One application of high–voltage dc (HVdc) systems is the connection of remotely located offshore wind power plants (WPPs). In these systems, the offshore WPP grid and the synchronous main grid operate in decoupled mode, and the onshore HVdc converter fulfills the grid code requirements of the main grid. Thus, the offshore grid can be operated independently during normal conditions by the offshore HVdc converter and the connected wind turbines. In general, it is well known that optimized react...

  15. Opportunity study and a business plan for a wind power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Marjan; Naumov, Risto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides illustration of opportunity study and a business plan for utilizing the wind renewable resource for electricity production in Macedonia. The study is prepared under UNIDO recommendations for feasibility studies (see [1]) and following the IAS, by Marjan Nikolov and Risto Naumov. This is a project simulation for a small wind farm comprising 3 power plant units. We use price list from 'Proven Engineering Products Ltd' UK.

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF THE WINDING MACHINE IN THE OLD SHAFT WITH SKIP IN LONEA MINING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Bogdan ITU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the operation of the winding machine in the Old Shaft with Skip in Lonea Mining Plant, the dynamic analysis of the driving wheel (Koepe wheel was performed, by resistive electric tensometry methods, acceleration measurements, and vibromechanical analysis on the bearings of Koepe driving wheels, on functioning cycles and vibromechanical analysis of the reduction gear. The paper presents aspects regarding vibromechanical measurements and resistive electric tensometry methods in the winding machine..

  17. Aspects of Wind Power Plant Collector Network Layout and Control Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    ecent developments in wind turbine technology go towards the installation of larger Wind Power Plants (WPPs) both onshore and offshore. As wind power penetration level increases, power system operators are challenged by the penetration impacts to maintain reliability and stability of power system....... Therefore, connection topology and control concepts of large WPPs should be carefully investigated to improve the overall performance of both the WPP and the power systems. This paper aims to present a general overview of the design considerations for the electrical layout of WPPs and the WPP control...... strategy for optimum power generation while fulfilling the power system operators requirements....

  18. Releasable Kinetic Energy-Based Inertial Control of a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jinsik; Muljadi, Eduard; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) in a wind power plant (WPP) contain different levels of releasable kinetic energy (KE) because of the wake effects. This paper proposes a releasable KE-based inertial control scheme for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) WPP that differentiates the contributions....... The proposed scheme adjusts the two loop gains in a DFIG controller depending on its rotor speed so that a DFIG operating at a higher rotor speed releases more KE. The performance of the proposed scheme was investigated under various wind conditions. The results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme...

  19. Horizontal and vertical wind power plant. Stromerzeugungsanlage durch Windkraft in waagerechter und senkrechter Konstruktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodersen, K

    1976-10-05

    Wind power machines and associated generating equipment are exposed to the effects of the weather, which causes high maintenance and repair costs. The construction of the wind blades causes turbulence, which has an adverse effect of the efficiency of this plant. The purpose of the invention is therefore to make the construction of the generating equipment such that the protection of the unit and the armature against effects from the weather and greater efficiency are achieved with low plant, maintenance and repair costs. According to the invention, the problem is solved by having the wall of the central room, for pressure and guidance, reinforced at the top, where the guides also provide security against the tilting torque and ensure protection of the unit and armature against effects from the weather. In order to avoid turbulence on the wind blades, a seamless joint between the wind blades and the wind guide surface is provided above the centre of rotation, whereby the stability and free length of the wind blades are increased. The whole plant can be fabricated in a factory and can be transported to the site by helicopters.

  20. Maintenance of wind power plants 2011. Abstracts; Instandhaltung von Windenergieanlagen 2011. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within this meeting of the VGB Powertech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) at 23rd to 24th April, 2011 in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Wind Energy in 2020 - Requirements of the Operators (Christoph Kraft); (2) Legal Issues of Maintenance Contracts (Christian Kessel); (3) Service by Whom and to Which Extent - Impact to Project Insurance (Dieter Schimana, Ralf Skowronnek); (4) Maintenance-appropriate Documentation in Conventional Power Plants (Ralf Goers); (5) Fire Protection - Experiences of an Operator (Alfred Kriener); (6) How Fire Fighting in Wind Power Plants Works (Axel Woerner); (7) Comprehensive Fire Protections Systems - a Safety Philosophy to protect Wind Turbines and Substations (Thomas Blum); (8) Online Wear Monitoring (Edwin Becker); (9) Vibration Monitoring on Wind Turbines - Experiences and Results (Michael Wika); (10) SKF Blade Monitoring System (Joerg Lange); (11) Independent, and All-round Carefree with Full Service Concepts (Ulrich Schomakers); (12) Proactive Maintenance Concepts (Axel Schweighardt); (13) Centralized Lubrication for Modern Wind Power Plants (Michael Slembeck); (14) Requirements to inspections and maintenance of WTG from the operators point of view (Konrad Iffarth); (15) O and M-conception for the Offshore-windfarm EnBW Baltic I (Michael Boll); (16) DONG Energy Approach to Offshore O and M (Soeren Dale Padersen); (17) Productivity focused Operations of Offshore Wind Farms (Florian Wuertz); (18) New Momac Offshore Access System (MOTS) - Results of the First Sea Trails (Stefan Leske).

  1. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  2. Application of the Aero-Hydro-Elastic Model, HAWC2-WAMIT, to Offshore Data from Floating Power Plants Hybrid Wind- and Wave-Energy Test Platform, P37

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellew, Sarah; Yde, Anders; Verelst, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    numerical models, which can combine the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, structural exibility and mooring components. Very little oshore data exists, however, in order to validate these numerical models. Floating Power Plant are the developers of a oating, hybrid wind- and wave-energy device. The device uses...... the pitching wave energy devices, not only to increase and smooth the power output from the platform, but also to take the energy from the waves in a controlled manner, resulting in a stable platform for the wind turbine and a safe harbour for O&M. They are currently developing the nal design for their rst...... full-scale prototype, the P80, which has a width of 80 m. As part of the development, Floating Power Plant have completed 4 oshore test-phases (totalling over 2 years oshore operation) on a 37 m wide scaled test device, the P37. This paper focuses on the comparison of one of the leading numerical...

  3. Optimal and Modular Configuration of Wind Integrated Hybrid Power Plants for Off-Grid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin; Tarnowski, German Claudio

    2018-01-01

    This paper focusses on the system configuration of offgrid hybrid power plants including wind power generation. First, a modular and scalable system topology is proposed. Secondly, an optimal sizing algorithm is developed in order to determine the installed capacities of wind turbines, PV system......, battery energy storage system and generator sets. The novelty of this work lies in a robust sizing algorithm with respect to the required resolution of resource data in order to account for intra-hour power variations. Moreover, the involvement of the electrical infrastructure enables a precise estimation...... of power losses within the hybrid power plant as well as the consideration of both active and reactive power load demand for optimally sizing the plant components. The main outcome of this study is a methodology to determine feasible system configurations of modular and scalable wind integrated hybrid...

  4. Localization of wind power plants: the aspects of environment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-25

    The appraisement of the anticipated effects of the wind power on the environment is presented. The following factors are observed: the safety of the plants, noise, infrasound, disturbance of lights and television as well as the effects on nature and birds. Large land based plants with horisontal axis are studied. The risk for a person to be hit by a piece of blade is calculated to 1 x 10 /sup -7/ per million hours. A piece of ice can be thrown up to 250 m in the direction of wind at its highest velocity. The mechanism of nnoise is not well known. The elimination of the disturbance of telecommunication can be attained. Other effects are difficult to quantify and could possibly be manipulated. The distance between human activities and a wind power plant is recommended to be 250 m.

  5. Pitot-tube turbine as wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naake, L

    1978-10-19

    The use of the Pitot tube turbine as a wind power station is an application of the well known Pitot tube with the turbines built into jet engines. The novelty of this invention lies in the combined nozzle and turbine unit, where the wind is caught in the funnel opening, is accelerated in the narrow flow zone and then acts on the turbine blades. Due to the acceleration, a greater torque is exerted on the turbine than in free air flow. The Pitot tube turbine consists of a casing with a turbine inside, which is fixed by guide vane supports to the casing and which contains one or two stage turbine blades and electrical generators. The whole structure with the rotor is set on a sub-frame and rotation is contained by control surfaces. The subframe can be used as a building.

  6. Economics of wind power and comparisons with conventional thermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial deployment of renewables in the UK depends on their prices converging with those of the conventional sources of generation. Price comparisons, however, are distorted by institutional factors such as the very short contract periods for premium prices under the first two rounds of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Prices are therefore put on a common basis and the prospects for wind energy up to the year 2000 are examined. (author)

  7. Modeling energy production of solar thermal systems and wind turbines for installation at corn ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Elizabeth

    Nearly every aspect of human existence relies on energy in some way. Most of this energy is currently derived from fossil fuel resources. Increasing energy demands coupled with environmental and national security concerns have facilitated the move towards renewable energy sources. Biofuels like corn ethanol are one of the ways the U.S. has significantly reduced petroleum consumption. However, the large energy requirement of corn ethanol limits the net benefit of the fuel. Using renewable energy sources to produce ethanol can greatly improve its economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this study was to model the useful energy received from a solar thermal array and a wind turbine at various locations to determine the feasibility of applying these technologies at ethanol plants around the country. The model calculates thermal energy received from a solar collector array and electricity generated by a wind turbine utilizing various input data to characterize the equipment. Project cost and energy rate inputs are used to evaluate the profitability of the solar array or wind turbine. The current state of the wind and solar markets were examined to give an accurate representation of the economics of each industry. Eighteen ethanol plant locations were evaluated for the viability of a solar thermal array and/or wind turbine. All ethanol plant locations have long payback periods for solar thermal arrays, but high natural gas prices significantly reduce this timeframe. Government incentives will be necessary for the economic feasibility of solar thermal arrays. Wind turbines can be very profitable for ethanol plants in the Midwest due to large wind resources. The profitability of wind power is sensitive to regional energy prices. However, government incentives for wind power do not significantly change the economic feasibility of a wind turbine. This model can be used by current or future ethanol facilities to investigate or begin the planning process for a

  8. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  9. Mastering the power of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the author deals with environmental aspects use of fossil fuels for the energy production. As a way for our planet to get back to a normal and ecologically balanced system the fossil fuels reduction and their replacement by renewable racecourses is recommended. Energetic potential of flowing sun, wind and tidal waves as power resources is discussed. The natural ecological resources are best utilised in the United States where the installed wind power output is 1600 MW. With 360 MW installed output in 1991 the Denmark took lead among European countries in utilising the wind power. The most dynamic power plant development among the European Union countries was recorded in Germany, where the installed power output of the wind power plants is 632 MW, i.e. i.e. 11.5 times higher compared to 55 MW in 1991. The economy of wind power in Germany and in Slovakia is compared. In Slovakia with annual 200 000 kWh power generation annually and the present kWh purchase price guarantee the rate of return of 10 million slovak crowns investment into a wind power plant project is in 100 years. Although the first wind power plants have already been built in the Zahorie, Kremnicke Bane, and Secovce regions, the wind exploitation status in Slovakia is still limping. According to professionals, the wind conditions in Slovakia are not ideal, but sufficient for a supplementary wind power plant system, that can be quite motivating especially for villages. Mount Chopok or mount Krizna are ideal sites to erect the three-blade tower with respect to wind speed. And also the anticipated Kremnicke vrchy site is worth considering. (author)

  10. Business case uncertainty of power plants in future energy systems with wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Broek, Machteld van den; Özdemir, Özge; Koutstaal, Paul; Faaij, André

    2016-01-01

    The European power sector is transforming due to climate policies and an increased deployment of intermittent RES. The sector will require thermal power plants for the decades to come, but their business cases are (negatively) affected by this transformation. This study presents a novel tool to quantify the effect of policy, price and project-related uncertainties on power plant business cases. This tool can support policymakers in stimulating necessary investments in new thermal generation capacity. We find that these investments are currently unsound (power plants recoup on average –12% to 59% of their initial investment). Future climate policy, i.e. the CO_2 price, has a very strong impact on business cases (affects the profitability by 5–40%-points). The impact of the deployment of wind power is average (2–8%-point difference between 10% and 21% wind penetration). Variations in annual wind power production barely affect the profitability (variation of ±1%-point). To stimulate new investments, policymakers should first decrease the uncertainty in business cases caused by policy. Durable climate policy is especially important. Also, policies to increase the profits of thermal power plants should be carefully considered and implemented. This combined approach will reduce the revenue gap that needs to be bridged by supportive policies. - Highlights: • The operation of thermal power plants is affected by CO_2 prices and wind power. • A new tool quantifies the effect of their uncertainty on power plant profitability. • New power plants are unprofitable and show a large spread in expected profits. • Uncertain future climate policy is a key factor in all business cases (±56% change). • Increasing wind power penetration (10–21%) decreases profitability by 14%.

  11. Economy of wind power plants; In Denmark; Vindmoellers oekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per (EMD International, Aalborg (Denmark)); Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, N.E.; Lawetz, H. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lindboe, H.H.; James-Smith, E.; Bang, N.C. (EA analyse, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Stroem, S. (Vindmoelleindustrien, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Larsen, J. (Danmarks Vindmoelleforening, AArhus (Denmark))

    2010-02-15

    This report provides a status on costs of wind energy projects at the end of 2009 including O and M costs based on statistics gathered from more than 250 operating turbines in Denmark with a capacity of 600 kW and up. The figures are applicable for Danish conditions; hence the findings of the project cannot be directly applied in other countries. The report contains data for both on- and offshore projects. The main findings regarding actual costs as well as expected future costs are available in English in Appendix 2. The index regulated price of turbines has increased by approx. 30% per MW over the past six years. It is, however, important to consider the change in size of a typical turbine in the same period. Larger rotors per MW as well as increased hub heights have increased production levels per installed MW. This has acted as a counterweight to increasing prices per installed MW. When costs per MWh are compared over the same period there has been no increase in production costs. However, for sites that cannot benefit from the larger turbines e.g. due to environmental impact reasons, the 30% cost increase is real. In the report, the results of a detailed cost calculator are presented, showing the effect of changes in specific power and hub height. O and M costs have been investigated in detail based on a large sample of data from turbines with a capacity of 600 kW and up. Some of these have been in operation for up to 14 years. It has been discovered that many turbines have had gearbox problems after 7 to 10 years of operation, causing significant additional costs over and above the normal operating costs. The four main cost components of O and M costs for wind turbines are repair, insurance, service agreement and administration/land rent. Each component represents around 25% of the total O and M costs. Expected lifetime average costs are round 1.2 Euro c/kWh. The expected cost of wind electricity has been calculated. This is not only determined by the local

  12. Large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This proceedings contains contributions to the followings main topics: Grid integration experiences; Flexibility and economics of integration; Voltage control issues; Offshore wind power plants; Forecasting; Grid code issues; HVDC connection issues; Frequency control issues; National grid's perspective; Power system balancing; Power system issues; New grid and generators issues; Flexibility with storage and demand side management; AC connected offshore wind power plants; Economic and market issues; Modelling issues; Offshore grid issues.

  13. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  14. Electrical Structure of Future Off-shore Wind Power Plant with a High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan

    The increasing demand of electric power and the growing consciousness towards the changing climate has led to a rapid development of renewable energy in the recent years. Among all, wind energy has been the fastest growing energy source in the last decade. But the growing size of wind power plants......, better wind conditions at off-shore and the general demand to put them out of sight have all contributed to the installation of large wind power plants in off-shore condition. However, moving wind power plants far out in the off-shore comes with many associated problems. One of the main challenges...... is the transmission of power over long distance. Historically, the power transmission from off-shore wind power plants has been done via HVAC submarine cables. This provides a simple solution, but AC cables cannot be arbitrarily long. It is shown in the report that major issues with HVAC cable transmission system...

  15. Application of Portfolio Theory to Minimization of Generation Variability in a System with Wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates validity of modern portfolio theory (MPT) for planning of installation of new wind plants with the lowest possible generation variability for given expected yearly generation. Suppose a Planner had historic meteorological data on wind speeds at a finite number of locations over longer time periods, and that they were technically convertible to time series of forecasted generation powers per megawatt of installed capacity. Suppose further that she intended to upgrade existing system with certain fixed amount of new wind plant capacity. Then she would be able to allocate shares in that total capacity to the available locations in a way that suits her policy goals regarding relation between total expected annual generation and total variability of generation best. Minimization of variability is a legitimate policy goal because it increases total costs of energy supply, so that leaving generation to vary more than technically necessary is economically inefficient. This article focuses on applicability of portfolio theory to such a problem. In the presented research, measured 15-minute data of wind generation in existing Croatian wind plants were used.(author).

  16. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia...... control strategies are effective means for providing ancillary frequency control of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters....... emulation, primary frequency control and secondary frequency control, are proposed in order to improve the frequency stability of power systems. The modified IEEE 39-bus test system with a large-scale wind power penetration is chosen as the studied power system. Simulation results show that the proposed...

  17. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  18. A study on electric power management for power producer-suppliers utilizing output of megawatt-solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth in penetration of photovoltaic generation units (PVs has brought new power management ideas, which achieve more profitable operation, to Power Producer-Suppliers (PPSs. The expected profit for the PPSs will improve if they appropriately operate their controllable generators and sell the generated electricity to contracted customers and Power Exchanges together with the output of Megawatt-Solar Power Plants (MSPPs. Moreover, we can expect that the profitable cooperation between the PPSs and the MSPPs decreases difficulties in the supply-demand balancing operation for the main power grids. However, it is necessary that the PPSs treat the uncertainty in output prediction of PVs carefully. This is because there is a risk for them to pay a heavy imbalance penalty. This paper presents a problem framework and its solution to make the optimal power management plan for the PPSs in consideration with the electricity procurement from the MSPPs. The validity of the authors’ proposal is verified through numerical simulations and discussions of their results.

  19. Power system integration of VSC-HVDC connected offshore wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Kjær, Philip Carne

    This report presents an overview of challenges and solutions for the integration into the power system of offshore wind power plants (WPPs) connected to onshore grids through a voltage-source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission system. Aspects that are touched upon...... of the network in the vicinity of the HVDC station and (iii) limiting characteristics of WPPs such as inherent control and communication delays, presence of mechanical resonances at the same frequency as POD and active power ramp-rate limitations. Clustering of wind power plants The proof of concept...... introduction to justify the study, describe the state-of-art and formulate the project’s objectives, the report is essentially divided into three parts, as follows. Control principles of offshore AC networks The control of offshore AC networks relies purely on power electronics, especially if Type 4 wind...

  20. Application of data mining methods for power forecast of wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldt, Alexander; Koenig, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter [Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, System Technology, and Image Exploitation - Application Centre System Technology (IOSB-AST), Ilmenau (Germany). Energy Systems Group; Mikut, Ralf [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (DE). Inst. for Applied Computer Science (IAI)

    2010-07-01

    Since the last decade power systems underlie a drastic change due to increased exploitation of renewable energy resources (RES) such as wind and photovoltaic power plants. A result of this process is a significant increase of fluctuating generation in low, middle and high voltage grids. Consequently, impacts on short and middle term capacity planning of power plants occur and must be handled to avoid imbalances between generation and demand at any time. Therefore, forecasts of wind and photovoltaic generation play a very important role. Quality improvements potentially ease planning and lead to cost reductions. This work investigated the dependencies of input parameters. The optimal parameter selection was achieved through application of data mining methods. Finally, the wind power prediction was demonstrated with Artificial Neural Networks and Physical Models. (orig.)

  1. Design and Application of Cables and Overhead Lines in Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bellei, T.A. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hermanson, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Loy, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; McLean, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Tesch, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the most impor- tant considerations for wind power plant collection system un- derground and overhead cable designs. Various considerations, including conductor selection, soil thermal properties, installa- tion methods, splicing, concentric grounding, and NESC/NEC requirements are discussed.

  2. BUeV recommendations for supervision of onshore wind energy plants; BUeV-Empfehlungen fuer die Ueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppelt, Ulrich [WTM Engineers, Beratende Ingenieure im Bauwesen, Hamburg (Germany); Harte, Reinhard [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Statik und Dynamik der Tragwerke

    2012-08-15

    In the last two decades, the sector of wind energy plants has grown rapidly and therefore enabled also a dynamic development of relevant technologies. Initiated by revision of the Renewable Energy Law as well as by the expiration of the approved life of first generation plants, the replacement of ancient wind energy plants has gained increasing significance. Increasing rotor diameters and tower heights lead additionally to new demands on structural engineers, checking engineers and supervisors. In the attached text recommendations of the Bau-Ueberwachungsverein BUeV regarding site supervision and periodic inspections of onshore wind energy plants are presented. (orig.)

  3. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  4. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Churchfield, Matthew; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  5. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot W.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-01-09

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  6. Harmonic Stability and Resonance Analysis in Large PMSG-Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Compared to the conventional power systems, large Wind Power Plants (WPPs) present a more challenging system where the interactions between the passive elements and the wideband control systems of power converters may result in harmonic instability and new resonance frequencies. Most of researches...... system and the resonance frequencies are identified based on the element amplitudes of the MIMO matrix. An active damping controller is used to set the poles of the WPP in a desired location in order to mitigate the harmonic instability problems. Multiple case studies are provided to depict that Wind...

  7. Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for VSC-HVDC Connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yifei; Gao, Houlei; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a coordinated voltage control scheme based on model predictive control (MPC) for voltage source converter‐based high voltage direct current (VSC‐HVDC) connected wind power plants (WPPs). In the proposed scheme, voltage regulation capabilities of VSC and WTGs are fully utilized...... and optimally coordinated. Two control modes, namely operation optimization mode and corrective mode, are designed to coordinate voltage control and economic operation of the system. In the first mode, the control objective includes the bus voltages, power losses and dynamic Var reserves of wind turbine...

  8. Harmonic modelling, propagation and mitigation for large wind power plants connected via long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on grid connection of large offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) using extra-long high voltage AC (HVAC) cables. The paper describes research by DONG Energy Wind Power in close collaboration with Aalborg University addressing related challenges through...... an industrial PhD project. The overall goal is to gain a better understanding of extra-long HVAC cable connected OWPPs, in order to ensure reliability and availability of OWPPs. This will reduce the cost of energy, as the risk of costly delays and modifications after the project has been commissioned can...

  9. Design and Tuning Methodology of Active Power Controller in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Claudiu; Raducu, Alin George; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design and tune the main controller of a Wind Power Plant (WPP), with focus on the active power and frequency control. The controller requirements are based on the Danish grid codes. The controller functionality is successfully verified using the model and the layout...... of an actual WPP rated at 160 MW, that consists of 80 wind turbines. Two reference dispatch strategies are investigated, equal and proportional. The proportional dispatch is preferred due to better tracking accuracy and robustness. The work described in this article is meant to help WPP developers...

  10. Experiences in simulating and testing coordinated voltage control provided by multiple wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlaban, T.; Alonso, O.; Ortiz, D. [Acciona Windpower S.A. (Spain); Peiro, J.; Rivas, R. [Red Electrica de Espana SAU (Spain); Quinonez-Varela, G.; Lorenzo, P. [Acciona Energia S.A. (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents some field tests performed in a transmission system node in order to check the adequacy of voltage control performance by multiple wind power plants, with an overall capacity of 395 MW. It briefly explains the Spanish TSO motivation towards new voltage control requirements and the necessity of performing such tests in order to set the most convenient voltage control parameters and to verify the stable operation. It presents how different the voltage control capability between modern wind turbines (DFIG) and older ones (SCIG) specifically retrofitted for voltage control is. (orig.)

  11. Final Report on the Creation of the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit and API: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The primary objective of this work was to create a state-of-the-art national wind resource data set and to provide detailed wind plant output data for specific sites based on that data set. Corresponding retrospective wind forecasts were also included at all selected locations. The combined information from these activities was used to create the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND), and an extraction tool was developed to allow web-based data access.

  12. Multi-objective stochastic scheduling optimization model for connecting a virtual power plant to wind-photovoltaic-electric vehicles considering uncertainties and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Kangting; Tan, Qingkun; Tan, Zhongfu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on virtual power plant. • Electric vehicle group and demand response are integrated into virtual power plant. • Stochastic chance constraint planning is applied to overcome uncertainties. • A multi-objective stochastic scheduling model is proposed for virtual power plant. • A three-stage hybrid intelligent solution algorithm is proposed for solving the model. - Abstract: A stochastic chance-constrained planning method is applied to build a multi-objective optimization model for virtual power plant scheduling. Firstly, the implementation cost of demand response is calculated using the system income difference. Secondly, a wind power plant, photovoltaic power, an electric vehicle group and a conventional power plant are aggregated into a virtual power plant. A stochastic scheduling model is proposed for the virtual power plant, considering uncertainties under three objective functions. Thirdly, a three-stage hybrid intelligent solution algorithm is proposed, featuring the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the entropy weight method and the fuzzy satisfaction theory. Finally, the Yunnan distributed power demonstration project in China is utilized for example analysis. Simulation results demonstrate that when considering uncertainties, the system will reduce the grid connection of the wind power plant and photovoltaic power to decrease the power shortage punishment cost. The average reduction of the system power shortage punishment cost and the operation revenue of virtual power plant are 61.5% and 1.76%, respectively, while the average increase of the system abandoned energy cost is 40.4%. The output of the virtual power plant exhibits a reverse distribution with the confidence degree of the uncertainty variable. The proposed algorithm rapidly calculates a global optimal set. The electric vehicle group could provide spinning reserve to ensure stability of the output of the virtual power plant. Demand response could

  13. Pumping station design for a pumped-storage wind-hydro power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, John S.; Papantonis, Dimitris E.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the optimum sizing and design of a pumping station unit in a hybrid wind-hydro plant. The standard design that consists of a number of identical pumps operating in parallel is examined in comparison with two other configurations, using one variable-speed pump or an additional set of smaller jockey pumps. The aim is to reduce the amount of the wind generated energy that cannot be transformed to hydraulic energy due to power operation limits of the pumps and the resulting step-wise operation of the pumping station. The plant operation for a period of one year is simulated by a comprehensive evaluation algorithm, which also performs a detailed economic analysis of the plant using dynamic evaluation methods. A preliminary study of the entire plant sizing is carried out at first using an optimization tool based on evolutionary algorithms. The performance of the three examined pumping station units is then computed and analyzed in a comparative study. The results reveal that the use of a variable-speed pump constitutes the most effective and profitable solution, and its superiority is more pronounced for less dispersed wind power potential

  14. HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants: Review and Outlook of Current Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Zeni, Lorenzo; Gryning, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on grid integration of large offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) using high voltage direct voltage (HVDC) for grid connection. The paper describes in detail selected challenges hereto and presents how DONG Energy Wind Power (DEWP) is addressing...... these challenges through three coordinated PhD projects in close collaboration with leading academia within the field. The overall goal of these projects is to acquire in-depth knowledge of relevant operating phenomena in the offshore OWPP grid, rich with power electronics devices (PEDs) such as the HVDC...... and the PED widely used in the wind turbine generators (WTGs). Challenges hereto include PED control system interaction (from a stability point of view), assessment of the quality of vendor supplied control systems and their robustness against e.g. short circuits and load rejection. Furthermore, the outcome...

  15. Installation Of 2MW Wind Power Plant In Northern Cyprus Technical Economical And Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aliyu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The impetus for the work presented here arose from the fact that the demand for renewable energy grows and the supply of the non-renewable energy is at the decreasing level. An increasing percentage of total energy produced globally is moving to renewable forms. Wind energy enjoys increasing deployment for power generation due to the economic benefits associated with it.Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus TRNC has abundance of renewable energy it has an average wind speed of 4.30ms and 5.04ms at 10m and 50m respectively. The economic analysis of is plant shows that the wind farm has an investment cost of 2300000 with 333217.8 as annual savings. The simple payback was calculated to be 7 years the savings to investment ratio was found to be 3.62 the net present value turn to be positive while the return on investment was 14.48.

  16. Pump power plants for wind age; Pumpekraftverk for vindalderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    Power giant Sira-Kvina, Norway, prepares to expand Tonstad power station with pump options to save energy and benefit from price fluctuations in the electricity market. How pump power plant works; Consists mainly of two reservoirs at different heights. Bottom placed a turbine that can run both ways, or a pump and turbine mounted on the generator. The generator acts as an engine of pumping. When saving energy, water is pumped up to the highest magazine. The energy is extracted by letting the water run back through the turbine. Amount of energy that can be saved depends on the height difference between the magazines and magazine size, while the effect is determined by the size of the pump turbine.(AG)

  17. Mortality of radio collared willow ptarmigan in Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Broeseth, Henrik; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Bevanger, Kjetil

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In the project Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind), Smoela willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus variegatus) has been one of the species studied. This sub-species represent gallinaceous birds, known to be bad flyers susceptible to collide with artificial structures, e.g. power lines. However, the possible impact of a wind-power plant on survival and behaviour in a willow ptarmigan population was unknown. The objectives of the study were therefore rather wide; to study direct and indirect effects of wind turbines on willow ptarmigan behaviour, habitat selection, reproduction and survival in areas where wind-power plants are established. To collect data on habitat selection, movements, collision risks, avoidance behaviour, survival and general population dynamic parameters, willow ptarmigan were radio-tagged in 2008-2010, using traditional VHF-transmitters (Holohill) with mortality switch, necklace mount, 12 g, lasting for approximately 24 months. Due to low population density and only occasional snow cover, a method using strong lights, dipnet and car was used to catch birds. In total, 34 willow ptarmigan were caught (19 males and 15 females). All birds were caught inside the wind-power plant area (WPA). The birds were radio-tracked at irregular intervals and almost all birds, when found, was located within the WPA. All carcasses of dead birds were examined. When possible, cause of death was determined as; predation (raptor), collision, unknown, other. In total, 28 of the radio-tagged birds have died since January 2008. A Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative survival rates, show an exceptionally low survival (<30%). Unlike other willow ptarmigan populations most of the mortality takes place during winter, from December throughout March. Although a thorough analysis of mortality causes has yet not been carried out, a majority of the birds have probably been killed by avian predators and to

  18. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.

    2014-06-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  19. Methodology for the economic optimisation of energy storage systems for frequency support in wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Lewis; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Corchero-García, Cristina; Cruz-Zambrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of energy storage system with wind power plant for frequency response. • Energy storage option considered could be economically viable. • For a 50 MW wind farm, an energy storage system of 5.3 MW and 3 MW h was found. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for the economic optimisation of the sizing of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) whilst enhancing the participation of Wind Power Plants (WPP) in network primary frequency control support. The methodology was designed flexibly, so it can be applied to different energy markets and to include different ESS technologies. The methodology includes the formulation and solving of a Linear Programming (LP) problem. The methodology was applied to the particular case of a 50 MW WPP, equipped with a Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRB) in the UK energy market. Analysis is performed considering real data on the UK regular energy market and the UK frequency response market. Data for wind power generation and energy storage costs are estimated from literature. Results suggest that, under certain assumptions, ESSs can be profitable for the operator of a WPP that is providing frequency response. The ESS provides power reserves such that the WPP can generate close to the maximum energy available. The solution of the optimisation problem establishes that an ESS with a power rating of 5.3 MW and energy capacity of about 3 MW h would be enough to provide such service whilst maximising the incomes for the WPP operator considering the regular and frequency regulation UK markets

  20. Planning your first wind power project. A primer for utilities: Everything you need to know to bring your first wind power plant on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, K.; Davis, E.

    1994-12-01

    This primer has been prepared to help utility personnel become familiar with some or the details relative to wind power technology and project development. It is written as a series of relatively independent chapters to address specific topics or phases of wind power evaluation and development as they might occur within a utility. The topics include: wind prospecting and the first pass analysis, resource validation, project feasibility, resource planning and evaluation, resource acquisition, project development, equipment selection, project design and construction, and plant operation and maintenance

  1. Novel investigation of the different Omni-direction-guide-vane angles effects on the urban vertical axis wind turbine output power via three-dimensional numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahizare, B.; Nik-Ghazali, N.; Chong, W.T.; Tabatabaeikia, S.; Izadyar, Nima; Esmaeilzadeh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of the Omni-direction-guide-vane impacts on the VAWT performance. • Obtain the best position of the guide vane angles in order to achieve the maximum performance. • Validation of the 3D computational fluid dynamics with experimental data. • Acquire the optimal Omni-direction-guide-vane based on numerical simulation results. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to present the effects of different Omni-direction-guide-vane (ODGV) angles on the performance of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). For this purpose, five different straight-bladed VAWTs have been simulated via three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Hence, the VAWT without ODGV covering, were simulated and validated via CFD and experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) data, respectively in the first step. Indeed, grid and time step independency test as well as the effect of domain size, have been conducted and a suitable agreement was found based on comparison of the CFD and EFD results. In the next step, the VAWT was shrouded by ODGV cover and the whole system was simulated for 52 angles of the ODGV in four different tip speed ratios (TSR), to investigate the impact of guide vanes angles on the VAWT performance. Results of this study indicated that output power of the VAWT with α = 20° and β = 55° ODGV guide vanes, was improved 40.9%, 36.5%, 35.3% and 33.2%, respectively in four different TSR including 0.745, 1.091, 1.901 and 2.53.

  2. Experimental verification of a real-time power curve for downregulated offshore wind power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göcmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul; Rajczyk Skjelmose, Mads; Runge Kristoffersen, Jesper

    2015-04-01

    Wind farm scale experiments with wakes under downregulation have been initiated in Horns Rev wind farm in the frame of the PossPOW project (see posspow.dtu.dk). The experiments will be compared with the results of the calibrated GCLarsen wake model for real-time which is used not only to obtain real-time power curve but also to estimate the available power in wind farm level. Available (or Possible) Power is the power that a down-regulated (or curtailed) turbine or a wind power plant would produce if it were to operate in normal operational conditions and it is becoming more of particular interest due to increasing number of curtailment periods. Currently, the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the available power of a down-regulated wind farm and the PossPOW project is addressing that need. What makes available power calculation interesting at the wind farm level is the change in the wake characteristics for different operational states. Even though the single turbine level available power is easily estimated, the sum of those signals from all turbines in a wind farm overestimates the power since the wake losses significantly decrease during curtailment. In order to calculate that effect, the turbine wind speed is estimated real-time from the produced power, the pitch angle and the rotor speed using a proximate Cp curve. A real-time wake estimation of normal operation is then performed and advected to the next downstream turbine, and so on until the entire wind farm is calculated. The estimation of the rotor effective wind speed, the parameterization of the GCLarsen wake model for real-time use (i.e., 1-sec data from Horns Rev and Thanet) and the details of the advection are the topic can be found in Göcmen et al. [1] Here we plan to describe the experiments using the Horns Rev wind farm and hopefully present the first validation results. Assuming similarity of the wind speeds between neighbouring rows of turbines, the

  3. Droop assignment algorithm for the inertial control of a DFIG-based wind power plant for supporting the grid frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jinsik; Kang, Yong Cheol; Muljadi, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In a wind power plant (WPP) consisting of multiple wind generators (WGs), the wind speed of WGs at the downstream side decreases due to the wake effect, and thus their rotor speeds are smaller than those of the upstream WGs because of an MPPT operation. Therefore, WGs in a WPP have different amount......, while the same gains of the ROCOF loop are set for all WGs. In addition, the wake wind speed arriving at the WG is calculated by considering the wind direction and cumulative impacts of multiple shadowing. The performance of the algorithm was investigated under various wind conditions using an EMTP...... simulator. The results clearly indicate that the algorithm successfully improves the frequency nadir because WGs with higher wind speeds temporarily releases more kinetic energy....

  4. Impact of Wind Power Plants on Voltage Control of Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, Moumita; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    High penetration of renewable energy sources poses numerous challenges on stability and security of power systems. Wind power plants (WPPs) of considerable size when connected to a weak grid by long transmission line results in low short circuit ratio at the point of connection. This may result...... control, during transient voltage dips. Steady-state analysis is performed for stressed system conditions. Results are validated through simulation in a detailed power system model....

  5. INVESTIGATION ON ESTABLISHED OPERATIONAL MODES OF FREQUENCY-CONTROLLED INDUCTION GENERATOR OF WIND POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Mustafayev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an analytical expression for calculating a manipulated variable of stator voltage in a frequency-controlled induction generator with a cage rotor of a wind power plant while regulating a constant value of the absolute slip of the generator. Comparison of the calculated results by the proposed expression and full differential equations of the generator (an equation of state at steady state has confirmed a high accuracy of the analytical expression.

  6. Is it possible at all to compare nuclear power plants and wind power systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasz, J.; Biwan, A.

    2005-01-01

    At first glance, it appears impossible to compare power generation technologies that are as different in their conception as nuclear power plants and wind power systems. On the other hand, if one uses a holistic approach it may be possible. The contribution lists the preconditions that are required, e.g. parameters like the life cycle of a technology, the various stages of modelling energy and mass exchange of subsystems, and the interactions between the various branches of a power generation technology. (orig.)

  7. Wind power plants and the landscape: Analysis of conflict and methods of solution - practical examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brux, H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict between wind power plants and the appearance of the landscape is explained. Legal regulations forcing one to take it into account are pointed out. After an introduction into the theoretical basis, methods of solution for the operation of aesthetic landscape judgments are introduced by examples from planning practice. Finally, the frequently unused possibilities of site optimisation with the aid of applied biology and landscape planning are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  8. DIAGNOSIS OF THE WINDING MACHINE IN THE OLD SHAFT WITH SKIP IN LONEA MINING PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Bogdan ITU; Vilhelm ITU

    2017-01-01

    To study the operation of the winding machine in the Old Shaft with Skip in Lonea Mining Plant, the dynamic analysis of the driving wheel (Koepe wheel) was performed, by resistive electric tensometry methods, acceleration measurements, and vibromechanical analysis on the bearings of Koepe driving wheels, on functioning cycles and vibromechanical analysis of the reduction gear. The paper presents aspects regarding vibromechanical measurements and resistive electric tensometry me...

  9. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2–3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4–50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%–0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting. - Highlights: • Input and output budgets of radiocesium in the mountainous forest of Fukushima were investigated in 2013 and 2014. • "1"3"7Cs outputs were 4–50 times higher than the "1"3"7Cs outputs during the monsoons. • The proportion of "1"3"7Cs output to radiocesium inventories was in the range of 0.05%–0.19% during the monsoons. • Radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios. • The forest floor seems to be a sink of radiocesium contamination than a source for the other ecosystems.

  10. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  11. Control of Full-Scale Converter based Wind Power Plants for damping of low frequency system oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Damping of low frequency power oscillations is one of essential aspects of maintaining power system stability. In literature can be found publications on damping capability of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbines. This paper extends discussion on Wind Power Plant damping capability...

  12. A new method to estimate the uncertainty of AEP of offshore wind power plants applied to Horns Rev 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murcia, Juan Pablo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2015-01-01

    The present article proposes a framework for validation of stationary wake models that wind developers can use to predict the energy production of a wind power plant more accurately. The application of this framework provides a new way to quantify the uncertainty of annual energy production predi...

  13. Suitable Method of Overloading for Fast Primary Frequency Control from Offshore Wind Power Plants in Multi-Terminal DC Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    Increased penetration of offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) demands frequency control services from them. Overloading the wind turbine, for few seconds after the under frequency event, to utilize its kinetic energy seems promising option for fast primary frequency control. Two methods...

  14. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    -pass filter time constants shorter than about τ = 38 h, all datasets exhibit a correlation length ξ that falls at least as fast as {{τ }-1} . Since the inter-site separation needed for statistical independence falls for shorter time scales, higher-rate fluctuations can be effectively smoothed by aggregating wind plants over areas smaller than otherwise estimated.

  15. System frequency support of permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziping

    With ever-increasing penetration of wind power into modern electric grids all over the world, a trending replacement of conventional synchronous generators by large wind power plants will likely result in the poor overall frequency regulation performance. On the other hand, permanent magnet synchronous generator wind Turbine System (PMSG-WTG) with full power back to back converters tends to become one of the most promising wind turbine technologies thanks to various advantages. It possesses a significant amount of kinetic energy stored in the rotating mass of turbine blades, which can be utilized to enhance the total inertia of power system. Additionally, the deloaded operation and decoupled control of active and reactive power make it possible for PMSG-WTG to provide a fast frequency regulation through full-power converter. First of all, a comprehensive and in-depth survey is conducted to analyze the motivations for incorporating the inertial response and frequency regulation of VSWT into the system frequency regulation. Besides, control classifications, fundamental control concepts and advanced control schemes implemented for auxiliary frequency support of individual WT or wind power plant are elaborated along with a comparison of the potential frequency regulation capabilities of four major types of WTs. Secondly, a Controls Advanced Research Turbine2-Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator wind turbine (CART2-PMSG) integrated model representing the typical configuration and operation characteristics of PMSG-WT is established in Matlab/Simulink,. Meanwhile, two different rotor-side converter control schemes, including rotor speed-based control and active power-based control, are integrated into this CART2-PMSG integrated model to perform Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) operation over a wide range of wind speeds, respectively. Thirdly, a novel comprehensive frequency regulation (CFR) control scheme is developed and implemented into the CART2-PMSG model based

  16. Effects of nearby surface features on wind speed at a nuclear plant meteorological station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.A.; Goodwin, R.J.; Pittman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a definite cause and effect relationship between the trees in the vicinity of the meteorological tower and the wind speed at the 10-meter level on the meteorological tower. For the affected directions, horizontal wind speed is significantly reduced below what it would be for that level if the trees were not present. This effect is only slightly less for the 10:1 exposure achieved with the 1977 tree clearing, which illustrates that meeting this commonly accepted distance to height ratio does not assure representativeness of 10-meter data collected at a nuclear plant site. The somewhat stronger effect for winds from the south through southwest directions may be partly attributable to the abrupt change in roughness and elevation encountered by air moving at an angle or directly across the reservoir, which is 3.5 to 5.0 kilometers wide at this site. This general reduction in wind speed values below what would be expected at the plant location will result in biased dispersion estimates. Calculated relative concentration values for releases treated as ground-level or building-wake releases would be larger than actual concentrations. While this would provide conservative concentration values, radioactive plume transport calculations would be nonconservative. The calculated, or predicted, transport rate would be slower than the actual transport rate. Such local biases affecting the spatial representativeness of airflow at 10 meters are a primary reason for TVA's decision to use 46-meter wind data for ground-level transport and diffusion modeling in its radiological emergency preparedness program

  17. Wind friction parametrisation used in emission models for wastewater treatment plants: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ademir A; Santos, Jane M; Timchenko, Victoria; Reis, Neyval C; Stuetz, Richard M

    2017-11-01

    Emission models are widely applied tools for estimating atmospheric emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The friction velocity u ∗ is a key variable for the modelling of emissions from passive liquid surfaces in WWTPs. This work evaluated different parametrisations of u ∗ for passive liquid surfaces at the scale of WWTP units, which present relatively small fetches, based on available wind friction and wave data measured at wind-wave tanks (fetches spanning from approximately 3 to 100 m, and wind speeds from 2 to 17 m s -1 ). The empirical correlation by Smith (1980; J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 709-726), which has been frequently adopted in air emission models (despite the fact that it was originally derived for the ocean) presented a general tendency to overestimate u ∗ , with significant (although not extreme) relative errors (mean and maximum errors of 13.5% and 36.6%, respectively); the use of Charnock's relation, with Charnock constant 0.010, performed in a very similar manner (mean and maximum errors of 13.3% and 37.8%, respectively). Better estimates of u ∗ were achieved by parametrisations based on the significant wave steepness. Simplified correlations between the wind drag and the non-dimensional fetch were obtained. An approach was devised, comprising the use of Charnock's relation (with Charnock constant 0.010) and of these simplified correlations, depending on the ranges of frequency of the peak waves, fetch and wind speed. The proposed approach predicted u ∗ with improved accuracy (mean, maximum and 95%-percentile relative errors of 6.6%, 16.7% and 13.9%, respectively), besides being able to incorporate the influence of the fetch in the wind drag, thus taking into account the size of the tanks in the WWTPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Balancing of generators at wind power plants. Operational balancing in normal operation at wind power plants; Auswuchten von Generatoren auf Windkraftanlagen. Betriebsauswuchten im Normalbetrieb der Windkraftanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Dieter [IDF vibrodiagnose GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Gerrit [WSB Service GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    An increasing or suddenly arising unbalanced state in the generator of a wind power plant can be recognized by means of condition monitoring systems and regularly accomplished oscillation diagnoses. A strong unbalanced state results in a fast bearing wear, increases the risk of outage and reduces the profit. The risk of a further damage of the generator by means of a clearly increased vibration severity often is substantial. The counterbalancing takes place at the extended rotor at work benches in workshops. Among other things, the substantial cost is based on the expense of the disassembly and remounting of the generator. The total costs may amount several ten thousand Euro. As an alternative to balancing in the workshop, an operating balancing is recommended on the plant in order to reduce the costs. This was successfully realized by the engineer's office IDF vibrodiagnose GmbH (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany) by the example of a Vestas V44 plant. The authors of the contribution under consideration describe the approach and advantages of an operating balancing. The main vibration stimulation at generators are described.

  19. Control and operation of wind turbine converters during faults in an offshore wind power plant grid with VSC-HVDC connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission is an attractive technique for large offshore wind power plants, especially when long cable transmission is required for connection to the onshore grid. New multi-MW wind turbines are likely to be equipped with full scale...... converters to meet the stringent grid code requirements. In such a scenario, the offshore grid is terminated to the power electronic converters on all the ends. This paper presents a control scheme for the synchronization and control of the grid side converters (GSC) of the wind turbine generators (WTG......). Current limit control enables the GSC to sustain the fault currents during short circuits in the offshore wind collector system grid. However, power transmission is affected, and the fault has to be isolated. It can be resynchronized after the fault has been cleared and the breaker reclosed. Healthy WTG...

  20. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  1. Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant.It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvement of air-cooled condensers.Based on representative 2×600 MW direct air-cooled power plant,three ways that can arrange and optimize the flow field of cooling air thus enhance the heat transfer of air-cooled condensers were proposed.The physical and mathematical models of air-cooled condensers with various flow leading measures were presented and the flow and temperature fields of cooling air were obtained by CFD simulation.The back pressures of turbine were calculated for different measures on the basis of the heat transfer model of air-cooled condensers.The results show that the performance of air-cooled condensers is improved thus the back pressure of turbine is lowered to some extent by taking measures against the adverse impact of natural wind.

  2. 风力发电系统输出功率随机波动的仿真分析%Wind Power Generation System Output Power of Random Fluctuation Simulation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓悦

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current wind power generation system output power random volatility,in permanent magnet synchronous generator(PMSG) wind power generator and the vanadium redox battery DC energy storage system of wind power generation system based on integration model,using MATLAB/Simulink software to fixed load,change wind speed;Fixed wind speed,load transient;Wind speed and load change simultaneously 3 kind of conditions in simulation test and analysis.The results show that the new energy storage technology of wind power grid power to restrain the control of random fluctuation,can use the battery charging and discharging characteristics,in the wind speed change and transient load when the adjustment of the power balance.%针对当前风力发电系统输出功率随机波动的问题,以永磁同步风力发电机(PMSG)与直流侧储能系统(钒氧化还原电池)整合的风力发电系统为基础,进行数字仿真建模,采用MATLAB/Simulink软件对固定负载,变化风速工况;固定风速,负荷瞬变工况;风速和负荷同时变化工况;进行了仿真试验和分析。结果表明,对于采用储能技术的风电场并网功率随机波动的平抑控制,可以利用蓄电池的充放电特性,在风速变化以及负荷瞬变时进行功率平衡的调节。

  3. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  4. Coordinated Voltage Control in Offshore HVDC Connected Cluster of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Rimez, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) for a cluster of offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) connected to a VSC HVDC system. The primary control point of the proposed voltage control scheme is the introduced Pilot bus, which is having the highest short circuit capacity...... in the offshore AC grid. The developed CVCS comprehends an optimization algorithm, aiming for minimum active power losses in the offshore grid, to generate voltage reference to the Pilot bus. During steady state operation, the Pilot bus voltage is controlled by dispatching reactive power references to each wind...... turbine (WT) in the WPP cluster based on their available reactive power margin and network sensitivity based participation factors, which are derived from the dV/dQ sensitivity of a WT bus w.r.t the Pilot bus. This method leads to minimization of the risk of undesired effects, particularly overvoltage...

  5. Dynamic Reactive Power Control in Offshore HVDC Connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated reactive power control for a HVDC connected cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPPs). The reactive power reference for the WPP cluster is estimated by an optimization algorithm aiming at minimum active power losses in the offshore AC Grid. For each optimal......, such as wind turbine (WT) terminal, collector cable, and export cable, on the dynamic voltage profile of the offshore grid is investigated. Furthermore, the dynamic reactive power contribution from WTs from different WPPs of the cluster for such faults has also been studied....... reactive power set point, the OWPP cluster controller generates reactive power references for each WPP which further sends the AC voltage/ reactive power references to the associated WTs based on their available reactive power margin. The impact of faults at different locations in the offshore grid...

  6. Negative sequence current control in wind power plants with VSC-HVDC connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Large offshore wind power plants may have multi-MW wind turbine generators (WTG) equipped with full-scale converters (FSC) and voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltaage direct-current (HVDC) transmission for grid connection. The power electronic converters in theWTG-FSC and the VSC......-HVDC allow fast current control in the offshore grid. This paper presents a method of controlling the negative sequence current injection into the offshore grid from the VSC-HVDC as well as WTG-FSCs. This would minimize the power oscillations and hence reduce the dc voltage overshoots in the VSC-HVDC system...... as well as in the WTG-FSCs; especially when the offshore grid is unbalanced due to asymmetric faults. The formulation for negative sequence current injection is mathematically derived and then implemented in electromagnetic transients (EMT) simulation model. The simulated results show that the negative...

  7. Fault Ride Through Enhancement of VSC‐HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Wu, Qiuwei; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2018-01-01

    the model of a VSC‐HVDC‐connected offshore wind power plant (WPP) with an external grid. It proposes a feedforward DC voltage control based FRT technique to control the AC voltage at the WPP collector network during grid‐side faults. Time‐domain simulations have been used to verify the efficacy......Voltage source converter‐high voltage direct current (VSC‐HVDC) connections have become a new trend for long‐distance offshore wind power transmission. In order to facilitate the derivation of the feedforward DC voltage control based fault ride through (FRT) technique, this chapter describes...... of the proposed feedforward DC voltage control based FRT technique for VSC‐HVDC‐connected WPPs. Time‐domain simulation results shows that the proposed FRT scheme can successfully enable VSC‐HVDC‐connected WPPs to ride through balanced and unbalanced faults in host power systems, as well as faults in the WPP...

  8. Fault Ride-Through Capability Enhancement of VSC HVDC connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a feed forward direct current (DC) voltage control based fault ride-through (FRT) scheme for voltage source converter (VSC) high voltage DC (HVDC) connected offshore wind power plants (WPPs) in order to achieve active control of the WPP collector network AC voltage magnitude......, and to improve the FRT capability. During steady state operation, an open loop AC voltage control is implemented at the WPP side VSC of the HVDC system such that any possible control interactions between the WPP side VSC and the wind turbine VSC are minimized. Whereas during any grid faults, a dynamic AC voltage...... reference is applied based on both the DC voltage error and the AC active-current from the WPP collector system which ensures fast and robust FRT of the VSC HVDC connected offshore WPPs. Under unbalanced fault conditions in the host power system, the resulting oscillatory DC voltage is directly used...

  9. A data mining approach: Analyzing wind speed and insolation period data in Turkey for installations of wind and solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ilhami; Sagiroglu, Seref; Demirtas, Mehmet; Yesilbudak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wind speed and insolation period data were analyzed using a data mining approach. ► Most of the studies in the literature were based on Weibull and Rayleigh models. ► Nearest and farest neighbor algorithms were used with different distance metrics. ► Many inferences were achieved in efficient limits for wind and solar farm analyses. - Abstract: Wind and solar power plant installations have been recently increased rapidly with respect to the depletion of fossil-based fuels all over the world. Due to stochastic nature of meteorological conditions, wind and solar energies have a non-schedulable nature and they require several installation analyses to determine the location and the capacities of wind and solar power to be produced. This paper focuses on the similarity, feasibility and numerical analyses of 75 cities in Turkey based on the monthly average wind speed and insolation period data. The nearest and the farest neighbor algorithms are used as agglomerative hierarchical clustering methods with Euclidean, Manhattan and Minkowski distance metrics in the stage of making the similarity and feasibility analyses. The maximum cophenetic correlation coefficient is achieved by the nearest neighbor algorithm with the Minkowski distance metric in the similarity and feasibility analyses. On the other hand, graphical representations of the monthly average wind speed and insolation period data are utilized for making the numerical analysis. The highest annual average wind speed and insolation period are obtained as 3.88 m/s and 8.45 h/day, respectively. Overall, many inferences were achieved in acceptable and efficient limits for wind and solar energy.

  10. Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics to Help Design a Wind Turbine Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchfield, Matthew J.; Wang, Qi; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wind Farm Technology facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, Texas. Prior simulation studies have shown that wake deflection may be used for wind-plant control that maximizes plant power output. In this study, simulations are performed to characterize wake deflection and general...

  11. Implications of environmental regulation and coal plant retirements in systems with large scale penetration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, Mohsen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hug, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been a growing number of federal and state regulations aimed at controlling air emissions at power plants and/or increasing the penetration of renewable resources in the grid. Environmental Protection Agency regulations will likely lead to the retrofit, retirement, or replacement of coal-fired power plants while the state Renewable Portfolio Standards will continue to drive large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources, primarily wind. Combined, these changes in the generation fleet could have profound implications for the operations of the power system. In this paper, we aim to better understand the interaction between coal plant retirements and increased levels of wind power. We extensively analyze the operations of the PJM electricity system under a broad set of scenarios that include varying levels of wind penetration and coal plant retirements. Not surprisingly, we find that without transmission upgrades, retirement of coal-fired power plants will likely result in considerable transmission congestion and higher energy prices. Increased wind penetration, with high geographic diversity, could mitigate some of the negative effects of coal plant retirement and lead to a significant reduction in air emissions, but wind forecast error might impose operational constraints on the system at times of peak load. - Highlights: •Retirement of coal plants may increase transmission congestion and LMP prices. •EPA rules might lead to significant reductions in emission of air pollutants. •Wind geographical diversity may reduce transmission constraints and air emissions. •At times of high peak load, wind may not reduce system stress caused by retirement. •RPS policies can support and mitigate negative impacts of EPA regulations.

  12. Increase of the Integration Degree of Wind Power Plants into the Energy System Using Wind Forecasting and Power Consumption Predictor Models by Transmission System Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plants’ (WPPs high penetration into the power system leads to various inconveniences in the work of system operators. This fact is associated with the unpredictable nature of wind speed and generated power, respectively. Due to these factors, such source of electricity must be connected to the power system to avoid detrimental effects on the stability and quality of electricity. The power generated by the WPPs is not regulated by the system operator. Accurate forecasting of wind speed and power, as well as power load can solve this problem, thereby making a significant contribution to improving the power supply systems reliability. The article presents a mathematical model for the wind speed prediction, which is based on autoregression and fuzzy logic derivation of Takagi-Sugeno. The new model of wavelet transform has been developed, which makes it possible to include unnecessary noise from the model, as well as to reveal the cycling of the processes and their trend. It has been proved, that the proposed combination of methods can be used simultaneously to predict the power consumption and the wind power plant potential power at any time interval, depending on the planning horizon. The proposed models support a new scientific concept for the predictive control system of wind power stations and increase their degree integration into the electric power system.

  13. Modular Multi-level converter based HVDC System for Grid Connection of Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanarathna, U.N.; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Gole, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the application of modular multi-level converters (MMC) as a means for harnessing the power from off-shore wind power plants. The MMC consists of a large number of simple voltage sourced converter (VSC) submodules that can be easily assembled into a converter for high......-voltage and high power. The paper shows that the MMC converter has a fast response and low harmonic content in comparison with a two-level VSC option. The paper discusses the modeling approach used, including a solution to the modeling challenge imposed by the very large number of switching devices in the MMC....

  14. Asymmetrical Fault Analysis at the Offshore Network of HVDC connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goksu, Omer; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sorensen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    Short-circuit faults for HVDC connected Wind Power Plants (WPPs) have been studied mostly for dc link and onshore ac grid faults, while the offshore ac faults, especially asymmetrical faults, have been mostly omitted in the literature. Requirements related to the offshore asymmetrical faults have...... been kept as future development at national levels in the recent ENTSO-E HVDC network code. In this paper offshore ac faults are studied using the classical power system fault analysis methods. It is shown that suppression of negative sequence current flow is not applicable and negative sequence...

  15. Coordinated Control Scheme for Ancillary Services from Offshore Wind Power Plants to AC and DC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach of providing ancillary services to AC and DC grids from offshore wind power plants (OWPPs), connected through multi-terminal HVDC network. A coordinated control scheme where OWPP’s AC grid frequency modulated according to DC grid voltage variations is used...... to detect and provide the ancillary service requirements of both AC and DC grids, is proposed in this paper. In particular, control strategies for onshore frequency control, fault ridethrough support in the onshore grid, and DC grid voltage control are considered. The proposed control scheme involves only...

  16. Residue-based evaluation of the use of wind power plants with full converter wind turbines for power oscillation damping control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morato, Josep; Knüppel, Thyge; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    As wind power plants (WPPs) gradually replace the power production of the conventional generators, many aspects of the power system may be affected, in which the small signal stability is included. Additional control may be needed for wind turbine generators (WTGs) to participate in the power...... oscillation damping. The feasibility of implementing this control needs to be assessed. This paper studies how the damping contribution of a WPP is affected by different operating conditions and its dependence to selected feedback signals. The WPP model used includes individual WTGs to study how internal...

  17. Guideline concerning financial aid by the state to '250 MW wind' wind power plants within the framework of the third programme 'Energy research and energy technologies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An industrial-scale wind power experiment will receive financial aid for several years. An installed power of 250 MW is to be reached within a 5-year period if possible. The BMFT will grant financial aid on a per kWh basis up to a maximum sum, or - if desired by certain applicants - in the form of an investment aid, both for a maximum period of 10 years from the start-up of the wind power plant. The BMFT will also finance a scientific programme for measurement and evaluation. (orig.) [de

  18. What are the costs of an accelerated installation of new onshore wind power and photovoltaic plants?; Was kostet ein schnellerer Ausbau von Wind an Land und Photovoltaik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Uwe [EnKliP Energie- und KlimaPolitik - Beratung, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The most recent amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG), enacted in August 2014, was the first to set limits to the further expansion of renewable energy. However, the continued growth of production capacity from onshore wind and photovoltaic energy would actually only have a low impact on the level of the EEG surcharge. The costs that would be incurred instead through the installation of new natural gas power stations are practically the same. If production capacities from onshore wind and photovoltaic plants grow faster than envisaged by the EEG, it will bring the federal government faster towards its goal of lowering the average remuneration to below 12 cents per kWh.

  19. Wind power generation plant installed on cargo ship and marine resources recovery by seawater electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murahara, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)]|[Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Seki, K. [Mingdao Univ., Taiwan (China)]|[Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Research Inst. of Science and Technology

    2008-07-01

    Transmission loss from offshore wind turbine arrays is directly proportional to the length of the cable that brings power onshore. In order to minimize transmission loss, wind-generated electricity needs to be stored temporarily in a different form. Seawater, rock salt, and water of saline lakes can be desalinated and then electrolyzed to produce hydrogen. This paper presented a new method of offshore sodium production in Japan by seawater electrolysis. In this technique, sodium is manufactured on site by molten-salt electrolysis as a solid fuel. Sodium is electrolytically collected from the seawater or rock salt by the wind power generation. The sodium is then transported to a hydrogen power plant on land and then is added water to generate hydrogen for operating a hydrogen combustion turbine. The sodium hydroxide by-product is then supplied to the soda industry as a raw material. In seawater electrolysis, not only sodium but also fresh water, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium hydroxide, chlorine, oxygen, hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid are isolated and recovered as by-products. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Baseline avian use and behavior at the CARES wind plant site, Klickitat County, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, W.P.; Johnson, G.D.; Strickland, M.D.; Kronner, K.; Becker, P.S.; Orloff, S.

    2000-01-03

    This report presents a literature review on avian-wind turbine interactions and the results of a one-year avian baseline study conducted in 1998 at the proposed Conservation and Renewable Energy System (CARES) wind development site in Klickitat County, Washington. Avian use of the site ranged from 1.11/survey in the winter to 5.69/survey in the spring. Average use by passerines in the study plots ranged from 1.15 minutes/survey in the winter to 40.98 minutes/survey in the spring. Raptors spent much less time within plots than other groups, ranging from 0.05 minutes/survey in the winter to 0.77 minutes/survey during the fall. Thirteen percent of all flying birds were within the rotor-swept height (25 to 75 m); 41.6% of all raptors were flying at this height. Raptors with the greatest potential turbine exposure are red-tailed hawks and golden eagles. Passerines with the highest turbine exposure are common ravens, American robins, and horned larks. Spatial use data for the site indicate that avian use tends to be concentrated near the rim, indicating that placing turbines away from the rim may reduce risk. Avian use data at the CARES site indicate that if a wind plant is constructed in the future, avian mortality would likely be relatively low.

  1. Baseline avian use and behavior at the CARES wind plant site, Klickitat County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.P.; Johnson, G.D.; Strickland, M.D.; Kronner, K.; Becker, P.S.; Orloff, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a literature review on avian-wind turbine interactions and the results of a one-year avian baseline study conducted in 1998 at the proposed Conservation and Renewable Energy System (CARES) wind development site in Klickitat County, Washington. Avian use of the site ranged from 1.11/survey in the winter to 5.69/survey in the spring. Average use by passerines in the study plots ranged from 1.15 minutes/survey in the winter to 40.98 minutes/survey in the spring. Raptors spent much less time within plots than other groups, ranging from 0.05 minutes/survey in the winter to 0.77 minutes/survey during the fall. Thirteen percent of all flying birds were within the rotor-swept height (25 to 75 m); 41.6% of all raptors were flying at this height. Raptors with the greatest potential turbine exposure are red-tailed hawks and golden eagles. Passerines with the highest turbine exposure are common ravens, American robins, and horned larks. Spatial use data for the site indicate that avian use tends to be concentrated near the rim, indicating that placing turbines away from the rim may reduce risk. Avian use data at the CARES site indicate that if a wind plant is constructed in the future, avian mortality would likely be relatively low

  2. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. J.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-08

    Because wind power penetration levels in electric power systems are continuously increasing, voltage stability is a critical issue for maintaining power system security and operation. The traditional methods to analyze voltage stability can be classified into two categories: dynamic and steady-state. Dynamic analysis relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations; however, this method needs to exhaust faults at all locations to find the security region for voltage at a single bus. With the widely located phasor measurement units (PMUs), the Thevenin equivalent matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. This paper proposes a method based on a Thevenin equivalent matrix to identify system locations that will have the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plant’s point of interconnection. The number of dynamic voltage stability analysis runs is greatly reduced by using the proposed method. The numerical results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed approach for voltage security assessment for a wind power plant.

  3. Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taljan, Gregor; Fowler, Michael; Canizares, Claudio; Verbic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    A novel methodology for the economic evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new aspects such as residual heat and oxygen utilization is applied in this work. This analysis is completed in the context of a hydrogen economy and competitive electricity markets. The simulation of the operation of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity, the selling of excess hydrogen and oxygen, and the selling of heat are optimized to maximize profit to the energy producer. The simulation is performed in two phases: in a pre-dispatch phase, the system model is optimized to obtain optimal hydrogen charge levels for the given operational horizons. In the second phase, a real-time dispatch is carried out on an hourly basis to optimize the operation of the system as to maximize profits, following the hydrogen storage levels of the pre-dispatch phase. Based on the operation planning and dispatch results, an economic evaluation is performed to determine the feasibility of the proposed scheme for investment purposes; this evaluation is based on calculations of modified internal rates of return and net present values for a realistic scenario. The results of the present studies demonstrate the feasibility of a hydrogen storage and production system with oxygen and heat utilization for existent nuclear and wind power generation facilities. (author)

  4. Patch colonization by Trirhabda canadensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): effects of plant species composition and wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, P A; Tonkyn, D W; Goldburg, R J

    1989-10-01

    The goldenrod leaf beetle, Trirhabda canadensis, is known to respond to odors of host and non-host species in the laboratory. Here we report movements of T. canadensis in the field in response to volatile odors from monocultures and polycultures of host plants. Overall, beetles preferentially colonized plots with a higher density of host plants and lower diversity of allelochemicals, but under some wind conditions there were marked exceptions. At high windspeeds, they colonized whichever plot(s) was upwind. At low windspeeds, beetles colonized preferred plots even when they were not upwind. The data suggest that odor dispersion varies in a complex way with windspeed: at low windspeeds beetles received information from a wide are of vegetation and made choices while at high windspeeds information was available only from upwind plot(s).

  5. Dynamic vibration measurements at the fundaments of wind power plants to reduce the expenses during maintenance; Dynamische Schwingungsmessungen an WEA-Fundamenten zur Kostenreduzierung bei der Instandhaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deininger, Klaus [KTW Umweltschutztechnik GmbH, Mellingen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on dynamic vibration measurements at the foundations of wind power plants. Typical damages at these foundations as well as various options of sealing are described. The author recommends the installation of condition monitoring systems which punctually display critical states of wind power plants using the global positioning system or direct involvement in the entire data of the wind power plant.

  6. Operational Strategies for a Portfolio of Wind Farms and CHP Plants in a Two-Price Balancing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmers, Anna; Zugno, Marco; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the portfolio effect of a system consisting of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and a wind farm. The goal is to increase the overall profit of the portfolio by reducing imbalances, and consequently their implicit penalty in a two-price balancing market for electricity......-horizon fashion, so that forecasts for heat demand, wind power production and market prices are updated at each iteration. We conclude that the portfolio strategy is the most profitable due to the two-price structure of the balancing market. This encourages producers to handle their imbalances outside the market........ We investigate two different operational strategies, which differ in whether the CHP plant and the wind farm are operated jointly or independently, and we evaluate their economic performance on a real case study based on a CHP-wind system located in the western part of Denmark. We present...

  7. Application of a Dynamic Fuzzy Search Algorithm to Determine Optimal Wind Plant Sizes and Locations in Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M. R.; Factor, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates a method for choosing the optimal mix of wind capacity at several geographically dispersed locations. The method is based on a dynamic fuzzy search algorithm that can be applied to different optimization targets. We illustrate the method using two objective functions for the optimization: maximum economic benefit and maximum reliability. We also illustrate the sensitivity of the fuzzy economic benefit solutions to small perturbations of the capacity selections at each wind site. We find that small changes in site capacity and/or location have small effects on the economic benefit provided by wind power plants. We use electric load and generator data from Iowa, along with high-quality wind-speed data collected by the Iowa Wind Energy Institute

  8. Application of a Dynamic Fuzzy Search Algorithm to Determine Optimal Wind Plant Sizes and Locations in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M. R., National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Factor, T., Iowa Wind Energy Institute

    2001-09-21

    This paper illustrates a method for choosing the optimal mix of wind capacity at several geographically dispersed locations. The method is based on a dynamic fuzzy search algorithm that can be applied to different optimization targets. We illustrate the method using two objective functions for the optimization: maximum economic benefit and maximum reliability. We also illustrate the sensitivity of the fuzzy economic benefit solutions to small perturbations of the capacity selections at each wind site. We find that small changes in site capacity and/or location have small effects on the economic benefit provided by wind power plants. We use electric load and generator data from Iowa, along with high-quality wind-speed data collected by the Iowa Wind Energy Institute.

  9. Power-Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) Test of VSC-based HVDC connection for Offshore Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test for an offshore wind power plant (WPP) interconnected to the onshore grid by a VSC-based HVDC connection. The intention of the PHIL test is to verify the control coordination between the plant side converter of the HVDC connection...... the successful control coordination between the WPP and the plant side VSC converter of the HVDC connection of the WPP....

  10. Conceptual evaluation of hybrid energy system comprising wind-biomass-nuclear plants for load balancing and for production of renewable synthetic transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Shropshire, David; Cherry, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Future energy systems will increasingly need to integrate variable renewable energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power production. Addressing this trend the present paper studies how a hybrid energy systems comprising aggregated wind farms, a biomass processing plant, and a nuclear cogeneration plant could support high renewable energy penetration. The hybrid energy system operates so that its electrical output tends to meet demand. This is achieved mainly through altering the heat-to-power ratio of the nuclear reactor and by using excess electricity for hydrogen production through electrolysis. Hybrid energy systems with biomass treatment processes, i.e. drying, torrefaction, pyrolysis and synthetic fuel production were evaluated. It was shown that the studied hybrid energy system comprising a 1 GWe wind farm and a 347 MWe nuclear reactor could closely follow the power demand profile with a standard deviation of 34 MWe. In addition, on average 600 m"3 of bio-gasoline and 750 m"3 bio-diesel are produced daily. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 4.4 MtCO_2eq annually compared to power generation and transport using conventional fossil fuel sources. (author)

  11. Steady-state analysis of a conceptual offshore wind turbine driven electricity and thermocline energy extraction plant

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Daniel; Sant, Tonio

    2014-01-01

    A system for using offshore wind energy to generate electricity and simultaneously extract thermal energy is proposed. This concept is based on an offshore wind turbine driven hydraulic pump supplying deep seawater under high pressure to a land based plant consisting of a hydroelectric power generation unit and heat exchanger. A steady-state system model is developed using empirical formulae. The mathematical model comprises the fundamental system sub-models that are categoris...

  12. WEP. A wind energy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, H.V.

    1991-11-01

    The report describes the Wind Energy Planning system (WEP). It is intended as a decision support system to be used in the economic evaluation of wind energy projects. Such projects could be minor projects with only a single wind turbine or large wind farm projects consisting of several wind turbine plants. In the WEP system, a wind turbine is described by data on initial investment, possible later reinvestments, O and M costs, expected yearly production, life time, and capacity factor. The raising of loans are modelled, too. Depending on which output report is created, the value of the wind generated electricity is calculated in two different ways: either the electricity is assumed to be sold at a price (time series) given by the user, or the alternative conventional power production is modelled by its specific investment, O and M costs, life time, effectivity, fuel mix, and time series for fuel prices. Using these data, capacity credit and saved fuel and O and M costs are calculated. Due to the flexible data structure of the model, the user can easily create a scenario that models a large scale introduction of wind power. In such a scenario the gradual build up through several years of the wind power capacity can be modelled. The report describes in detail the menu structure, the input facilities, the output reports, and the organization of data. Also included is an example with full input documentation and output reports. (au)

  13. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  14. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  15. Repowering of wind farms - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivedh, B.S. [Quality Engineering and Software Technologies, Bangalore (India); Devi, R.P.K. [College of Engineering. Power Systems Engineering, Guindy (India); Sreevalsan, E. [Gamesa Wind Turbines India Private Limited, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to devise a method for assessing the repowering potential and to improve the energy output from the wind farms and also to understand the impact on the power quality due to repowering. With repowering, the first-generation wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. To carry-out the study an old wind farm located at Kayathar, Tamilnadu is selected. The wind farm was commissioned in 1990's with a capacity of 7.35MW, which consists of 36 Wind Turbines each with the capacity of 200kW and 225kW. The present annual energy generation of the wind farm is 7350MWhr with the plant load factor of 11.41%. The intent of this study is to predict the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering using WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis Application Program). Further this study analyses the power quality issues of the various Wind Turbines. In addition, the main feeder, in which the wind farm which is taken for the study also modeled and the impact on power quality due to repowering also studied. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB. The results are analyzed to understand the significance of repowering to overcome the energy crisis of the nation since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines. The following are the observations and conclusions from the above study. Plant load factor (PLF) increased to 24 %, Energy yield increased to more than 4 times and the capacity of the wind farm became double. And in the view of power quality, comparing to the existing Feeder, Repowered Feeder having less reactive power consumption, voltage variations and flickers except the harmonic distortion. (Author)

  16. Utilisation of real-scale renewable energy test facility for validation of generic wind turbine and wind power plant controller models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an example of application of a modern test facility conceived for experiments regarding the integration of renewable energy in the power system. The capabilities of the test facility are used to validate dynamic simulation models of wind power plants and their controllers....... The models are based on standard and generic blocks. The successful validation of events related to the control of active power (control phenomena in...

  17. Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Plants on the Soil Mechanical Behaviour of Sandy Seafloors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Nina; Lambers-Huesmann, Maria; Zeiler, Manfred; Zoellner, Christian; Kopf, Achim

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, wind energy has become an important renewable energy source. Especially, the installation of offshore windfarms offers additional space and higher average wind speeds than the well-established windfarms onshore. Certainly, the construction of offshore wind turbines has an impact on the environment. In the framework of the Research at Alpha VEntus (RAVE) project in the German offshore wind energy farm Alpha Ventus (north of the island Borkum in water depths of about 30 m) a research plan to investigate the environmental impact had been put into place. An ongoing study focuses on the changes in soil mechanics of the seafloor close to the foundations and the development of scour. Here, we present results of the first geotechnical investigations after construction of the plants (ca. 1 - 6 months) compared to geotechnical measurements prior to construction. To study the soil mechanical behaviour of the sand, sediment samples from about thirty different positions were measured in the laboratory to deliver, e.g., grain size (0.063 - 0.3 mm), friction angles (~ 32°), unit weight (~ 19.9 kN/m³) and void ratios (~ 0.81). For acoustic visualisation, side-scan-sonar (towed and stationary) and multibeam-echosounders (hull mounted) were used. Data show a flat, homogenous seafloor prior to windmill erection, and scouring effects at and in the vicinity of the foundations afterwards. Geotechnical in-situ measurements were carried out using a standard dynamic Cone Penetration Testing lance covering the whole windfarm area excluding areas in a radius free-fall penetrometer Nimrod was deployed at the same spots, and furthermore, in the areas close to the tripod foundations (down to a distance of ~ 5 m from the central pile). Before construction, CPT as well as Nimrod deployments confirm a flat, homogenous sandy area with tip resistance values ranging from 1200 - 1600 kPa (CPT with a mass of ~ 100 kg and an impact velocity of ~ 1 m/s) and quasi-static bearing

  18. Modeling of Turbine Cycles Using a Neuro-Fuzzy Based Approach to Predict Turbine-Generator Output for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea-Kuang Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the very complex sets of component systems, interrelated thermodynamic processes and seasonal change in operating conditions, it is relatively difficult to find an accurate model for turbine cycle of nuclear power plants (NPPs. This paper deals with the modeling of turbine cycles to predict turbine-generator output using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for Unit 1 of the Kuosheng NPP in Taiwan. Plant operation data obtained from Kuosheng NPP between 2006 and 2011 were verified using a linear regression model with a 95% confidence interval. The key parameters of turbine cycle, including turbine throttle pressure, condenser backpressure, feedwater flow rate and final feedwater temperature are selected as inputs for the ANFIS based turbine cycle model. In addition, a thermodynamic turbine cycle model was developed using the commercial software PEPSE® to compare the performance of the ANFIS based turbine cycle model. The results show that the proposed ANFIS based turbine cycle model is capable of accurately estimating turbine-generator output and providing more reliable results than the PEPSE® based turbine cycle models. Moreover, test results show that the ANFIS performed better than the artificial neural network (ANN, which has also being tried to model the turbine cycle. The effectiveness of the proposed neuro-fuzzy based turbine cycle model was demonstrated using the actual operating data of Kuosheng NPP. Furthermore, the results also provide an alternative approach to evaluate the thermal performance of nuclear power plants.

  19. Unit for wind power plants and water power. Aggregat fuer Windkraftanlagen und Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armonies, H.; Armonies, G.

    1983-01-13

    The invention concerns the manufacture and process of kinetic thermal units for wind power plants and water power. It is characterized by the fact that the supporting frame of the unit is made so that it carries the unit shaft bearing and also a fixed flange for a hollow body, pump part, unit shaft pushback device and thermal insulation. The unit shaft running in bearings is made so that it can rotate in the two bearings or a double bearing and can also slide between 2 flanges on the unit shaft in the longitudinal direction of the bearings. The end of the unit shaft projecting beyond the supporting frame is made so that the wind blades, rotors or water turbines can be connected to it by flanges. The rotor shaft can be pressed against a hollow body carrying a liquid by a friction disc. A heat resistant liquid pump is also situated on the supporting frame. It is driven by the unit shaft. (HWJ).

  20. Coordinated control for low voltage ride-through of a PMSG-based wind power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khagendra Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generators should be kept connected to a power grid, while supporting the voltage recovery in the case of a grid fault to meet low voltage ride-through requirement in some grid codes. This paper proposes a coordinated control scheme that prevents the increase in the DC-link voltage by reducing the active power in the machine side converter of permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs in proportion to the voltage dip at the terminal of PMSGs. The proposed scheme changes the current priorities from the active current to the reactive current to inject more reactive power for a severe fault depending on the voltage dip. In addition, the grid-side converter operates in a voltage control mode with the slope, which is the ratio of reactive current capability to the voltage tolerance around a rated value. Moreover, during the fault, the slope is changed depending on the voltage dip to inject more reactive current. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated for a wind power plant consisting of 20 units of 5-MW PMSGs using an EMTP-RV simulator. The results demonstrate that the scheme enables the PMSGs not only to survive during the fault, but also to provide a dynamic reactive power support.

  1. Using radar wind profilers and RASS data to calculate power plant plume rise and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Y.J.; Gaynor, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    As the number of 915-MHz radar wind profilers and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS) increases, their number of uses also increases. These systems have demonstrated particular utility in air quality studies and, more specifically, in complex terrain. One data set from the radar profilers that has not, to date, been utilized to any large extent is represented by the temperature profiles derived from the RASS. Normally, these profiles represent a 5-min average every hour with a height resolution of about 60 m, a minimum range of about 100 m, and a maximum range of about 1.5 km, although this varies substantially with meterological conditions. Such profiles have several potential applications. Among them are determinations of mixing height and stability. In this work, we use the stability, along with the hour-averaged wind profiles, to estimate plume rise heights at a power plant site in Laughlin, Nevada, about 200 km south of Lake Mead. The profiles are first stratified according to season and synoptic categories so that the calculated plume rise heights could be separated by background transport conditions. The data were taken during Project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE), which took place in 1992. This project is briefly discussed in the next section, along with the instrumentation and data used in this study

  2. Using radar wind profilers and RASS data to calculate power plant plume rise and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Y.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gaynor, J.E. [NOAA/ERL Wave Propagation Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As the number of 915-MHz radar wind profilers and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS) increases, their number of uses also increases. These systems have demonstrated particular utility in air quality studies and, more specifically, in complex terrain. One data set from the radar profilers that has not, to date, been utilized to any large extent is represented by the temperature profiles derived from the RASS. Normally, these profiles represent a 5-min average every hour with a height resolution of about 60 m, a minimum range of about 100 m, and a maximum range of about 1.5 km, although this varies substantially with meterological conditions. Such profiles have several potential applications. Among them are determinations of mixing height and stability. In this work, we use the stability, along with the hour-averaged wind profiles, to estimate plume rise heights at a power plant site in Laughlin, Nevada, about 200 km south of Lake Mead. The profiles are first stratified according to season and synoptic categories so that the calculated plume rise heights could be separated by background transport conditions. The data were taken during Project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE), which took place in 1992. This project is briefly discussed in the next section, along with the instrumentation and data used in this study.

  3. Control and Protection of Wind Power Plants with VSC-HVDC Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    oscillations, and hence, lower dc voltage overshoots in the VSC-HVDC system. On the protection side, the coordination of over-current relays has been analysed in the new environment. A simple yet reliable scheme utilizing the well-known over-current relay characteristics has been presented for the detection...... grid frequency from the onshore grid frequency. Three different methods have been evaluated here for relaying the onshore grid frequency to the offshore grid, such that the wind power plant can participate in the grid frequency control. One of the schemes does not involve communication, while the other...... of faults and the determination of faulted feeder in the offshore grid. It is demonstrated that the communication capability of modern relays can help avoid the potential cases of over-reach. The test system is modelled for real time simulation in RSCAD/RTDS platform, such that the physical relays could...

  4. Method for analysing the adequacy of electric power systems with wind power plants and energy storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzhabinsky Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are actively introduced into electric power systems. We developed method to analyze the adequacy of these electric power systems. The method takes into account the uncertainty of electricity generation by wind power plants and the processes of energy storage. The method is based on the Monte Carlo method and allowed to use of long-term meteorological data in open access. The performed experimental research of electrical power system is constructed on the basis of the real technical and meteorological data. The method allows to estimate of effectiveness of introducing generators based on renewable energy sources and energy storages in electric power systems.

  5. Coordinated system services from offshore wind power plants connected through HVDC networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Glasdam, Jakob; Hesselbæk, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system services in networks involving multiple onshore power systems, a voltage sourced converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) offshore network and an offshore wind power plant (OWPP). A comprehensive list of services regarding onshore...... as well as offshore network operation – both AC and DC – will be discussed from a state of the art perspective. Among them, the most interesting have been selected and will be treated in more detail and the main contribution of this paper will be to shed light on the most relevant aspects related...... to their implementation. For example, new findings on onshore AC voltage control are reported, that help the characterisation of potential AC voltage control that a VSC-HVDC station may offer to an onshore AC grid. The HVDC system behind the VSC-HVDC station may connect, through other converters, to another AC power...

  6. Control System interaction in the VSC-HVDC Grid Connected Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the source of the instability has been identified and mitigation methods have been designed and implemented. This procedure is not straightforward and can have a long lead time. The harmonic instability can have severe economic consequences for the OWPP owner due to the large investment. Harmonic stability...... the procedure of the stability study and its application for the HVDC grid connected OWPPs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the harmonic instability phenomena in HVDC grid connected OWPPs using both frequency and time domain simulations. A good correlation at lower frequencies between the two......Conventional offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) are due to the combination of the extensive sub-marine cabling and possible low available short-circuit power at the point of common connection (PCC) susceptible to the harmonic instability phenomena. The instability is caused by the resonances...

  7. Intra-Minute Cloud Passing Forecasting Based on a Low Cost IoT Sensor—A Solution for Smoothing the Output Power of PV Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukič, Primož; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2017-01-01

    Clouds moving at a high speed in front of the Sun can cause step changes in the output power of photovoltaic (PV) power plants, which can lead to voltage fluctuations and stability problems in the connected electricity networks. These effects can be reduced effectively by proper short-term cloud passing forecasting and suitable PV power plant output power control. This paper proposes a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT)-based solution for intra-minute cloud passing forecasting. The hardware consists of a Raspberry PI Model B 3 with a WiFi connection and an OmniVision OV5647 sensor with a mounted wide-angle lens, a circular polarizing (CPL) filter and a natural density (ND) filter. The completely new algorithm for cloud passing forecasting uses the green and blue colors in the photo to determine the position of the Sun, to recognize the clouds, and to predict their movement. The image processing is performed in several stages, considering selectively only a small part of the photo relevant to the movement of the clouds in the vicinity of the Sun in the next minute. The proposed algorithm is compact, fast and suitable for implementation on low cost processors with low computation power. The speed of the cloud parts closest to the Sun is used to predict when the clouds will cover the Sun. WiFi communication is used to transmit this data to the PV power plant control system in order to decrease the output power slowly and smoothly. PMID:28505078

  8. Optimal Power Flow Modelling and Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Grids with Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop renewables based energy systems, the installation of the offshore wind power plants (WPPs) is globally encouraged. However, wind power generation is intermittent and uncertain. An accurate modelling and evaluation reduces investment and provide better operation. Hence......, the wind power production level also plays a major role in a hybrid system on transmission loss evaluation. The developed model is tested in Low, Medium and High wind power production levels to determine the objective function of the OPF solution. MATLAB Optimization Toolbox and MATLAB script are used......, it is essential to develop a suitable model and apply optimization algorithms for different application scenarios. The objective of this work is to develop a generalized model and evaluate the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions in a hybrid AC/DC system including HVDC (LCC based) and offshore WPP (VSC based...

  9. Control of VSC-HVDC in offshore AC islands with wind power plants: Comparison of two alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Hesselbæk, Bo; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the control of offshore AC collection and export networks behind a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current transmission system. The inertia-less nature of such grids makes the control of voltages and power flows potentially more flexible......, but at the same time more prone to instabilities. Focus in this paper is on a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current connected wind power plant. Two state-of-art controllers for the offshore high voltage direct current converter station are compared, both at no-load and when wind turbine...... converters are producing power and controlled with usual vector current control. Sensitivity analyses help identify critical factors influencing stability. The influence of lumping the wind power plant into one converter is assessed by comparison with the full model. The conclusions identify the preferred...

  10. Wind power development field test project at Ebetsu plant of Oji Paper Co., Ltd. Close survey on wind conditions; Oji seishi Ebetsu kojo ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A survey was made on wind conditions at the Ebetsu plant of Oji Paper Co., Ltd., on the assumption that a demonstrative equipment of a wind power generation system was installed in the plant. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average wind velocity was 3.2 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 34 m/s, and the prevailing wind direction was SSE (25.6%), while the total occurrence probability on the wind axis with NW-SE as the main axis was 62.9%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.28 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.25 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 37-59% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  11. Operation behaviour and vibration behaviour of the powertrain of wind power plants; Betriebs- und Schwingungsverhalten des Triebstranges von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Thomas [AZT Risk and Technology GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Wind power plants are exposed to high-dynamic loads by the irregular flow of the rotor. Thereby, the low-frequency oscillations of the powertrain as well as the building partly result in harmful additional loads on the components. The author of the contribution under consideration presents selected examples of the operational behaviour and vibration behaviour, and describes the exciter mechanisms.

  12. Fault ride-through requirements for onshore wind power plants in Europe: the needs of the power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.C.; Meer, van der A.A.; Rawn, B.G.; Hendriks, R.L.; Ciupuliga, A.R.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind power plants show different behavior than conventional (synchronous) generators. As the traditional power systems mainly consisted of centralized generation by synchronous machines feeding passive loads, it was well-understood how the system reacted in normal operation as well as during

  13. The effect of FRT behavior of VSC-HVDC-connected offshore wind power plants on AC/DC system dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, A.A.; Ndreko, M.; Gibescu, M.; van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Future power systems will contain more converter-based generation, among which are the voltage-source converter-high-voltage direct-current (VSC-HVDC)-connected offshore wind power plants (WPP). Their interaction with the onshore system influences power system dynamics in the transient stability

  14. A new sensor for detection of coolant leakage in nuclear power plants using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin; Kim, Taek-Soo; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Jeong, Do-Young

    2012-01-01

    A new sensor based on laser absorption spectroscopy was developed for the detection of coolant leakage which may happen in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). Off-axis integrated output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) technique was adopted for developing a simple and robust sensor with sufficient sensitivity. Leak events could be monitored by detecting a small change in semi-heavy water (HDO) concentration induced by the exchange reaction of leaked heavy water (D 2 O) with light water (H 2 O). From the results of feasibility tests, we have shown that the measured area of absorption features was linearly correlated with HDO concentration, and the minimum detectable change of HDO concentration with the developed sensor was evaluated as 3.2 ppm. This new sensor is expected to be a reliable and promising device for the detection of coolant leakage since it has some advantages on real-time monitoring and early detection for nuclear safety.

  15. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  16. Concept of electric power output control system for atomic power generation plant utilizing cool energy of stored snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Seiji; Toita, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A concept of the SEAGUL system (Snow Enhancing Atomic-power Generation UtiLity) is proposed in this paper. Lowering the temperature of sea water for cooling of atomic-power plant will make a efficiency of power generation better and bring several ten MW additional electric power for 1356 MW class plant. The system concept stands an idea to use huge amount of seasonal storage snow for cooling water temperature control. In a case study for the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, it is estimated to cool down the sea water of 29degC to 20degC by 80 kt snow for 3 hours in a day would brought 60 MWh electric power per a day. Annually 38.4 Mt of stored snow will bring 1800 MWh electric power. (author)

  17. A Refined Teaching-Learning Based Optimization Algorithm for Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Integrated Multiple Fuel and Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari Krishnasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch problem (DEDP for a multiple fuel power plant is a nonlinear and nonsmooth optimization problem when valve-point effects, multifuel effects, and ramp-rate limits are considered. Additionally wind energy is also integrated with the DEDP to supply the load for effective utilization of the renewable energy. Since the wind power may not be predicted, a radial basis function network (RBFN is presented to forecast a one-hour-ahead wind power to plan and ensure a reliable power supply. In this paper, a refined teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO is applied to minimize the overall cost of operation of wind-thermal power system. The TLBO is refined by integrating the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method to fine-tune the better solutions whenever discovered by the former method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid TLBO-SQP method, a standard DEDP and one practical DEDP with wind power forecasted are tested based on the practical information of wind speed. Simulation results validate the proposed methodology which is reasonable by ensuring quality solution throughout the scheduling horizon for secure operation of the system.

  18. Project 'WINDBANK mittleres Aaretal' - Analysis, Diagnosis and Forecast of Wind Fields around the Nuclear Power Plant Goesgen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, W. K.; Tinguely, M.

    2002-07-01

    An emergency decision support system for accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere providing regional wind field information is presented. This system is based on intensive meteorological field campaigns each lasting 3-4 months in the regions around the Swiss nuclear power plants. The wind data from temporary and permanent stations are analysed to evaluate the typical wind field patterns occurring in these regions. A cluster analysis for these data-sets lead to 12 different wind field classes with a high separation quality. In the present report, it is demonstrated that an on-line acquisition of meteorological data from existing permanent stations is enough to diagnose the recent wind field class in a region with a radius of 25 km around the nuclear power station of Goesgen with a probability of 95% to hit the correct class. Furthermore, a method is presented to use a high resolution weather prediction model to forecast the future wind field classes. An average probability of 76% to hit the correct class for a forecast time of 24 hours is evaluated. Finally, a method for parameterization of turbulence providing input for dispersion models from standard meteorological online data is presented. (author)

  19. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A multicriteria approach to evaluate wind energy plants on an Italian island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, Fausto; Ciraolo, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The decision-making process regarding the choice of alternative energy is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels--economic, technical, environmental, and social. In this respect multicriteria analysis appears to be the most appropriate tool to understand all the different perspectives involved and to support those concerned with the decision making process by creating a set of relationships between the various alternatives. The main aim of this paper is to make a preliminary assessment regarding the feasibility of installing some wind energy turbines in a site on the island of Salina (Aeolian islands-Italy). Thus, a multicriteria method will be applied in order to support the selection and evaluation of one or more of the solutions proposed. Having analysed the local environmental conditions and its energy profile, four wind turbine configurations were postulated as options. These options were then appraised by comparison against a family of criteria and calculations were performed using a multicriteria algorithm to rank the solutions, from the best to worst. The option at the top of the ranking refers to the installation of a plant of 150 kW and this emerged as the right compromise between the costs of realization, local energy requirements and the need to conserve the area and the environment especially in view of the high/medium-bracket tourism business on the island. The sensitivity analysis performed subsequently backed up the findings. As this work demonstrates, multicriteria analysis can provide a valid tool to aid decision making for achieving targets relating to more sustainable green energy

  1. Assessment Studies regarding the Optimal Sizing of Wind Integrated Hybrid Power Plants for Off-Grid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin; Tarnowski, German Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The paper focusses on the optimal sizing of off-grid hybrid power plants including wind power generation. A modular and scalable system topology as well as an optimal sizing algorithm for the HPP has been presented in a previous publication. In this paper, the sizing process is evaluated by means...... of assessment studies. The aim is to address the impact of renewable resource data, the required power supply availability and reactive power load demand on the optimal sizing of wind integrated off-grid HPPs....

  2. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  3. Noise from wind power plants. A study in anticipation of the recommendation from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, Martin

    2006-03-01

    Noise from wind turbines are today treated as industrial noise sources according to the guidelines for external industry noise set by Naturvaardsverket (the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) in RR 1978:5. A praxis has been established with recommended limit 40 dBA equivalent continuous sound pressure level outside dwellings day, evening and night. Naturvaardsverket is planning new guidelines specific for wind turbine noise. A draft was presented at an information meeting 13th May 2005. Special requirements, which in some cases may be far-reaching, are planned for wind turbines. The purpose of this investigation is to illustrate the fairness of the planned requirements. Application of the recommended prediction model for sound propagation above a sea surface in the draft of Naturvaardsverket may lead to serious consequences for the planning of wind power plants near the coast. Research with measurements on sound propagation above water is at present made by the Royal Institute of Technology in Kalmarsund in Sweden. The results of these measurements, which probably will be completed during the spring 2006, should be waited for before a prediction model is recommended. If the model would be valid for sound propagation from wind turbines at sea, there should be some reports on complaint on noise from offshore based wind power plants. We have not been able to locate such complaints in Sweden (Bockstigen), in Denmark (Middelgrunden, Nystedts havmoellepark and Horns rev) or in the Netherlands. For Middelgrund and Nysted, the sound level calculated with Naturvaardsverkets model at 4,5 km and 7 km respectively is around 48 dBA. According to Swedish studies, such a level is annoying to many people. Two methods to set out limits for wind turbine noise are used internationally. In the first an absolute limit for the equivalent continuous sound pressure level is set. In the other, the sound pressure level is related to the background noise level. Naturvaardsverket is

  4. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant.

  5. Measurement-Based Investigation of Inter- and Intra-Area Effects of Wind Power Plant Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Alicia J.; Singh, Mohit; Muljadi, Eduard; Santoso, Surya

    2016-12-01

    This paper has a two pronged objective: the first objective is to analyze the general effects of wind power plant (WPP) integration and the resulting displacement of conventional power plant (CPP) inertia on power system stability and the second is to demonstrate the efficacy of PMU data in power system stability analyses, specifically when knowledge of the network is incomplete. Traditionally modal analysis applies small signal stability analysis based on Eigenvalues and the assumption of complete knowledge of the network and all of its components. The analysis presented here differs because it is a measurement-based investigation and employs simulated measurement data. Even if knowledge of the network were incomplete, this methodology would allow for monitoring and analysis of modes. This allows non-utility entities and study of power system stability. To generate inter- and intra-area modes, Kundur's well-known two-area four-generator system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC. A doubly-fed induction generator based WPP model, based on the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) standard model, is included to analyze the effects of wind power on system modes. The two-area system and WPP are connected in various configurations with respect to WPP placement, CPP inertia and WPP penetration level. Analysis is performed on the data generated by the simulations. For each simulation run, a different configuration is chosen and a large disturbance is applied. The sampling frequency is set to resemble the sampling frequency at which data is available from phasor measurement units (PMUs). The estimate of power spectral density of these signals is made using the Yule-Walker algorithm. The resulting analysis shows that the presence of a WPP does not, of itself, lead to the introduction of new modes. The analysis also shows however that displacement of inertia may lead to introduction of new modes. The effects of location of inertia displacement (i.e. the effects on

  6. Wind Energy and Wildlife Pre- and Post-Construction Project at Pantex Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlack, Raymond S. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2018-01-03

    From 2009-2017, we conducted pre- and post-construction monitoring of wildlife at the Pantex Plant before and after construction of five wind turbines on the plant in 2014-2015. Pre-construction acoustic monitoring for bats was conducted at five sites on Pantex. Acoustic (here after Anabat) files were downloaded 30 times with Anabat files recorded from 6/21/2010 through 1/17/2014. The resulting data include over 3,000,000 files and we hope to analyze them in the future. We were never successful recording acoustic data after 2014 (post-construction). This is despite numerous attempts to trouble shoot our acoustic monitors. Wind damage to cables going from the body of the monitor to their microphones could not be repaired or replaced while towers were standing. Sampling of breeding birds was accomplished through point counts conducted at sites selected for turbine construction and others selected as control sites. Precipitation varied greatly over the course of the study, from a low of 17.81 cm (7.01 inches) during 2011 to a high of 87.96 cm (34.63 inches) during 2015. The pre-construction portion of the project was characterized by fairly extreme drought starting in 2011. Total precipitation for 2011 and 2012 was just 49.12 cm (19.34 inches), less than 50% of the average for a two-year period. The impact of this drought on nesting grassland birds manifest as low nesting species richness and abundance. In 2011 and 2012, 20 and 17 species were documented during point counts, respectively. Post-construction sampling followed the wet year of 2015 (87.96 cm, 34.63 inches). Species richness of nesting birds in 2016 and 2017 was considerably higher than during the drought, 40 and 37 species, respectively. We suspect changes in resource availability associated with relief from drought starting after 2015 was responsible for the recovery/increase in species detected during the breeding season; less importantly any changes from installation of turbines or changes in surface

  7. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  8. A New Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for Offshore AC Grid of HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) which enhances the voltage ride through (VRT) capability of an offshore AC grid comprised of a cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPP) connected through AC cables to the offshore voltage source converter based high voltage DC (VSC......-HVDC) converter station. Due to limited short circuit power contribution from power electronic interfaced variable speed wind generators and with the onshore main grid decoupled by the HVDC link, the offshore AC grid becomes more vulnerable to dynamic voltage events. Therefore, a short circuit fault...... in the offshore AC Grid is likely to have significant implications on the voltage of the offshore AC grid, hence on the power flow to the onshore mainland grid. The proposed CVCS integrates individual local reactive power control of wind turbines and of the HVDC converter with the secondary voltage controller...

  9. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight

  10. Structural inspection and wind analysis of redwood cooling towers at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.; Solack, T.; Hortel, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the plant upgrade program, structural analyses and field inspections were performed on four redwood cooling towers at the DOE Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant located in Piketon, Ohio. The cooling towers are categorized as important hazard facilities. The loadings are derived from UCRL-15910 according to the pertinent hazard category. In addition to the seismic and wind loadings, the wood cooling towers are constantly subject to adverse environmental effects such as elevated temperature, chemical attack, icing and snow load, and motor vibrations. A thorough structural evaluation for all load combinations was performed for each of the cooling towers based on the structural code requirements of the Cooling Tower Institute and National Forest Products Association. Most stress criteria are unique for the redwood material. This evaluation was performed using finite element techniques on the global structural integrity and supplemented by hand calculations on the individual connection joints. Overloaded wood structural members and joints are identified by the analysis. The rectangular tower structure sits on a concrete basin that span across 60 ft by 200 ft. A major part of the cooling towers upgrading program involved field inspections of the individual cells of each tower. The primary purpose of these inspections was to identify any existing structural damage or deficiencies such as failed members, degraded wood, and deficiencies resulting from poor construction practice. Inspection of 40 cells identified some generic deficiencies that mostly are consistent with the analytical finding. Based on the analysis, some effective but inexpensive upgrading techniques were developed and recommended to bring the cooling towers into compliance with current DOE requirements

  11. Equivalent Modeling of DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant Considering Crowbar Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianlong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crowbar conduction has an impact on the transient characteristics of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG in the short-circuit fault condition. But crowbar protection is seldom considered in the aggregation method for equivalent modeling of DFIG-based wind power plants (WPPs. In this paper, the relationship between the growth of postfault rotor current and the amplitude of the terminal voltage dip is studied by analyzing the rotor current characteristics of a DFIG during the fault process. Then, a terminal voltage dip criterion which can identify crowbar conduction is proposed. Considering the different grid connection structures for single DFIG and WPP, the criterion is revised and the crowbar conduction is judged depending on the revised criterion. Furthermore, an aggregation model of the WPP is established based on the division principle of crowbar conduction. Finally, the proposed equivalent WPP is simulated on a DIgSILENT PowerFactory platform and the results are compared with those of the traditional equivalent WPPs and the detailed WPP. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the method for equivalent modeling of DFIG-based WPP when crowbar protection is also taken into account.

  12. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  13. Estimate of airborne release of plutonium from Babcock and Wilcox plant as a result of severe wind hazard and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Ayer, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study to evaluate the potential radiological consequences of wind hazard and earthquake upon existing commercial mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, the potential mass airborne releases of plutonium (source terms) from such events are estimated. The estimated souce terms are based upon the fraction of enclosures damaged to three levels of severity (crush, puncture penetrate, and loss of external filter, in order of decreasing severity), called damage ratio, and the airborne release if all enclosures suffered that level of damage. The discussion of damage scenarios and source terms is divided into wind hazard and earthquake scenarios in order of increasing severity. The largest airborne releases from the building were for cases involving the catastrophic collapse of the roof over the major production areas--wind hazard at 110 mph and earthquakes with peak ground accelerations of 0.20 to 0.29 g. Wind hazards at higher air velocities and earthquakes with higher ground acceleration do not result in significantly greater source terms. The source terms were calculated as additional mass of respirable particles released with time up to 4 days; and, under these assumptions, approximately 98% of the mass of material of concern is made airborne from 2 h to 4 days after the event. The overall building source terms from the damage scenarios evaluated are shown in a table. The contribution of individual areas to the overall building source term is presented in order of increasing severity for wind hazard and earthquake

  14. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Voltage Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    As a common tendency, large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to the transmission system of modern power grids. This introduces some new challenges to the connected power systems, and the transmission system operators (TSOs) have to put some new requirements as part of the grid codes...... on the integration of wind farms. One common requirement to wind farms is the function of system voltage control which can be implemented in the grid-side convertor controller of a variable speed wind turbine. This ancillary voltage control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal...... stability. This paper implements an ancillary voltage control strategy on a direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping ratio values of the dominant oscillation mode within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIg...

  15. DFIG-based offshore wind power plant connected to a single VSC-HVDC operated at variable frequency: Energy yield assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The existence of HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission systems for remote offshore wind power plants allows devising novel wind plant concepts, which do not need to be synchronized with the main AC grid. This paper proposes an OWPP (offshore wind power plant) design based on variable speed wind turbines driven by DFIGs (doubly fed induction generators) with reduced power electronic converters connected to a single VSC-HVDC converter which operates at variable frequency and voltage within the collection grid. It is aimed to evaluate the influence of the power converter size and wind speed variability within the WPP on energy yield efficiency, as well as to develop a coordinated control between the VSC-HVDC converter and the individual back-to-back reduced power converters of each DFIG-based wind turbine in order to provide control capability for the wind power plant at a reduced cost. To maximise wind power generation by the OWPP, an optimum electrical frequency search algorithm for the VSC-HVDC converter is proposed. Both central wind power plant control level and local wind turbine control level are presented and the performance of the system is validated by means of simulations using MATLAB/Simulink ® . - Highlights: • Influence of converter size and wind speed variability on energy capture efficiency. • Coordinated control between a VSC-HVDC and DFIG WTs with reduced power converters. • Static and dynamic analysis of the performance of the implemented control scheme. • Optimal variable frequency operation to maximize WPP generation at a reduced cost

  16. Regime-based supervisory control to reduce power fluctuations from offshore wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Trombe, Pierre-Julien

    2013-01-01

    Wind power fluctuations, especially offshore, can pose challenges in the secure and stable operation of the power system. In modern large offshore wind farms, there are supervisory controls designed to reduce the power fluctuations. Their operation is limited due to the fact that they imply loss...... that consider different wind power regimes to derive control setpoints by using a Markov-Switching AutoRegressive model. We evaluate the performance versus measured data in terms of power ramp characteristics and energy efficiency....

  17. Model for Investigation of Operational Wind Power Plant Regimes with Doubly–Fed Asynchronous Machine in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Mustafayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology for mathematical modeling of power system (its part when jointly operated with wind power plants (stations that contain asynchronous doubly-fed machines used as generators. The essence and advantage of the methodology is that it allows efficiently to mate equations of doubly-fed asynchronous machines, written in the axes that rotate with the machine rotor speed with the equations of external electric power system, written in synchronously rotating axes.

  18. Evaluation of numerical flow and dispersion simulations for street canyons with avenue-like tree planting by comparison with wind tunnel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Buccolieri, R.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2008-01-01

    Flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-like tree planting have been studied by means of wind tunnel and CFD investigations. The study comprises tree planting of different crown porosity, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building

  19. Power-hardware-in-the-loop test of VSC-HVDC connection for off-shore wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ranjan [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark). Center for Electric Technology; Cha, Seung T.; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Tonny W.; Oestergaard, Jacob [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark). Center for Electric Technology; Jensen, Kim H. [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This paper present a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test of an off-shore wind power plant (WPP) interconnected to the on-shore grid via a VSC-HVDC connection. The intention of the PHIL test is to verify the hardware interaction and the control co-ordination between the plant side VSC of the HVDC system and the wind turbines within the WPP in order to ensure smooth operation of the WPP under both normal and fault operating condition. The PHIL test platform is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS), a Spitzenberger Spies three phase 7,5 kW power amplifier, a purpose built VSC and a DC chopper. The WPP is simulated in the RTDS as a single full-scale wind turbine. The simulated WPP interacts with the WPP side VSC through the power amplifier. The interface between the RTDS and the power amplifier is done via an analogue GTAO I/O card of the RTDS and the input channel of the amplifier. The amplifier scales up the voltages at the point of connection of the WPP in the RTDS to the voltage level for the WPP side VSC. The WPP side VSC converter is equipped with a DC chopper. The test results show the successful control coordination between the WPP and the plant side VSC converter of the HVDC connection of the WPP. (orig.)

  20. Connecting elements for wind power plants with an enhanced vibration resistance; Verbindungselemente fuer Windenergieanlagen mit erhoehter Schwingfestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, Uwe; Braun, Tobias [Peiner Umformtechnik GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In wind power plants, large quantities of screws with large dimensions are used. This concerns to steel construction screws according to the regulations DIN EN 14399-4 or DASt 021. These screws are hot-galvanized. The wind power plants are exposed to large stochastic oscillation loads. Therefore, there exist fatigue proof procedures which follow a regulation from the construction sector (DIN EN 1993-1-9) and still are continued to specify in a certification guideline of the Germanic Lloyd. Within the range of mechanical engineering of wind power plants, a strength verification of the screwed joints follows the VDI regulation 2230. The vibration resistance of the screw is an input for the proof of vibration resistance. During the production of screws with an enhanced vibration resistance in the hot-galvanized condition one may dispense with the reducing coefficients for hot-galvanizing due to the technical measures. The use of connecting elements with enhanced vibration resistance enables the dimensioning of ring flange joints with less or smaller screws. This economically can be of advantage, since this positively affects the dimensions of the flange. In the borderline case with enhanced swinging loads the computational proof is enabled yet.

  1. Load reduced control procedure for wind power plants. A holistic survey and experiences from field tests; Lastreduzierende Regelungsverfahren fuer Windenergieanlagen. Ein ganzheitlicher Ueberblick und Erfahrungen aus Feldversuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, M.; Fischer, B.; Duckwitz, D. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The control system of a wind turbine has a large impact on the structural dynamic loads of wind power plants. The contribution under consideration reports on the opportunities for an active reduction of fatigue loads and extreme loads for various mechanical components using the variables pitch angle and generator torque.

  2. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability...... and unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility......, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented to increase...

  3. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  4. Leaf temperature and transpiration of rice plants in relation to short-wave radiation and wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, D.; Haseba, T.

    1984-01-01

    Leaf temperature and transpiration amount of rice plants were measured in a steady environment in a laboratory and in field situations. The plants set in Wagner pots were used. Experiments were carried out at the tillering and booting stages, and on the date of maturity. Measured leaf temperatures and transpiration rates were analyzed in connection with incident short-wave radiation on a leaf and wind speed measured simultaneously.Instantaneous supplying and turning-off of steady artificial light caused cyclic changes in leaf temperature and transpiration. Leaf temperature dropped in feeble illumination compared with the steady temperature in the preceeding dark.On the date of maturity, a rice plant leaf was warmer than the air, even in feeble light. Then, the leaf-air temperature difference and transpiration rate showed approximately linear increases with short-wave radiation intensity. On the same date, an increase in wind speed produced a decrease in leaf-air temperature difference, i.e., leaf temperature dropped, and an increase in transpiration rate. The rates of both changes in leaf temperature and transpiration rate were fairly large in a range of wind speed below about 1m/s.For rice plants growing favorably from the tillering stage through the booting stage, the leaves were considerably cooler than the air, even in an intense light and/or solar radiation. The leaf temperature showed the lowest value at short-wave radiations between 0.15 and 0.20ly/min, at above which the leaf temperature rised with an increase in short-wave radiation until it approached the air temperature. Transpiration rate of rice plants increased rapidly with an increase in short-wave radiation ranging below 0.2 or 0.3ly/min, at above which the increase in transpiration rate slowed.The relationships between leaf temperature and/or transpiration rate and wind speed and/or incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) which were obtained experimentally, supported the relationships

  5. Large-scale integration of off-shore wind power and regulation strategies of cogeneration plants in the Danish electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply......The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply...

  6. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  7. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  8. Seismic and wind upgrade of buildings 707A and 779 at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, S.V.; Hom, S.; McGovern, L.J.; Terkun, V.

    1991-01-01

    The structural upgrade of two existing facilities at the US Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant site has recently been completed. Two existing critical buildings were strengthened to enable them to withstand the design basis earthquake (DBE) forces and the design basis wind (DBW) forces without breach of containment. These buildings were constructed in the 1960s, with minimal seismic considerations. Building 707A is a two-story structure of precast concrete elements with cast-in-place topping slabs with 27,000 sq. feet of floor space. Building 779 is a two-story original structure and several additions, with floor space of 64,000 sq. feet. The original structure consists of cast-in-place concrete with masonry infill shear walls. The additions are primarily precast concrete with unreinforced masonry infill walls. The DBE was the maximum credible event with a magnitude of 6.0 occurring 16 miles from the site. The evaluation criteria was generated spectra at bedrock with a horizontal zero period acceleration of 0.14g. Bedrock-to-ground soil amplification factors were used to evaluate the buildings. The buildings were also required to withstand the DBW of 161 mph. Because of constraints associated with working inside, the structural upgrades were mostly confined to exterior work. The modifications utilized the existing roof and floor diaphragms, and primarily consisted of large exterior concrete buttresses and associated steel chords and collectors. A system of steel strongbacks was also used in some locations. Connections between precast elements of Building 707A had to be strengthened for ductility and shear transfer. The significance of this work is the successful implementation of a highly complex and comprehensive design retrofit of two very critical and important facilities, allowing for continued operation and minimal impact, and using practical and overall cost-effective strengthening schemes

  9. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  10. Modelling the economics of combined wind/hydro/diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A model that stimulates the performance and economics of a combined wind/hydro/diesel plant with pumped storage has been developed. It is applied to a hypothetical site to demonstrate how a subset of the cheapest configuration of plant sizes may be identified, illustrating in particular the trade-off between the hydro storage capacity and the wind turbine penetration. It seems that, with the wind and water regimes employed, pumped storage is unlikely to have significant benefits, but may be beneficial in areas without natural inflow, in which case the reservoir is used as a store for excess wind output. (author)

  11. Wind Power Plant Evaluation Naval Auxiliary Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California: Period of Performance 24 September 1999--15 December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; Gulman, P.J.; McKenna, E.

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the wind power benefits and impacts to the San Clement Island wind power system, including energy savings, emissions reduction, system stability, and decreased naval dependence on fossil fuel at the island. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system has been to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen oxide emissions and other pollutants.

  12. The effect of long-distance interconnection on wind power variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay; Jaramillo, Paulina; Katzenstein, Warren

    2012-01-01

    We use time- and frequency-domain techniques to quantify the extent to which long-distance interconnection of wind plants in the United States would reduce the variability of wind power output. Previous work has shown that interconnection of just a few wind plants across moderate distances could greatly reduce the ratio of fast- to slow-ramping generators in the balancing portfolio. We find that interconnection of aggregate regional wind plants would not reduce this ratio further but would reduce variability at all frequencies examined. Further, interconnection of just a few wind plants reduces the average hourly change in power output, but interconnection across regions provides little further reduction. Interconnection also reduces the magnitude of low-probability step changes and doubles firm power output (capacity available at least 92% of the time) compared with a single region. First-order analysis indicates that balancing wind and providing firm power with local natural gas turbines would be more cost-effective than with transmission interconnection. For net load, increased wind capacity would require more balancing resources but in the same proportions by frequency as currently, justifying the practice of treating wind as negative load. (letter)

  13. Transient and Temporary Overvoltages in the Collection and Export Power Grid in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Holbøll, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an ongoing Industrial Ph.D. project “Overvoltages and Protection in Offshore Wind Power Grids”, at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in cooperation with DONG Energy and Siemens Wind Power. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding and......, reactors and wind farm power transformers, and to develop a methodology on how to select appropriate equipment and protection system.......This paper presents an overview of an ongoing Industrial Ph.D. project “Overvoltages and Protection in Offshore Wind Power Grids”, at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in cooperation with DONG Energy and Siemens Wind Power. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding...... and simulation models of the main electrical components in wind farms, based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The main aim of this project is to obtain validated models of wind turbine (WT) converters, WT transformers, submarine cables, vacuum circuit breakers, surge arresters...

  14. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How to improve the design of the electrical system in future wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Bak, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents three topics which are important for better performance of future wind farms. The topics are investigated in three coordinated Ph.D. projects ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Aalborg University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of all projects is to imp...... and wind farm transformers, and to develop a methodology on how to select appropriate equipment for the power system, control system and protection system....... is to improve the understanding of the main electrical components in wind farms, based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of these projects is to obtain validated models of wind turbine (WT) generators, WT converters, WT transformers, submarine cables, circuit breakers...

  16. Parametric Variation for Detailed Model of External Grid in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myagkov, Vladimir; Petersen, Lennart; Laza, Burutxaga

    2014-01-01

    The representation of the external grid impedance is a key element in harmonic studies for offshore wind farms. The external grid impedance is here represented by two different approaches: by a simplified impedance model, based on values for short-circuit power and XR-ratio and by locus diagrams...... for defining a procedure for conducting harmonic studies in wind farms that can be used in commercial project developments....

  17. The interplay between wind turbines and CPH plants and effects on transmission grid requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    The article analyses power flows in the transmission system with scattered load balancing under various climatic conditions with uneven distributions of wind power and uneven temperature and thus CHP conditions in the country.......The article analyses power flows in the transmission system with scattered load balancing under various climatic conditions with uneven distributions of wind power and uneven temperature and thus CHP conditions in the country....

  18. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Frequency Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to modern power grids, the transmission system operators put more requirements as part of the grid codes on the integration of wind farms. System frequency control which is normally provided by conventional synchronous generators becomes a c...... ratio values of the dominant oscillation modes within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0....

  19. Enabling the SMART Wind Power Plant of the Future Through Science-Based Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robinson, Michael C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tusing, Richard [Allegheny Science & Technology Corporation, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-08-22

    This report describes the scientific challenges facing wind energy today and the recent scientific advancements that position the research community to tackle those challenges, as well as the new U.S. Department of Energy applied research program Atmosphere to Electrons that takes an integrated approach to addressing those challenges. It also ties these resulting scientific accomplishments to future technological innovation and quantifies the impact of that collection of innovations on 2030 wind power cost of energy.

  20. Lightning Location System Data from Wind Power Plants Compared to Meteorological Conditions of Warm- and Cold Thunderstorm Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Lopez, Javier; Garolera, Anna Candela

    2016-01-01

    of topography, height above mean sea level (AMSL), and average ground flash density. For three sites, the most severe lightning events have been identified during the warm and cold months whereas the other two locations exhibit severe lightning detections mainly during the warm months. In this work severity......Five years of Lightning Location System (LLS) data from five different wind turbine sites in Europe are analysed. The sites are located in Croatia, Italy, Spain, France and one offshore wind power plant in the North sea. Each location exhibits individual characteristic properties in terms...... of such an episode can vary from tens of minutes to several hours in the case of new storms being continuously developed in the same area. The distance of the charge separating -10◦ C and the ground is usually larger than 3000 meters. This analyse provides information about the different thunderstorm types which...

  1. Life cycle cost analysis of wind power considering stochastic uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-term cost analysis of wind power and compares its competitiveness to non-renewable generating technologies. The analysis considers several important attributes related to wind intermittency that are sometimes ignored in traditional generation planning or LCOE (levelized cost of energy) studies, including the need for more nameplate capacity due to intermittency, hourly fluctuations in wind outputs and cost for reserves. The competitiveness of wind power is assessed by evaluating four scenarios: 1) adding natural gas generating capacity to the power grid; 2) adding coal generating capacity to the power grid; 3) adding wind capacity to the power grid; and, 4) adding wind capacity and energy storage to the power grid where an energy storage device is used to cover wind intermittency. A case study in the state of Michigan is presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed methodology, in which a time horizon from 2010 to 2040 is considered. The results show that wind energy will still be more expensive than natural gas power plants in the next three decades, but will be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. Furthermore, if the costs of carbon emissions and environmental externalities are considered, wind generation will be a competitive option for grid capacity expansion. - Highlights: • The competitiveness of wind power is analyzed via life cycle cost analysis. • Wind intermittency and reserve costs are explicitly considered in the analysis. • Results show that wind is still more expensive than natural gas power plants. • Wind can be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. • Wind will be competitive if costs of carbon emissions are considered

  2. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  3. CFD modelling and wind tunnel validation of airflow through plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endalew, A. Melese; Hertog, M.; Delele, M.A.; Baetens, K.; Persoons, T.; Baelmans, M.; Ramon, H.; Nicolai, B.M.; Verboven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of pesticide application to agricultural fields and the resulting environmental contamination highly depend on atmospheric airflow. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of airflow within plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture was developed to understand the effect of the canopy to airflow. The model average air velocity was validated using experimental results in a wind tunnel with two artificial model trees of 24 cm height. Mean air velocities and their root mean square (RMS) values were measured on a vertical plane upstream and downstream sides of the trees in the tunnel using 2D hotwire anemometer after imposing a uniform air velocity of 10 m s -1 at the inlet. 3D virtual canopy geometries of the artificial trees were modelled and introduced into a computational fluid domain whereby airflow through the trees was simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and k-ε turbulence model. There was good agreement of the average longitudinal velocity, U between the measurements and the simulation results with relative errors less than 2% for upstream and 8% for downstream sides of the trees. The accuracy of the model prediction for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence intensity I was acceptable within the tree height when using a roughness length (y 0 = 0.02 mm) for the surface roughness of the tree branches and by applying a source model in a porous sub-domain created around the trees. The approach was applied for full scale orchard trees in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and was compared with previous approaches and works. The simulation in the ABL was made using two groups of full scale orchard trees; short (h = 3 m) with wider branching and long (h = 4 m) with narrow branching. This comparison showed good qualitative agreements on the vertical profiles of U with small local differences as expected due to the spatial disparities in tree architecture. This work was able to show airflow within and above the

  4. Research on large-scale wind farm modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longfei; Zhang, Baoqun; Gong, Cheng; Jiao, Ran; Shi, Rui; Chi, Zhongjun; Ding, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Due to intermittent and adulatory properties of wind energy, when large-scale wind farm connected to the grid, it will have much impact on the power system, which is different from traditional power plants. Therefore it is necessary to establish an effective wind farm model to simulate and analyze the influence wind farms have on the grid as well as the transient characteristics of the wind turbines when the grid is at fault. However we must first establish an effective WTGs model. As the doubly-fed VSCF wind turbine has become the mainstream wind turbine model currently, this article first investigates the research progress of doubly-fed VSCF wind turbine, and then describes the detailed building process of the model. After that investigating the common wind farm modeling methods and pointing out the problems encountered. As WAMS is widely used in the power system, which makes online parameter identification of the wind farm model based on off-output characteristics of wind farm be possible, with a focus on interpretation of the new idea of identification-based modeling of large wind farms, which can be realized by two concrete methods.

  5. In the way. How nuclear power plants are plugging and thwart wind energy; Im Weg. Wie AKW das Netz verstopfen und die Windkraft ausbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-01-15

    The contribution discusses the complex situation due to the fact that the remaining nuclear power plants in Germany operate with full power and force wind and solar energy plants to reduce their power production resulting in electricity shortages. The situation is bound to political decisions and their interpretation by nuclear operators concerning the nuclear phaseout agreement.

  6. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  7. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao

    2010-10-01

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  8. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao [Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA, Beijing (China)

    2010-10-15

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  9. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Supporting paper: The evolution of the electricity sector and renewable sources in Italy: opportunities and problems for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaderi, Luigi [IEEE Fellow (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This document serves as a supporting paper. Sections include: features of Italian energy and electricity; the evolution of liberalisation; support mechanism for renewables; connection to wind farm transmission network; wind source integration into power system; and, final comments.

  10. Biological/ecological investigations parallel to wind power plant construction and operation. Final report. Biologisch-oekologische Begleituntersuchungen zum Bau und Betrieb von Windkraftanlagen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, M; Clemens, T; Grote, G; Hartmann, G; Hartwig, E; Lammen, C; Vauk-Hentzelt, E

    1990-01-01

    In view of the fact that there is no validated knowledge in Germany on the environmental effects of wind power plant construction and operation, the Norddeutsche Naturschutzakademie was asked by the BMFT to carry out a study in this field. The following problems were investigated: General ecological assessment and ornithological assessment of sites; investigations parallel to plant construction and operation, ecological effects; long-term effects; proposal of landscape conservation measures in regions with wind power plants. The report presents the results of the investigation. (BWI).

  11. La Venta wind power plant, seven months operating experience and growth perspectives; Central eolica La Venta, siete meses de operacion y perspectivas de crecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadena Tovar, Roberto; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-01-01

    The capacity factor achieved for La Venta Wind Power Plant in Oaxaca State, Mexico was 63.8% during its first seven operating months. There is not similar experience around the world for a wind plant. This paper presents performance plant details and its capacity growth perspectives. [Espanol] En la central eolica La Venta, Oaxaca, Mexico se ha obtenido un factor de planta de 63.8% durante sus primeros siete meses de operacion, no existiendo precedente similar en las centrales eolicas actualmente en operacion en el mundo. En este documento se describen detalles de su comportamiento y se efectua un bosquejo general de las posibilidades de crecimiento del proyecto.

  12. Application of over-current relay in offshore wind power plant grid with VSC-HVDC connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Teodorescu, Remus [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rodriguez, Pedro [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kjaer, Philip C. [Vestas Technology R and D, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the setting and coordination of over-current relays in an offshore wind power plant (WPP) grid connected only to the power electronic converters with limited fault current capability. The limited fault current injection capability of the converters has been considered as a hindrance for the relay setting. This characteristic can be utilized to develop a deterministic picture of the radial grid network and then the relays settings could be applied. The relay coordination has been demonstrated through an implementation in the Real Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) platform. The setting of relay parameters based upon maximum nominal currents is explained and the consequences are investigated. (orig.)

  13. An Assessment of Converter Modelling Needs for Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected via VSC-HVDC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Zeni, Lorenzo; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Modular multilevel cascaded converter (MMCC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is technically superior to other technologies, especially in case of connection of offshore wind power plants (OWPPs). Modelling challenges are faced by OWPP developers, who are not acquainted...... with detailed information regarding the internal behaviour of such complex devices. This paper presents an investigation of the modelling requirements of the MMCC HVDC system, based on comparison between simulation results using a detailed HVDC representation in PSCAD/EMTDC and two less detailed models realised...

  14. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  15. Wind turbine power tracking using an improved multimodel quadratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezami, Nadhira; Benhadj Braiek, Naceur; Guillaud, Xavier

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, an improved multimodel optimal quadratic control structure for variable speed, pitch regulated wind turbines (operating at high wind speeds) is proposed in order to integrate high levels of wind power to actively provide a primary reserve for frequency control. On the basis of the nonlinear model of the studied plant, and taking into account the wind speed fluctuations, and the electrical power variation, a multimodel linear description is derived for the wind turbine, and is used for the synthesis of an optimal control law involving a state feedback, an integral action and an output reference model. This new control structure allows a rapid transition of the wind turbine generated power between different desired set values. This electrical power tracking is ensured with a high-performance behavior for all other state variables: turbine and generator rotational speeds and mechanical shaft torque; and smooth and adequate evolution of the control variables. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Neutral Point Current Control on Copper Loss Distribution of Five Phase PM Generators Used in Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement under faulty conditions is one of the main objectives of fault tolerant PM drives. This goal can be achieved by increasing the output power while reducing the losses. Stator copper loss not only directly affects the total efficiency, but also plays an important role in thermal stress generations of iron core. In this paper, the effect of having control on neutral point current is studied on the efficiency of five-phase permanent magnet machines. Open circuit fault is considered for both one and two phases, and the distribution of copper loss along the windings are evaluated in each case. It is shown that only by having access to neutral point, it is possible to generate less stator thermal stress and more mechanical power in five-phase permanent magnet generators. Wind power generation and their applications are kept in mind, and the results are verified via simulations and experimental tests on an outer-rotor type of five-phase PM machine.

  17. Off-shore wind power plant modelling precision and efficiency in electromagnetic transient simulation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaagac, U.; Saad, H.; Mahseredjian, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jensen, S.; Cai, L. [REpower Systems AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The large number of switching elements in the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a challenging problem for modeling the MMC-HVDC systems in electromagnetic transient type (EMT-type) programs. The modeling complexity increases even further when MMC-HVDC systems are used to integrate offshore wind farms (OWFs) with power electronics based wind energy converters, such as doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs). This paper compares the computational performances of various combinations of MMC-HVDC and OWF models. Practical onshore ac fault scenarios are simulated for an OWF composed of DFIG type wind turbines and connected to a practical ac grid through a point-to-point MMC-HVDC system. (orig.)

  18. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  19. Evaluation of a small-scale wind power plant; Utvaerdering av smaaskaligt vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvidsson, Ulf; Hilding, Sten [Elforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the electrical performance of the 20 kW Pitch Wind turbine. The work was originally intended to focus on evaluating the first machine in a series of three, which should be a machine ready for series production. However, the control system of the machine was not tested and verified so instead a large part of the work has been to check that the electrical system and the control system operates as intended and to adjust and suggest improvements. The design includes a self-regulating variable speed wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet generator and a converter.

  20. Equivalent modeling of PMSG-based wind power plants considering LVRT capabilities: electromechanical transients in power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Zhu, Qianlong

    2016-01-01

    Hardware protection and control action are two kinds of low voltage ride-through technical proposals widely used in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). This paper proposes an innovative clustering concept for the equivalent modeling of a PMSG-based wind power plant (WPP), in which the impacts of both the chopper protection and the coordinated control of active and reactive powers are taken into account. First, the post-fault DC link voltage is selected as a concentrated expression of unit parameters, incoming wind and electrical distance to a fault point to reflect the transient characteristics of PMSGs. Next, we provide an effective method for calculating the post-fault DC link voltage based on the pre-fault wind energy and the terminal voltage dip. Third, PMSGs are divided into groups by analyzing the calculated DC link voltages without any clustering algorithm. Finally, PMSGs of the same group are equivalent as one rescaled PMSG to realize the transient equivalent modeling of the PMSG-based WPP. Using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory simulation platform, the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed equivalent model are tested against the traditional equivalent WPP and the detailed WPP. The simulation results show the proposed equivalent model can be used to analyze the offline electromechanical transients in power systems.

  1. Decision Support Tools for Electricity Retailers, Wind Power and CHP Plants Using Probabilistic Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    : trading for a price-maker wind power producer, management of heat and power systems, operation for retailers in a dynamic-price market. A selection of results shows the viability and appropriateness of the presented stochastic optimization approaches for managing energy systems under uncertainty....

  2. Capabilities and costs for ancillary services provision by wind power plants. Deliverable D 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faiella, Mariano; Hennig, Tobias; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    This report is the deliverable of the third work package of the REserviceS project and describes the technical options and related costs for the provision of ancillary services specifically from wind energy technologies. It is focused on the set of ancillary services defined in the previous work...

  3. Network fault response of wind power plants in distribution systems during reverse power flows. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.C.; Gibescu, M.; vd Meijden, M.A.M.M.; Rawn, B.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—The ability of wind power park modules to control their response to transmission network faults allows for specification of new control features directed at stabilising the power system response during and after disturbances. However, the ‘effectiveness’ of these features in situations

  4. Wind power. A success of a plant; Il successo di un impianto eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancaldi, A.

    2000-09-01

    Wind power can have an ideal application in particular in the geographical context. Realization problems and project financing are in this work illustrated. [Italian] L'energia eolica trova ideale applicazione in particolari contesti geografici. Una panoramica dei problemi realizzativi, dal finanziamento alla tipologia di impianto sino ai rapporti con l'utenza in una innovativa realizzazione scozzese.

  5. Analysis of ambient SO2 concentrations and winds in the complex surrounding of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlakar, P.

    2004-01-01

    SO 2 pollution is still a significant problem in Slovenia, especially around large thermal power plants (TPPs), like the one at Sostanj. The Sostanj TPP is the exclusive source of SO 2 in the area and is therefore a perfect example for air pollution studies. In order to understand air pollution around the Sostanj TPP in detail, some analyses of emissions and ambient concentrations of SO 2 at six automated monitoring stations in the surrounding of the TPP were made. The data base from 1991 to 1993 was used when there were no desulfurization plants in operations. Statistical analyses of the influence of the emissions from the three TPP stacks at different measuring points were made. The analyses prove that the smallest stack (100 m) mainly pollutes villages and towns near the TPP within a radius of a few kilometers. The medium stack's (150 m) influence is noticed at shorter as well as at longer distances up to more than ten kilometers. The highest stack (230 m) pollutes mainly at longer distances, where the plume reaches the higher hills. Detailed analyses of ambient SO 2 concentrations were made. They show the temporal and spatial distribution of different classes of SO 2 concentrations from very low to alarming values. These analyses show that pollution patterns at a particular station remain the same if observed on a yearly basis, but can vary very much if observed on a monthly basis, mainly because of different weather patterns. Therefore the winds in the basin (as the most important feature influencing air pollution dispersion) were further analysed in detail to find clusters of similar patterns. For cluster analysis of ground-level winds patterns in the basin around the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, the Kohonen neural network and Leaders' method were used. Furthermore the dependence of ambient SO 2 concentrations on the clusters obtained was analysed. The results proved that effective cluster analysis can be a useful tool for compressing a huge wind data base in

  6. Analysis of ambient SO 2 concentrations and winds in the complex surroundings of a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, P.

    2004-11-01

    SO2 pollution is still a significant problem in Slovenia, especially around large thermal power plants (TPPs), like the one at Šoštanj. The Šoštanj TPP is the exclusive source of SO2 in the area and is therefore a perfect example for air pollution studies. In order to understand air pollution around the Šoštanj TPP in detail, some analyses of emissions and ambient concentrations of SO2 at six automated monitoring stations in the surroundings of the TPP were made. The data base from 1991 to 1993 was used when there were no desulfurisation plants in operation. Statistical analyses of the influence of the emissions from the three TPP stacks at different measuring points were made. The analyses prove that the smallest stack (100 m) mainly pollutes villages and towns near the TPP within a radius of a few kilometres. The medium stack's (150 m) influence is noticed at shorter as well as at longer distances up to more than ten kilometres. The highest stack (230 m) pollutes mainly at longer distances, where the plume reaches the higher hills. Detailed analyses of ambient SO2 concentrations were made. They show the temporal and spatial distribution of different classes of SO2 concentrations from very low to alarming values. These analyses show that pollution patterns at a particular station remain the same if observed on a yearly basis, but can vary very much if observed on a monthly basis, mainly because of different weather patterns. Therefore the winds in the basin (as the most important feature influencing air pollution dispersion) were further analysed in detail to find clusters of similar patterns. For cluster analysis of ground-level winds patterns in the basin around the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant, the Kohonen neural network and Leaders' method were used. Furthermore, the dependence of ambient SO2 concentrations on the clusters obtained was analysed. The results proved that effective cluster analysis can be a useful tool for compressing a huge wind data base

  7. Evaluation of numerical flow and dispersion simulations for street canyons with avenue-like tree planting by comparison with wind tunnel data

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, CB Christof; Buccolieri, R; Sabatino, S Di; Ruck, B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-like tree planting have been studied by means of wind tunnel and CFD investigations. The study comprises tree planting of different crown porosity, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H = 2 and street length to building height ratio L/H = 10 exposed to a perpendicular approaching boundary layer flow. Numerical simulations have been performed with...

  8. The “Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies” Benchmarking Exercise on Short-Term Forecasting of Wind and Solar Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperati, Simone; Alessandrini, Stefano; Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    the power output of two wind farms and two photovoltaic power plants, in order to compare the merits of forecasts based on different modeling approaches and input data. It was thus possible to obtain a better knowledge of the state of the art in both wind and solar power forecasting, with an overview...

  9. Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Scott W.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of electrical energy produced over the lifetime of coal, LWR fission, UP fusion, and wind power plants is compared to the total amount of energy required to procure the fuel, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The energy payback ratio varies from a low of 11 for coal plants to a high of 27 for DT-fusion plants. The magnitude of the energy investment and the source of the various energy inputs determine the CO 2 emission factor. This number varies from a low of 9 to a high of 974 tonnes of CO 2 per GW e h for DT-fusion and coal plants, respectively

  10. Concept for inland wind power plants and wind parks - an example from North-Rhine Westphalia; Rahmenkonzept fuer Windkraftanlagen und -parks im Binnenland - ein Beipiel aus Nordrhein-Westfalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinschmidt, V. [UVP-Forschungsstelle, Fachgebiet Landschaftsoekologie und Landschaftsplanung, Fachbereich Raumplanung, Dortmund Univ. (Germany); Schauerte-Lueke, N. [UVP-Forschungsstelle, Fachgebiet Landschaftsoekologie und Landschaftsplanung, Fachbereich Raumplanung, Dortmund Univ. (Germany); Bergmann, R. [PRO TERRA TEAM Dienstleistungs- und Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnologien GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Because of the increasing number of wind energy plants, environmental protection gets into a conflict of aims. On the one hand the change of the `Stromeinspeisungsgesetz` (law arranging the insertion of privately produced electricity into the public system) and the improved support for wind energy plants is to appreciate for the reasons of a reduction of CO{sub 2} and other harmful substances. But on the other hand wind energy plants have negative environmental effects onto the sites they are built on, as for example disturbances of the birds their breeding nest and feeding habitat, injury or death following collision with a blade or tower or simply disturbances of the landscape view. To avoid possible conflicts and increase the acceptance of wind energy plants, for the district of Soest a concept on a strategic level was developed, in which sites were determined as optimal, restrictional or excluding the construction of wind energy plants. This concept may not only help to avoid conflicts but may also play an active part in the promotion of wind energy plants by defining the sites suitable for wind energy plants and making them public. All in all the procedure of approval was simplified and therefore accelerated with the invention of this concept. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch die zunehmende Anzahl von Windkraftanlagen geraet der Umweltschutz in einen Zielkonflikt. Einerseits ist die Aenderung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes und die verbesserte Foerderung fuer Windkraftanlagen aus Gruenden der CO{sub 2} und Schadstoffemissionseinsparungen sehr zu begruessen. Andererseits haben die Windkraftanlagen direkt an den Aufstellungsorten negative Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt, wie zum Beispiel Stoerung der Voegel in Nahrungs- und Bruthabitaten, Vogelschlag oder Beeintraechtigung des Landschaftsbildes. Um moegliche Konflikte weitgehend zu vermeiden und die Akzeptanz fuer Windkraftanlagen zu erhoehen, wurde fuer den Kreis Soest ein Rahmenkonzept erarbeitet, in dem Gunst-, Restriktions

  11. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  12. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  13. Ice on wind power plants. Detection, frequency, minimizing risk for injuries to humans and production loss; Is paa vindkraftverk. Detektering, utbredning, personskaderiskminimering och produktionsbortfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, Rolf (HoloOptics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    The project had three different objectives:- To calibrate an icing sensor, developed with the support of Vindforsk, according to the amount of ice on the rotor blades.- To determine at which degree of icing measures has to be taken to reduce the risk of public health hazards due to ice throws.- To give a general indication of the performance losses due to icing In the study a coastal shore based turbine (Vestas V44, situated close to Haernoesand in the northern Sweden) was used as the test object, a turbine placed at 176 m above sea level and 4 km away from the open sea. The turbine is also close to an attractive alpine ski-slope. Due to this the plant is closed 2-3 weeks per year to reduce the risk of ice throw. In the study two ice sensors were used, one with automatic de-icing and one without de-icing. The icing signal was sent to the operator and HoloOptics via SMS. The SMS sender was also connected to a temperature sensor. Furthermore, 12 'IceMarkers' were mounted on one of the rotor blades to verify the distribution of ice. To log the output of the turbine a logger was installed. The logger measured the 10 minutes mean power output. Wind-speed, wind-direction and temperatures were available from a mast located at a distance of 400 m to the wind turbine. Study period: March-December 2008 of which, at this location, four month are prone to icing. By the use of the IceMarkers it was found that shortly after the icing began the whole blade was relatively simultaneous covered with, minimum, a thin layer of ice (maybe less than 0,1 mm in thickness). The distribution of ice on the blade was verified by the use of a flash and a camera. However it was found to be difficult to verify at times with fog or precipitation. When temperatures varied around zero C the relation between indication and actual icing was less obvious. Sometimes the blades became/were de-iced without any indication from the corresponding indicator. The indicators themselves, without any

  14. Life cycle management. Condition monitoring of wind power plants; Life-cycle-management. Zustandsueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R. [cmc GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on maintenance strategies and condition monitoring in the field of wind energy. Beside the components in the drive train of wind turbines under consideration, the condition monitoring of the hardware systems and their software is explained. A brief overview of the field of machinery diagnosis and an explanation of the transmission of the measured data follow. Additional sensors such as sensors for the rotor blade monitoring, oil particles counter or oil quality sensors are described. In the field of diagnostic certainty, special follow-up studies such as video endoscopy, analysis of oil or grease, filter testing and material testing are discussed. The information from these thematic fields is used in the life-cycle management database for operationally relevant evaluations and considerations of economy of condition monitoring systems.

  15. Photovoltaic energy conversion and wind power plants creating new jobs; Arbeitsplaetze durch Photovoltaik und Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, G.; Hoffmann, V.U. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Dienhart, H.; Langniss, O.; Nitsch, J. [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Experts are unanimous that opening up new markets through innovative technologies will be the successful strategy for reversing the upward trend of unemployment in Germany. This approach puts renewable energy sources into the foreground, as enhanced use of wind power and photovoltaic energy conversion will no doubt create new jobs. These technologies will, however, require favourable regulatory framework conditions in order to become a significant force in combatting unemployment. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es gilt unter Experten als sicher, dass eine Umkehr am Arbeitsmarkt nur dadurch zu schaffen ist, dass innovative Technologien genutzt und damit neue Maerkte erschlossen werden. Demnach koennte etwa dem Ausbau der regenerativen Energietraeger Wind und Photovoltaik zur Schaffung zukunftssicherer Arbeitsplaetze eine grosse Bedeutung zukommen. Einen ernstzunehmenden Beitrag im Kampf gegen die Arbeitslosigkeit koennen diese Technologien allerdings nur unter bestimmten Rahmenbedingungen leisten. (orig./RHM)

  16. Smooth feeding-in of wind energy via hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Sponholz, C.; Luschtinetz, O.U.T.; Miege, A.; Sandlass, H.

    2006-01-01

    For the northern part of Germany the harvest of wind energy became characteristic. 1,018 GW have been installed by 2004. A higher electricity production with re-powered wind parks on shore and new off shore parks is planned. The estimated production could reach 50 GW by 2020. On the other hand, more than 20 30 % discontinuous electricity related to the demand could bring instabilities of the net. Unfortunately the demand in North-Germany is a relatively small one and the net is weak. There are three possibilities to protect the net: 1. Reconstruction of the net, especially net extension 2. Improvement of the prognosis of wind and electricity consumption as well 3. A net management, which shuts up wind parks during less demand periods Point 2 and 3 are related with the stand by of back-up power, power delivered by conventional power stations or storage power stations (for example storage by water pumping). The proposal is as follows: Wind parks should be connected with a loop from electrolysis, gas storage and reconversion of hydrogen into electricity. In this way a park will be able to feed electricity into the net according to the actual demand and controlled by the demand. Going into detail a wind farm can run according to four scenarios. The first one is the conventional wind park, which causes the problems mentioned above. The electrical energy output follows the natural wind yield and the grid has to be adapted to the wind power feed-in. One solution for a temporal decoupling of wind yield and electricity output is a combination of windmills with a storage loop as shown in scenario II and IV. The system of scenario II de-couples the fluctuating input (wind) and the constant output (electricity). The advantage of this system is that the electrical output is constant and independent of the actual wind speed. For this reason this wind park acts as a constant power plant within the grid. Scenario Ill, the grid adapted feed-in, extends the former scenario with a

  17. [A preliminary evaluation of mental status and an investigation of occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Q; Zhang, Q; Zhu, X H; Sun, K; Chen, S Z; Liu, A G; Luo, G L; Huang, W

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental status, level of occupational health knowledge, health behaviors, and occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants, and to provide a basis for formulating protective measures of occupational health for operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants. Methods: A cluster sampling was performed in regionally representative wind power plants in the wind power industry from May 2014 to June 2015, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and a self-made evaluation questionnaire were used to investigate the general status, mental health, and occupational health knowledge demand in 160 operating and maintenance workers. Results: Of all respondents, 26.9% had mental health issues. The awareness rate of infectious disease knowledge and preventive measures was 11.9%. Of all workers, 96.5% wanted to know the occupational hazard factors in the workplace, and 96.3% wanted to get the knowledge of the prevention of related diseases. Conclusion: Mental health issues in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants cannot be neglected and there is a high demand for occupational health services and related knowledge. Comprehensive intervention measures for health promotion in the workplace should be adopted to improve working environment, enhance individual mental health education, increase the level of occupational health management, and protect the health of workers.

  18. Wind power plants. Hydraulic transmission with control systems for unrestricted number of revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, R

    1976-09-01

    Basic ideas are presented for the design of a hydraulic transmission with its control system adapted to an electric generator operated by a wind turbine with unrestricted revolutions. The settlement of the principle is shown by means of commercially available parts. The relations of the installed effect, its cost and the length of operational life are discussed. The control system is directly integrated to the hydraulic circuits.

  19. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  20. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  1. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  2. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  3. Occupational exposures to styrene vapor in a manufacturing plant for fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Duane; Garcia, Alberto; Feng, H Amy

    2011-07-01

    A utility-scale wind turbine blade manufacturing plant requested assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in controlling worker exposures to styrene at a plant that produced 37 and 42 m long fiber-reinforced wind turbine blades. The plant requested NIOSH assistance because previous air sampling conducted by the company indicated concerns about peak styrene concentrations when workers entered the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. NIOSH researchers conducted two site visits and collected personal breathing zone and area air samples while workers performed the wind turbine blade manufacturing tasks of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), gelcoating, glue wiping, and installing the safety platform. All samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed for styrene using NIOSH Method 1501. All sampling was task based since full-shift sampling from a prior Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance inspection did not show any exposures to styrene above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. During the initial NIOSH site visit, 67 personal breathing zone and 18 area air samples were collected while workers performed tasks of VARTM, gelcoating, glue wipe, and installation of a safety platform. After the initial site visit, the company made changes to the glue wipe task that eliminated the need for workers to enter the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. During the follow-up site visit, 12 personal breathing zone and 8 area air samples were collected from workers performing the modified glue wipe task. During the initial site visit, the geometric means of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 1.8 p.p.m. (n = 21) for workers performing the VARTM task, 68 p.p.m. (n = 5) for workers installing a safety platform, and 340 p.p.m. (n = 14) for workers performing the glue wipe task, where n is the number of workers sampled for a

  4. Wind dispersal of alien plant species into remnant natural vegetation from adjacent agricultural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Egawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the seed dispersal of alien species is crucial to manage invasion risk in fragmented natural habitats. Focusing on wind dispersal, this study assessed the spatial and quantitative extents to which a remnant natural fen receives the seeds of alien species dispersed from adjacent hay meadows in Hokkaido, northern Japan. I established a total of 80 funnel seed traps in the fen at distances of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 m from the meadows. The proportion of alien species in the seed rain at each distance was quantified, and the 99th-percentile dispersal distance from the meadows was estimated for each alien species by constructing dispersal kernels. Despite the presence of a marginal ditch and an elevational difference between the fen and the meadows, five alien species, including four grasses that do not have modified seed structures for wind dispersal, dispersed their seeds into the fen. These alien species accounted for up to 65.9% of the seed rain in terms of quantity. The 99th-percentile dispersal distances of the alien species ranged from 3.8 m to 309.3 m, and these distances were longer than the values predicted on the basis of their functional traits, such as terminal velocity. The results of this study demonstrated that numerous seeds of farmland-derived alien species were transported into the remnant vegetation via wind dispersal, and that simple predictions of dispersal distance based on functional traits could underestimate the potential area that alien species can reach. Continuous management both in farmland (to reduce seed escape and in remnant vegetation (to prevent the establishment of alien species is necessary to protect native vegetation from biological invasion in agricultural landscapes.

  5. On Aggregation Requirements for Harmonic Stability Analysis in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    In harmonic stability studies, stable operation of a power system must be ensured at any possible configuration. This leads to a large number of cases due to the high number of components in a power system. An aggregated model can be used to lower the complexity and to reduce the number...... of different cases. In other words, several similar converters (e.g. Wind Turbine Generators) can be replaced by a converter with larger ratings. In most cases, aggregated models work well for stability studies, however, in some cases the aggregation might result in a wrong evaluation of stability...

  6. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Plants; Final Report of Sandia R&D Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2015-04-01

    This final report is a compilation of resear ch efforts - funded by the US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technolog ies Office over a four-year period from FY11 through FY14. The goals of this re search program were to develop and evaluate technical innovati ons with promise for maxi mizing revenues and reducing levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for offs hore wind plants - more specifically the goals of the Structural H ealth and Prognostics Management (SHPM) program were to reduce O&M costs and increase energy capture through use of SHPM-based technologies. A technology roadmap was deve loped at the start of the project to guide the research efforts. This roadmap identified and outlined six major research thrust areas each having five stages of ma turity. Research was conducted in each of these thrust areas, as documented throughout this report, although a major focus was on development of damage detection strategi es for the most frequent blade damage conditions and damage mitigation and life-exte nsion strategies via changes in turbine operations (smart loads management). Th e work summarized in this compilation report is the product of the work of many researchers. A summary of the major findings, status of the SHPM Technology Ro admap and recommendations for future work are also provided.

  7. Wind tunnel experimental study on effect of inland nuclear power plant cooling tower on air flow and dispersion of pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qingdang; Yao Rentai; Guo Zhanjie; Wang Ruiying; Fan Dan; Guo Dongping; Hou Xiaofei; Wen Yunchao

    2011-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment for the effect of the cooling tower at Taohuajiang nuclear power plant on air flow and dispersion of pollutant was introduced in paper. Measurements of air mean flow and turbulence structure in different directions of cooling tower and other buildings were made by using an X-array hot wire probe. The effects of the cooling tower and its drift on dispersion of pollutant from the stack were investigated through tracer experiments. The results show that the effect of cooling tower on flow and dispersion obviously depends on the relative position of stack to cooling towers, especially significant for the cooling tower parallel to stack along wind direction. The variation law of normalized maximum velocity deficit and perturbations in longitudinal turbulent intensity in cooling tower wake was highly in accordance with the result of isolated mountain measured by Arya and Gadiyaram. Dispersion of pollutant in near field is significantly enhanced and plume trajectory is changed due to the cooling towers and its drift. Meanwhile, the effect of cooling tower on dispersion of pollutant depends on the height of release. (authors)

  8. Transient voltage control of a DFIG-based wind power plant for suppressing overvoltage using a reactive current reduction loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a transient voltage control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind power plant (WPP using a reactive current reduction loop to suppress the overvoltage at a point of interconnection (POI and DFIG terminal after a fault clearance. The change of terminal voltage of a DFIG is monitored at every predefined time period to detect the fault clearance. If the voltage change exceeds a set value, then the reactive current reduction loop reduces the reactive current reference in the DFIG controller using the step function. The reactive current injection of DFIGs in a WPP is rapidly reduced, and a WPP can rapidly suppress the overvoltage at a fault clearance because the reactive current reference is reduced. Using an electromagnetic transients program–released version (EMTP–RV simulator, the performance of the proposed scheme was validated for a model system comprising 20 units of a 5-MW DFIG considering various scenarios, such as fault and wind conditions. Test results show that the proposed scheme enables a WPP to suppress the overvoltage at the POI and DFIG terminal within a short time under grid fault conditions.

  9. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  10. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  11. Power Hardware In The Loop Validation of Fault Ride Through of VSC HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the power hardware in the loop (PHIL) validation of a feed forward DC voltage control scheme for the fault ride through (FTR) of voltage source converter (VSC) high voltage DC (HVDC) connected offshore wind power plants (WPPs). In the proposed FRT scheme, the WPP collector...... network AC voltage is actively controlled by considering both the DC voltage error and the AC current from the WPP AC collector system which ensures fast and robust FRT of the VSC HVDC connected offshore WPPs. The PHIL tests were carried out in order to verify the efficacy of the proposed feed forward DC...... voltage control scheme for enhancing the FRT capability of the VSC HVDC connected WPPs. The PHIL test results have demonstrated the proper control coordination between the offshore WPP and the WPP side VSC and the efficient FRT of the VSC HVDC connected WPPs....

  12. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  13. Current issues in developing safety culture while establishing wind energy power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, M.C.M.; Repaka, B.; Gowda, P. [MSRIT Research Centre, Bangalore (India); Chandrashekar, R. [SaIT, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    Safety is important to every one working in the various organizations. They want to be safe when coming to work, at the time of work and going back to home. The ultimate aim of every worker is to work for the needs/money and or satisfaction where these would get prioritized according to the individuals. People don't want accidents to happen. People don't want to get themselves injured nor their colleagues. People would like and love to work in a company which cares for them and keeps them safe. Having said this then what makes them meet with or see an accident in the wind farm? Yes it is the unsafe act and unsafe condition which causes an accident in the wind farm. The present study put forward the factors /issues that influence people behaviors as part of weakening the safety culture to perform an unsafe act or to ignore and work in an unsafe condition. (Author)

  14. Noise and noise disturbances from wind power plants - Tests with interactive control of sound parameters for more comfortable and less perceptible sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson-Waye, K.; Oehrstroem, E.; Bjoerkman, M.; Agge, A.

    2001-12-01

    In experimental pilot studies, a methodology has been worked out for interactively varying sound parameters in wind power plants. In the tests, 24 persons varied the center frequency of different band-widths, the frequency of a sinus-tone and the amplitude-modulation of a sinus-tone in order to create as comfortable a sound as possible. The variations build on the noise from the two wind turbines Bonus and Wind World. The variations were performed with a constant dba level. The results showed that the majority preferred a low-frequency tone (94 Hz and 115 Hz for Wind World and Bonus, respectively). The mean of the most comfortable amplitude-modulation varied between 18 and 22 Hz, depending on the ground frequency. The mean of the center-frequency for the different band-widths varied from 785 to 1104 Hz. In order to study the influence of the wind velocity on the acoustic character of the noise, a long-time measurement program has been performed. A remotely controlled system has been developed, where wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and humidity are registered simultaneously with the noise. Long-time registrations have been performed for four different wing turbines

  15. Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: → Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. → High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. → Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. → Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

  16. Reactive power control of wind farm using facts devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, S.; Arif, A.; Shakeel, A.; Mahmood, T.

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is an attainable option to complement other types of pollution-free green generation Grid connections of renewable energy resources are vital if they are to be effectively exploited, but grid connection brings problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic distortion. FACTs devices are one of the power electronics revolutions to improve voltage profile, system stability, and reactive power control and to reduce transmission losses. The studied system here is a variable speed wind generation system based on Induction Generator (IG) with integration of different FACTs controllers in the wind farm. To harness the wind power efficiently the most reliable and expensive system in the present era is grid connected doubly fed induction generator. Induction generator with FACTs devices is a suitable economical replacement. The suggested scheme is implemented in MATLAB Simulink with real time parameters of GHARO wind power plant in Sind, and corresponding results and output waveforms proves the potential strength of proposed methodology. (author)

  17. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  18. Cluster Control of Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected to a Common HVDC Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Rapp, C. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    of offshore AC grid voltage control and onshore ancillary services provision, i.e. POD by the active power modulation of the cluster. The two cases are simulated using DIgSILENT PowerFactory, where the IEC 61400-27-1 wind turbine and WPP control models and a generic offshore layout with cluster of three WPPs......In this paper a coordinated control for cluster of offshore WPPs connected to the same HVDC connection is being implemented and analyzed. The study is targeting two cases as; coordination of reactive power flow between HVDC converter and the WPP cluster while providing offshore AC grid voltage...... control, and coordinated closed loop control between the HVDC and the WPPs while the cluster is providing Power Oscillation Damping ( POD) via active power modulation. It is shown that the coordinated cluster control helps to improve the steady-state and dynamic response of the offshore AC grid in case...

  19. Particularities of flat foundations for offshore wind power plants; Besonderheiten bei Flachgruendungen fuer Offshore-Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miehe, Alina; Hartwig, Udo [Ed. Zueblin AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Technologiezentrum Erneuerbare Energien, Zentrale Technik

    2012-07-01

    Interest in offshore wind energy installations has increased significantly in Germany and globally. In Germany only foundation structures secured by piles are currently being constructed. However, a gravity foundation has major advantages in particular because of the self-restoring effect. In this contribution the soil mechanical behaviour of a gravity foundation is described and the currently valid standards and regulations for the dimensioning of the foundation listed. It is clear that regulations for gravity foundations in particular still require development. With regard to the test foundation, which has already been described in detail in previous publications, there follows a brief description of the laboratory programme and a short summary of the latest test foundation results. (orig.)

  20. Decision Support Tools for Electricity Retailers, Wind Power and CHP Plants Using Probabilistic Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zugno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a number of applications of optimization under uncertainty in energy markets resulting from the research project ENSYMORA. A general mathematical formulation applicable to problems of optimization under uncertainty in energy markets is presented. This formulation can be effortlessly adapted to describe different approaches: the deterministic one (usable within a rolling horizon scheme, stochastic programming and robust optimization. The different features of this mathematical formulation are duly interpreted with a view to the energy applications reviewed in this paper: trading for a price-maker wind power producer, management of heat and power systems, operation for retailers in a dynamic-price market. A selection of results shows the viability and appropriateness of the presented stochastic optimization approaches for managing energy systems under uncertainty.

  1. Hybrid 21 MW wind-solar system to limit energy costs at an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, C.

    2016-01-01

    Ereda has undertaken a project that aims to analyse the possibility of limiting the cost of the energy supply to a medium-sized industrial plant, with an installed capacity of over 26 MW, located in the south-west of Kazakhstan. The cost of electricity for its processes accounts for an important part of its production cost, achieving values in excess of 40%. The price of electricity in the country is expected to rise over the coming years. In addition, the plant is now required to reduce CO2 emissions from its industrial activity, which is why a further cost arising from the acquisition of emissions rights is expected in future. (Author)

  2. Simulation of Irregular Waves and Wave Induced Loads on Wind Power Plants in Shallow Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumars, Jenny [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Water Environment Transport

    2004-05-01

    The essay gives a short introduction to waves and discusses the problem with non-linear waves in shallow water and how they effect an offshore wind energy converter. The focus is on the realisation of non-linear waves in the time domain from short-term statistics in the form of a variance density spectrum of the wave elevation. For this purpose the wave transformation from deep water to the near to shore site of a wind energy farm at Bockstigen has been calculated with the use of SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore). The result is a wave spectrum, which can be used as input to the realisation. The realisation of waves is done by perturbation theory to the first and second-order. The properties calculated are the wave elevation, water particle velocity and acceleration. The wave heights from the second order perturbation equations are higher than those from the first order perturbation equations. This is also the case for the water particle kinematics. The increase of variance is significant between the first order and the second order realisation. The calculated wave elevation exhibits non-linear features as the peaks become sharper and the troughs flatter. The resulting forces are calculated using Morison's equation. For second order force and base moment there is an increase in the maximum values. The force and base moment are largest approximately at the zero up and down crossing of the wave elevation. This indicates an inertia dominated wave load. So far the flexibility and the response of the structure have not been taken into account. They are, however, of vital importance. For verification of the wave model the results will later on be compared with measurements at Bockstigen off the coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea.

  3. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four bla CTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  4. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  5. Summary of experience from a large number of construction inspections; Wind power plant projects; Erfarenhetsaaterfoering fraan entreprenadbesiktningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bertil; Holmberg, Rikard

    2010-08-15

    This report presents a summary of experience from a large number of construction inspections of wind power projects. The working method is based on the collection of construction experience in form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were supplemented by a number of in-depth interviews to understand more in detail what is perceived to be a problem and if there were suggestions for improvements. The results in this report is based on inspection protocols from 174 wind turbines, which corresponds to about one-third of the power plants built in the time period. In total the questionnaires included 4683 inspection remarks as well as about one hundred free text comments. 52 of the 174 inspected power stations were rejected, corresponding to 30%. It has not been possible to identify any over represented type of remark as a main cause of rejection, but the rejection is usually based on a total number of remarks that is too large. The average number of remarks for a power plant is 27. Most power stations have between 20 and 35 remarks. The most common remarks concern shortcomings in marking and documentation. These are easily adjusted, and may be regarded as less serious. There are, however, a number of remarks which are recurrent and quite serious, mainly regarding gearbox, education and lightning protection. Usually these are also easily adjusted, but the consequences if not corrected can be very large. The consequences may be either shortened life of expensive components, e.g. oil problems in gear boxes, or increased probability of serious accidents, e.g. maladjusted lightning protection. In the report, comparison between power stations with various construction period, size, supplier, geography and topography is also presented. The general conclusion is that the differences are small. The results of the evaluation of questionnaires correspond well with the result of the in-depth interviews with clients. The problem that clients agreed upon as the greatest is the lack

  6. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  7. Effect Analysis of Battery Energy Storage System on Output of Distributed Power Generation System with Wind Turbine and Photovoltaic in Grid-connection%储能系统对并网型风光分布式发电系统输出的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem of voltage fluctuation and compromised power supply caused by the unsteady wind turbine and photovoltaic power output, we propose using the energy storage systems to improve stability of the power output and the power quality of the grid-network. The indirect combination modeling method is employed to establish the models of typical wind generator, photovoltaic generation and battery energy storage by PSCAD/EMTDC, based on which the Wind-Battery generation system model, solar-battery generation system model and wind-solar-battery hybrid generation system model in grid-connection are built. The simulations show that the power stability and the quality of the intermittent energy output can be improved using the proposed method.%  为解决风力发电和光伏发电等间歇式电源输出功率波动引起的电网电能质量下降问题,提出了利用储能系统来提高间歇式电源并网点的功率稳定性以及改善电能质量。采用间接组合建模的方法建立基于PSCAD/EMTDC的典型风力发电、光伏发电和蓄电池储能的单元模型,并在此基础上构建风电/储能、光伏/储能、风电/光伏/储能系统,并进行仿真和电能质量分析。系统仿真结果表明:储能系统能有效改善间歇式电源功率输出的稳定性和电能质量。

  8. Garos AIMS. Finite element modelling of the wind power plant WTS-3 at Maglarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagen, T.; Henoch, A.; Olsson, J.; Noren, L.; Ulfvarsson, A.

    1985-07-01

    The project deals with the dynamic response of a rotating horizontal axis windturbine with two blades. The work is directed towards lifetime estimation, stability, analysis and yaw stability. This report presents the accomplishment of finite modelling of the Maglarp plant by means of the matrice NASTRAN. Selection of suitable measurements for later dynamic analysis by the GAROS package is reported. Computer files suitable for further analysis are being stored, and are listed in the report.

  9. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  10. Quantifying the Benefits of Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenburg, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    For many locations the offshore wind resource and the wave energy resource are collocated, which suggests a natural synergy if both technologies are combined into one offshore marine renewable energy plant. Initial meteorological assessments of the western coast of the United States suggest only a weak correlation in power levels of wind and wave energy at any given hour associated with the large ocean basin wave dynamics and storm systems of the North Pacific. This finding indicates that combining the two power sources could reduce the variability in electric power output from a combined wind and wave offshore plant. A combined plant is modeled with offshore wind turbines and Pelamis wave energy converters with wind and wave data from meteorological buoys operated by the US National Buoy Data Center off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. This study will present results of quantifying the benefits of combining wind and wave energy for the electrical power system to facilitate increased renewable energy penetration to support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and air and water pollution associated with conventional fossil fuel power plants.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environmental impact report: an outline of the input--output model and the impact projections methodology. Technical document, socioeconomic portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    A static model in the form of a regional input-output model was constructed for Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico. Besides the WIPP project, the model was also used for several other projects to determine the economic impact of proposed new facilities and developments. Both private and public sectors are covered. Sub-sectors for WIPP below-ground construction, above-ground construction, and operation and transport are included

  12. Comparison of the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model, Large-Eddy Simulation, and Field Data at the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.

  13. Wind energy potential in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtrakov, Stanko Vl.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, wind characteristic and wind energy potential in Bulgaria were analyzed using the wind speed data. The wind energy potential at different sites in Bulgaria has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The wind speed distribution curves were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from three wind turbines having capacity of (60, 200, and 500 kW). The yearly energy output capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the three different turbines were calculated

  14. Wind Integration Data Sets | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Integration Data Sets Wind Integration Data Sets NREL's wind integration data sets provide the Integration Data Sets Ten-minute time-series wind data for 2004, 2005, and 2006 to help energy professionals perform wind integration studies and estimate power production from hypothetical wind power plants. Access

  15. Redesign lifts prep output 288%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamric, J

    1987-02-01

    This paper outlines the application of engineering creativity and how it brought output at an Ohio coal preparation plant up from 12,500 tpd to nearly four times that figure, 48,610 tpd. By streamlining the conveyor systems, removing surplus belt length and repositioning subplants the whole operation was able to run far more efficiently with a greater output. Various other alterations including the raw material supply and management and operating practices were also undertaken to provide a test for the achievements possible with such reorganization. The new developments have been in the following fields: fine coal cleaning, heavy media cyclones, feeders, bins, filter presses, dewatering equipment and settling tanks. Output is now limited only by the reduced demand by the Gavin power station nearby.

  16. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  17. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  18. Meteorological and engineering approach to the regionalization of tornado wind criteria for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Data on general meteorological factors governing tornado frequency and intensity in various locations throughout the USA are revised. A climatological model of multiple outbreak and long track tornadoes and the relation between the speed of a hurricane and the frequency of tornado occurrence over land and sea are discussed. Data from a structural engineering assessment of tornado damage are summarized and applications of the data for the development of design criteria for buildings and nuclear power plants to minimize tornado damage are suggested. It was concluded that it is very difficult to predict tornado risk and alternate methods and areas of study are presented for consideration

  19. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  20. Noise annoyances from wind power: Survey of the population living close to a wind power plant. Final report: Part 3 Main study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Persson-Waye, K.

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of annoyance from wind turbines, a study was performed in Laholm in May 2000. The aim was to obtain dose response relationships between calculated sound levels and noise annoyance and appropriate sound description as well as analysing the influence of other variables on noise annoyance. A questionnaire survey was performed in 6 areas comprising 16 wind turbines, of which 14 had an effect of 600 kW. The purpose of the study was masked. Among questions on living conditions in the countryside, questions directly related to wind turbines were included. The study population (n=518) comprised one randomly selected subject between the ages of 18 to 75 years in each household living within a calculated wind turbine sound level of 25 to 40 dBA. The response rate was 68.7% (n=356). Calculated distributions of A-weighted sound level were performed for each area and plotted on geographical maps in 2.5 dBA steps. Each dwelling could thus be given a sound level within an interval of 2.5 dBA. The most frequently occurring source of noise annoyance was noise from rotor blades. The proportions of respondents annoyed by noise increased with calculated sound level. Among respondents exposed to sound levels of 35.0-37.5 dBA, 43% responded themselves to be rather or much annoyed. A-weighted sound level was only one variable explaining annoyance. Annoyance was correlated to a larger extent by the intrusiveness of the sound character swishing. Noise annoyance was interrelated to the respondents' opinion of the visual impact of wind turbines, while attitude towards wind power in general had no greater influence. Disturbance of spoilt view was reported to a similar degree as noise disturbance. Further investigations are needed to clarify factors of importance for the disturbance of view. All the wind turbines in the study had constant rotation speed. The greater wind turbines that are now erected often have variable speed, which may lead to a sound comprising